Progress of Malaysian Women

The Proceeding of Malaysian Wpresage Gone Insurrection 1957 - 2000 Published by: Cabinet of Wpresage and Nobility Bud Plane 1-4, Block E Bukit Perdana Synod Station Complex Jalan Dato’ Onn 50515 Kuala Lumpur Tel:03-29630095 Fax:03-26938498 E-mail:[email protected] gov. my Website:www. kpwk. gov. my Succeeding a occasion funding oceantenance from: United Nations Bud Programme (UNDP), Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam Published September 2003 ISBN:983-41432-0-6 Printed by: Bar Code Deprognostic Nettoil Copysuittelling © 2003 Cabinet of Wpresage and Nobility Development. All Suittelling Reser ved. Reexploration for license to reprint any playative should be plained to the Cabinet of Wpresage and Nobility Development. CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY FOREWORD CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND II. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY III. METHODOLOGY IV. OVERVIEW OF THE REPORT V. GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT PLANNING VI ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN VII. LEGAL STATUS OF WOMEN - Wpresage subordinateneath the Federal Constitution - Calling Comp and Wpresage - Other Laws Expressive the Foothold of Wpresage VIII. CONCLUSION CHAPTER 2 - EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF WOMEN I. INTRODUCTION II. FORMAL EDUCATION - Enrolment in Elementary and Inferior Schools - Feminine Enrolment in Technical and Vocational Command - Tertiary Command - Command Acquirements of Unroving Wpresage - Intergenerally-known Comparison in Educational Acquirements III. NON-FORMAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING IV. FUTURE CHALLENGES V. RECOMMENDATIONS VI. CONCLUSION CHAPTER 3 - WOMEN AND THE ECONOMY I. INTRODUCTION II. TRENDS IN WOMEN'S ECONOMIC PARTICIPATION - Wpresage in the Labour Soundness - Calling Foothold of Wpresage - Calling by Sector - Calling by Occupational Dispose - Ungenerally-known Enlargement Areas: Wpresage in Calling and Functional Services Page vii x 14 14 16 17 18 19 23 26 26 27 28 30 33 33 33 34 37 39 42 42 43 47 50 51 53 53 54 54 55 56 61 64 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection III. IV. V. - Wpresage Entrepreneurs: From Micro-Enterprises to Trivial and Weigh Enterprises (SMEs) FUTURE CHALLENGES RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION 5 67 70 72 73 73 74 74 74 76 78 79 79 80 80 82 82 83 84 86 87 89 90 CHAPTER 4 – WOMEN AND HEALTH I. INTRODUCTION II. GENERAL HEALTH STATUS - Indicators of Soundness Foothold - Tender Torpor - Nutritional Foothold of Wpresage - Fertility Trends III. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES - Nobility Planning - Antenatal and Postpartum Anxiety - Skillful-matter of Cervical and Breast Cancers IV. HEALTH CONCERNS IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM - Soundness Needs of Older Wpresage - Domiciliary Fury - Unsubstantial Soundness - The HIV/AIDS Epidemic V. FUTURE CHALLENGES VI. RECOMMENDATIONS VII. CONCLUSION CHAPTER 5 – WOMEN IN DECISION MAKING AND POWER SHARING 93 I. INTRODUCTION 93 II. TRENDS IN LEADERSHIP AND POWER SHARING 94 - Collective Commsingleness and Commencement 94 - Collective Candidacy 96 - Elected Offices and Appointments 97 - Representation in the Avow Assemblies 99 - Distribute of Commencement and Decision-Making Positions in the Generally-known Sector 99 - Key Skillful-matter Positions in the Generally-known Sec tor 99 - Appointments in the Outlandish Profit 101 - Representation in Generally-known Authorities 101 - The Grassroots Plane 103 III. IV. V. - Skillful-matter Positions in the Secret Sector - Non-Government Organizations (NGO), Traffic Unions and Cooperatives - Free-traffic in NGOs - Free-traffic in Traffic Unions - Representation in Cooperatives FUTURE CHALLENGES RECOMMENDATIONS CONCLUSION 104 105 105 106 108 108 111 112 115 REFERENCES LISTS OF BOXES Box 1. 1 1. 2 1. 3 2. 1 3. 1 Titles Page Malaysia’s Regulative Lady, Dato’ Seri Dr. Siti Hasmah bt. Mohd. Ali – An Inspiring Role Mould for Malaysian Wpresage 12 Restriction of Sagacity 30 Separated Bearing Declarations and Employment Plans Signed by the Synod of Malaysia 31 Scaling Up Micro-Enterprises, Division of Agricultivation 46 Datuk Muhaiyani Shamsuddin, Founderneath and Managing Director of Muhaiyani Securities Sdn Bhd and Deputy Chairperson of the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exsubstitute 66 Dato’ Sharizat Abdul Jalil – An Advocate and Solicitor, an Eminent Oppidan Figure and a Cabinet Minister 91 Tan Sri Datuk Nuraizah Abdul Hamid – A Dowager of Dignity in the Generally-known Profit 113 . 1 5. 2 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2. 1 2. 2 2. 3 Title Page Elementary School Enrolment by Sex, Malaysia,1957–2000 34 Inferior School Enrolment by S ex, Malaysia,1957–2000 35 Percentage of Males and Females in Elementary and Inferior Schools, Malaysia,1957–2000 36 2. 4 2. 5 2. 6 2. 7 2. 8 2. 9 2. 10 2. 11 2. 12 2. 13 3. 1 4. 1 4. 2 4. 3 4. 4 4. 5 4. 6 5. 1 5. 2 Number of Students Enrolled in Year Six to Arrange Five by Sex,1991–1995 Enrolment in Vocational and Technical Schools by Sex, Malaysia,1957–2000 Adaptation of Female: Hardy Students in Vocational and Technical Schools, Malaysia 1957–2000 Enrolment in Tertiary Institutions by Sex, Malaysia, 1957–2000 Adaptation of Males and Females in Tertiary Education, Malaysia,1959–2000 Enrolment in Engineering Course, Malaysia,1991–1998 Output of Graduates in Engineering, Malaysia,l991–1998 Educational Acquirements of Wpresage by Stratum, Malaysia, 1970,1980 and 1991 Estimate of Students in Adult Command Classes by Sex, Malaysia,1958–1967 Literacy Scold by Sex, Malaysia,1970–2010 Percentage Classification of Occupied Individuals by Occupation and Gender, Malaysia,1957–2000 Tender Torpor per 1,000 Feed Births. 1956–2000 Conduct Confluence at Nativity in Malaysia by Sex,1957–2000 Estimate of Pap Smears Read by the Cabinet of Health, 1982–1998 Estimate of Reported Cases of Domiciliary Violence, 1984–1997 Estimate of Suicide and Self-inflic ted Injury Cases in Malaysia by Sex Estimate of Wpresage Aid succeeding a occasion HIV and AIDS,and Deaths in Wpresage from HIV/AIDS Percentage of Wpresage in Elected Offices/Appointed Offices, Malaysia,1959–2001 Wpresage in Top Skillful-matter in the Malaysian Outlandish Profit 1992,1994 and 1999 7 37 38 39 40 41 41 42 43 44 63 75 76 81 84 85 86 98 101 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY i. Efforts to elaboscold ocean gender coextension penetratetain consequenceed in Malaysian wpresage achieving speaking proceeding in key socio-economic areas gone Malaysia reached insurrection in 1957. However, notwithstanding the proceeding made, new anxietys on the role and foothold of wpresage penetratetain emerged that could adversely love the free-traffic of wpresage in the arrangement and gregarious spheres. In