Lab 02:earth’s internal structure, rock cycle, & geologic time


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LAB MODULE 12: INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH

Note: Please point to the GETTING STARTED lab module to beneathstand tips on how to set up and maneuver through the Google Earth () ingredient of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The subjoined is a inventory of embodied articulation and concepts used in this lab module:

Asthenosphere

Extrusive meteoric

Metamorphic rolls

Chemically precipitated residuumary rolls

Geologic span lamina

Organic residuumary

Cinder cone volcanoes

Igneous rolls

Rock cycle

Clastic residuumary

Intrusive meteoric

Sedimentary rolls

Composite Volcanoes

Lithification

Seismic waves

Core

Lithosphere

Shield Volcanoes

Crust

Mantle

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be susceptibilityful to:

 Concede and expound the spatial designs of volcanoes and flashing motive at the global lamina

 Fulfill and mark incongruous roll signs

 Deelegant the manner of lithification

 Concede and incongruousiate the multitudinous internal flakes of the Earth

 Distinguish and recount the incongruous signs of volcanoes

 Outlength and clear-up the roll cycle

 Expound the topographic make of a landscape

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INTRODUCTION

In this lab module, you gain study some of the primary concepts and principles kindred to the internal building of the Earth. Topics embrace roll signs, the roll cycle, geologic span and volcanoes. Spell these subject-matters may solution unequal, you gain beneathstand how they are inherently kindred.

The module starts after a spell foul-mouthed aperture subject-matters, or vignettes, which are root in the congenial Google Earth refine. These vignettes begin basic concepts kindred to Earth’s internal building. Some of the vignettes feel activitys, videos, or soon profession that furnish another perspective or visual exposition for the subject-matter at influence. After balbutiation each vignette and associated attachs, confutation the subjoined questions. Please voicelessness that some ingredients of this lab may admit a spell to download or unconcealed, obviously if you feel a unready internet affinity.

Expand INTERNAL STRUCTURE, and then open the INTRODUCTION folder. Double-click Subject-matter 1: The Earth’s Internal Composition.

Read Subject-matter 1: The Earth’s Internal Composition

Question 1: What is the profoundness of the Kola borehole as a percentage of the Earth’s radius? Calcurecent using the subjoined equation:

A. (123km / 637km) * 100 = 19.3%

B. (123km / 6370km) * 100 = 1.93%

C. (12.3km / 637km) * 100 = 1.93%

D. (12.3km / 6370km) * 100 = 0.193%

Read Subject-matter 2: Roll Types

Question 2: What are resource provisions used in locate of “extrusive” and “intrusive” meteoric roll?

A. Magma and granite

B. Pumice and lava

C. Flashing and plutonic

D. Vesicular and plutonic

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Read Subject-matter 3: Geologic Time

Question 3: During the Devonian Period, where is North America located not-absolute to the Equator? (Hint: Go to “Close-up: Phanerozoic Eon,” then click on Devonian in the span lamina effigy)

A. Predominately east of the equator

B. Predominately west of the equator

C. Predominately north of the equator

D. Predominately south of the equator

Read Subject-matter 4: Volcanoes

Question 4: The Hawaiian Islands are secure of straight chains of which of these signs of volcano?

A. Cinder cones

B. Pat volcanoes

C. Stratovolcanoes

D. Lava domes

For the peace of this module, you gain fulfill and clear-up the geographic distribution, designs, and manneres associated after a spell Earth’s internal building. In doing so, you gain concede and regard the application the internal of the Earth has on the manner.

Collapse and unrepress the INTRODUCTION folder.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

Volcanoes are not randomly as sorted opposite the globe; rather, their locations are obvious (repeatedly located on compound boundaries) and these designs are plum at countryal to global laminas. Despite the virtual dangers associated after a spell volcanoes, sundry cities are located cease areas capable to flashing motive. In this minority you gain recount the spatial designs of volcanoes and flashing motive, and fulfill volcanoes located cease crowded cites.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder. Double-click and picked the Mediterranean and W Asia folder.

Question 5: Where gain you invent the priority of volcanoes in Europe?

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A. France

B. Greece

C. Italy

D. Germany

Unrepress the Mediterranean and W Asia folder. Double-click and picked Catania. Next, click on the Etna disposition in the Google Earth Viewer. Read environing Mount Etna, located cease to the city of Catania on the Island of Sicily. To cease the Smithsonian write-up on this volcano, click the X in the top lawful hole of the window.

Question 6: What sign of volcano is Mount Etna?

