Lab 03: tectonic processes and landforms


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LAB MODULE 13: PLATE TECTONICS

Note: Please allude to the GETTING STARTEDmodule to acquire how to maneuver through, and how to repartee the lab questions, in the Google Earth () factor.

KEY TERMS

You should apprehend and apprehend the subjoined terms:

 

Continental Drift

Pacific Ring of Fire

Reverse Fault

Earthquakes

Pangaea

Subduction

Hotspots

Plate Convergence

Transcontrive Fault

Normal Fault

Plate Divergence

 

Overthrust flaw

Plate tectonics

 

 

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be efficacious to do the subjoined tasks:

·         Explain the supposition of extract tectonics

·         Explain the supposition of continental scope

·         Identify and depict fashions of extract propel

·         Identify and depict the three fashions of volcanoes

·         Explain the concept of hotspots

·         Compute the trounces of extract propel

·         Identify and depict the incongruous fashions of flaws

INTRODUCTION

This module examines extract tectonics. Topics embracecontinental scope, tectonic plantforms, extract boundaries, flaws and hotspots. Conjuncture these themes may parade to be ill-matched, you conquer acquire how they are inherently akin.The module starts delay disgusting hole themes, or vignettes, which are root in the appertaining Google Earth smooth. These vignettes conduct-in basic concepts of the inner erection of the Earth. Some of the vignettes entertain promptitudes, videos, or condensed doctrines that conquer cater another perspective or visual sense for the theme at influence.After balbutiation the vignette and associated links, repartee the subjoined questions. Please silence that some links susceptibility assume a conjuncture to download established on your Internet urge.

 

Expandthe INTRODUCTION folder and then curb Theme 1: Introduction.

 Read Topic 1: Introduction

Question 1:Based on this map, what is one continent in which there are two (or more) extracts?

A.   North America

B.   Europe

C.   Asia

D.   Africa

 Read Topic 2: Continental Drift

Question 2:What was discovered in Antarctica that solidified Wegener’s supposition of continental scope?

A.   Snow and ice

B.   Mineral deposits

C.   Tropical establish fossils

D.   Extinct volcanoes

 Read Topic 3: Tectonic Landforms

Question 3:Where do scientists deem the present senior sea conquer be contriveed?

A.   Gulf of Mexico

B.   Iceland

C.   Australia

D.   East Africa

 Read Topic 4: Human Interaction

Question 4: Based on the article, which is not a infer why humans are drawn to extract boundaries.

A.   Nice scenery

B.   Geothermal spectre

C.   Fertile soil

D.   Ore deposits

 Collapse and uncurb the Introduction embraceer.
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

 Expand GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE. Double-click and picked Tectonic Extract Boundaries and Names to evince the designates on the world of the senior tectonic extracts.

Millions of humans subsist neighboring the senior tectonic extract boundaries. The implicit dangers of stay on or neighboring a extract article embrace earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. However, these eventual hazards do tiny to discountenance community from settling in these cities, especially if the clime has economic, sacred, political or gregarious concern.

Expand and picked Major Cities. Double-click and picked Question 5. When you get at your application, confront the instruction to stuff in the blanks lowerneathneathneath. Appropriate the two closest tectonic extracts. Repeat this for Questions 5 to 8.

Question 5: City: San Francisco

Two closest tectonic extracts

A.   Pacific/North America

B.   Pacific/Californian

C.   North American/California

D.   Pacific/Juan de Fuca

Question 6: City: Taipei, Taiwan

Two closest tectonic extracts

A.   Philippine/Taiwan

B.   Taiwan/China

C.   Philippine/China

D.   Eurasian/Philippine

Question 7: City: Jerusalem, Israel

Two closest tectonic extracts

A.   Arabian/Eurasian

B.   Mediterranean/Eurasian

C.   African/Arabian

D.   African/Eurasian

Question 8: City: Karachi, Pakistan

Two closest tectonic extracts

A.   Indian/Eurasian

B.   Arabian/African

C.   Pakistani/Indian

D.   Burmese/Eurasian

 Collapse and uncurb the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE embraceer.

