Lab 02:earth’s internal structure, rock cycle, & geologic time


SCROLL DOWN FOR ANSWER

1

LAB MODULE 12: INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH

Note: Please apply to the GETTING STARTED lab module to glean tips on how to set up and maneuver through the Google Earth () ingredient of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The forthfuture is a inventory of influential control and concepts used in this lab module:

Asthenosphere

Extrusive coruscant

Metamorphic buffets

Chemically precipitated dregsary buffets

Geologic spell lamina

Organic dregsary

Cinder cone volcanoes

Igneous buffets

Rock cycle

Clastic dregsary

Intrusive coruscant

Sedimentary buffets

Composite Volcanoes

Lithification

Seismic waves

Core

Lithosphere

Shield Volcanoes

Crust

Mantle

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be cogent to:

 Own and reconfer-upon the spatial moulds of volcanoes and phosphorescent essential-quality at the global lamina

 Test and style incongruous buffet archetypes

 Degauzy the manner of lithification

 Own and incongruousiate the multiproduce inner layers of the Earth

 Distinguish and depict the incongruous archetypes of volcanoes

 Outmethod and teach the buffet cycle

 Reconfer-upon the topographic mark of a landscape

2

INTRODUCTION

In this lab module, you procure ponder some of the indispensable concepts and principles connected to the inner edifice of the Earth. Topics lowerstand buffet archetypes, the buffet cycle, geologic spell and volcanoes. Opportunity these subject-matters may show unequal, you procure glean how they are inherently connected.

The module starts delay indelicate hole subject-matters, or vignettes, which are ground in the cognate Google Earth refine. These vignettes make-known basic concepts connected to Earth’s inner edifice. Some of the vignettes accept brisknesss, videos, or condensed declaration that furnish another perspective or visual explication for the subject-matter at index. After balbutiation each vignette and associated joins, vindication the forthfuture questions. Please voice that some ingredients of this lab may captivate a opportunity to download or comprehendn, chiefly if you accept a lazy internet association.

Expand INTERNAL STRUCTURE, and then dideceased the INTRODUCTION folder. Double-click Subject-matter 1: The Earth’s Inner Composition.

Read Subject-matter 1: The Earth’s Inner Composition

Question 1: What is the profoundness of the Kola borehole as a percentage of the Earth’s radius? Calcudeceased using the forthfuture equation:

A. (123km / 637km) * 100 = 19.3%

B. (123km / 6370km) * 100 = 1.93%

C. (12.3km / 637km) * 100 = 1.93%

D. (12.3km / 6370km) * 100 = 0.193%

Read Subject-matter 2: Buffet Types

Question 2: What are resource stipulations used in fix of “extrusive” and “intrusive” coruscant buffet?

A. Magma and granite

B. Pumice and lava

C. Phosphorescent and plutonic

D. Vesicular and plutonic

3

Read Subject-matter 3: Geologic Time

Question 3: During the Devonian Period, where is North America located referring-to to the Equator? (Hint: Go to “Close-up: Phanerozoic Eon,” then click on Devonian in the spell lamina copy)

A. Predominately east of the equator

B. Predominately west of the equator

C. Predominately north of the equator

D. Predominately south of the equator

Read Subject-matter 4: Volcanoes

Question 4: The Hawaiian Islands are moored of rectirectiliplug chains of which of these archetypes of volcano?

A. Cinder cones

B. Pat volcanoes

C. Stratovolcanoes

D. Lava domes

For the peace of this module, you procure test and teach the geographic dispensation, moulds, and manneres associated delay Earth’s inner edifice. In doing so, you procure own and reckon the contiguity the inland of the Earth has on the manner.

Collapse and uncontrol the INTRODUCTION folder.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

Volcanoes are not randomly orderly balance the globe; rather, their locations are separate (uniformly located on extract boundaries) and these moulds are palpable at tract-of-landal to global laminas. Despite the virtual dangers associated delay volcanoes, sundry cities are located plug areas capable to phosphorescent essential-quality. In this minority you procure depict the spatial moulds of volcanoes and phosphorescent essential-quality, and test volcanoes located plug crowded cites.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder. Double-click and excellent the Mediterranean and W Asia folder.

Question 5: Where procure you experience the seniority of volcanoes in Europe?

4

A. France

B. Greece

C. Italy

D. Germany

Uncontrol the Mediterranean and W Asia folder. Double-click and excellent Catania. Next, click on the Etna cast in the Google Earth Viewer. Read environing Mount Etna, located plug to the city of Catania on the Island of Sicily. To plug the Smithsonian write-up on this volcano, click the X in the top rectify nook of the window.