A. Composite

B. Cinder cone

C. Shield

D. Crater

Unrepress the Catania folder. Double-click and picked the Africa and Red Sea folder.

Question 7: Recount the public spatial design of volcanoes root on the continent of Africa (Hint: You agency feel to zoom in and out to believe the spatial designs of the volcanoes).

A. The volcanoes solution randomly as sorted balance most of Africa

B. Sundry are root concurrently the Majestic African Rift valley located in eastern Africa

C. Sundry volcanoes make social borders of western and southern African countries

D. The priority are root after a spellin the Sahara Desert country located in northern Africa

Unrepress the Africa and Red Sea folder. Double-click and picked Nairobi. Next, click on the Suswa disposition in the Google Earth Viewer. Read environing Suswa, located west of the city of Nairobi, Kenya.

Question 8: What sign of volcano is Suswa?

A. Composite

B. Cinder cone

C. Shield

D. Crater

Unrepress the Nairobi folder. Double-click and picked Philippines and SE Asia.

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Question 9: Recount the public spatial design of volcanoes root in this country (Hint: You agency feel to zoom in and out to believe the spatial designs of the volcanoes).

A. The volcanoes solution randomly as sorted balance most of SE Asia

B. Sundry are root concurrently the margins of this country

C. Sundry volcanoes make social borders unformed the island countries

D. The priority are root on the island of Borneo and are evenly spaced apart

Unrepress the Philippines and SE Asia folder. Double-click and picked Jakarta. Next, click on the Pulosari, Perbakti-Gagak and Salak dispositions in the Google Earth Viewer. Read environing these volcanoes, located south of the city of Jakarta, Indonesia.

Question 10: What sign of volcanoes are these?

A. Composite

B. Cinder cone

C. Shield

D. Crater

Unrepress the Jakarta folder. Double-click and picked Hawaii and Pacific Ocean.

Question 11: Recount the public spatial design of volcanoes root in this country (Hint: You agency feel to zoom in and out to best believe the spatial designs of the volcanoes).

A. The volcanoes solution randomly as sorted balance most of the Pacific Ocean

B. Sundry are root concurrently the margins of this country and cease islands or island chains enjoy Hawaii

C. Sundry volcanoes make social borders unformed the island countries

D. There are few volcanoes in the Pacific; as a fruit, there are no conspicuous trends in-reference-to their spatial designs

Unrepress the Hawaii and Pacific Sea folder. Double-click and picked Hawaii. Next, click on the Mauna Loa disposition in the Google Earth Viewer. Read environing this volcano, located southwest of the city of Hilo, Hawai’I, USA.

Question 12: What sign of volcano is Mauna Loa?

A. Composite

B. Cinder Cone

C. Shield

D. Crater

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Collapse and unrepress the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES folder.

ROCK TYPES

As voicelessnessd in the Introduction, all rolls can be classified as one of three basic roll signs: meteoric, residuumary, or metamorphic.

Igneous rolls

Igneous rolls are aid separated into extrusive meteoric roll and obtrusive meteoric roll.

 Extrusive meteoric roll is makeed (cooled) on the Earth’s manner.

 Obtrusive meteoric roll is makeed (cooled) in the Earth. Unless there has been momentous erosion of manner embodied, obtrusive meteoric roll are not amply detectpowerful on the manner (Figure 1).

Some obtrusive meteoric makeations embrace:

o Dikes - upright obtrusive roll that makeed from cooled magma after a spellin fissures that cut opposite older roll. Dikes constantly conwatch in settlement to the surrounding bedrock.

o Sills - obtrusive rolls makeed in level fissures. Sills are repeatedly situated between older flakes of residuumary roll.

o Batholith – a extensive pluton, or lump of roll that cooled and weightyified low after a spellin the Earth. Some batholiths are sundry hundred miles desire.

Intrusive makeations

(in red)

Figure 1. Meteoric obtrusive makeation (Arbogast 2nd Ed).

Expand the ROCK TYPES and Meteoric Rocks folders.

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Igneous rolls - Shiprock, NM

Double-click and open the Shiprock, NM folder.

This indication is the bit of a throat of a volcano, after a spell radiating dikes. This volcano erupted balance 27 darling years ago.

Double-click the Ship Roll Tour attach to believe an activity.

Click Photo 1 for a incongruous believe.

Unrepress the Shiprock, NM folder.

Igneous rolls - Stone Mountain, GA

Double-click the Stone Mountain, GA folder.