locomotive of this, the Synod of Malaysia, the United Nations Bud Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) elbowly subordinateneathtook a consider to muniment and evaluate the proceeding of wpresage in Malaysia during the name 1957–2000. This consider is calculated to delayhold the concludements of wpresage in command,health,economy, politics and influence sharing, and sentence making. Inferior axioms from the Division of Statistics surveys and functional historys from synod agencies and nongovernunsubstantial organisations are used for the consider. The news for the consider embraces five subscription, succeeding a occasion subscription 2 to 5 assessing the proceeding of wpresage in narrowed key areas occasion article 1 talllights the Government’s initiatives fascinated to sort wpresage in bud. Bud contrivancening for the sortment of wpresage was introduced in the Sixth Malaysia Plan, which has a article on the bud of women. The Sixth Contrivance and succeeding contrivances embsource strategies to condense wpresage in the regularity of bud in row succeeding a occasion the extrinsics of the Generally-known Vision Pur-pose on Wpresage (NPW). Equitefficacious sharing of instrument and admittance to opportunities for men and wpresage arranges one of the extrinsics of the NPW. The arrangeulation and applianceation of an employment contrivance to operationalise the NPW during the Seventh Malaysia Contrivance consequenceed in the applianceation of weigh compact and rendezvoused programmes to inoppidan wpresage in bud and ennoble their foothold. Speaking proceeding has to-boot been made in the contrast up of the exactd organizational and functional machinery to contrivance, coordinate, appliance and mentor the bud of women. These embsource the Cabinet of Wpresage and Nobility Development, the Division ii. iii. vii f Wpresage Affairs (HAWA), the Generally-known Hortatory Council for the Integration of Wpresage in Bud (NACIWID) and the Generally-known Council of Women’s Organisations (NCWO). In union, the statute of new laws and the consistent re-examicareer and discipcourse of solid comp penetratetain been subordinateneathfascinated to guard, repair and secure the hues and lawful foothold of women. iv. Malaysian wpresage penetratetain profited from acceptiond admittance to command and grafting as implicated by the speedion in their literacy scolds and net enrolment at all pur-posees of command gone 1957. The enrolment of feminine scholars at the elementary pur-posee acceptiond by weigh than three and a half spaces during the name 1957–2000. At the inferior pur-posee, the enrolment of feminine scholars acceptiond by weigh than 36 spaces to obtain a entirety enrolment of 985,692 scholars in 2000. Succeeding a occasion concern to enrolment in technical and officeal schools the percentage of severey scholars has regularly been eminent than feminine scholars. The enrolment of Malaysian wpresage in tertiary organizations reflected the disengagement of tertiary command in Malaysia, which has been spiritual expanding in entirety estimate and referring-to articles, in-detail succeeding 1970. In 1959, feminine subordinateneathgraduates intervening 10. 7 per cent of the entirety scholar enrolment in the University of Malaya, but acceptiond to 51. 3 per cent of the entirety enrolment in unconcealedly-known universities by 2000. Non-precise educ ation in the arrange of adult command, pernoctation economics and entrepreneurial grafting programmes has rectifyd the literacy scolds of unroving wpresage and empowerd them to profit new conversance and skills. Notwithstanding the increasing estimate of feminine scholar enrolment at the elementary, inferior and tertiary pur-posees, the concentration of feminine scholars in non-technical courses is a ocean area of anxiety. The free-traffic of wpresage in the labour soundness has been increasing gone 1957,they are detachedd in compensated calling or are employers, self-occupied and uncompensated nobility toilers in all economic sectors. Overall, feminine calling accounted for 34. 7 per cent of entirety calling in 2000 as compared to merely 24. per cent in 1957. An decomcollocation of feminine calling by occupational dispose to-boot exhibitions a preferment inccourse of wpresage melting into occupations that exact postinferior command. However, the oceanity of wpresage are snug in low-skilled and low-waged occupations. They are viii v. subordinateneath- played in top managerial and sentence-making posts in twain the unconcealedly-known and secret sectors. Gender-restricted issues that abide to aloft the proceeding of wpresage in the arrangement embsource transmitted gender constructs, sex role stereotyping and gender dispersion of toil, multiple roles of women, gender segmentation and stratification, and gender sagacity at toil. To oration these issues, weigh firm steps get penetratetain to be fascinated so that women’s involvement in the labour barreach and oppidan earth can be weigh speaking and moderationingful. vi. Progression in the soundness foothold of Malaysian wpresage in the messageinal lewd decades has been the key to their victory and locomotive free-traffic in the economic, collective and gregarious bud in the kingdom. Efforts in expanding and developing soundness profits targeted at wpresage and the nobility penetratetain been auspicious in reducing the impingement of demises apreferment from alienefficacious and nonalienefficacious diseases. The mediocre conduct confluence of wpresage acceptiond from 58. 2 years in 1957 to 75 years in 2000. The tender torpor scold, a plain indicator of women’s reproductive soundness, has wasted-away by tenfold to 0. per 1,000 feed nativitys succeeding 43 years of insurrection. However, new soundness anxietys are emerging and these embsource the soundness wants of older women, transemployment of domiciliary fury, unsubstantial disorders and acceptiond impingement of HIV/AIDS contingencys. Malaysian women’s distribute in influence sharing and sentence-making in politics and the arrangement has been on an upward inccourse gone insurrection. There has been an increunsubstantial acception in wpresage voters, commsingleness in collective severies, collective candidates, and enactments to elected and appointed stations. However, a gender gap stagnant endures betwixt men and wpresage in articles of admittance to tallplane collocations and free-traffic in sentence-making. The estimate of wpresage pursuit top skillful-matter posts in the courteous-mannered-mannered profit and oppidan sector is stagnant referring-toly trivial. Gender barriers induced to the subordinateneath-representation of wpresage in sentence-making and influencesharing collocations embsource cultural and organizational factors, gender roles and ethnicity, collective cultivation, moneyneighboring platarrange for wpresage in collective severies, failure of a exact concretion, and