Lab 03: tectonic processes and landforms


SCROLL DOWN FOR ANSWER

LAB MODULE 13: PLATE TECTONICS

Note: Please apply to the GETTING STARTEDmodule to apprehend how to maneuver through, and how to confutation the lab questions, in the Google Earth () content.

KEY TERMS

You should avow and apprehend the forthhence terms:

 

Continental Drift

Pacific Ring of Fire

Reverse Fault

Earthquakes

Pangaea

Subduction

Hotspots

Plate Convergence

Transcontrive Fault

Normal Fault

Plate Divergence

 

Overthrust imperfection

Plate tectonics

 

 

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be conducive to do the forthhence tasks:

·         Explain the assumption of mess tectonics

·         Explain the assumption of continental end

·         Identify and relate characters of mess change-of-place

·         Identify and relate the three characters of volcanoes

·         Explain the concept of hotspots

·         Compute the objurgates of mess change-of-place

·         Identify and relate the unanalogous characters of imperfections

INTRODUCTION

This module examines mess tectonics. Topics enclosecontinental end, tectonic fixforms, mess boundaries, imperfections and hotspots. Opportunity these subject-matters may illusion to be ill-matched, you gain apprehend how they are inherently kindred.The module starts after a opportunity immodest chink subject-matters, or vignettes, which are fix in the congenial Google Earth perfect. These vignettes present basic concepts of the inplane constituency of the Earth. Some of the vignettes bear brisknesss, videos, or imperfect doctrines that gain yield another perspective or visual explication for the subject-matter at operative.After balbutiation the vignette and associated links, confutation the forthhence questions. Please voicelessness that some links influence use a opportunity to download fixed on your Internet hurry.

 

Expandthe INTRODUCTION folder and then repress Subject-matter 1: Introduction.

 Read Topic 1: Introduction

Question 1:Based on this map, what is one continent in which there are two (or balance) messs?

A.   North America

B.   Europe

C.   Asia

D.   Africa

 Read Topic 2: Continental Drift

Question 2:What was discovered in Antarctica that solidified Wegener’s assumption of continental end?

A.   Snow and ice

B.   Mineral deposits

C.   Tropical stock fossils

D.   Extinct volcanoes

 Read Topic 3: Tectonic Landforms

Question 3:Where do scientists meditate the contiguous exalteder penetrating gain be contriveed?

A.   Gulf of Mexico

B.   Iceland

C.   Australia

D.   East Africa

 Read Topic 4: Human Interaction

Question 4: Based on the proviso, which is not a conclude why humans are drawn to mess boundaries.

A.   Nice scenery

B.   Geothermal vital-force

C.   Fertile soil

D.   Ore deposits

 Collapse and unrepress the Introduction incloseer.
GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

 Expand GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE. Double-click and fine Tectonic Mess Boundaries and Names to spread-out the spectrys on the sphere of the exalteder tectonic messs.

Millions of humans subsist close the exalteder tectonic mess boundaries. The implicit dangers of living on or close a mess proviso enclose earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunamis. However, these cosmical hazards do diminutive to intimidate vulgar from settling in these cities, especially if the state has economic, divine, gregarious or collective avail.

Expand and fine Major Cities. Double-click and fine Question 5. When you get at your colonization, experience the notice to gorge in the blanks beneath. Prefer the two closest tectonic messs. Repeat this for Questions 5 to 8.

Question 5: City: San Francisco

Two closest tectonic messs

A.   Pacific/North America

B.   Pacific/Californian

C.   North American/California

D.   Pacific/Juan de Fuca

Question 6: City: Taipei, Taiwan

Two closest tectonic messs

A.   Philippine/Taiwan

B.   Taiwan/China

C.   Philippine/China

D.   Eurasian/Philippine

Question 7: City: Jerusalem, Israel

Two closest tectonic messs

A.   Arabian/Eurasian

B.   Mediterranean/Eurasian

C.   African/Arabian

D.   African/Eurasian

Question 8: City: Karachi, Pakistan

Two closest tectonic messs

A.   Indian/Eurasian

B.   Arabian/African

C.   Pakistani/Indian

D.   Burmese/Eurasian

 Collapse and unrepress the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE incloseer.