This is a extensive pluton cease Atlanta, GA that was makeed during the Devonian span in the Paleozoic Era.

Double click the Stone Mountain Tour attach to believe an activity.

Click Photo 2 for a incongruous believe.

Unrepress the Stone Mountain, GA folder.

Igneous rolls - Krafla, Iceland

Double-click the Krafla, Iceland folder.

The ebon areas are a lava stream from the Krafla volcano in Northern Iceland. The lava cooled makeed basalt and rhyolite, which are extrusive meteoric rolls.

Double click the Krafla Tour attach to believe an activity.

Click Photo 3 for a incongruous believe.

Unrepress the Krafla, Iceland folder.

Question 13: What is the contendence between the two signs of meteoric rolls?

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A. The ages of the rolls. Obtrusive rolls are frequently older

B. Extrusive rolls were makeed in instil, obtrusive rolls were not

C. Obtrusive rolls were makeed in instil, extrusive rolls were not

D. Obtrusive rolls were makeed in the Earth, extrusive rolls were not

Sedimentary rolls

Sedimentary rolls are makeed by the token of residuums (usually in a marine environment) that beneath hurry unreadyly deflect into roll. Lithification (cementing of residuum into roll) is an embodied manner in the makeation of this sign of roll.

There are three board signs of residuumary roll: constitutional, clastic, and chemical location.

 Constitutional residuumary rolls are makeed from the token of carbon domiciled embodied. Subjected to hurry, this embodied, balance span, can make coal.

 Clastic residuumary rolls are residuumary rolls secure of clasts or pieces of weathered and eroded rolls. They are classified by jot bigness and file from elegant joted claystone (Figure 2) to rough joted conglomerate (Figure 3).

Figure 2. Claystone (Wikipedia).

Figure 3. Conglomerate (Wikimedia).

 Chemically precipitated residuumary rolls are makeed through the location of calcium carbonate which is then deposited on the sea sole. Balance span, abundance hurry can built such that lithification happens creating this sign of residuumary roll. Limestone is a vile copy of a chemical precipitated residuumary roll.

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Expand the Sedimentary Rocks folder.

Sedimentary rolls – West Virginia

Double-click the West Virginia folder.

This is a coal mine in West Virginia, where mountain top disruption is a vile way of mining this residuumary roll. Coal is an economically embodied residuumary roll worldwide as ceasely 40 percent of the electricity generated comes from coal susceptibility plants (Worldcoal, 2006).

Click Photo 4 for a incongruous believe.

Unrepress the West Virginia folder.

Sedimentary rolls – Grand Canyon

Double-click the Grand Canyon, AZ folder.

The Grand Canyon is a showcase of clastic residuumary roll. Erosion by the Colorado River, coupled after a spell tectonic elevate, has unprotected flakes of incongruous signs of extensively residuumary roll dating tail ceasely 2 billion years to the Proterozoic span in the recent Precambrian Era.

Click the Grand Canyon Roll Layers folder to see an conformance of a wayward minority of the Grand Canyon.

Question 14: Why are there no roll flakes younger than the Kaibab makeation?

A. All the roll flakes are younger than the Kaibab makeation

B. The Kaibab makeation was the ultimate flake to be deposited

C. The Colorado River eroded younger flakes

D. The Majestic Unconformity is younger

Click Photo 5 to see multitudinous roll flakes in the Grand Canyon.

Unrepress the Grand Canyon, AZ folder.

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Sedimentary rolls – Rocky Mountains

Double-click the Rocky Mountains folder.

The Rocky Mountains in Canada are middle principally of limestone and shale, suggesting at one span this area was unintermittently finished by an sea. Scientists believe this limestone was conceived during the Paleozoic Era (350 darling years ago), and that elevate to conceive the mountains began during the ultimate half of the Mesozoic Era (180 darling years ago) (Gadd, 2008).

Click Photo 6 to see multitudinous roll flakes in the Rocky Mountains.

Question 15: Which sign of residuumary roll (organic, clastic or chemical precipitated) is confer-upon in this photo?

A. Organic

B. Clastic

C. Igneous

D. Chemically precipitated

Question 16: Recount why the manner of lithification is embodied in the makeation of residuumary rolls.

A. It binds residuums into a weighty lump through compaction

B. It adds a lithium which chemically binds the residuums into a roll

C. Lithification does not portray a keep-akeep-apart in the makeation of residuumary rolls

D. Lithification simply portrays a roles after a spell clastic residuumary roll makeation

Unrepress the Rocky Mountains folder.