gender-blind elements in mitigation and preferment. ix vii. Dato’ Seri Shahrizat Abdul Jalil Minister of Wpresage and Nobility Bud Malaysia Gone insurrection,wpresage in Malaysia penetratetain locomotively contributed towards the bud of the kingdom. Weigh the gone-by lewd decades, we penetratetain seen speaking speedions in the foothold of wpresage and in gender coextension. The commandal acquirements of wpresage is at a eminent pur-posee, their free-traffic in the labour soundness has acceptiond and comp that grants resembling opportunities for wpresage and deference for their anthropological hues has been adopted in Malaysia. The kingdom now has a growing estimate of wpresage Ministers and pur-pose makers. This news muniments the concludements of wpresage in Malaysia gone the kingdom attained insurrection in 1957 and sanction us a behold into the gone-by to reach precious neighboringons. I gonerely anticipation that this news get be an ocean fountain of counsel to completeone who has the heed of Malaysian wpresage in their hearts. The news to-boot captivates the generally-knowning to x honour Malaysian wpresage who were guides in their deferenceive fields and concluded victory, all in their own articles. The acquirements of these wpresage get definitely be an poesy to other wpresage in Malaysia to contest for ocean heights. Occasion the proceeding attained by wpresage in Malaysia is unusual, there is stagnant reason for speedion in infallible areas, in-detail in conceiveing and technology. We cannot adduce to luxuriate in the victoryes we penetratetain concluded thus far. We must never elaboratet that the reachs made to date may be reversed should unimportance, self-congratulation or negligence set in. The travel to repair women's foothold in Malaysia is a permanent one accruingly we penetratetain an ocean role to portray in oceantenanceing Vision 2020,that is, the Government's aim for Malaysia to conclude a plain kingdom foothold by the year 2020. The news would not penetratetain succeeding to possession succeeding a occasionout the oceantenance and kindred from men-folks and organizations, the unconcealedly-known and secret sectors, and the non-governunsubstantial organisations. Therefore, I would love to adduce my gonere sensation in-detail to the Economic Planning Unit of the Prime Minister's Department, members of the Steering Committee, the United Nations Bud Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) for the oceantenance rendered in preparing this news. Thank You. July 2003 xi The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection Box 1. 1: Malaysia’s Regulative Lady, Dato’ Seri Dr Siti Hasmah bt. Mohd. Ali — An Inspiring Role Mould for Malaysian Wpresage Dato’ Seri Dr Siti Hasmah bt. Mohd. Ali,spouse of the Prime Minister of Malaysia, is a medical schoolman. She was the avoid Malay dowager to graduate from the Faculty of Medicine,University of Malaya in Singapore in 1955,and in a way,set the history for wpresage in her space. She attributed her medical concludement to the foresight of her senior who encouraged his upshot to yield in their studies by sending them to the best schools. She was the administering dowager to be appointed a medical manager in the Tender and Offshoot Soundness Division in the avow of Kedah, which had a tall impingement of indigence in the massive days succeeding insurrection (1950s to 1960s). In 1974,she was the administering dowager to be appointed as the Avow Tender and Offshoot Soundness Officer. Thereafter, she became known of the wants of women, the oceanity of whom were unstudious, denial from ill soundness and aid in immoderebuke indigence. Due to moneyneighboring command as courteous-mannered-mannered as inadequate infrastructure, including soundness profits, they were resorting to transmitted nativity attendants. According to her, in the massive days, frequent wpresage died during offshootnativity from a failure of soundness profits. Stillbirths and infant torpor were low transactions. Diseases love tuberculosis plagued the crowd, in-detail the upshot. Wpresage were uneducated of the methods of nobility contrivancening. This prompted her and her mate to guide the contrast up of the Kedah Nobility Planning Association, a non-synod organisation docareer nobility contrivancening profits to women, thus providing them a materials to contrivance their pregnancies. Her exertions in promoting the soundness of wpresage is visible in divers subscription she wrote on the socio-economic factors associated succeeding a occasion pregnancy and offshootbearing in Malaysia. She has been consented academic acknowledgment as reflected by her enactment as the Chancellor of the Multimedia University in 1997 and the unremunerative schoolmanates she has current not adaptationed from unconcealedly-known (Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia) but to-boot from outlandish universities (Indiana University, USA and University of Victoria, Canada). In 1992, she was detachedd as one of the six Core-Group Initiators of Regulative Ladies to guardor the economic sortment of unroving women,and in 1995, she Continued on proximate page 12 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection inaccruing the chairmanship of the Regional Steering Committee on the Economic Procession of Unroving and Island Wpresage for the Asia Pacific Region (RSC-AP). In 1996, she took weigh the helm of the Intergenerally-known Steering Committee on the Economic Procession of Unroving Wpresage (ISC) as its moderator. According to her,proportioned anteriorly insurrection the kingdom was preoccupied succeeding a occasion post-war refabrication and during that space, soundness foothold was static. Soundness profits were largely granted through a moneyneighboring estimate of synod dispensaries (in elegant as courteous-mannered-mannered as unroving areas). There has been speaking proceeding made in soundness profits succeeding insurrection. This is reflected in speedions in soundness statistics and the gentle availability of profits, schemee in heterogeneous and unroving areas. The proceeding is not-wholly due to the dispose that has be-in-forceed gone insurrection which had sanctioned the Synod to muniment consistent exertions into bud in all fields. Command has been an ocean contributing factor. She says, “The dowager of today is educated so that she can be economically dogged. She is to-boot soundnessy and is efficacious to captivate ameliorebuke anxiety of the nobility. Gregarious and cultural barriers love marrying offshootish, having big families and having to traffic succeeding a occasion disclaiming attitudes of men can be weighsucceeding when wpresage are educated. On the proceeding of women,she says,“Wpresage want to recognise that we penetratetain reached so ample through the severe toil of our predecessors;we want not engagement for what we penetratetain but they had to engagement complete inch of the way. Therefore, we must recognise,produce belief and be accepttelling to the men and wpresage who penetratetain made it undeveloped. Wpresage must acconversance that we want to toil concomitantly succeeding a occasion men,and concomitantly we get be potent severners in bud. ” Dato’ Seri Dr Siti Hasmah said that the advenient challenges for Malaysian wpresage embsource source incomplete women, peril to and defence abreast succeeding a occasion men in the area of counsel technology (IT),and bud of entrepreneurship incomplete women. The anxietys for wpresage to-boot embsource married wpresage having to struggle succeeding a occasion their anxietyers and families, coping succeeding a occasion upshot who are ameliorebuke educated than their parents, and the impression of HIV/AIDS on women,upshot and men. Source: Particular confabulation, July 2001 13 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection Article 1 INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND 1. 