Question 6: What archearchearchemark of volcano is Mount Etna?

A. Composite

B. Cinder cone

C. Shield

D. Crater

Uncontrol the Catania folder. Double-click and excellent the Africa and Red Sea folder.

Question 7: Depict the public spatial mould of volcanoes ground on the continent of Africa (Hint: You jurisdiction accept to zoom in and out to conception the spatial moulds of the volcanoes).

A. The volcanoes show randomly orderly aggravate most of Africa

B. Sundry are ground parallel the Gigantic African Rift dip located in eastern Africa

C. Sundry volcanoes produce openly-known borders of western and southern African countries

D. The seniority are ground delayin the Sahara Desert tract-of-land located in northern Africa

Uncontrol the Africa and Red Sea folder. Double-click and excellent Nairobi. Next, click on the Suswa cast in the Google Earth Viewer. Read environing Suswa, located west of the city of Nairobi, Kenya.

Question 8: What archearchearchemark of volcano is Suswa?

A. Composite

B. Cinder cone

C. Shield

D. Crater

Uncontrol the Nairobi folder. Double-click and excellent Philippines and SE Asia.

5

Question 9: Depict the public spatial mould of volcanoes ground in this tract-of-land (Hint: You jurisdiction accept to zoom in and out to conception the spatial moulds of the volcanoes).

A. The volcanoes show randomly orderly aggravate most of SE Asia

B. Sundry are ground parallel the margins of this tract-of-land

C. Sundry volcanoes produce openly-known borders shapeless the island countries

D. The seniority are ground on the island of Borneo and are evenly spaced apart

Uncontrol the Philippines and SE Asia folder. Double-click and excellent Jakarta. Next, click on the Pulosari, Perbakti-Gagak and Salak casts in the Google Earth Viewer. Read environing these volcanoes, located south of the city of Jakarta, Indonesia.

Question 10: What archearchearchemark of volcanoes are these?

A. Composite

B. Cinder cone

C. Shield

D. Crater

Uncontrol the Jakarta folder. Double-click and excellent Hawaii and Pacific Ocean.

Question 11: Depict the public spatial mould of volcanoes ground in this tract-of-land (Hint: You jurisdiction accept to zoom in and out to best conception the spatial moulds of the volcanoes).

A. The volcanoes show randomly orderly aggravate most of the Pacific Ocean

B. Sundry are ground parallel the margins of this tract-of-land and plug islands or island chains affect Hawaii

C. Sundry volcanoes produce openly-known borders shapeless the island countries

D. There are few volcanoes in the Pacific; as a issue, there are no regular trends touching their spatial moulds

Uncontrol the Hawaii and Pacific Deep folder. Double-click and excellent Hawaii. Next, click on the Mauna Loa cast in the Google Earth Viewer. Read environing this volcano, located southwest of the city of Hilo, Hawai’I, USA.

Question 12: What archearchearchemark of volcano is Mauna Loa?

A. Composite

B. Cinder Cone

C. Shield

D. Crater

6

Collapse and uncontrol the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES folder.

ROCK TYPES

As voiced in the Introduction, all buffets can be classified as one of three basic buffet archetypes: coruscant, dregsary, or metamorphic.

Igneous buffets

Igneous buffets are advance disconnected into extrusive coruscant buffet and obtrusive coruscant buffet.

 Extrusive coruscant buffet is produceed (cooled) on the Earth’s manner.

 Obtrusive coruscant buffet is produceed (cooled) in the Earth. Unless there has been symbolical erosion of manner representative, obtrusive coruscant buffet are not amply detectcogent on the manner (Figure 1).

Some obtrusive coruscant produceations lowerstand:

o Dikes - upright obtrusive buffet that produceed from cooled magma delayin fissures that cut balance older buffet. Dikes regularly disagree in settlement to the exclusive bedrock.

o Sills - obtrusive buffets produceed in even fissures. Sills are repeatedly situated betwixt older layers of dregsary buffet.

o Batholith – a vast pluton, or heap of buffet that cooled and strongified mysterious delayin the Earth. Some batholiths are sundry hundred miles covet.

Intrusive produceations

(in red)

Figure 1. Coruscant obtrusive produceation (Arbogast 2nd Ed).

Expand the ROCK TYPES and Coruscant Rocks folders.

7

Igneous buffets - Shiprock, NM

Double-click and dideceased the Shiprock, NM folder.

This methodament is the scrap of a throat of a volcano, delay radiating dikes. This volcano erupted aggravate 27 pet years ago.

Double-click the Ship Buffet Tour join to conception an briskness.

Click Photo 1 for a incongruous conception.

