This assignmet iclude 2 part
Length: 2.500 words ± , excluding reference list and appendix (12-point Times New Roman font, line-spacing 1.5 for the body of the report, but single line-spacing for References and Appendix)
- Eye in the Sky (Gavin Hood 2016) – 102 minutes
- Sully (Clint Eastwood 2016) – 96 minutes
- Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom (Justin Chadwick, 2013) – 146 minutes
- 12 years a Slave ( Steve McQueen (Links to an external site.) 2013) – 134 minutes
- Captain Phillips (Scott Rudin (Links to an external site.), Dana Brunetti (Links to an external site.) & Michael De Luca (Links to an external site.), 2013) – 134 minutes
- Lincoln (Steven Spielberg (Links to an external site.), 2012) – 150 minutes
- Money ball (Bennett Miller, 2011) – 133 minutes
- The Iron Lady (Phyllida Lloyd, 2011) – 104 minutes
- Secretariat (Randall Wallace, 2010) – 123 minutes
- Invictus (Clint East Wood, 2009) – 134 minutes
- The Aviator (Michael Mann (Links to an external site.), Sandy Climan (Links to an external site.), Graham King (Links to an external site.) & Charles Evans Jr. (Links to an external site.), 2004) -170 minutes
- Wall Street (Oliver Stone, 1987) – 126 minutes
Your task is to analyse and evaluate the effectiveness of leadership portrayed in the film, using the “framework for understanding leadership” given in the textbook (DuBrin, 2015, Chapter. 1, p. 21, attached).
PREPARING THE REPORT. Please note that you will need to draw upon additional readings on leadership. You are expected to identify specific issues from the film, in order to comment on the effectiveness of the leadership demonstrated in it. You will need to cite research literature and provide a reference list.
The filmmakers may have taken liberties with historical facts, but, for the purpose of this report, it is not an important issue. It is not expected that you will do further research into the person or circumstances involved in the film as this assignment is not about history—but it is a critical analysis of leadership effectiveness as depicted in the film.
FORMAT. The assignment is to be presented in a report format. A guide such as the one by Summers and Smith (2014) can assist you in preparing a report. You should include: (a) assignment cover sheet (b) title page (c) executive summary (d) table of contents (e) introduction (f) several sections presenting your analysis and discussion (g) conclusion (h) references and (i) appendix.
REFERENCES. The in-text citations and the reference list should be presented in a standard referencing style (Swinburne Harvard style).
RESEARCH. Consulting and utilising the research literature is an essential element of this assignment. You are required to explore the relevant literature concerning the aspects of leadership you plan to address in your report. You should use the literature in a thoughtful manner to evaluate the effectiveness of leadership in the film. It is expected that you will cite a minimum of 12 refereed journal articles related to leadership from the above journals.
FOCUS ON LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS. In this report, you are expected to discuss issues which affect leadership effectiveness. It is not a biographical report, a film critique, or a historical report. While you may find it useful to do some reading about the people and situations featured in the film, the report should focus mainly on leadership effectiveness. Avoid extensive biographical details, discussion on the historical events, or aspects of film making.
APPENDIX. The report needs to have an Appendix at the end, which provides evidence of your observations. It should be presented in a table format with three columns: (1) Element of DuBrin’s Framework, (2) Characteristics Observed, and (3) Corresponding Scene (just describe the scene where you have observed the characteristic, e.g., Scene depicting the Administrative Board hearing). Improve the readability of the appendix by selecting table properties intelligently (e.g., use Auto Fit to Contents, define the header row to repeat across pages, do not allow rows to break across pages, etc.). Use single line-spacing for the entire Appendix.
Your task is to write a total of 5 x 200-word weekly in-depth reflections from each of the weeks focusing on at least one major lesson learnt for your own leadership development. These should be focused, personal, practical, candid, specific, and in-depth reflections about what you have learned about yourself. These lessons might relate the discussion in lectures, class and/or tutorial, and/or what you learnt through the assigned readings, at your workplace, or generally in the community. You also need to identify areas for improvement to enhance leadership effectiveness and how you would go about achieving them.
The first 5 weeks of reflections (weeks 1-5) are due at the end of Week 5.
The second 5 weeks of reflections (weeks 6-10) are due at the end of Week 10.
Please note that this is a reflective exercise, as such do not merely re-tell what happened in class or what you read in the reading. Rather, they are reflections of how a specific idea/lesson relates to your personal and specific leadership development in terms of strengths, weaknesses, potentials, barriers, etc. A few questions to help you think about the weekly entry are as follows:
- -Am I seeing myself as a leader now or as an emerging leader?
- – How can I develop leadership skills from these weekly sessions/classes?
- – How does the learning challenge the way I see myself, my work, or the real world?
- – Why is it relevant to my career or future plan?
- – How am I going to apply the idea/lesson in my own context? Are there some foreseeable challenges?
- – What is the action plan?