 

 

PLATE BOUNDARIES AND MOVEMENTS

In unconcealed, tectonic extract boundaries are classified as converging, diverging, and transform, conjuncture tectonic extract fashions are classified as either oceanic or continental. The subjoined descriptions of extract boundaries and propels conquer succor you repartee Questions 10 to 23.

Converging Boundaries

When an seaic extract and a continental extract coradiate (Figure 1), the consequence is subduction, accordingly the seaic extract slides lowerneathneathneath the continental extract. Mountain collocates of volcanoes are created by magma from the running seaic extract preferment to (and through) the continental covering. Subterranean seaic infringees typically correspondent the shore.

 

Expand the PLATE BOUNDARIES embraceer and then click Subduction Promptitude to judgment an promptitude of this fashion of coradiatence article.

 

 

Figure 1. Oceanic-continental coradiatence (USGS).

 

Figure 2. Continental-continental coradiatence (USGS).

When two continental extracts coradiate (Figure 2), crowdion and set-up take-place at the article to contrive mountain collocates.Continental-continental coradiatence mountains are not middle of volcanoes and thus contrariety the orogeny of mountain collocates performed by seaic-continental coradiatence.

When two seaic extracts coradiate (Figure 3), one subducts lowerneathneathneath the other and the consequence is a subterranean sea infringe. In some cases, lowerneathneathneath sea volcanoes contriveat these boundaries. Aggravate favorites of years, these seaic-naval coradiatence boundaries end volcanoes that extend the manner and contrive a manacle of islands shaped in an arc.

 

 

Figure 3. Oceanic-naval coradiatence (USGS).

    

 

Diverging Boundaries

As the designate implies, diverging boundaries take-place where extracts are tender afar from each other. If the extracts are seaic, the consequence can be an lowerneathneathimpart mountain collocate which follows the extract boundaries. If the extracts are continental, the primal consequence is the ftelling of a degradation or rift. Given plenty occasion, these degradations or rifts susceptibility be low, contriveing desire, straightened seas.

Transcontrive Boundaries

Transcontrive boundaries take-place when two extracts propel horizontally elapsed each other. The article, or fault, betwixt the two extracts can be various miles ample. Friction betwixt the two extract boundaries can plant up tectonic weight, which can be discharged instantly into the Earth’s covering in the contrive of an earthquake.

Expand the Boundaries embraceer, curb the Plate Boundaries embraceer, and then double‑click Boundary A.

Based on the descriptions of extract boundaries and propel caterd, authenticate Boundaries A through G:

Question 9:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental coradiatent                 

B.   Continental-naval coradiatent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic coradiatent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

Question 10:Why did you appropriate this repartee?

A.   Red Sea is timid accordingly two continental extracts are hence coincidently.

B.   Red Sea extract is subducting lowerneathneathneath the Arabian Plate

C.   The Arabian and African extracts are tender afar from each other, creating the Red Sea

D.   The African extract is subducting lowerneathneathneath the Arabian Plate, stagnation off the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean

 Double‑click Boundary B.

Question 11:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental coradiatent                 

B.   Continental-naval coradiatent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic coradiatent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

Question 12:Why did you appropriate this repartee?

A.   Himalayas were contriveed by Indian extract riding aggravate the Eurasian extract

B.   Himalayas were contriveed by the Eurasian extract riding aggravate the Indian extract

C.   Himalayas were contriveed by the Indian and Eurasian extracts colliding

D.   Himalayas were contriveed by the Indian and Eurasian extracts tender asunder

 Double‑click Boundary C.

Question 13:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental coradiatent                 

B.   Continental-naval coradiatent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic coradiatent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

 

Question 14:Why did you appropriate this repartee?

A.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by North American and African extracts colliding

B.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by South American and African extracts colliding

C.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by North American extract subducting lowerneathneathneath theEurasian extract

D.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by North American and Eurasian extracts tender asbelow and the South American and African extracts tender asunder.

 Double‑click Boundary D.

Question 15:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental coradiatent                 

B.   Continental-naval coradiatent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic coradiatent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

Question 16:Why did you appropriate this repartee?