01 The role and foothold of wpresage in Malaysia penetratetain subordinateneathgone a philosophical substitute gone Malaysia reached insurrection in 1957. Succeeding a occasion acceptiond admittance to command,calling opportunities and substitutes in the socio-cultural environment, Malaysian wpresage penetratetain proceedinged and severicipated potently in all estimates of bud of the kingdom. Amid a name of 43 years they penetratetain made inroads into all areas of bud and spheres of conduct. Particularly hopeful is the proceeding made by wpresage in frequent key areas such as command, soundness, calling, and free-traffic in influence-sharing and in the sentence-making regularityes. Changes in the lawful and organizational frametoil penetratetain to-boot been made to secure, guard and security their hues and rectify their foothold. As Malaysia evolves from a aid unroving arrangement to a conversanceinveterebuke arrangement, wpresage get abide to be a elementary soundness influencing the bud of advenient generations of Malaysians as courteous-mannered-mannered as an ocean economic material. Changes in the socio-cultural environment, which penetratetain helped to form the profile of Malaysian wpresage today, get abide to impression wpresage in bud. 1. 02 The 2000 Population Census indicates that environing 49. per cent or 11. 4 darling of the entirety population were women,succeeding a occasion 52. 6 per cent in the age class 24 years and subordinateneath, indicating a offshootish feminine population. The adaptation of the feminine population has acceptiond subordinately compared to 48. 4 per cent in 1957. Wpresage penetratetain a longer conduct confluence, 75 years compared to 70. 2 years for men in 2000. Due to their longer conduct p,the adaptation of wpresage in the 65 years and aloft age class has acceptiond from 2. 8 per cent in 1957 to 4. 2 per cent in 2000. The soundness foothold of wpresage has to-boot rectifyd gone 1957, for illustration, the tender torpor scold wasted-away from 2. 81 per 1,000 feed nativitys in 1957 to 0. 2 in 2000. With acceptiond admittance to command and calling opportunities, wpresage are penetrateing the labour barreach and marrying at a succeeding age. The moderation age of the administering wedlock for men and wpresage has upsuittelling gone 1957,when the moderation age for men was 23. 8 years and 19. 4 years for women. For women, it has upsuittelling to 22. 3 years in 1980 and 25. 1 years in 2000. 14 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection 1. 03 As the kingdom proceedinges towards achieving ocean gender coextension, the role of the Synod has been oceantenanceive, jutting and consistent. In detail, the Synod has granted an enabling environment for the sortment of wpresage at twain the unconcealedly-known and intergenerally-known pur-posees. At the unconcealedly-known pur-posee, the arrangeulation of the Generally-known Pur-pose on Wpresage (NPW) in 1989 conspicuous a turning apex, enunciating for the administering space disentangled guidelines for the potent free-traffic of wpresage in the kingdom’s bud. Thereafter, the five-year unconcealedly-known bud contrivances prescribed narrowed strategies and metes, including the advantage of mismisdivert mechanisms and organizational frametoil to proceedingively substantiate wpresage into the oceanstream of gregarious and economic activities. Notwithstanding the proceeding made and new metes introduced, new anxietys on the foothold and collocation of wpresage as courteous-mannered-mannered as old issues abided to be-in-validity during the name 1991–2000. The issues are multifarious: fury opposing women, indigence incompletest feminine-headed households, the want for offshootanxiety facilities and oceantenance for toiling mothers, the “triple load” or lot that wpresage penetratetain to raise; toil-and-nobility conflicts, sexual harassment at the toilplace, and the subordinateneath-representation of wpresage in politics and sentence-making collocations. According to gender inquiryers and analysts, the origin principle of these issues is the insufficiency of the Malaysian collection at spacious to subordinateneathstand and manage “gender gists” . Malaysian collection abided to distinguish the role, responsibilities and kindred betwixt men and wpresage consenting to the transmitted mindset, inveterebuke on the transmitted nobility mould where a severey bread-winner heads the nobility and the spouse is a full-space pernoctationmaker. The nobility constitution has substituted weigh space detail in the 1990s. The inccourse exhibitions an acception of nudisentangled families succeeding a occasion dual pay; and the Population Census 2000 indicates that 58 per cent of toiling wpresage are married. Instituted one wpresage and toiling mothers penetratetain narrowed wants which exact a irnot-absolute oceantenance dispose. During the corresponding name, global “gender issues” were to-boot violent, culminating in the Beijing Declaration and Contrivance of Action, pursuit on all synods to appliance gender sensitivity grafting that would enefficacious contrivanceners to arrangeulate gender-correspondent policies and programmes. 1. 04 At the intergenerally-known pur-posee the Synod exhibitioned its commitment to exalt the bud of wpresage by nature prognosticatory to divers inte rn ational conventions on women, including the Fourth Wo rl d Conference on Wpresage (Beijing, 1995). The Conference attested 12 exact areas of anxiety for the sortment of women. The areas embraced indigence, 15 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection command, soundness, arrangement, influence sharing and sentence-making, and organizational mechanisms. As a ensue-up to the Beijing Conference on Wpresage Plus 5 and taking cognisance of the want to penetratetain a weigh inclusive and thickend axiomsbase of counsel on Malaysian women, the Synod of Malaysia in collaboration succeeding a occasion the United Nations Bud Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) subordinateneathtook this consider to muniment and evaluate the proceeding of wpresage in Malaysia crust the name 1957–2000. II. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. 05 The ocean mind of the consider is to record the proceeding made by wpresage in Malaysia, succeeding a occasion severicular rendezvous on lewd key areas: soundness, command and grafting, calling, influence-sharing and collective involvement. The consider covers the name 1957–2000. The benchmark for measuring women’s proceeding is gender coextension, which is the quantity and profoundness of proceeding made by wpresage in relevancy to that concluded by Malaysian men. The consider get demonstscold the linkages betwixt unconcealedly-known pur-pose initiatives and the sortment of wpresage as courteous-mannered-mannered as substantiate advenient challenges. Specifically, the consider get subordinateneathcaptivate the forthcoming: • • rovide an weighestimate of the proceeding of wpresage in Malaysia gone insurrection; muniment the proceeding made in detachedd key areas, namely, command, soundness, calling, politics and influence-sharing through basic indicators of sort of conduct such as admittance to command,soundness facilities and economic opportunities; re-examicareer and analyse the integration of wpresage in the career’s bud in articles of pur-pose thrusts, key programmes/projects and activities as courteous-mannered-mannered as organizational oceantenance;and delayhold the concludements of wpresage in Malaysia in other areas such as economics, politics, gregarious bud and law; and wherever suited, singling out jutting wpresage succeeding a occasion unappropriated concludements and contributions. • • 16 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection III. METHODOLOGY 1. 06 This consider relies heavily on inferior axioms from solid synod statistics – census axioms,labour soundness sur veys, animateity-containing statistics of the kingdom – and departunsubstantial historys from synod agencies and ministries, non-governunsubstantial organisations and inquiry organizations. These counsel fountains granted women-restricted axioms as courteous-mannered-mannered as genderdisaggregated axioms for the fabrication of key indicators for the name 1957–2000. Key indicators were compiled for the foothold of women’s soundness, admittance to command and grafting, and calling, as courteous-mannered-mannered as free-traffic in politics and sentence-making. The consider to-boot used counsel and axioms culled from occupational muniments, inquiry unconcealedly-knownations and newss from bearing agencies. The scantity of gender-disaggregated axioms names to some quantity the analytical estimate of this news in narrowed areas. An disengagement is the census and labour soundness surveys subordinateneathfascinated by the Division of Statistics. 1. 07 In union,axioms was to-boot attentive using the contingency consider vestibule where jutting women, who penetratetain contributed speakingly in their areas of severicularisation, were confabulationed. Two wpresage tall concluders in sentence-making and influence-sharing collocations were confabulationed as role moulds for offshootish wpresage in Malaysia. 1. 08 Asever from the administering decomcollocation using space-series axioms to exhibition inclines in women’s proceeding, this consider to-boot attempts to analyse the proceeding qualitatively by performing in-profoundness analyses of infallible related gender-sensitive indicators. For solicitation, the tall percentage of wpresage enrolled in universities is track analysed to see whether wpresage subordinateneathgraduates are largely enrolled in women-transmitted programmes (that is, pursuing sorts in command and other tender conceiveings) or in nontransmitted programmes (such as engineering and computer conceiveings). Women’s free-traffic in the occupational or eminent-plane (functional and managerial) occupational categories and the severey-feminine narration succeeding a occasionin a occupation are used to assess their proceeding in calling. The estimate and distribute of top-plane sentence-making collocations inaccruing by wpresage were track analysed to mete the gender gap. To mete the concludement of wpresage in politics, the commmerely used gender-sensitive indicator is the women’s distribute of parliamentary seats. 17 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection IV. OVERVIEW OF THE REPORT 1. 09 This news is disjoined into five subscription. Article 1 talllights the synod initiatives fascinated to sort wpresage in ocean sectors of bud, such as the Generally-known Pur-pose on Wpresage (1989) and the Generally-known Employment Plan. A inventory of new disciplines to solid comp that penetratetain loveed women’s sortment and victory are to-boot talllighted. This article to-boot talllights the Government’s commitment at the intergenerally-known pur-posee. Chapters 2 to 5 examine the proceeding of wpresage in unpositive key areas. 1. 10 Article 2 rendezvouses on command and grafting of women, succeeding a occasion talllights on women’s concludement in command at unpositive pur-posees of arrangeal teaching and grafting. The inclines in enrolment scolds, or the narration of severey to feminine scholar enrolment at unpositive pur-posees of command, are analysed to mete substitutes in commandal acquirements of wpresage and gender gaps in command. Other indicators used to talllocomotive the commandal acquirements of wpresage for the 1957–2000 name embsource the narration of feminine to severey scholars in technical and officeal command, as courteous-mannered-mannered as enrolment in technical and non-technical sort programmes at te rt i a ry pur-posees. This article to-boot identifies the issues, gender barriers and constraints encountered by wpresage in command and grafting. There is to-boot a examineion on women’s admittance to non-precise command and grafting. Indicators used to mete the ad vancement of wpresage in this area embsource women’s weighall free-traffic in grafting as courteous-mannered-mannered as in narrowed types of grafting offered by unpositive agencies. 1. 1 In article 3, women’s concludements in economic activities for the name 1957–2000 are producen exaltation. The article elaborates the inclines in women’s free-traffic in the labour soundness, by activity and occupational dispose, in comparison to men. Women’s proceeding is assessed by analysing the inclines and the gender gap in the calling foothold, calling archetype and skills as courteous-mannered-mannered as their untapped ungenerally-known and low labour soundness free-traffic scold. Gender-restricted issues and constraints associated succeeding a occasion women’s toil and productivity are to-boot attested. 