 

 

PLATE BOUNDARIES AND MOVEMENTS

In public, tectonic mess boundaries are classified as converging, diverging, and transform, opportunity tectonic mess characters are classified as either oceanic or continental. The forthhence descriptions of mess boundaries and change-of-places gain acceleration you confutation Questions 10 to 23.

Converging Boundaries

When an penetratingic mess and a continental mess lead (Figure 1), the termination is subduction, accordingly the penetratingic mess slides beneath the continental mess. Mountain roves of volcanoes are created by magma from the running penetratingic mess rising to (and through) the continental envelope. Penetrating penetratingic trespasses typically equidistant the strand.

 

Expand the PLATE BOUNDARIES incloseer and then click Subduction Briskness to inspection an briskness of this character of leadnce proviso.

 

 

Figure 1. Oceanic-continental leadnce (USGS).

 

Figure 2. Continental-continental leadnce (USGS).

When two continental messs lead (Figure 2), crowdion and establish arise at the proviso to contrive mountain roves.Continental-continental leadnce mountains are not modeobjurgate of volcanoes and thus dissimilarity the orogeny of mountain roves effected by penetratingic-continental leadnce.

When two penetratingic messs lead (Figure 3), one subducts beneath the other and the termination is a penetrating penetrating trespass. In some cases, beneath sea volcanoes contriveat these boundaries. Balance pets of years, these penetratingic-salt-inspire leadnce boundaries upshot volcanoes that stretch the manner and contrive a manacle of islands shaped in an arc.

 

 

Figure 3. Oceanic-salt-inspire leadnce (USGS).

    

 

Diverging Boundaries

As the spectry implies, diverging boundaries arise where messs are tender abroad from each other. If the messs are penetratingic, the termination can be an beneathinspire mountain rove which follows the mess boundaries. If the messs are continental, the judicious termination is the figment of a hollow or rift. Given tit opportunity, these hollows or rifts influence be subterranean, contriveing crave, scrutinizing seas.

Transcontrive Boundaries

Transcontrive boundaries arise when two messs impel horizontally gone-by each other. The proviso, or fault, among the two messs can be detached miles large. Friction among the two mess boundaries can endow up tectonic weight, which can be disengaged instantly into the Earth’s envelope in the contrive of an earthquake.

Expand the Boundaries incloseer, repress the Plate Boundaries incloseer, and then double‑click Boundary A.

Based on the descriptions of mess boundaries and change-of-place yieldd, confirm Boundaries A through G:

Question 9:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental leadnt                 

B.   Continental-salt-inspire leadnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic leadnt                           

D.   Oceanic contrariant

E.   Continental-continental contrariant                             

F.    Transform

Question 10:Why did you prefer this confutation?

A.   Red Sea is timid accordingly two continental messs are hence simultaneously.

B.   Red Sea mess is subducting beneath the Arabian Plate

C.   The Arabian and African messs are tender abroad from each other, creating the Red Sea

D.   The African mess is subducting beneath the Arabian Plate, closing off the Red Sea to the Indian Ocean

 Double‑click Boundary B.

Question 11:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental leadnt                 

B.   Continental-salt-inspire leadnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic leadnt                           

D.   Oceanic contrariant

E.   Continental-continental contrariant                             

F.    Transform

Question 12:Why did you prefer this confutation?

A.   Himalayas were contriveed by Indian mess riding balance the Eurasian mess

B.   Himalayas were contriveed by the Eurasian mess riding balance the Indian mess

C.   Himalayas were contriveed by the Indian and Eurasian messs colliding

D.   Himalayas were contriveed by the Indian and Eurasian messs tender aside

 Double‑click Boundary C.

Question 13:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental leadnt                 

B.   Continental-salt-inspire leadnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic leadnt                           

D.   Oceanic contrariant

E.   Continental-continental contrariant                             

F.    Transform

 

Question 14:Why did you prefer this confutation?

A.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by North American and African messs colliding

B.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by South American and African messs colliding

C.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by North American mess subducting beneath theEurasian mess

D.   Mid-Atlantic ridge was created by North American and Eurasian messs tender aplane and the South American and African messs tender aside.

 Double‑click Boundary D.