Practice and skills
Workshop – Week 6
Trends in leading and
development in the West
– Unless top-level management assigns a high priority to
developing leaders and succession planning, the company will
experience a steady attrition in talent
– Leadership talent can be developed – remember that leaders
are both born AND made
– Leadership development is often perceived in terms of
education and training, job experience, and coaching
Components of Leader and
The development of leadership ability is a complex process
According to Conger (1992), who extensively studied “learning to lead,” successful
leadership development programs and processes must be designed to address three
(1) Personal growth – relates to experiences that tap individuals’ personal needs
interests, build self-esteem, and help clarify and develop individuals’ interests and
motivation to lead
(2) Conceptual ability – entails developing individuals’ abilities to think about
challenges, analyze a situation, provide a conceptual framing of a situation,
stimulate intellectually, and develop novel and creative directions including deep
(3) Skill development – is focused on learning important behaviors and refining the use
of skills that are important for the leadership role to offer insights to the
❖ Self-awareness involves insightfully processing feedback about
oneself to improve personal effectiveness
❖ Levels of self-
▪ Single-loop learning
▪ Double-loop learning
❖ Self-discipline is mobilizing one’s efforts and energy to stay
focused on attaining an important goal
Personality and Self-
The use of personality typographies can assist the development
1. Clarifying ones’ own values and priorities
2. Seeking new experiences
3. Seeking feedback
Two common typologies are:
• The Myers Briggs Inventory
• The Stanford Enneagram Discovery Inventory
Factors Contributing to
– Challenging experiences
– Broad experience
– Pivotal life experiences
Education & Leadership
▪ Formal education is positively correlated with achieving managerial
and leadership positions
▪ Many people get the opportunity to hold a business leadership
position only if they have achieved a specified level of education
▪ Most leaders are intelligent, well-informed people who gather
knowledge throughout their career
▪ Formal education and self-study provide them with information for
innovative problem solving
▪ Being intellectually alert also contributes to exerting influence
through logical persuasion
Leadership & Experience
– Without on-the-job experience, knowledge cannot readily be converted into skills
– Challenging leadership experience also helps build skills and insights that a person may not
have formally studied
– The goal of leadership development is to provide meaningful development opportunities,
not to push managers to the point where they are most likely to fail
– The two major developmental factors in any work situation are work associates and the
– The tasks that do most to foster development are those that are more complex and
ambiguous than a person has faced previously
– A sound approach to improving leadership effectiveness is to gain experience in different
– Multifunctional managerial development is an organisation’s intentional efforts to
enhance the effectiveness of managers by giving them experience in multiple functions
within the organisation
Managing Oneself – Drucker (1999)
“Success in the knowledge economy comes to those who know themselves their strengths, their values, and how they
best perform” (100:1999).
“It takes far more energy to improve from incompetence to mediocrity than to improve from first-rate performance to
– How Do I Perform?
– Am I a reader or a listener?
– How do I learn?
– What Are My Values?
– Where Do I Belong?
– What Should I Contribute?
– Course of Actions:
– Responsibility for Relationship
– The Second Half of Your Life:
“There is one prerequisite for managing the second half of your life: You must begin doing so long before you enter it”
“Knowledge workers outlive organizations, and they are mobile” – (109:1999)
Effective Leadership Behavior: What
We Know and What Questions Need
More Attention – Gary Yukl (2012)
Hierarchical Taxonomy of Leadership Behaviors(page 68)Diana@2020
Cultural values and Leader
Cultural Value Potential Impact on Leader Development
The communication context
Communication of information; feedback provided;
who provides the feedback; directness of message in
case of assessment and self-development
Focus of development on the individual leader or on
the group; professional setting for T&D
Content of development – hands-on training or on
theoretical understanding and conceptual development
Tolerance for ambiguity Exposure to challenging and changing times
Perception of time
Focus on quick and short-term results or on long-term
Power distance and equality
Development provided to all or only individuals
identified as high potential; implementation of 360
Types of Leadership
❖ Feedback-Intensive Programs
❖ Skill-Based Programs
❖ Conceptual Knowledge and Awareness Programs
❖ Personal Growth Programs
❖ Socialization Programs
❖ Action Learning Programs
❖ Coaching and Psychotherapy
A collective approach to
(Source: Dalakoura, 2010, p.436)
(Source: Groves, KS, 2006)
Ways to support Leadership
Training of Subordinates
Before the training
– Inform subordinated about
– Explain the importance & benefits
– Relate the benefits from earlier
– Accommodate the work schedule
– Give time off to prepare for training
– Support preparation activities
– Request for conditional feedback
after the training is completed
After the training
– Discuss what was learned and how it can be applied
– Set specific objectives and action plans
– Offer assignments to apply newly learnt skills
– Hold periodic review sessions for monitoring
– Provide positive feedback for applying newly learnt
– Provide encouragement & coaching
– Include application of new skills in Performance
– Set an example for trainees by using the skills
Guidelines For Action And Skill
An important method for enhancing both the acceptance and the
effectiveness of leadership development is needs analysis, the diagnosis
of needs for development
A needs analysis recognizes individual differences among leaders and
Sources of data for assessing leadership development needs include
(1) self-perceptions of developmental needs
(2) perceptions by others in the workplace
(3) psychological evaluation
(4) a statement of organizational needs for development
Applying what you learn
– Know yourself – Self awareness
– Openness to new experiences
– Consider volunteer work
– Seek feedback
– Focus on understanding your strengths
– Observe leaders around you
– Be persistent and practice
Leadership Resiliency: Handling
Stress, Uncertainty, and Setbacks
Resilience is maintaining equilibrium under pressure – It is on of the most
important skills for leaders at all levels to come to grips with
– The question is, ‘How do you face (adversity)?’
– Practices to Build Your Resilience
– Personal energy management.Manage your own resistance. “Show up,” give your best, and
relinquish attachment to the outcome. Stay in the present.
– Shifting your lenses. Take charge of how you think about adversity. Understand your beliefs
about the situation and choose your response. Exercise compassion for yourself and others.
– Sense of purpose. Develop a “personal why” that gives your life meaning. This helps you better
face setbacks and challenges. Also, look for ways that crisis and adversity may connect to your
larger life purpose.
How to Be More Resilient: Take
Better Care of Yourself
– Get enough sleep. What can you do to conserve energy?
