GEO 1000 UCI Immigration Decision Discussion

Question(s): What considerations affect a decision to migrate? What is place utility and how does its perception induce or inhibit migration? Be sure to discuss pull and push factors that influence migration decisions in your response.

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Introduction to
Geography
Mark Bjelland, David Kaplan,
Jon Malinowski, Arthur Getis
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Human
Interaction
Chapter 7
Copyright 2022 © McGraw Hill LLC. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw Hill LLC.
Overview
• Definition of Human Interaction.
• Distance and Human Interaction.
• Barriers to Interaction.
• Human Interaction and Innovation.
• Individual Activity Space.
• Diffusion and Innovation.
• Human Interaction and Technology.
• Migration.
• Globalization, Integration, and Interaction.
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Definition of Human Interaction
Communication and interdependencies between people.
Mappable interaction can be called spatial interaction.
Interdependence between geographic areas.
Movement between different places.
• People.
• Goods.
• Information.
• Communicable diseases.
Amount of interaction is a function of the size of
populations and the distance between them.
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Distance and Human Interaction
Greater human interaction over short distances than
long distances.
Distance decay.
• Decline of an activity or function with increasing distance
from the point of origin.
• Frequency of trips tends to decrease rapidly beyond a
critical distance.
Friction of distance.
Time-distance.
Psychological distance.
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Barriers to Interaction
1
• Barriers = conditions that hinder either the flow of
information or the movement of people and thus retard
or prevent the acceptance of an innovation.
• Distance.
• Cost.
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Migration of the Victims of Hurricane
Katrina
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Barriers to Interaction
2
Physical environment.
• Mountains, deserts, oceans, rivers.
Cultural barriers.
• Religion, language, ideology, gender, political system.
Psychological barriers.
• Used in crowded areas.
• Provide sense of privacy.
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Human Interaction and Innovation
Probability that new ideas will be generated out of
old ideas is a function of the number of available old
ideas in contact with one another.
New inventions and new social movements usually
arise in circumstances of high spatial interaction.
• Past – Culture hearths.
• Today – Metropolitan centers.
• Recent revolution in communications – traditional
importance of cities may decline in the future.
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Individual Activity Space
1
Territoriality
Activity space = area within which people move
freely on their rounds of regular activity
Journey to work
• Important in defining activity space for adults.
• Use of automobile – critical distances of work trips
have increased.
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Individual Activity Space
2
• Extent of activity space influenced by.
Stage in life (membership in specific age group).
Means of mobility available.
Availability of activities or opportunities.
• Mental Maps.
The way people perceive places.
Only important elements retained.
Mental routes include reference points.
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Mental Maps at Different Ages
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Diffusion and Innovation
1
Spatial diffusion – process by which a concept,
practice or substance spreads from its point of origin
to new territories.
• Concept.
• Practice.
• Substance.
Diffusion is at the heart of the geography of spatial
interaction.
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Diffusion and Innovation
2
Processes for the diffusion of innovations.
Contagious diffusion.
• Spread from one area to others through contact and/or
exchange of information.
• Diffusion of innovations over time.
• Influence of mass media and advertising.
Hierarchical diffusion.
• Spread up or down a hierarchy of places.
• May take place simultaneously with contagious diffusion.
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Medical Geography
Studies the spatial patterns of health conditions,
including:
• Diffusion of diseases.
• Access to health care.
Diseases can be thought of in terms of:
• Agents.
• Hosts.
• Environment.
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Triangle of Disease Ecology
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Contagious Diffusion
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Diffusion of the European Influenza
Pandemic of 1781
Based on Gerald F. Pyle and K. David Patterson, Ecology of Disease 2, no.3 (1984): 179
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The Diffusion of Innovations over
Time
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Geospatial Technology & COVID-19
Geospatial Revolution Project