A.   The Pacific and South American Plates are tender asunder, contriveing a subterranean infringe

B.   The Pacific and South American extracts are colliding contriveing the Andes Mountains

C.   The Nazca extract is subducting lowerneathneathneath the South American extract, contriveing a subterranean infringe

D.   The South American extract is subducting lowerneathneathneath the Pacific extract, contriveing a subterranean infringe

 

 Double‑click Boundary E.

Question 17:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental coradiatent                 

B.   Continental-naval coradiatent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic coradiatent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

Question 18:Why did you appropriate this repartee?

A.   The Pacific and North American Plates are tender asunder, contriveing a subterranean infringe

B.   The Pacific and North American extracts are colliding contriveing the Andes Mountains

C.   The Pacific extract is subducting lowerneathneathneath the North American extract, contriveing a subterranean infringe

D.   The North American extract is subducting lowerneathneathneath the Pacific extract, contriveing a subterranean infringe

 Double‑click Boundary F.

Question 19:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental coradiatent                 

B.   Continental-naval coradiatent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic coradiatent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

Question 20:Why did you appropriate this repartee?

A.   The two extracts are colliding, creating a sequence of lakes in Eastern Africa

B.   The two extracts are tender asbelow creating a sequence of lakes in Eastern Africa

C.   The two extracts are sliding elapsed each other creating a sequence of lakes in Eastern Africa

D.   The two extracts are colliding and timid the lakes in Eastern Africa

 Double‑click Boundary G.

Question 21:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental coradiatent                 

B.   Continental-naval coradiatent

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic coradiatent                           

D.   Oceanic unanalogous

E.   Continental-continental unanalogous                             

F.    Transform

 

Question 22:Why did you appropriate this repartee?

A.   The Pacific and Philippine extracts are tender asunder, contriveing a subterranean infringe

B.   The Pacific and Philippine extracts are colliding contriveing the Andes Mountains

C.   The Pacific extract is subducting lowerneathneathneath the Philippine extract, contriveing a subterranean infringe

D.   The Philippine extract is subducting lowerneathneathneath the Philippine isplant manacle, contriveing a subterranean infringe

Collapse and uncurb the PLATE BOUNDARIES embraceer.

 

 

EARTHQUAKES

When tectonic weightes from tender extracts adesire boundaries and flaw lines behove too protracted, there can be a quick discharge of spectre which is manifested as an earthquake. The foci (where the earthquake originates) is frequently subterranean delayin the Earth’s lithosphere, conjuncture the epicenter, located vertically aloft the standpoint, is root at the Earth’s manner.

Earthquakes take-place daily, yet we are not frequently efficacious to reach them. Seismic waves (p and s waves) from the earthquake succor triangulate the precipitation of the epiinterior by way of the Richter layer. The Richter layer, which is established on a logarithmic layer, measures the spectre discharged by an earthquake; so, an earthquake measuring 4.0 on the Richter layer discharges 10 occasions the spectre as compared to one measuring 3.0.

It is estimated that there are on mediocre 130,000 earthquakes worldample measuring betwixt 3.0 and 3.9 each year (USGS, 2011). The most masterful earthquake chronicled was in Valdivia, Chile in 1960, measuring 9.5 on the Richter layer. It generated a tsunami that traveled aggravate 10,000 km despite the Pacific Ocean, surprising Japan and the Philippines delay waves as elevated as 35 feet.

 Expand the EARTHQUAKES folder, spolite the 2011 Earthquakesfolder,and curb singly USGS Logo and Legend(Figure 4).

Within this embraceer are the precipitations, bodys (established on the Richter layer), and profunditys of all chronicled earthquakes in 2011 (you susceptibility entertain to zoom in or zoom out to see the epicenters).

Double‑click the Magnitude 9 embraceer.

Question 23:Where was the body of 9 or elevateder chronicled in 2011?

A.   Off the shore of California

B.   Off the shore of Chile

C.   Off the shore of Japan

D.   Off the shore of Hawaii

Uncurb the Magnitude 9 embraceer. Double‑click and picked the Magnitude 7 embraceer.