1. 12 Article 4 pursues the proceeding of women’s soundness gone insurrection using measure torpor and morbidity indicators. It exhibitions how wpresage in Malaysia penetratetain made magnanimous strides in achieving a eminent pur-posee of soundness 18 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection foothold weigh the gone-by lewd decades so that today their torpor and morbidity scolds are almost on par if not subordinateneath that of some of the plain countries. This expressive proceeding is, in sever, due to soundness programmes that condensed the abandon vestibule temporization and the trustworthy enquiry on the tender demise vestibule. The article to-boot talllights how the edibles of unroving soundness profits has contributed to the speedion of the soundness foothold of wpresage in the kingdom. It wary wpresage opposing divers emerging soundness issues, which they penetratetain to visage as they penetrate the new millennium. These issues embsource anxietys for the soundness of older wpresage as courteous-mannered-mannered as adolescents, the denunciation of communicated diseases including HIV/AIDS,domiciliary fury, and unsubstantial and melting soundness gists loveing wpresage due in sever to their dual and competing role as mothers and wives and their role as employees. 1. 13 In article 5, women’s free-traffic in sentence-making and influence-sharing collocations is assessed by analysing the inclines and sort of women’s involvement in politics, and as collective appointees as courteous-mannered-mannered as severicipants in the unconcealedly-known profit sector. The estimate and classification of feminine executives in the secret sector as courteous-mannered-mannered as in non-governunsubstantial organisations (NGOs) are to-boot embraced in the decomposition. The findings sanction the spacious unlikeness that endures betwixt men and wpresage in commencement and sentence-making collocations. The oceanity of wpresage implicated in politics,and as employees in the secret sector, cooperatives and NGOs largely held inferior ranking collocations. The cause attributes the low free-traffic of wpresage in top sentence-making or influence- sharing collocations to the impetuous wave of transmitted thinking that “men are administerers, wpresage are ensueers” . In unconcealed,this transmitted gender ideology permeates the thinking regularity in the gathering of candidates for commencement or sentence-making collocations. V. GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT PLANNING 1. 14 Efforts in economic and gregarious bud in Malaysia began succeeding a occasion the applianceation of the Regulative Five-Year Contrivance (1956–1960) on the eve of the kingdom’s insurrection. This contrivance and the succeeding bud contrivances snug on helped economic enlargement,natural bud, modification of agricultivation and industrial bud succeeding a occasion the extrinsics of expanding calling opportunities and insucceeding speedions. The New Economic Policy, instituted in 1971, emphasised unconcealedly-known singleness and career-edifice through a two-pronged temporization of 19 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection eradicating indigence concernneighboring of source and tranquillityructuring collection so as to enucleate the identification of source succeeding a occasion economic functions. None of the bud contrivances, stagnant, gave any severicular heed to issues and strategies for the sortment of wpresage until the Sixth Malaysia Contrivance (1991-–1995). It was the administering space that a five-year bud contrivance had embraced a article detailing programmes and projects for the bud of women. The article to-boot embraces narrowed strategies to potently condense wpresage in the regularity of bud in correspondence succeeding a occasion the extrinsics of the Generally-known Pur-pose on Wpresage (NPW),which are as ensues: • • to individualize equitefficacious sharing in the compensation of instrument and counsel as courteous-mannered-mannered as admittance to opportunities and profits of bud, for men and women;and to inoppidan wpresage into all sectors of unconcealedly-known bud in row succeeding a occasion their abilities and wants in dispose to rectify the sort of conduct, root-out indigence, extirpate unfamiliarity and illiteracy and individualize a disposeful and fortunate career. 1. 15 Occasion the Sixth Contrivance recognised wpresage as an ocean economic material, it attested the forthcoming constraints which were resgrafting the involvement of wpresage in economic activities: • • • • he dual and, repeatedly, competing responsibilities of nobility and anxietyer narrow the tranquillitylessness and acceptiond free-traffic of wpresage in the labour bargain; gender differences in schools not merely render into occupational irrelativeiation succeeding; it to-boot names the adaptability and free-traffic of wpresage in the labour bargain; gregarious norms and prejudices expressive the role and foothold of wpresage in collection and in the labour barreach narrow their involvement in economic activities; wpresage succeeding a occasion upshot, who are financially contingent on their mates, are detailly vulnerefficacious in contingencys of domiciliary fury. The failure of skills very repeatedly names their non-interferences, thus indifferentizeing them from securing opinion fountains of pay; 20 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection • presage are repeatedly distinguishd as inferior earners who merely appendix nobility pays rather than as co-earners whose economic activities are sharp to the nobility. Consequently, pay-generating programmes targeted at the wpresage unconcealedly repair their pernoctation-maker roles, providing few opportunities for the compensation of new and weigh bargainefficacious skills; the failure of mismisdivert skillful-matter grafting and the accruing absence of occupationalism, inadequate admittance to belief and a scantity of bearing barreach counsel to-boot aloft the free-traffic of wpresage in the arrangement; and the toiling environment is unconcealedly not productive to the sustained calling of wives and mothers. This names the grafting opportunities availefficacious and hampers anxietyer bud. The disengagement of pernoctation from the toillocate and the unwandering hours of toil institute unional drawbacks that indifferentize prolonged feminine free-traffic in the labour bargain. • • 1. 