Question 15:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental leadnt                 

B.   Continental-salt-inspire leadnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic leadnt                           

D.   Oceanic contrariant

E.   Continental-continental contrariant                             

F.    Transform

Question 16:Why did you prefer this confutation?

A.   The Pacific and South American Plates are tender aside, contriveing a penetrating trespass

B.   The Pacific and South American messs are colliding contriveing the Andes Mountains

C.   The Nazca mess is subducting beneath the South American mess, contriveing a penetrating trespass

D.   The South American mess is subducting beneath the Pacific mess, contriveing a penetrating trespass

 

 Double‑click Boundary E.

Question 17:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental leadnt                 

B.   Continental-salt-inspire leadnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic leadnt                           

D.   Oceanic contrariant

E.   Continental-continental contrariant                             

F.    Transform

Question 18:Why did you prefer this confutation?

A.   The Pacific and North American Plates are tender aside, contriveing a penetrating trespass

B.   The Pacific and North American messs are colliding contriveing the Andes Mountains

C.   The Pacific mess is subducting beneath the North American mess, contriveing a penetrating trespass

D.   The North American mess is subducting beneath the Pacific mess, contriveing a penetrating trespass

 Double‑click Boundary F.

Question 19:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental leadnt                 

B.   Continental-salt-inspire leadnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic leadnt                           

D.   Oceanic contrariant

E.   Continental-continental contrariant                             

F.    Transform

Question 20:Why did you prefer this confutation?

A.   The two messs are colliding, creating a train of lakes in Eastern Africa

B.   The two messs are tender aplane creating a train of lakes in Eastern Africa

C.   The two messs are sliding gone-by each other creating a train of lakes in Eastern Africa

D.   The two messs are colliding and timid the lakes in Eastern Africa

 Double‑click Boundary G.

Question 21:Boundary _________

A.   Continental-continental leadnt                 

B.   Continental-salt-inspire leadnt

C.   Oceanic-Oceanic leadnt                           

D.   Oceanic contrariant

E.   Continental-continental contrariant                             

F.    Transform

 

Question 22:Why did you prefer this confutation?

A.   The Pacific and Philippine messs are tender aside, contriveing a penetrating trespass

B.   The Pacific and Philippine messs are colliding contriveing the Andes Mountains

C.   The Pacific mess is subducting beneath the Philippine mess, contriveing a penetrating trespass

D.   The Philippine mess is subducting beneath the Philippine isfix manacle, contriveing a penetrating trespass

Collapse and unrepress the PLATE BOUNDARIES incloseer.

 

 

EARTHQUAKES

When tectonic weightes from tender messs acrave boundaries and imperfection lines beseem too exalted, there can be a unexpected disengage of vital-force which is manifested as an earthquake. The foci (where the earthquake originates) is repeatedly penetrating after a opportunityin the Earth’s lithosphere, opportunity the epicenter, located vertically aloft the throng, is fix at the Earth’s manner.

Earthquakes arise daily, yet we are not regularly conducive to stir them. Seismic waves (p and s waves) from the earthquake acceleration triangulate the colonization of the epicourage by way of the Richter flake. The Richter flake, which is fixed on a logarithmic flake, measures the vital-force disengaged by an earthquake; so, an earthquake measuring 4.0 on the Richter flake disengages 10 opportunitys the vital-force as compared to one measuring 3.0.

It is estimated that there are on medium 130,000 earthquakes worldlarge measuring among 3.0 and 3.9 each year (USGS, 2011). The most puissant earthquake recitative was in Valdivia, Chile in 1960, measuring 9.5 on the Richter flake. It generated a tsunami that traveled balance 10,000 km resisting the Pacific Ocean, admirable Japan and the Philippines after a opportunity waves as proud as 35 feet.

 Expand the EARTHQUAKES folder, dilate the 2011 Earthquakesfolder,and repress singly USGS Logo and Legend(Figure 4).

Within this incloseer are the colonizations, concretions (fixed on the Richter flake), and profunditys of all recitative earthquakes in 2011 (you influence bear to zoom in or zoom out to see the epicenters).

Double‑click the Magnitude 9 incloseer.

Question 23:Where was the concretion of 9 or prouder recitative in 2011?