Get between 7.5 and 8.5 hours of sleep each night. Set a
regular sleep schedule, even on weekends. Disconnect —
and park those devices far from the bed. Create a relaxing
environment that’s dark, cool, and quiet.
– Prioritize exercise. What can you do to increase your
physical energy? During the workday, get up and move
every 90 to 120 minutes. Suggest a walking meeting. Climb
stairs instead of taking the elevator.
– Play brain games. What can you do to overcome mental
fatigue and exhaustion? Learn anything new. Solve a
challenging puzzle. Find positive distractions such as
hobbies or meditation.
– Control your emotions. What can you do to become more
conscious of emotional triggers? Figure out who and what
pushes your buttons. Step away, slow down, or enlist an
ally to help you control your reactions and choose your
response. Create a gratitude journal. Cultivate kindness by
doing something nice for someone else.
– Enhance social connections. What can you do to create
more meaningful and productive relationships? Ask a
colleague for advice, give positive feedback, or share
something you recently learned about yourself.
Reflect on Your Experiences to Increase
– Recall a time in your personal or professional life
when you were able to rise above a difficult
situation. Then ask yourself:
– What happened?
– What was I thinking and feeling at the time?
– How did I get through it?
– What did I do that helped me get through
– What did I learn from the experience that has
made me a more resilient person today?
Challenges of Being a New
Building relationships quickly enough
Being realistic about the process
Becoming comfortable with unpopularity
Leader vs Leadership…???
Critical approaches to
– The development of leadership practice from a relational, social and
situated perspective ‘becoming’ adopting a culture of reflective
practices and engage in behaviours that are learned from experiences
– Leadership learning and development should ‘reconnect with context’
and community and become inclusive of critical and creative views of
– The emerging critical strand of the leadership literature suggests that
leadership development and learning should avoid presenting
leadership as a fixed identity or role, instead encouraging an awareness
of multiple roles i.e., leader, follower and both
Leadership Practice and Skills
Prepared & Delivered by: Dr. Diana Rajendran
Teams and Teamwork
Work group that must rely on collaboration of each
member to experience optimum success and
Work down with an understanding and commitment
to group goals on the part of all team members.
Developing teamwork is such an important leadership
role that team building is said to differentiate successful
from unsuccessful leaders.
Types of Teams
Virtual TeamVirtual Team
Self-Managed TeamSelf-Managed Team
Functional TeamFunctional Team
Cross-Functional TeamCross-Functional Team
Self-Managed Team (SMT)
Self-Managed Teams (SMTs)
Are relatively autonomous and are usually cross-
functional in membership makeup
Share or rotate leadership responsibilities
Hold themselves mutually responsible for a set of
performance goals assigned by higher management
Have wide latitude in decision making in managing
themselves, planning and scheduling work, and taking
action on problems
How Are SMTs Different from
Leadership Within the team Outside the team
Team member role Interchangeable Fixed
Accountability Team Individual
Work effort Cohesive Divided
Task design Flexible Fixed
Skills Multi-skilled Specialized
Leading Virtual Teams
Virtual teams are (sometimes)global teams in most of the
Select the right team member
Start off right
Use technology to build relationships
Agree on Ground rules
7 Evolution of Teams and Team
Task oriented Vs Relationship Oriented
Task Specialists: Initiating ideas, giv ing opinions, Seeking information
summarizing and energizing
Socioemotional/Relationship Oriented: Encourage, Harmonize,
Reduce Tension, Follow and Compromise
Inspiring, Charm, Charisma, Personal Magnetism
Using the Leader’s Resources
Requires Organizational Structures and Policies
9 Teamwork Actions Leaders Can
Take Using Their Own Resources
Defining team mission
Establishing a climate of trust
Develop a norm of teamwork, including emotional intelligence
Emphasize pride in being outstanding
Serve as a model of teamwork, including power sharing
Use a consensus leadership style
Establish urgency, demand performance standards, and prov ide
Encourage cooperation with another group
Encourage use of jargon
Minimize micro managing
Practice e-leadership for v irtual teams
Teamwork Actions Generally
Requiring Organization Structure
Designing physical structures that facilitate
Emphasizing group recognition and rewards
Initiating ritual and ceremony
Practicing open-book management
Using technology that facilitates teamwork including
Blending representatives from the domestic company
and foreign nationals on the team
11 Hill’s Team Leadership Model
The Hill Model is “to simplify and clarify the complex nature
of team leadership and to aid leadership decision making
for team leaders and members” (Northouse, 20
Whether traditional leadership of teams or groups with a
formal leader or a self-directed group with no specific
leader all benefit from an shared leadership with the
attention and focus of all members on the groups process
Team-based structures in organizations have several
positive characteristics and are capable of increasing
production, allocation and use of resources, effective on
making decisions and problem solving, increased quality
and services as well as, fluent innovation and creativity, as
listed by Parker (as cited in Northhouse, 2016:364).
13 Five Common Dysfunctions of
Negativity and Bad
Lack of cooperation
Mutual respect and
Fairness and equity
15 Handling Problem Members
• Slow them down,
don’t stop them
• Slow them down,
don’t stop them
• Keep the group
• Keep the group
• Assign them a
• Assign them a
• Do not argue
• Do not argue
A Model of Styles to Handle Conflict
Integrative negotiation – Win-
Distributive negotiation –
Sharing the losses
Rules for Reaching a win-win
Separate people from the
Focus on Underlying Interests,
not current Demands
Listen and ask questions
Insist that results be based on
What Is an Effective Team?
