Effects of Temperature and Moisture Change on Composite Materials rewrite all of the powerpoints by using your words


Effects of Temperature and Moisture Change on Composite Materials

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Effects of Temperature Change on Composite Materials




Methodologies and Scientific Discussion
Apparatus and Testing
Expected Results and Outcomes

Agenda/Table of Contents

Composite materials consist of two or more physically separate and mechanically releasable elements called reinforcements and matrices.
In this proposal, temperature and humidity were the major environmental concerns
The first objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of humidity and temperature on polyester resins, vinyl esters, and epoxy resins, as well as various data on wind turbine blade performance in wet conditions and at other different temperatures.


Composite materials for wind turbine blades can be subjected to a low temperature (-20 ° C or lower) or high temperature (50 ° C or higher) for 30-year life. Exposure to the low temperatures of certain hard polymers can make them vulnerable and increase.
It has been reported that the effect at the fiber matrix interface at this temperature is strong only as a treatment of fiber and resin properties.



Water molecules can diffuse into the composite network and affect its mechanical properties.
The ability to predict water diffusion and its effect on resin properties are necessary to predict long-term behavior of composite materials.
However, the behavior of some compounds to absorb water is an important factor in adjusting the Fick model. This subtle mechanism is not fully understood due to the complexity of the absorption behavior and the variability of the experimental data.


Methodologies and Scientific Discussion

The experiment utilized E-glass fabric as the key reinforcement material.
All fibers contain a universal blending agent compatible with all types of resins used
Five types of resins for this work have been compared which represent the cost of potential resins for wind turbine blades and are suitable for formation with resins low viscosity.
All samples were processed from the plates using a water-cooled diamond saw and the edges were sandblasted prior to packaging. Some dry samples are stored in the laboratory ambient air, called ambient temperature and drying temperature; the laboratory has no temperature or controlled humidity but is usually around 23 °C with low humidity.

1. Synthetic unsaturated CoRezyne phthalic acid polyester (63-AX-051), the resin cured by the addition of 1.5% methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP).
2. Derakane 411c-50 vinyl ester. Curing with 2% Trimomox 239A as a catalyst
3. Derakane 8084 vinyl ester is hardened with rubber. Cobalt 5% naphthenate (CoNap) was added as a cocatalyst, and 2% Trimomox 239A was added as a catalyst.
4. SC-14 cured the epoxy resin. The mixing ratio is Part A: Part B = 100:35.
5. Isophthalic acid polyester (75-AQ-010). 1.5% methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) was used.

Apparatus and Testing
Tension and Compression
Micro-bonding Test
The sample used for the micro-bonding test consisted of a composite sample with a carefully polished cross-section
This process was repeated at higher loading and control stages until exfoliation was observed.
Water Absorption Test
In the experiment, as the measurement time increases, the wet weight of the sample decreases.

Expected Results and Outcomes

In this section, we present the results of an environmental impact study of composites using five resin systems.
Firstly, considering the water absorption behavior of composite materials and pure resin, and then considering the moisture in the composite material, the effects of humidity and temperature on the compressive strength of the composite, tensile strength and modulus, and phase-to-phase resistance are proposed.

Expected Results and Outcomes

The figure shows the approximate cost of five high- capacity resins
Composites with the layup [0/±45°/0] pure resin was immersed in distilled water and carried out at 50 ° C for about 2,500 hours.
The o-ester, iso-ester, vinyl esters 411 and 8084 appear to be stable, while the epoxy SC-14 is near saturation.
It is observed that the epoxy resin SC-14 absorbs the maximum amount of moisture after soaking in distilled water at 50 ° C for the same conditioning period, and then the content of the vinyl ester of the 8084 vinyl ester, the vinyl ester, and the hetero-411 ester.


The moisture content of the composite and pure resin depends on the chemical nature of the matrix.
The moisture diffusion constant follows a tendency opposite to that of the resin system.
Different polyesters have excellent resistance to environmental conditions and interlaminar fracture toughness, such as ortopoliester. Based on the final conclusion, it is recommended that vinyl esters and isomeric polyesters require further investigation.

Other tests, such as DCB and ENF, at higher temperatures adjust the function of component under hot and humid conditions to provide sufficient information to make the final selection of the ideal resin for composite material.

Tsotsis, K.T.(1998), “Long-Term Thermo-Oxidative Aging in Composite Materials:
Experimental Methods,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol.32, No.11,1998, PP. 1115-1133.
Springer, S. G., “Effects of Thermal Spiking on Graphite-Epoxy Composites,” Report AFML-
TR-79-4059, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio (1979)
Schutte, L.C., “Environmental Durability of Glass Fiber Composites,” Polymer Composites
Group, Polymers Division, NIST (1994).
Carter, G.H., Kibler, G.K(1977).“Entropy Model for Glass Transition in Wet Resins and
Composites,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol.32, PP. 265-273.
Soutis, C., Turkmen, D.(1997), “Moisture and Temperature Effects of the Compressive Failure of unidirectional Laminates,” Journal of
Composite Materials, Vol.31, No.8 / 1997, pp. 833-848.
Shen, C., Springer, S.G (1977)., “Effects of Moisture and Temperature on the Tensile Strength of
Composite Materials,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol.11, pp. 2-15. 24.


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