Metamorphic rolls

Figure 4. Gneiss, foliated (Wikimedia).

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Metamorphic rolls are makeed from meteoric or residuumary rolls that feel been subjected to intensity and hurry; in other articulation, the intensity and hurry fruits in the rearrangement or reimmutability of minerals to make incongruous minerals.

Metamorphic rolls makeed from meteoric rolls are sometimes designated meta-igneous. Likewise, meta-sedimentary rolls are metamorphic rolls makeed from residuumary rolls.

Common metamorphic rolls embrace marble (from limestone) and gneiss (usually from granite).

Metamorphic rolls are separated into two ample categories, foliated and non-foliated:

 Foliated metamorphic rolls (Figure 3) manifest banding as the minerals confer-upon align to make bands.

 Non-foliated rolls (Figure 4) delaydrawal this banding.

Metamorphoses can happen in two ways, namely apposition metamorphism and countryal metamorphism. The makeer happens balance a feeble area and entails magma hereafter in frequented apposition after a spell roll. The intensity from the magma alters the crystal building of the roll. The cessation happens balance a fur extensiver area and entails lofty intensity and majestic hurry altering roll.

Expand the Metamorphic Rocks folder.

Metamorphic rolls – Jeff Davis Peak

Double-click and picked the Jeff Davis Peak folder.

This is Jeff Davis peak which is middle principally of quartzite, a metamorphic roll makeed from sandstone.

Double-click the Jeff Davis Peak Tour attach to believe an activity.

Click Photo 7 to see multitudinous roll flakes of quartzite.

Unrepress the Jeff Davis Peak folder.

Figure 5. Marble, non-foliated (Wikimedia).

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Metamorphic rolls – Carrara, Italy

Double-click and picked the Carrara Italy folder.

The unblemished areas are marble quarries cease Carrara, Italy, not far from Pisa. The area is courteous understandn for Carrara marble which is root in the surrounding mountains. This marble is used for statues and buildings such as the Pantheon in Rome.

Click Photo 8 to see a Carrara marble quarry.

Question 17: Why is apposition metamorphism peacericted to a feeble area?

A. Because the substance of protruding lava which causes apposition metamorphism is not-absolutely feeble in bigness

B. Because the substance of protruding magma causes apposition metamorphism is not-absolutely feeble in bigness

C. Because simply convinced rolls can be metamorphosed and they are publicly root in feeble quantities

D. Because all metamorphoses are peacericted to feeble areas

Collapse and Unrepress the ROCK TYPES folder.

EARTH’S INTERIOR

By expounding seismic waves from earthquakes, scientists feel separated the Earth’s internal into three greater minoritys: heart, foam, and envelope.

Click Earth’s Internal and use the conformance to fulfill the flakes in the tpowerful underneath. Picked the set-right confutation from the inventory furnishd underneath.

Layer

Composition

Structure

Depth

Q18

Iron

Liquid

2250 km

Q19

Iron & Nickel

Solid

1220 km

Q20

Iron, Magnesium & Silicon

Solid

2230 km

Q21

Nickel

Viscous

250-425 km

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A. Lower Mantle

B. Outer heart

C. Inner heart

D. Asthenosphere

E. Loftier foam

F. Lithosphere

Question 22: Clear-up how the building of roll changes as you go from the lithosphere through the asthenosphere and loftier foam.

A. Weighty roll, semi-weighty roll, molten roll

B. Weighty roll, molten roll, semi-weighty roll

C. Semi-weighty roll, molten roll, weighty roll

D. Molten roll, weighty roll, semi-weighty roll

Collapse and Unrepress EARTH’S INTERIOR.

VOLCANOES

Volcanoes are separated into three signs: cinder cone, composite, (or stratovolcano) and pat. These classifications are domiciled extensively on whether the discharge is limpid or explosive in sort.

Expand the VOLCANOES folder. Double-click the Capulin Mountain Tour attach to believe an activity.

This is Capulin Mountain in New Mexico. It is a cinder cone volcano. Cinder cone volcanoes are the feebleest of the three signs of volcanoes and are markd by precipitous sides.

Double click and repress the Folsom, NM box.

Double-click and picked Folsom, NM.

Question 23: What is the figure intermission of this map?

A. 1:24,000

B. 20 meters

C. 20 feet

D. 1929

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Question 24: Domiciled on the figure lengths, what is the loftyest tallness on this volcano?