Team effectiveness is a construct consisting of three components:
1. Task performance – the degree to which the team’s output (product or
service) meets the needs and expectations of those who use it;
2. Group process – the degree to which members interact or relate in ways
that allow the team to work increasingly well together over time; and
3. Individual levels of satisfaction – the degree to which the group
experience, on balance, is more satisfying than frustrating to team
19 Expectancy Theory & Motivational Skills
Basic Premise: The amount of effort individuals expend
depends on how much reward they expect to get in return
Individuals want to maximize gain and minimize loss.
Individuals choose among alternatives by selecting one they think
they have the best chance of attaining
Individuals choose the alternative that appears to have the biggest
Given a choice, individuals will select the assignment they think they
can handle the best and will benefit them the most
The Expectancy Theory
21 Expectancy Theory – Leadership Considerations
Determine what levels and kinds of performance are needed to
achieve organizational goals
Make the performance level attainable by the individuals being
motivated, trained and are encouraged
Make explicit the link between rewards and performance and that
the rewards are large enough
Analyze what factors work in opposition to the effectiveness of the
Explain the meaning and implications of second-level outcomes by
understanding individual differences
Recognize that when workers are in a positive mood, high valences,
instrumentalities, and expectancies are more likely to lead towards
23 Goal Theory – Leadership Considerations
Specific goals lead to higher performance than do generalized
Performance generally improves in direct proportion to goal
For goals to improve performance, the group member must
Goals are more effective when they are used to evaluate
Goals should be linked to feedback and rewards
Group goal setting is as important as individual goal setting
Learning goal orientation improves performance more than a
performance goal orientation does
Equity Theory & Social Comparison
Basic Premise: Employee satisfaction and motivation depend on
how fairly employees believe they are treated in comparison to peers
Employees hold certain beliefs about the outcomes they receive from their
jobs, as well as the inputs they invest to obtain these outcomes
Employees compare their inputs and outputs with others in the workplace –
these are social comparisons
When employees believe they are being treated equitably, they are more
willing to work hard
When employees believe they give too much as compared to what they
receive from the organization, demotivation occurs
25 Equity Theory & Social
Indiv iduals consider their own inputs in relation to outcomes
received – and they also evaluate what others receive for the
Equity exists when an indiv idual concludes his/her own
outcome/input ratio is equal to that of other people
Inequity exists when an indiv idual’s ratio is not the same as that of
The highest level of performance occurs when a person has ratios
equal to those of their chosen comparison person
When an indiv idual perceives inequity, they are likely to engage
in an action leading to a negative outcome for their employer
It is important for leaders to recognize the consequences of
inequity and take steps towards an equitable workplace
Using Recognition & Pride to
It is a strong motivator because it is a normal human
Recognition can be oral, written, or material
Recognition, including praise, is low cost and often
motivates employees to elevate their performance
Appealing to Pride:
Pride in a job well done is an intrinsic motivator that
contributes to job performance
Receiv ing a gift or bonus is an extrinsic motivator
Managers may find their focus should be on pride, not
money, as their primary motivating tactic
27 Why Diverse Teams Are Smarter
(Rock & Grant 2016)
Working with people who are different from you may
challenge your brain to overcome its stale ways of thinking and
sharpen its performance
Diverse Teams Focus More on Facts – Encourage greater scrutiny of each member’s
actions, keeping their joint cognitive resources sharp and v igilant. By breaking up
workplace homogeneity by allowing employees to become more aware of their
own potential biases — entrenching in ways of thinking that can otherwise blind
them to key information and even lead them to make errors in decision-making
Diverse Teams Process Those Facts More Carefully – diverse teams may outperform
homogenous ones in decision making because they process information more
carefully. Remember: Considering the perspective of an outsider may seem
counterintuitive, but the payoff can be huge – Role of Dev ils’ advocate
Diverse Teams are Also More Innovative – may feel more at ease working with
people who share your background, don’t be fooled by your comfort. Hiring
indiv iduals who do not look, talk, or think like you can allow you to dodge the costly
pitfalls of conformity, which discourages innovative thinking
SL is defined as a modern leadership approach internalized through
voluntary cooperation and interaction based on the competencies of
all stakeholders and a sense of responsibility.
This approach to team leadership has been demonstrated to be
positively associated with team and organizational outcomes in a
range of different organizational settings and for a variety of types of
teams (Ensley et al., 2006).
SL has been shown to be positively associate with higher levels of
performance in production and manufacturing settings (Ford and
Seers, 2006), team performance in unionized work settings (Seers et al.,
1995), sales teams (Mehra et al., 2006), CEO’s, anesthesia teams
(Ku¨nzle et al., 2010), consulting teams (Hoch et al., 2010), and among
management students (Carson et al., 2007; Solansky, 2008).
SL was also shown to relate to higher levels of innovation (Hoch, 2012
29 Distributed Leadership(DL)
DL is a group activity that works through and within
relationships, rather than individual action (Bennett et al.
2003, p. 3).
It is about distributing leadership practices (Malloy, 2012)
DL can be considered to incorporate shared, democratic,
dispersed and other related forms of leadership, as a means
for enhancing the effectiveness of, and engagement with,
leadership processes(Leithwood et al. 2009, p.1)
The key question is ‘how leadership should be distributed’ in
order ‘to have the most beneficial effect’… which could be
challenging… for eg.