Question 24: How abundant earthquakes delay a body betwixt 7 and 7.9 were chronicled in 2011?

A.   19

B.   14

C.   26

D.   33

Question 25: How abundant earthquakes delay a body betwixt 7 and 7.9and a profundity of 0-35 km were chronicled in 2011?

A.   8

B.   10

C.   12

D.   15

Uncurb and then recurb the 2011 Earthquakesfolder.Verify that all boxes are curbed (from USGS Logo to Magnitude None).

Question 26: Established on a visual mistake of the world, which empire skilled the most earthquakes in 2011? (You susceptibility entertain to zoom in or out).

A.   Japan

B.   Chile

C.   Russia

D.   United States

Question 27: Delay reference to all earthquakes, most of them are located adesire the perimeter of the Pacific Ocean. What is this area - delay its independent plan of earthquakes - apprehendn as?

A.   Edge of fire

B.   Ring of fire

C.   Pacific tectonic zone

D.   Ring of earthquakes

Delay the2011 Earthquakes pickeded, curb the PLATE BOUNDARIESfolder.

Question 28:Which of the subjoined depicts the spatial interconnection betwixt extract boundaries and earthquake epicenters.

A.   They are rarely root neighboring each other

B.   They parade to be randomly distributed

C.   They are frequently root coincidently

D.   There is no palpable spatial interconnection

 Collapse and uncurb the EARTHQUAKESandPLATE BOUNDARIES folders.

 

 

HOTSPOTS

Expand the HOTSPOTS embraceer and then click Hotspot Animationto judgment an promptitude of this fashion of coradiatence article.

Double‑click and pickedSeamount Chain and Kilauea.

Most scientists affect that the Hawaiian Islands and the associated Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Manacle were created by a hotspot. A hotspot is a motionless precipitation in the asthenosphere where a magma knot upwells and contrives aseamount (an lowerneathneathsea volcano). If tectonic life is enough, the seamount conquer develop, burst the manner of the sea, and at-last contrive an island.

Although the hotspot scum motionless, the aggravatelying extract continues to propel, consequenceing in a sequence of islands, atolls (coral islands delay lagoons), and seamounts that parade the propel of the extract aggravate favorites of years. Amid this manacle, the extract propel is palpable as you propel afar from the Big Isplant of Hawai’i where the hotspot currently exists. At the end of the seamount manacle is Meiji Guyot, created encircling 82 favorite years ago and considered by abundant to be the oldest seamount in the manacle.

As the influence in the manacle suggests, the Pacific extract has not frequently propel at the identical trounce or in the identical bearing. Researchers consider that encircling 43 to 50 favorite years ago, the Pacific extract alterable bearing and shifted from a northerly bearing to a more westerly one. Currently, the Pacific Extract is tender in a northwest bearing. And conjuncture the hotspot is currently lowerneathneathneath Kilauea on the Big Isplant of Hawai’i, it is too contriveing Li’iho Seamount, a new seamount encircling 35 km southeast from the Big Island.

 In the Tefficacious of Contents, unconcealed the Layers pane, and test Borders and Labels is pickeded. You susceptibility entertain to zoom in to see the labels of the islands.

Question 29: Using the ruler utensil, what is the length in miles from Kilauea to the interior of Kauai?_________

A.   ~ 235 miles

B.   ~ 325 miles

C.   ~ 525 miles

D.   ~ 352 miles

Kauai was contriveed encircling 5.1 favorite years ago.

Question 30: Using the instruction aloft, number the mediocre trounce of urge (in inches per year, or in/yr) of the extract past the ftelling of Kauai? (Remember:Convert miles to inches: 63,360 inches = 1 mile). Parade your exertion.

A.   235 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 2.92 inches/year

B.   352 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 4.37 inches/year

C.   525 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 6.52 inches/year

D.   325 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 4.04 inches/year

 

Question 31: Using the ruler utensil, what is the length in miles from Kilauea to the interior of Maui?

A.   ~90 miles

B.   ~110 miles

C.   ~130 miles

D.   ~150 miles

Maui was created encircling 1.3 favorite years ago.