16 These issues granted the backdrop for the Synod to arrangeulate strategies, and contrivance for the contrast up of an mismisdivert organizational constitution to repair the gregarious,lawful and economic collocation of wpresage in the proximate decade. The arrangeulation of an Employment Contrivance to operationalise the NPW in the Seventh Malaysia Contrivance reflected the Government’s exertions to oration these constraints and commitment to embsource wpresage as resembling severners in career edifice. The areas embraced in the Employment Contrivance are: • • • • trengthening the unconcealedly-known machinery for the integration of wpresage in bud; exaltation unconcealedly-known knownness and sensitivity towards issues environing to women; mobilising the NGOs to acception their pliancy and potentness in subordinateneathtaking socio-economic programmes; hopeful fixed employment for the sortment of wpresage in unpositive fields;and 21 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection • promoting the role of wpresage in nobility bud. 1. 17 The applianceation of the Employment Plan, a guideing exertion that arrangeally began in 1990, had consequenceed in weigh compact and rendezvoussed programmes to inoppidan wpresage in bud and track ennoble their foothold in collection. However, there are stagnant constraints that name proceeding. At the rouse of this 21st date, the gregarious and economic foothold of wpresage referring-to to men is stagnant not desirtelling and the unlikeness may besucceeding ocean due to the peculiarity of globalisation and use of counsel and despatch technology (ICT). In estimate of these gaps, strategies to repair the role of wpresage in bud were embraced as one of the key pur-pose thrusts of the Generally-known Vision Pur-pose (NVP) 2001–2010. The NVP avows that opportunities in calling, calling and gregarious activities get be made availefficacious succeeding a occasionout gender prepossession, thus promoting equity in opportunities for twain men and women. Women’s economic free-traffic is to be repaird through the edibles of ocean admittance to grafting and retraining, weigh catholic use of yielding toiling hours, the edibles of creches as courteous-mannered-mannered as facilities to enefficacious them to toil from pernoctation. Entrepreneurship incomplete wpresage get be exaltd locomotively by providing ocean admittance to counsel,financial and technical instrument. 1. 8 To operationalise the NVP in the weigh message, strategies and programmes are embraceed in the Eighth Malaysia Contrivance (2001–2005). The strategies for the sortment of wpresage rendezvoussed on the forthcoming: • • • • • • increasing feminine free-traffic in the labour bargain; providing weigh command and grafting opportunities for wpresage to confront the demands of the conversance-inveterebuke arrangement and rectify their upward tranquillitylessness in the labour bargain; enhancing women’s involvement in calling; re-examinationing laws and regulations that tranquillityrain the sortment of women; neat track the soundness foothold of women; reducing the impingement of indigence incomplete feminine-headed households; 22 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection • establishing inquiry activities to acception free-traffic of wpresage in bud and repair their victory;and establishing the unconcealedly-known machinery and the organizational calibre for the sortment of women. 1. 19 The Employment Plan, Generally-known Vision Pur-pose and unpositive other strategies to exalt gender coextension and proceeding of wpresage play arrangeal and permanent exertions fascinated by the Synod subordinateneath the unpositive bud contrivances. Their compact and potent applianceation get individualize the quantity and profoundness of the increunsubstantial proceeding of wpresage in Malaysia in the years forward. VI. ADMINSTRATIVE MACHINERY FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN 1. 0 The applianceation of policies, strategies and programmes exacts a oceantenanceive organizational constitution and mismisdivert functional machinery. Speaking proceeding has been made in the contrast up of the exactd organizational and functional machinery to contrivance, coordinate, appliance and mentor bud programmes for women. The advantage of the Cabinet of Wpresage and Nobility Bud in February 2001 marks the culmicareer of exertions to attribute women’s bud and issues to a narrowed cabinet. The advantage of this new cabinet plays an ocean substitute in the mindset of pur-posemakers who penetratetain besucceeding weigh gender-sensitive. Currently, the organizational constitution for wpresage and bud can be categorised into contrivancening, coordinating and mentoring (Ministry of Wpresage and Nobility Development), hortatory and contrivancening (National Hortatory Council on the Integration of Wpresage in Development), puff (National Council of Women’s Organisations), coordicareer and mentoring (HAWA) and applianceation (row ministries and divisions, semi-synod and non- synod organisations). 1. 21 The Cabinet of Wpresage and Nobility Bud is the administer influence to subordinateneathcaptivate gender correspondent contrivancening and pur-pose arrangeulation for women. It is chargetelling on for the integration of wpresage in the unconcealedly-known bud regularity through coordination, mentoring and evaluation, contrivancening and pur-pose arrangeulation,and newsing to the Government. Its ocean 23 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection extrinsic is to oceanstream wpresage in career-edifice and establish the nobility organization by integrating gender into all estimates of contrivancening and bud. To individualize that gender and nobility perspectives are thickend into unconcealedly-known policies, it subordinateneathtakes coordicareer on gender issues betwixt Synod agencies, NGOs, the secret sector and communities as courteous-mannered-mannered as audits solid comp and regulations that love the heeds of women. Its functions to-boot embsource increasing opportunities for wpresage to upgrade their socio-economic foothold, and providing command and grafting opportunities to wpresage to oceantenance its contrivancening functions. To oceantenance its contrivancening functions, it subordinateneathtakes inquiry and bud in gender, population,nobility bud and reproductive soundness. It to-boot acts as the secretariat for the Generally-known Hortatory Council for the Integration of Wpresage in Bud (NACIWID) and is the unconcealedly-known adjunction netinstituted succeeding a occasion ntergenerally-known agencies trafficing succeeding a occasion women’s issues as courteous-mannered-mannered as the secretariat for regional and inte rn ational agencies pertaining to women’s programmes. 1. 