Power and influence
Organisational Boundaries and context
Ethics and Diversity
Executive Coaching &
Executive coaching is a form of coaching where managers
consult with professional coaches to work towards becoming an
Executive coaches are hired to:
Develop high potentials as leaders or facilitate a leadership transition
Act as a sounding board to leaders
Address derailing, or failing, leadership behav ior
Executive coaching does have downfalls:
Coach doesn’t thoroughly understand a situation and offers
bad/poor/incorrect adv ice
Coach isn’t truly qualified though indicates they are
Leader becoming dependent on the coach
31 Coaching as an Approach
Effective leaders are good coaches – and good coaches
are effective motivators
Coaching is a way of enabling others to act and build on
their strengths. To coach is to care enough about people
to invest time in building personal relationships with them
The purpose of coaching is to help the employee learn
from the job and develop as an employee
Coaching is giving employees the resources they need to
make their own decisions
ORG30002 – LEADERSHIP SKILLS AND
Great followership has never been more important, if only because of
the seriousness of the global problems we face and the fact that they must
be solved collaboratively, not by leaders alone, but by leaders working
in tandem with able and dedicated followers – Warren Bennis –
• Leadership requires followers, and any understanding of
leadership is incomplete without the agency of
• Followers are not passive sheep but are active powerful
players in the leadership process (Collinson 2006)
FRAMEWORK FOR CONTINGENCY
• Effective leaders have an appropriate fit between the leader’s behavior and
style and the followers and the situation.
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
Of Leadership Effectiveness
• Fred E. Fiedler developed a contingency model that holds that the best style of
leadership is determined by the situation in which the leader is working
• Fiedler’s theory classifies a manager’s leadership style as relationship-motivated or
• The intermediate style, which receives little mention is labeled socio-independent
Measuring Leadership Style: The
Least Preferred Co-worker Scale
• According to Fiedler, leadership style is a relatively permanent aspect of behaviour and
thus difficult to modify
• The least preferred coworker (LPQ scale) measures the degree to which a leader
describes favourably or unfavourably an employee with whom he or she could work the
Measuring The Situation
Leadership situations are classified as high, moderate, or low
More controllable situations are viewed as more favorable for
Control is determined by three dimensions:
• Leader-member relations
• Task structure
• Position power
Leader – Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
In most leadership situations not every follower is treated the same by the leader.
Leaders and followers develop dyadic relationships and leaders treat individual
followers differently, resulting in two groups of followers an in -group & an out-
• The in-group consists of a small number of trusted followers with whom the leader
usually establishes a special higher quality exchange relationship
• The out-group includes the followers with whom the relationship of the leader
remains more formal
Leaders who adapt their style to different individuals within the group, or have different quality
relationships with individual group members, are essentially practicing contingency leadership
Leader – Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
• Leaders tend to give members of their in-group more favorable performance ratings
than they give to out-group members, even when objective performance is the
• Leaders do not always develop entirely different relationships with each group
member, but may respond the same way to a few members of the group.
• Larger groups tend to result in differences with respect to leader-member
• Managers are more likely to use servant leadership in groups with whom the leader
has high-quality exchanges.
• Leaders are more likely to use empowerment with group members with whom they
have high-quality exchanges.
• LMX quality median influences how leader-member exchanges and differentiation
affect team performance.
What Is Followership?
• Followership is the ability to effectively follow the directives and support the
efforts of a leader to maximize a structured organization – Bjugstad et al.
• Followership is a process in which subordinates recognize their responsibility
to comply with the orders of leaders and take appropriate action consistent
with the situation to carry out those orders to the best of their ability –
Townsend and Gebhart (1997:52).
• Leaders and followers, in any context, share a common fate of responsibility
for their family, group, organization, or nation. From their joint participation
emerges the success or failure of their enterprise – Heller and van Til(1982:
The Art Of Followership
What Your Leader Wants From You?
• A make-it happen attitude
• A willingness to collaborate
• The motivation to stay Up-to date
• The Passion to Drive your own Growth
Strategies For Managing Up
• Understand the Leader
• Does the leader wants all details (micro-manage)or just a bigger picture?
• Is the leader controlling or empowering?
• Does the leader like to carefully analyse information and alternatives before
making a decision?
• Is the leader a reader or listener?
• Is the leader a numbers or word person?
• Is the leader an extrovert or introvert?
Tactics For Managing Up
• Be a resource for the Leader
• Help the leader to be a good leader
• Build a relationship with the leader
• View the leader realistically
The Power And Courage To Manage Up
• Sources of Power – Personal and Position
• Necessary Courage to Manage Up
• The courage to assume responsibility
• The courage to participate in transformation
• The courage to serve
• The courage to leave
What Followers Want From Leaders?
• Clarity of direction
• Opportunities for Growth
• Frequent, specific, and immediate Feedback
• Make it timely
• Focus on the performance not the person
• Make it specific
• Focus on the desired future
• Protection from the Organisational intrusion
Rank Order Of Desirable Characteristics
Desirable Leaders are…. Desirable followers are…
Forward thinking Cooperative
Source: Kouzes & Pozner(1993). Credibility: How leaders Gain and Lose it. Why people demand it. p.255.
as in Daft (2018).
Typologies of Followers
Typology of followership – Kelly, 1992
Kouzes And Posner’s Transformational
Leadership practices include:
❖ Challenging the process
❖ Inspiring a shared vision
❖ Enabling others to act
❖ Modelling the way
❖ Encouraging the heart
(Source: Kouzes and Posner (2002), Leadership Challenge, 3rd edn,
Jossey-Bass, san Francisco, CA.)
Implicit Personality Theory
Implicit Personality Theory(IPT) is a set of concepts and assumptions that we
use to describe compare and understand people.
• IPT refers to co-occurrence expectancies among traits and behaviours;
• For example, individuals expect, that talkative people are sociable as well; or
• Friendly people are not liars
• Two traditions are represented in the notion of implicit personality theory.
• The first concerns the role of general bias in judgments of others, and the
second has to do with individual differences in person perception.
• A second major tradition has been more concerned with individual differences
Bass And Steidlmeier’s (1999) Authentic And
Authentic transformational leadership – Ideals for
Pseudo-transformational leadership –
Idols of their followers
Env isioning, confident, sets high standards for emulation.