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Human Interaction and Technology
2
Transportation and communication technologies have
increased degree of spatial interaction (continued).
Modern telecommunications.
• Internet, communication satellites.
• Information flow may be instantaneous regardless of
distance.
• Space-time convergence.
• Space-cost convergence.
• Footloose industries.
• Telecommuting.
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Communication Hierarchy
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Human Interaction and Technology
1
Transportation and communication technologies
have increased degree of spatial interaction.
Automobiles have increased ability to overcome spatial
separation; with consequences:
• Decentralization.
• Sprawling urban environments.
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Diffusion of Wal-Mart
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Migration
Permanent relocation of both place of residence and
activity space.
Pressing concern of recent decades.
Effects of migration.
• Affects national economic structures.
• Determines population density and distribution.
• Alters traditional ethnic, linguistic and religious
mixtures.
• Inflames national debates and international tension.
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Migration: Types of Migration
Gender and Migration
Migration occurs at different scales.
• Intercontinental.
• Intracontinental.
• Interregional.
Immigration and emigration
Migration may be:
• Forced (involuntary).
• Reluctant.
• Voluntary.
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Forced Migrations: the Five Civilized
Tribes
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Migration: Incentives to Migrate
1
Decision to move is a cultural and temporal variable.
Voluntary migrants seek better economic, political or
cultural conditions – frequently a combination of these
conditions.
Push factors
• Negative characteristics of a location that impel migration.
Pull factors
• Positive characteristics of a location that attract migrants.
Often, migration decision involves both push and pull
factors.
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Migration: Incentives to Migrate
2
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Immigration to Four European Countries—
Norway, Ireland, Germany, and Spain—from
other European countries, 2018
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Migration: Incentives to Migrate
3
Economic considerations
• Most common incentive for migration.
• Poverty.
• “Environmental refugees”.
• Rural to urban migration.
• International migration.
Political incentives
• Escape war and persecution at home.
• Promise of freedom in new location.
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Migration: Incentives to Migrate
4
Cultural variables
• Migrants attracted to areas where language, religion
and racial or ethnic background of inhabitants are
similar.
Amenities
• Attractive or agreeable features that are characteristic
of a place.
• May be natural or cultural.
• Vary according to age, sex, education and economic
status of migrant.
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Migration: Incentives to Migrate
5
Movers versus stayers.
Young adults are typically the most mobile.
• Initial decisions about occupation and location.
• Fewer ties to family and institutions.
• Lack of opportunities in home area.
Place utility.
• Value that an individual puts on a given residential
site.
• Migration decisions are influenced by analyses of
comparative place utility and aspiration level.
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Migration: Incentives to Migrate
6
Goal of migrant is to minimize uncertainty, may be
achieved through:
Step migration.
• Eventual long-distance relocation undertaken in stages.
Chain migration.
• Migration from a common home area to a specific
destination sustained by links of friendship or kinship
between first movers and later followers.
• Ethnic niche businesses.
Rural-to-urban migration.
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Migration: Barriers to Migration
1
Many people choose not to migrate even when
conditions are bad at home and known to be better
elsewhere.
People with limited knowledge of opportunities
elsewhere are less likely to migrate than those who
are better informed.
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Migration: Barriers to Migration
2
Physical barriers.
• Have assumed less importance as a result of modern
technological developments.
Economic barriers.
Cost factor.
• Costs of travel, of establishing residence elsewhere and
maintaining contact with home.
• Costs normally increase with distance traveled.
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Mexican Migration to the U.S.
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Migration: Barriers to Migration
3
Cultural factors
• Family, religious, ethnic and community relationships
defy the principle of differential opportunities.
Political barriers
• Restrictions on immigration and emigration.
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Migration: Patterns of Migration
1
Migration field
• Area that sends major migration flows to or receives
major migration flows from a given place.
Channelized migration
• Tendency for migration to flow between areas that are
socially and economically tied to one another.
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The Migration Fields of Florida and
California in 2018
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Channelized Migration
C. C. Roseman, Proceedings of the Association of American Geographers, . 3, p. 142
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Migration: Patterns of Migration
2
Return migration (countermigration)
• Return of migrants to the region of origin.
Hierarchical migration
• Tendency to move from small places to larger ones
(up the hierarchy).
• In times of economic decline, there is considerable
movement down the hierarchy.
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Migrants Originally from the Former Yugoslavia
Intending to Return Home from Germany
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Globalization, Integration, and Interaction
1
The increasing interconnection of all parts of the
world.
• Brings about greater integration and more spatial
interaction.
Affects economic, political and cultural patterns and
processes.
At present, its benefits accrue to a minority of the
world’s 6 billion people.
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Globalization, Integration, and Interaction
2
Economic integration

Euro.

Foreign investments.

International banking.

Transnational
corporations (TNCs).

Global marketing (new
markets for goods and
services).
c) McDonald’s-United States (Japan)
c: © McGraw-Hill Education/Christopher Kerrigan RF
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Globalization, Integration, and Interaction
3
Political integration
• Supranationalism (military, political and cultural).
• Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).
• News media and the Internet.
Cultural integration
• Popular culture is Western in origin, chiefly American.
• Spread of English language.
• Both dominance of English and globalization of popular culture are
resented by many people and rejected by some.
• Some decry homogenization of culture.
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Protests Against the World Trade
Organization (WTO) and its Policies
© FABRICE COFFRINI/Getty Images
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