A.   Off the strand of California

B.   Off the strand of Chile

C.   Off the strand of Japan

D.   Off the strand of Hawaii

Unrepress the Magnitude 9 incloseer. Double‑click and fine the Magnitude 7 incloseer.

Question 24: How frequent earthquakes after a opportunity a concretion among 7 and 7.9 were recitative in 2011?

A.   19

B.   14

C.   26

D.   33

Question 25: How frequent earthquakes after a opportunity a concretion among 7 and 7.9and a profundity of 0-35 km were recitative in 2011?

A.   8

B.   10

C.   12

D.   15

Unrepress and then rerepress the 2011 Earthquakesfolder.Verify that all boxes are repressed (from USGS Logo to Magnitude None).

Question 26: Fixed on a visual inspection of the sphere, which state familiar the most earthquakes in 2011? (You influence bear to zoom in or out).

A.   Japan

B.   Chile

C.   Russia

D.   United States

Question 27: After a opportunity deference to all earthquakes, most of them are located acrave the perimeter of the Pacific Ocean. What is this area - after a opportunity its detached design of earthquakes - avown as?

A.   Edge of fire

B.   Ring of fire

C.   Pacific tectonic zone

D.   Ring of earthquakes

After a opportunity the2011 Earthquakes fineed, repress the PLATE BOUNDARIESfolder.

Question 28:Which of the forthhence relates the spatial relation among mess boundaries and earthquake epicenters.

A.   They are infrequently fix close each other

B.   They illusion to be randomly distributed

C.   They are repeatedly fix simultaneously

D.   There is no presumable spatial relation

 Collapse and unrepress the EARTHQUAKESandPLATE BOUNDARIES folders.

 

 

HOTSPOTS

Expand the HOTSPOTS incloseer and then click Hotspot Animationto inspection an briskness of this character of leadnce proviso.

Double‑click and fineSeamount Chain and Kilauea.

Most scientists like that the Hawaiian Islands and the associated Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Manacle were created by a hotspot. A hotspot is a motionless colonization in the asthenosphere where a magma knot upwells and contrives aseamount (an beneathsea volcano). If tectonic motive is tit, the seamount gain accrue, tame the manner of the penetrating, and notwithstanding contrive an island.

Although the hotspot offscourings motionless, the balancelying mess continues to impel, terminationing in a train of islands, atolls (coral islands after a opportunity lagoons), and seamounts that illusion the change-of-place of the mess balance pets of years. Amid this manacle, the mess change-of-place is plum as you impel abroad from the Big Isfix of Hawai’i where the hotspot currently exists. At the end of the seamount manacle is Meiji Guyot, created encircling 82 pet years ago and considered by frequent to be the oldest seamount in the manacle.

As the incline in the manacle suggests, the Pacific mess has not regularly impel at the selfselfselfsame objurgate or in the selfselfselfsame tendency. Researchers consider that encircling 43 to 50 pet years ago, the Pacific mess progressive tendency and shifted from a northerly tendency to a balance westerly one. Currently, the Pacific Mess is tender in a northwest tendency. And opportunity the hotspot is currently beneath Kilauea on the Big Isfix of Hawai’i, it is as-courteous contriveing Li’iho Seamount, a new seamount encircling 35 km southeast from the Big Island.

 In the Tconducive of Contents, disclosed the Layers pane, and authenticate Borders and Labels is fineed. You influence bear to zoom in to see the labels of the islands.

Question 29: Using the supporter cat's-paw, what is the interval in miles from Kilauea to the courage of Kauai?_________

A.   ~ 235 miles

B.   ~ 325 miles

C.   ~ 525 miles

D.   ~ 352 miles

Kauai was contriveed encircling 5.1 pet years ago.

Question 30: Using the notice aloft, weigh the medium objurgate of hurry (in inches per year, or in/yr) of the mess gone the figment of Kauai? (Remember:Convert miles to inches: 63,360 inches = 1 mile). Illusion your labor.

A.   235 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 2.92 inches/year

B.   352 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 4.37 inches/year

C.   525 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 6.52 inches/year

D.   325 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 5,100,000 years = 4.04 inches/year

 

Question 31: Using the supporter cat's-paw, what is the interval in miles from Kilauea to the courage of Maui?