Question 32: Using the instruction aloft, number the mediocre trounce of urge (in inches per year, or in/yr) of the extract past the ftelling of Maui? (Remember: Convert miles to inches). Parade your exertion.

A.   90 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 4.39 inches/year

B.   150 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 2.63 inches/year

C.   130 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000years = 3.04 inches/year

D.   110 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 3.56 inches/year

Question 33:Do hotspots take-place singly in the sea?Explain why or why not.

A.   Yes, accordingly they contrive singly lowerneathneathneath seaic covering

B.   Yes, accordingly there is no indication of them lowerneathneathneath continental covering

C.   No, accordingly, there is indication of them lowerneathneathneath continental covering (e.g. Yellowstone)

D.   No, accordingly the Andes Mountains in South America are a amiable illustration of a hotspot

 In the Tefficacious of Contents, go to theLayers pane, and uncurb Borders and Labels.

 Collapse and uncurb the HOTSPOTS embraceer.

 

 

FAULT TYPES

 Expand the FAULT TYPES folder and then click Fault-Types Promptitude to judgment an promptitude.

Folding is the way by which buffets crowd and disintegrate. Various kinds of geologic erections are associated delay this way, including anticlines, synclines, aggravateturned embrace, and aggravatethrust flaws.

 Double-click Fly-over: Appalachian Mountains.

 Close the promptitude repress panel:

 Double-click and picked Appalachian Mountains.

This area of the Appalachian Mountains is apprehendn as the Ridge and Degradation Province. The geomorphology, or spatial contrive and separation of the plant, consists of abundant ridges and degradations. Anticlines contrive most of the ridges in this area, conjuncture synclines reach up abundant degradations. However, aggravate favorites of years, an violation can take-place in which structurally, synclines behove ridges and anticlines behove degradations. This is due in deal-out to the erosion of softer buffet by impart aggravate occasion. A consequenceant plantcontrive in these structurally inverted plantscapes consists of steeply sloped ridges delay discerning summits apprehendn as hogback ridges, which take-place on each border of an anticline degradation.

Question 34: Is Characteristic  an anticline or syncline?

A.   Anticline

B.   Syncline

C.   Hogback ridge

D.   Both a syncline and anticline

Question 35: What is Characteristic (lineighboring characteristic) which is locatedat the cheap of the Rocky Mountains? ________________

A.   Anticline

B.   Syncline

C.   Hogback ridge

D.   Both a syncline and anticline

 Double-click and picked Appalachian Mountains.

Many geographers concede disgusting senior flaws – ordinary (Figure 5), counterchange (Figure 6), aggravatethrust (Figure 7), and strike-slip (Figure 8) flaws.

 

Figure 5. Ordinary Flaw (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

Figure 6. Counterchange Flaw (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

Figure 7. Overthrust Flaw (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

Figure 8. Strike-Slip Flaw (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

In the subjoined questions, repartee and authenticate these fashions of flaws. Where there is a sequence of ordinary flaws, horst and graben can be root.

Question 36: What is the designate of the steep visage contriveed by a ordinary flaw?

A.   Scarp

B.   Talus

C.   Scree

D.   Slide

Question 37: What is Characteristic ?:

A.   Horst

B.   Graben

C.   Ridge

D.   Reverse flaw

Question 38: What is Characteristic ?:

A.   Horst

B.   Graben

C.   Ridge

D.   Reverse flaw

Question 39: What flaw is not associated delay set-up?

A.   Normal

B.   Reverse

C.   Overthrust

D.   Strike-slip

Question 40: Are flaws scant to plant, or can they take-place lowerneathneathneath impart as polite? Explain why or why not.

A.   Limited to plant, as there is no indication of flawing lowerneathneathneath impart

B.   Limited to plant, as flawing is a continental covering phenomenon

C.   Not scant to plant, as flawing can take-place lowerneathneathneath impart

D.   Not scant to plant, as flawing requires at meanest one border to be seaic.

 

References

USGS. 2011. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqarchives/year/eqstats.php. Accessed December 15, 2011.