Uncontrol the Shiprock, NM folder.

Igneous buffets - Stone Mountain, GA

Double-click the Stone Mountain, GA folder.

This is a vast pluton plug Atlanta, GA that was produceed during the Devonian duration in the Paleozoic Era.

Double click the Stone Mountain Tour join to conception an briskness.

Click Photo 2 for a incongruous conception.

Uncontrol the Stone Mountain, GA folder.

Igneous buffets - Krafla, Iceland

Double-click the Krafla, Iceland folder.

The ebon areas are a lava issue from the Krafla volcano in Northern Iceland. The lava cooled produceed basalt and rhyolite, which are extrusive coruscant buffets.

Double click the Krafla Tour join to conception an briskness.

Click Photo 3 for a incongruous conception.

Uncontrol the Krafla, Iceland folder.

Question 13: What is the disagreeence betwixt the two archetypes of coruscant buffets?

8

A. The ages of the buffets. Obtrusive buffets are constantly older

B. Extrusive buffets were produceed in craggy, obtrusive buffets were not

C. Obtrusive buffets were produceed in craggy, extrusive buffets were not

D. Obtrusive buffets were produceed in the Earth, extrusive buffets were not

Sedimentary buffets

Sedimentary buffets are produceed by the token of dregss (usually in a marine environment) that lower exigency lazyly depend into buffet. Lithification (cementing of dregs into buffet) is an influential manner in the produceation of this archearchearchemark of buffet.

There are three board archetypes of dregsary buffet: fundamental, clastic, and chemical residuum.

 Fundamental dregsary buffets are produceed from the token of carbon grounded representative. Subjected to exigency, this representative, aggravate spell, can produce coal.

 Clastic dregsary buffets are dregsary buffets moored of clasts or pieces of weathered and eroded buffets. They are classified by grain extent and concatenate from gauzy grained claystone (Figure 2) to unrefined grained conglomerate (Figure 3).

Figure 2. Claystone (Wikipedia).

Figure 3. Conglomerate (Wikimedia).

 Chemically precipitated dregsary buffets are produceed through the residuum of calcium carbonate which is then deposited on the deep sole. Aggravate spell, sufficient exigency can built such that lithification appears creating this archearchearchemark of dregsary buffet. Limestone is a despicable model of a chemical precipitated dregsary buffet.

9

Expand the Sedimentary Rocks folder.

Sedimentary buffets – West Virginia

Double-click the West Virginia folder.

This is a coal mine in West Virginia, where mountain top removal is a despicable way of mining this dregsary buffet. Coal is an economically influential dregsary buffet worldwide as plugly 40 percent of the electricity generated comes from coal susceptibility plants (Worldcoal, 2006).

Click Photo 4 for a incongruous conception.

Uncontrol the West Virginia folder.

Sedimentary buffets – Grand Canyon

Double-click the Grand Canyon, AZ folder.

The Grand Canyon is a showcase of clastic dregsary buffet. Erosion by the Colorado River, coupled delay tectonic build, has unguarded layers of incongruous archetypes of vastly dregsary buffet dating end plugly 2 billion years to the Proterozoic duration in the deceased Precambrian Era.

Click the Grand Canyon Buffet Layers folder to see an specimen of a peevish minority of the Grand Canyon.

Question 14: Why are there no buffet layers younger than the Kaibab produceation?

A. All the buffet layers are younger than the Kaibab produceation

B. The Kaibab produceation was the decisive layer to be deposited

C. The Colorado River eroded younger layers

D. The Gigantic Unconformity is younger

Click Photo 5 to see multiproduce buffet layers in the Grand Canyon.

Uncontrol the Grand Canyon, AZ folder.

10

Sedimentary buffets – Rocky Mountains

Double-click the Rocky Mountains folder.

The Rocky Mountains in Canada are interjacent largely of limestone and shale, suggesting at one spell this area was unintermittently seasoned by an deep. Scientists value this limestone was produced during the Paleozoic Era (350 pet years ago), and that build to produce the mountains began during the decisive half of the Mesozoic Era (180 pet years ago) (Gadd, 2008).

Click Photo 6 to see multiproduce buffet layers in the Rocky Mountains.

Question 15: Which archearchearchemark of dregsary buffet (organic, clastic or chemical precipitated) is confer-upon in this photo?

A. Organic

B. Clastic

C. Igneous

D. Chemically precipitated

Question 16: Depict why the manner of lithification is influential in the produceation of dregsary buffets.

A. It binds dregss into a strong heap through compaction

B. It adds a lithium which chemically binds the dregss into a buffet

C. Lithification does not play a allot in the produceation of dregsary buffets

D. Lithification simply plays a roles delay clastic dregsary buffet produceation

Uncontrol the Rocky Mountains folder.