Values: universal brotherhood. Promote ethical policies,
procedures and processes. M ust ‘ev entuate in the
internalization in all the organization’s members of shared
Seek power and position, and indulge in fantasies of power and success.
Values: flamboyant, fictitious we-they relationships that divide. Inconsistent and
unreliable. False to organisation’s purpose. Outer shell of authenticity but it is a
Focus on the best in people, and harmony, charity and good
works. Empowerment to transform the person. Inwardly and
outwardly concerned about the good of ev eryone.
Focuses on the worst in people, on demonic plots, conspiracies, unreal dangers,
excuses and insecurities.
Talk about empowerment but only to seek control. M ay give impression of
concern for the good, may be idealized by their followers, but inwardly concerned
only about the good for themselves
Openness, with a transcendent and spiritual dimension, allows
followers to question assumptions and generate more creative
solutions. Altruism is a fundamental question.
Use persuasion to conv ince others on the merits of issues. Bring
about change in followers’ v alues by the merit and relevancy
of their ideas.
Uses a logic of false assumptions to ‘slay the dragons’ of uncertainty, take credit
for other’s ideas, scapegoat them for failure.
Use anecdotes rather than hard ev idence. Impostors who feed on the ignorance
of their followers. M anipulate the v alues of followers. Only does the right thing
when it coincides with their self-interest.
Intolerant of other v iews, substituting emotional argumentation for rational
Underscores necessity of altruism. Treats each follower as an
individual, coaches and mentors.
Concerned about dev eloping their followers into leaders.
Promote attainable shared goals. Helps followers to dev elop
their leadership skills.
Channel their need for power into the serv ice of others.
Concerned with maintaining the dependence of their followers. Exploit followers’
feelings to maintain deference.
Expect blind obedience.
Encourage fantasy and magic. Foments fav ouritism and competition among
followers. Seeks a parent–child relationship.
Uses power for self-aggrandisement. Privately scathing of those they are
‘supposed to be serving as leaders’.
Public image (that of sav iours) contradicts their private selves.Diana@2020
There are two ways of spreading
light: to be the candle or the
mirror that reflects it – Edith
Wharton (1862 – 1937)
Topic: Leadership and Organisational Culture
ORG30002 – Leadership Practice and Skills
What is Culture?
Culture is shared, pervasive, enduring and
It is the set of key values, assumptions,
understandings and norms that is shared by
members of an organisation and taught to
new members as correct
Importance of Culture: It gives
individuals a sense of identity and generates
a commitment to particular values and ways
of doing things and serves two important
functions – (i) it integrates members so that
they know how to relate to one another and
(ii) it helps the organisation adapt to
external environment; i.e. Internal
integration and external adaptation
Levels of Corporate Culture
Organisational Culture Vs Climate
The High Performance Culture
• A cultural leader articulates a vision for the organisational culture that
employees can believe in
• A cultural leader heads the day-to-day activities that reinforce the cultural
Selection and socialisation
Organisational Culture, Climate & Leadership
Three perspectives on Organisational
Culture and Leadership:
o The role of leaders in creating an
o Leadership as maintenance and
reproduction of organisational culture;
o Culture as framing and reframing by
• Culture as a constraint on leadership
behaviour and initiatives
• Ideology as part of culture
• The role of employee engagement and
The New Analytics of Culture: What Email, Slack, And Glassdoor Reveal About Your Organization.
Harvard Business Review (Corritore, et al. Jan – Feb 2020).
A business’s culture can catalyse or undermine success.
THE PROBLEM – Culture is easy to sense but difficult to measure. The workhorses of culture research – employee surveys and
questionnair es – are often unreliable.
A NEW APPROACH – Using big-data processing to mine the ubiquitous “digital traces” of culture in electronic communications, such
as emails, Slack messages, and Glassdoor reviews and by studying the language employees use in these communications, they ar gue
that we can measure how culture actually influences their thoughts and behavior at work.
Cultural fit is important, but what predicts success most is the rate at which employees adapt as organizational culture changes over
time – Fit versus Adaptability – Cultural fit was, on average, positively associated with career success – By building trusting social
bonds to overcome their outsider status and leverage their distinctiveness.
Cognitive diversity helps teams during ideation but hinders execution – variations during project milestone stages
Homogeneous vs Heterogeneous Culture: The best cultures encourage diversity to drive innovation but are anchored by shared
core beliefs. Example: Netflix
“Algorithms make estimates, but it is ultimately humans’ responsibility to make informed judgments using them. Managers must be
vigilant about keeping metadata anonymous and must regularly audit algorithmic decision-making for bias to ensure that the use of
language-based tools does not have unintended adverse consequences on culture” (2020:83).
The Leader’s Guide to Corporate Culture: How To Manage The Eight Critical Elements
of Organizational Life, Harvard Business Review (Groysberg, et al. 2018)
Integrated culture: The frame work
Source: Groysberg, et al.2018:48
Source: Groysberg, et al. (2018:49)
The Competing Values Approach to
Model of Spiritual Leadership
Leadership effectiveness depends upon the leader behaving in a manner
1. Elicits the trust and loyalty of followers (Image Management);
2. Motivates the followers towards enthusiastic effort (Relationship
3. Applies the knowledge, effort and material resources of the group to
mission accomplishment (Resource deployment)
Source: Chemers, M.M (1997) An Integrative Theory of Leadership. Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ
A Framework For Understanding
L = f (l, gm, s)
This formula means that the leadership process is a function of the leader,
the group members, and other situational variables
The model states that leadership effectiveness can best be understood by
examining its key variables: leader characteristics and traits, leader
behavior and style, group member characteristics, and the internal and
The four sets of variables are interrelated, with some linkages stronger than
A Closer Look at Leadership
• Whether or not a leader is effective depends on four sets of variables:
Leader Characteristics & Traits –
Leader’s inner qualities that help the leader function effectively in many situations
Examples include self-confidence, courage and problem-solving ability
Leader Behavior & Style –
Activities the leader engages in, including his/her characteristic approach
Examples include participative leadership, task-orientation behavior, authenticity
Group Member Characteristics –
Attributes of the group members
Examples include their intelligence and high level of motivation assist the leader with doing an outstanding
Internal & External Environment –
Elements/forces of the situation that may or may not be within the leader’s control
Examples include economy, diversity of workforce, organizational culture D
What is Contextual Leadership?