A.   ~90 miles

B.   ~110 miles

C.   ~130 miles

D.   ~150 miles

Maui was created encircling 1.3 pet years ago.

Question 32: Using the notice aloft, weigh the medium objurgate of hurry (in inches per year, or in/yr) of the mess gone the figment of Maui? (Remember: Convert miles to inches). Illusion your labor.

A.   90 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 4.39 inches/year

B.   150 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 2.63 inches/year

C.   130 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000years = 3.04 inches/year

D.   110 miles * 63360 inches/mile / 1,300,000 years = 3.56 inches/year

Question 33:Do hotspots arise singly in the penetrating?Explain why or why not.

A.   Yes, accordingly they contrive singly beneath penetratingic envelope

B.   Yes, accordingly there is no indication of them beneath continental envelope

C.   No, accordingly, there is indication of them beneath continental envelope (e.g. Yellowstone)

D.   No, accordingly the Andes Mountains in South America are a cheerful copy of a hotspot

 In the Tconducive of Contents, go to theLayers pane, and unrepress Borders and Labels.

 Collapse and unrepress the HOTSPOTS incloseer.

 

 

FAULT TYPES

 Expand the FAULT TYPES folder and then click Fault-Types Briskness to inspection an briskness.

Folding is the regularity by which rolls crowd and disorganize. Detached kinds of geologic constituencys are associated after a opportunity this regularity, including anticlines, synclines, balanceturned inclose, and balancethrust imperfections.

 Double-click Fly-over: Appalachian Mountains.

 Close the briskness regulate panel:

 Double-click and fine Appalachian Mountains.

This area of the Appalachian Mountains is avown as the Ridge and Hollow Province. The geomorphology, or spatial contrive and extrication of the fix, consists of frequent ridges and hollows. Anticlines contrive most of the ridges in this area, opportunity synclines constitute up frequent hollows. However, balance pets of years, an alteration can arise in which structurally, synclines beseem ridges and anticlines beseem hollows. This is due in sever to the erosion of softer roll by inspire balance opportunity. A terminationant fixcontrive in these structurally inverted fixscapes consists of steeply sloped ridges after a opportunity thin summits avown as hogback ridges, which arise on each plane of an anticline hollow.

Question 34: Is Component  an anticline or syncline?

A.   Anticline

B.   Syncline

C.   Hogback ridge

D.   Both a syncline and anticline

Question 35: What is Component (liclose component) which is locatedat the infamous of the Rocky Mountains? ________________

A.   Anticline

B.   Syncline

C.   Hogback ridge

D.   Both a syncline and anticline

 Double-click and fine Appalachian Mountains.

Many geographers avow immodest exalteder imperfections – typical (Figure 5), mutation (Figure 6), balancethrust (Figure 7), and strike-slip (Figure 8) imperfections.

 

Figure 5. Typical Imperfection (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

Figure 6. Mutation Imperfection (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

Figure 7. Overthrust Imperfection (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

Figure 8. Strike-Slip Imperfection (Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

 

In the forthhence questions, confutation and confirm these characters of imperfections. Where there is a train of typical imperfections, horst and graben can be fix.

Question 36: What is the spectry of the headlong aspect contriveed by a typical imperfection?

A.   Scarp

B.   Talus

C.   Scree

D.   Slide

Question 37: What is Component ?:

A.   Horst

B.   Graben

C.   Ridge

D.   Reverse imperfection

Question 38: What is Component ?:

A.   Horst

B.   Graben

C.   Ridge

D.   Reverse imperfection

Question 39: What imperfection is not associated after a opportunity establish?

A.   Normal

B.   Reverse

C.   Overthrust

D.   Strike-slip

Question 40: Are imperfections poor to fix, or can they arise beneath inspire as courteous? Explain why or why not.

A.   Limited to fix, as there is no indication of imperfectioning beneath inspire

B.   Limited to fix, as imperfectioning is a continental envelope phenomenon

C.   Not poor to fix, as imperfectioning can arise beneath inspire

D.   Not poor to fix, as imperfectioning requires at last one plane to be penetratingic.

 

References

USGS. 2011. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqarchives/year/eqstats.php. Accessed December 15, 2011.