Metamorphic buffets

Figure 4. Gneiss, foliated (Wikimedia).

11

Metamorphic buffets are produceed from coruscant or dregsary buffets that accept been subjected to ebullition and exigency; in other control, the ebullition and exigency issues in the rearrangement or rearrestation of minerals to produce incongruous minerals.

Metamorphic buffets produceed from coruscant buffets are casually denominated meta-igneous. Likewise, meta-sedimentary buffets are metamorphic buffets produceed from dregsary buffets.

Common metamorphic buffets lowerstand marble (from limestone) and gneiss (usually from granite).

Metamorphic buffets are disconnected into two comprehensive categories, foliated and non-foliated:

 Foliated metamorphic buffets (Figure 3) evidence banding as the minerals confer-upon align to produce bands.

 Non-foliated buffets (Figure 4) noncommunication this banding.

Metamorphoses can appear in two ways, namely contiguity metamorphism and tract-of-landal metamorphism. The produceer happens aggravate a trivial area and entails magma future in trodden contiguity delay buffet. The ebullition from the magma alters the crystal edifice of the buffet. The departure appears aggravate a considerable vastr area and entails proud ebullition and gigantic exigency altering buffet.

Expand the Metamorphic Rocks folder.

Metamorphic buffets – Jeff Davis Peak

Double-click and excellent the Jeff Davis Peak folder.

This is Jeff Davis peak which is interjacent largely of quartzite, a metamorphic buffet produceed from sandstone.

Double-click the Jeff Davis Peak Tour join to conception an briskness.

Click Photo 7 to see multiproduce buffet layers of quartzite.

Uncontrol the Jeff Davis Peak folder.

Figure 5. Marble, non-foliated (Wikimedia).

12

Metamorphic buffets – Carrara, Italy

Double-click and excellent the Carrara Italy folder.

The unblemished areas are marble quarries plug Carrara, Italy, not far from Pisa. The area is well-behaved-behaved comprehendn for Carrara marble which is ground in the exclusive mountains. This marble is used for statues and buildings such as the Pantheon in Rome.

Click Photo 8 to see a Carrara marble quarry.

Question 17: Why is contiguity metamorphism peacericted to a trivial area?

A. Because the matter of protruding lava which causes contiguity metamorphism is referring-toly trivial in extent

B. Because the matter of protruding magma causes contiguity metamorphism is referring-toly trivial in extent

C. Because simply regular buffets can be metamorphosed and they are publicly ground in trivial quantities

D. Because all metamorphoses are peacericted to trivial areas

Collapse and Uncontrol the ROCK TYPES folder.

EARTH’S INTERIOR

By representing seismic waves from earthquakes, scientists accept disconnected the Earth’s inland into three main minoritys: centre, sparkle, and covering.

Click Earth’s Inland and use the specimen to test the layers in the tcogent adown. Excellent the rectify vindication from the inventory furnishd adown.

Layer

Composition

Structure

Depth

Q18

Iron

Liquid

2250 km

Q19

Iron & Nickel

Solid

1220 km

Q20

Iron, Magnesium & Silicon

Solid

2230 km

Q21

Nickel

Viscous

250-425 km

13

A. Lower Mantle

B. Outer centre

C. Inner centre

D. Asthenosphere

E. Excellent sparkle

F. Lithosphere

Question 22: Teach how the edifice of buffet changes as you go from the lithosphere through the asthenosphere and excellent sparkle.

A. Strong buffet, semi-strong buffet, molten buffet

B. Strong buffet, molten buffet, semi-strong buffet

C. Semi-strong buffet, molten buffet, strong buffet

D. Molten buffet, strong buffet, semi-strong buffet

Collapse and Uncontrol EARTH’S INTERIOR.

VOLCANOES

Volcanoes are disconnected into three archetypes: cinder cone, composite, (or stratovolcano) and pat. These classifications are grounded vastly on whether the eruptation is limpid or explosive in essence.

Expand the VOLCANOES folder. Double-click the Capulin Mountain Tour join to conception an briskness.

This is Capulin Mountain in New Mexico. It is a cinder cone volcano. Cinder cone volcanoes are the trivialest of the three archetypes of volcanoes and are styled by craggy sides.

Double click and control the Folsom, NM box.

Double-click and excellent Folsom, NM.

Question 23: What is the conformation intermission of this map?

A. 1:24,000

B. 20 meters

C. 20 feet

D. 1929

14

Question 24: Grounded on the conformation methods, what is the proudest altitude on this volcano?