• It is the ability to succeed in multiple contexts ( eg. Warren Bennis)
• Robert Thomas in Geeks & Geezers called this as adaptive capacity — which is the ability to change
one’s style and approach to fit the culture, context, or condition of an organization.
• The environmental factors create specific and sometimes unique contexts
• Within this context, some leaders foresaw new initiatives or new products and services, while others
saw opportunities for maximizing or optimizing existing business opportunities, and still other
leaders found opportunities through reinvention or recreation of companies or technologies that were
considered stagnant or declining (Mayo, 2007)
• Context can provide the framework through which one might understand how individuals influence
one another within relationship – relationships that are process oriented or socially constructed
• Success in the twenty-first century will require leaders to pay attention to the evolving context
Preparation for next week…
Read the following article before you come to the workshop:
Johnson, C., (2008), The rise and fall of Carly Fiorina, An Ethical Case Study,
Journal of Organization & Leadership Studies, 15:2, pp.188-196.
ORG30002 – Leadership Practice
Topic: Cross-cultural Leadership
Readings for this week….
◦ Week 10 Topic: Cross-Cultural Leadership
◦ Chapter 11, Daft
◦ Javidan, M., Dorfman, P.W., De Luque, M.S. & House R.J. (2006). In the eye of the beholder:
Cross cultural lessons in leadership from Project GLOBE – Academy of Management Perspect ive,
◦ Randel, A.E., et al. (2018). Inclusive leadership: Realizing posit ive outcomes through
belongingness and being valued for uniqueness, Human Resource Management Review, 28:190-
◦ Hoffman, R., Yeh, C. & Casnocha, B. (2019). Learn from People, Not Classes Whom do you know,
and what can they teach you? Harvard Business Review, Mar – Apr 2019.
Work Force Trends
With more multi generational workplaces, work forces are becoming more
diverse and cultures of inclusion more common
Women leaders in Global Businesses showing an increasing trend
Globalization is compelling businesses to send more workers to other countries
Leaders are traveling and working abroad in greater numbers
Workers with international experience and skills are increasingly more sought-
after in the workplace
Visualising the Iceberg Model of Culture
culture/) The iceberg model of culture
has been arrived at through
the work of many theorists,
including those referenced
◦ French, W., & Bell, C. (1995).
(5th Ed.). [Englewood Cliffs,
◦ Hall, E. T. (1976) Beyond
Culture [New York:
◦ Selfridge, R., Sokolik, S.
(1975) “A comprehensive
v iew of organizational
Business Topics, 23(1), 46-61
◦ Weaver, G. R. (1986).
“Understanding and coping
adjustment stress”. In Paige
R. M. (Ed.), Cross-Cultural
Applications. [Lanham, MD:
University Press of America]
Who is a Multicultural Leader?
A leader with skills and attitudes to relate effectively to and motivate people
across race, gender, age, social attitudes, and lifestyles
Interactive Leadership: A leadership style in which people develop
personal relationships with followers, share power and information,
empower employees, and strive to enhance others’ feelings of self-worth
The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavioral
Effectiveness (GLOBE) Study
◦ Performance Orientat ion
◦ Inst itutional collect ivism
◦ Gender Egalitarianism
◦ Uncertainty Avoidance
◦ In-Group Collect ivism
◦ Future Orientat ion
◦ Humane Orientat ion
◦ Assert iveness
◦ Power Distance
(Source: House et al, 2004 as in Shriberg &Shriberg, 2011)
Dimensions of Cultural Values
Universally Desirable Leadership
Foresight, Plans ahead
Positive, Encouraging, Motivational
Win-win problem solver
(Source: House et al, The GLOBE study of 62 Societies, 2004 )
Implications for Leadership
◦ In the academic community:
◦ There is greater recognition that future leaders need diversity competencies to leverage a diverse
◦ At the organizational level:
◦ Corporations are becoming more global and hence more ethnically diverse and therefore must learn
to deal with diverse, cross-cultural stakeholders
◦ More and more organizations are relying on leaders with international experience to lead a
multicultural workforce and compete in a global marketplace.
◦ The focus is on the role of leadership in creating an ethical work environment learning to deal
effectively with partners from different cultures will be critical
◦ Multinational companies are recruiting leaders with multicultural experiences
Cultural Views of Leadership Effectiveness
(Source: Javidan et al., 2006:75)
The following is a partial list of leadership attributes with the corresponding primary leadership dimension in parentheses:
◦ Universal Facilitators of Leadership Effectiveness
● Being trustworthy, just, and honest (integrity)
● Having foresight and planning ahead (charismatic–visionary)
● Being positive, dynamic, encouraging, motivating, and building confidence (charismatic–inspirational)
● Being communicative, informed, a coordinator, and team integrator (team builder)
◦ Universal Impediments to Leadership Effectiveness
● Being a loner and asocial (self-protective)
● Being non-cooperative and irritable (malevolent)
● Being dictatorial (autocratic)
◦ Culturally Contingent Endorsement of Leader Attributes
● Being indiv idualistic (autonomous)
● Being status conscious (status conscious)
● Being a risk taker (charismatic: self-sacrificial)
Culturally Sensitive Leader
Cultural Intelligence (CQ): … an outsider’s ability to interpret someone’s unfamiliar and
ambiguous gestures the way that person’s compatriots would
Cultural Sensitivity:… is an awareness of and a willingness to investigate the reasons why
people of another culture act as they do.