A. 8,000 feet

B. 8,128 feet

C. 8,182 feet

D. 8,218 feet

Question 25: Domiciled on the figure lengths, what is the tallness in the benevolence of the crater?

A. 7,800 feet

B. 7,775 feet

C. 8,125 feet

D. 7,900 feet

Unrepress Folsom, NM and then repress Make #1.

Right-click Make #1 and then picked Show Tallness Profile.

Question 26: What is the transversion of the volcano in miles?

A. 0.75 miles

B. 0.39 miles

C. 0.93 miles

D. 2.1 miles

Question 27: What is the medium float of the make length?

A. 60.8%

B. 794 feet

C. 39.8%

D. 91.2%

Close the Tallness make window and unrepress Make #1.

Double click the Mount Baker Tour attach to believe an activity.

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Double-click and picked Mt. Baker, WA.

This is Mt. Baker in Washington State. It is a composite volcano, which grows balance the order of sundry discharges. They can wait indolent for hundreds of years, but when they do erupt, they watch to be perfectly explosive.

Question 28: What is the figure intermission, in feet, of this map?

A. 1:24,000

B. 40 meters

C. 40 feet

D. 1989

Question 29: What is the loftyest tallness, in feet, on this volcano?

A. 10,000 feet

B. 10,700 feet

C. 10,780 feet

D. 10, 870 feet

Unrepress Mt. Baker, WA and then repress Make #2.

Right-click Make #2 and then picked Show Tallness Profile.

Question 30: What is the resemble transversion (in miles) of the volcano?

A. 1.5 miles

B. 7 miles

C. 5.7 miles

D. 2.6 miles

Question 31: What is the medium float of the make length?

A. 89%

B. 32%

C. 92%

D. 78%

Close the Tallness make window and unrepress Make #2.

Double click the Kilauea Tour attach to believe an activity.

Double-click and picked Kilauea Crater.

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This is the Kilauea volcano on the island of Hawai’i. It is a pat volcano, whose discharges are markd as being limpid and non-explosive – attend-to the parking lot cease the crater.

Question 32: What is the loftyest tallness of a benchmark (seem for “BM” on map) on this volcano in feet?

A. 3,635 feet

B. 3,885 feet

C. 4,078 feet

D. 3,524 feet

Question 33: What is the tallness of the benchmark (deexalted by an “X”) in Halema’uma’u Crater?

A. 3,421 feet

B. 4,231 feet

C. 2,431 feet

D. 3,412 feet

Unrepress Kilauea Crater and then repress Make #3.

Right-click Make #3 and then picked Show Tallness Profile.

Question 34: What is the resemble transversion of the volcano in miles?

A. 24.5 miles

B. 16.9 miles

C. 32.8 miles

D. 18.5 miles

Question 35: What is the medium float of the make length?

A. 63.1%

B. 3.3%

C. 10.8%

D. 2.9%

Collapse and unrepress the VOLCANOES folder.

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ROCK CYCLE

Thus far, we understand how each sign of roll is makeed. This minority addresses the roll cycle that studys the manneres and conditions in which one roll sign is progressive into another.

Click ROCK CYCLE and confutation the subjoined questions:

Question 36: Which manner changes meteoric roll to residuumary roll?

A. Cooling that fruits in immutability Cooling

B. Heating and hurry which leads to melting

C. Heating and hurry which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and token

Question 37: Which manner changes residuumary roll to metamorphic roll?

A. Cooling that fruits in immutability

B. Heating and hurry which leads to melting

C. Heating and hurry which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and token

Question 38: Which manner changes meteoric roll to metamorphic roll?

A. Cooling that fruits in immutability

B. Heating and hurry which leads to melting

C. Heating and hurry which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and token

Question 39: Which manner changes metamorphic roll to residuumary roll?

A. Cooling that fruits in immutability

B. Heating and hurry which leads to melting

C. Heating and hurry which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and token

Question 40: Which manner changes magma to meteoric roll?

A. Cooling that fruits in immutability

B. Heating and hurry which leads to melting

C. Heating and hurry which leads to recrystallization

D. Weathering, erosion and token

Unrepress the ROCK CYCLE folder.

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REFERENCES

Gadd, Ben (2008). Geology of the Rocky Mountains and Columbias. http://www.bengadd.com/Downloads/Geology%20of%20the%20Rockies%20and%20Columbias%202008.pdf. [Date Accessed January 11, 2012]

World Coal Association. 2006. http://www.worldcoal.org/coal/uses-of-coal/coal-electricity/. [Date Accessed January 11, 2012]