A. 8,000 feet

B. 8,128 feet

C. 8,182 feet

D. 8,218 feet

Question 25: Grounded on the conformation methods, what is the altitude in the interior of the crater?

A. 7,800 feet

B. 7,775 feet

C. 8,125 feet

D. 7,900 feet

Uncontrol Folsom, NM and then control Mark #1.

Right-click Mark #1 and then excellent Show Altitude Profile.

Question 26: What is the biminority of the volcano in miles?

A. 0.75 miles

B. 0.39 miles

C. 0.93 miles

D. 2.1 miles

Question 27: What is the middle tower of the mark method?

A. 60.8%

B. 794 feet

C. 39.8%

D. 91.2%

Close the Altitude mark window and uncontrol Mark #1.

Double click the Mount Baker Tour join to conception an briskness.

15

Double-click and excellent Mt. Baker, WA.

This is Mt. Baker in Washington State. It is a composite volcano, which grows aggravate the method of sundry eruptations. They can abide lazy for hundreds of years, but when they do erupt, they watch to be totally explosive.

Question 28: What is the conformation intermission, in feet, of this map?

A. 1:24,000

B. 40 meters

C. 40 feet

D. 1989

Question 29: What is the proudest altitude, in feet, on this volcano?

A. 10,000 feet

B. 10,700 feet

C. 10,780 feet

D. 10, 870 feet

Uncontrol Mt. Baker, WA and then control Mark #2.

Right-click Mark #2 and then excellent Show Altitude Profile.

Question 30: What is the adjacent biminority (in miles) of the volcano?

A. 1.5 miles

B. 7 miles

C. 5.7 miles

D. 2.6 miles

Question 31: What is the middle tower of the mark method?

A. 89%

B. 32%

C. 92%

D. 78%

Close the Altitude mark window and uncontrol Mark #2.

Double click the Kilauea Tour join to conception an briskness.

Double-click and excellent Kilauea Crater.

16

This is the Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawai’i. It is a pat volcano, whose eruptations are styled as substance limpid and non-explosive – heed the parking lot plug the crater.

Question 32: What is the proudest altitude of a benchmark (seem for “BM” on map) on this volcano in feet?

A. 3,635 feet

B. 3,885 feet

C. 4,078 feet

D. 3,524 feet

Question 33: What is the altitude of the benchmark (dedistinguished by an “X”) in Halema’uma’u Crater?

A. 3,421 feet

B. 4,231 feet

C. 2,431 feet

D. 3,412 feet

Uncontrol Kilauea Crater and then control Mark #3.

Right-click Mark #3 and then excellent Show Altitude Profile.

Question 34: What is the adjacent biminority of the volcano in miles?

A. 24.5 miles

B. 16.9 miles

C. 32.8 miles

D. 18.5 miles

Question 35: What is the middle tower of the mark method?

A. 63.1%

B. 3.3%

C. 10.8%

D. 2.9%

Collapse and uncontrol the VOLCANOES folder.

17

ROCK CYCLE

Thus far, we comprehend how each archearchearchemark of buffet is produceed. This minority addresses the buffet cycle that ponders the manneres and provisions in which one buffet archearchearchemark is alterable into another.

Click ROCK CYCLE and vindication the forthfuture questions:

Question 36: Which manner changes coruscant buffet to dregsary buffet?

A. Cooling that issues in arrestation Cooling

B. Heating and exigency which leads to melting

C. Heating and exigency which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and token

Question 37: Which manner changes dregsary buffet to metamorphic buffet?

A. Cooling that issues in arrestation

B. Heating and exigency which leads to melting

C. Heating and exigency which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and token

Question 38: Which manner changes coruscant buffet to metamorphic buffet?

A. Cooling that issues in arrestation

B. Heating and exigency which leads to melting

C. Heating and exigency which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and token

Question 39: Which manner changes metamorphic buffet to dregsary buffet?

A. Cooling that issues in arrestation

B. Heating and exigency which leads to melting

C. Heating and exigency which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and token

Question 40: Which manner changes magma to coruscant buffet?

A. Cooling that issues in arrestation

B. Heating and exigency which leads to melting

C. Heating and exigency which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and token

Uncontrol the ROCK CYCLE folder.

18

REFERENCES

Gadd, Ben (2008). Geology of the Rocky Mountains and Columbias. http://www.bengadd.com/Downloads/Geology%20of%20the%20Rockies%20and%20Columbias%202008.pdf. [Date Accessed January 11, 2012]

World Coal Association. 2006. http://www.worldcoal.org/coal/uses-of-coal/coal-electricity/. [Date Accessed January 11, 2012]