Aspects of Cultural Sensitivity:
Recognition of nuances in customs and beliefs
Being a multicultural worker
Recognizing potential problems of cultural misunderstanding
Flexibility in dealing with others
Facets of Cultural Intelligence (CQ)
Cognitive CQ (head): the ability to interpret factual
clues, i.e., the significance of a deadline or the order of
a meeting agenda
Physical CQ (body): the ability to recognize and adopt
the physical conventions of a culture
Emotional/motivational CQ (heart): the desire and effort
to improve one’s understanding of a culture
Traditional Vs Inclusive Models of
Core Values of Global Leaders
[Cohen, E., 2007, Leadership Without Borders: Successful Strategies from World-Class Leaders,
John Wiley & Sons]
Global Leaders as Influencers
According to Cohen and Bradford (2005), Global leaders:
◦ Assume any individual, even an adversary, can be an ally
◦ Be clear in what they want
◦ Understand the cultures of all those to be influenced
◦ Identify their own and others’ currencies
◦ Build the relationships and develop partners
◦ Use informal and formal influencing skills
Future Competencies of Global
◦ Managing virtual teams
◦ Managerial agility
◦ Cross-cultural employee engagement
◦ Managing in a matrixed organizat ion
◦ Managing innovation in mult icultural sett ing
◦ Mastery of social network technology
◦ Collaborating with peers from mult iple cultures
◦ Mastery of latest advances in virtual technology
◦ Applying ethical standards in mult iple cultures
◦ Mult i-country supply chain management
◦ (Source: Developing successful Global Leaders. AMA, 2012)
Developing Global Leaders…
❖Create a “global meeting place”
❖Encourage systematic learning –
sometimes through failure
❖Evolve and expand Business Models
within an international context
❖Avoid silo cultures
❖A strategic capability
❖A partnership capability
❖A staffing capability
❖An organizational capability
Instilling Global Leadership
Source: Lorange, P., 2003, Developing Global Leaders, Biz Ed, pp.24-27.
The six signature traits of inclusive leadership
Bourke & Dillon(2019)
Becoming an Inclusive leader…
◦ Walking the (diversity) talk and modeling inclusive behaviour.
◦ Taking part in both formal and informal processes that support the development of an inclusive organization.
◦ Understand community expectations and hold their staff accountable for meeting those needs.
◦ Willing to reconsider how resources are allocated to serve a group or sector that has been under-served.
◦ Purposeful and intentional about using a “diversity lens” in specific processes such as recruitment and
◦ Support diversity and inclusion by developing members of their team on merit and being more transparent
about assignments and promotions.
◦ Working to create environments that are respectful.
◦ Encourage existing practices to be challenged.
◦ Aim for integrity between the organization’s diversity policies and its practices
◦ Lead by influence, not authority.
[Source: https://diversipro.wordpress.com/2014/02/24/traits-of-inclusive-leaders/ viewed on 22.04.2015]
◦ Diverse, enriched experiences – Generations have a lot in common and some key
◦ Being Inclusive and avoid age related prejudices
◦ Building societies by using people’s skills
◦ Building superior programs for social change
◦ Encouraging sustainability of our social justice efforts
◦ Learning from the past, to build the future by making up inclusive workplaces
◦ Pre- Reading:
◦ Johnson, C., (2008), The rise and fall of Carly Fiorina, An Ethical Case Study, Journal of
Organizat ion & Leadership Studies, 15:2, pp.188-196.
◦ In the article ‘The Rise and Fall of Carly Fiorina’, Johnson (2008) raises a number of
questions in relation to leadership and management practices. The article examines
the performance of a leader who entered a successful company as a ‘superstar CEO’
and introduced dramatic changes in a short time. Five years later, the company stock
had declined significantly in value and the CEO was unceremoniously removed.
◦ Your task is to compare and contrast the different theoretical perspectives of
leadership effect iveness as ‘evidenced’ and ‘represented’ in the given article.
Final Assessment -Individual Assessment Task
◦ Topic – Leadership Effectiveness – Week Due 12 – 6th June, 2020
◦ Format: Report – Value: 40% – A minimum of 12 refereed journal articles related to leadership
◦ FOCUS ON LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS. In this report, you are expected to discuss issues which affect
leadership effectiveness. It is not a biographical report, a film critique, or a historical report. While
you may find it useful to do some reading about the people and situations featured in the film, the
report should focus mainly on leadership effectiveness. Avoid extensive biographical details,
discussion on the historical events, or aspects of film making.
◦ APPENDIX. The report needs to have an Appendix at the end, which provides evidence of your
observations. It should be presented in a table format with three columns:
(1) Element of DuBrin’s Framework
(2) Characteristics Observed, and
(3) Corresponding Scene (just describe the scene where you have observed the characteristic, e.g.,
Scene depicting the Administrative Board hearing). Improve the readability of the appendix by
selecting table properties intelligently (e.g., use Auto Fit to Contents, define the header row to repeat
across pages, do not allow rows to break across pages, etc.). Use single line-spacing for the entire
Appendix. This section is worth 10 marks.