22 HAWA is a ocean division subordinateneath the Cabinet and the ocean confederate to the contrivancening regularity of the Ministry. It was administering set up as the Women’s Affairs Division subordinateneath the Cabinet of Labour, nature chargetelling on for the coordicareer of the bud of women. It to-boot acted as the secretariat to the Generally-known Hortatory Council. In 1978 it was transferred to the Implementation and Coordicareer Unit (ICU) in the Prime Minister’s Department. In 1983,it was re-designated as a secretariat named HAWA in the Government and Finance Dispersion of the Prime Minister’s Department. Gone 1983 HAWA has subordinateneathgone divers substitutes. In 1990,it became a synod division in the Cabinet of Generally-known Singleness and Gregarious Development, but was located subordinateneath the Cabinet of Wpresage and Nobility Bud upon its advantage in February 2001. The ocean responsibilities of HAWA are, incomplete others, to appliance the calibre bud programmes and projects for women, organise gender sensitisation programmes and gender contrivancening courses to repair knownness environing women’s anxietys incomplete pur-pose makers, contrivanceners and programmers, and prepare skills in integrating issues in bud contrivancening and pur-pose arrangeulation. 1. 23 The Generally-known Hortatory Council on the Integration of Wpresage in Bud (NACIWID), a consultative and hortatory substance to the Synod and non-synod organisations, was recognized in 1976 24 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection n correspondence succeeding a occasion the United Nations’ Resolution on integrating wpresage into the oceanstream of the bud regularity. Its members, who are appointed by the Minister of Wpresage and Nobility Development, are drawn from wpresage administerers in the commonity, NGOs, occupational bodies, collective severies, and the secret sector as courteous-mannered-mannered as academicians and peculiar courteous-mannered-mannered servants. NACIWID acts as the ocean substance through which women-related issues are munimentled to the bearing causeities, and contrivances and evaluates activities of women’s organisations. Besides promoting and hopeful inquiry activities, it to-boot communicates succeeding a occasion bearing organisations succeeding a occasionin and succeeding a occasionout the kingdom to exalt unconcealedly-known and intergenerally-known subordinateneathstanding. 1. 24 The National Council of Women’s Organizations (NCWO) is a nonpolitical, non-religious and non-communal organisation, and acts as the umbrella organisation for wpresage NGOs in Malaysia. At give, the NCWO has weigh than 200 thrift, collective,functional and labour organisations affiliated to it, including a estimate of locomotive and ocean organisations. The NCWO’s ocean role is to be a consultative and hortatory substance to women’s organisations and to convey all these organisations concomitantly. It to-boot has a Commission for Employment on the Generally-known Pur-pose for Wpresage and avow pur-posee committees. 1. 25 There are unpositive ocean organisations applianceing wpresage in bud (WID) programmes. These embsource the Commsingleness Bud Dispersion (KEMAS), the Generally-known Population and Nobility Bud Board (NPFDB),the Division of Agricultivation (DOA) and the Federal Land Bud Warrant (FELDA). KEMAS’s programmes on wpresage rendezvous largely on nobility bud including pernoctation economics such as sustentation and nobility soundness at the village pur-posee, toil-oriented classes such as tailoring and handicrafts and agricultivation aimed at supple aid for the nobility or the bargain, and pre-school programmes such as establishing commsingleness pre-school offshoot-anxiety centres and adult literacy programmes. The cultural, gregarious,economic and demographic factors which love wpresage in bud are orationed through activities subordinateneathfascinated by NPFPB. It to-boot exalts population and nobility bud as courteous-mannered-mannered as reproductive soundness-related anxietys. The DOA and FELDA raise out programmes largely on nobility bud, speedion of the sort of conduct, entrepreneurship of target classs, and pay-generating activities such as grafting, financial oceantenance and other inputs for the profit of women,largely in FELDA’s 25 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection unroving schemes/estates. VII. LEGAL STATUS OF WOMEN 1. 26 Women’s lawful foothold succeeding a occasion concern to burgessship, command, calling,lawful hues and foothold in wedlock, dissever,and the defence of upshot are representative in the Federal Constitution as courteous-mannered-mannered as in other comp which penetratetain been definitive from space to space. Considerefficacious legislative substitutes penetratetain fascinated locate weigh space, in-detail succeeding 1957. New laws penetratetain been definitive occasion solid laws and comp are consistently nature re-examinationed and amended to guard, repair and secure the hues of women. The election of the Wpresage and Girls’ Security Act 1973 and its 1987 disciplines, the applianceation of the Domiciliary Fury Act 1994 in 1996, and the preliminary of the Code of Practice on the Prevention and Handling of Sexual Harassment in the Worklocate are illustrations of legislative metes targeted at secureing the seemliness of women. Amendments to other related acts and laws such as the Calling Act 1955 and the rectifyd edibneighboring of the Insucceeding Tax Act 1967 are aimed at securitying the economic heeds of women. Wpresage subordinateneath the Federal Constitution 1. 7 Malaysian women’s hues as burgesss to severicipate in the collective and functional conduct of the career are implicitly recognised and guaranteed by the Federal Constitution,which avows subordinateneath Article 8, supply 1,that “all individuals are resembling anteriorly the law and entitled to the resembling secureion of the law”. Supply 2 track prepares that “except as expressly causeised by this Constitution,there shall be no sagacity opposing burgesss on the reason merely of faith, source, depth or locate of nativity in any law or in the enactment to any station or calling subordinateneath a unconcealedly-known causeity or in government of any law environing to the compensation, pursuit or discollocation of any peculiarity or the establishing or raiseing on of any traffic, calling, occupation, office,or calling”. This supply does not embsource a narrowed edibles opposing gender-inveterebuke sagacity and may sanction for secureive sagacity opposing wpresage subordinateneath the Calling Act. The aggravatesight was rectified on 2 August 2001, when the Dewan Rakyat prevailing an discipcourse to Article 8(2) to embsource the account, “gender” in the categories referred to in the supply, which now reads“there shall be no sagacity opposing burgesss on the reason merely of faith, source, depth, locate of nativity and gender in any law…” Women’s hues are, consequently, now lucidly avowd in the Federal 26 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection Constitution. 1. 28 The Synod had to-boot fascinated steps to consent resembling foothold to wpresage subordinateneath the Constitution’s edibneighboring for the distribute of burgessship and steady pernoctation. Under A rticle 15 of the Constitution, no articles were imposed upon outlandish wives of burgesss to adduce for burgessship. However, a succeeding discipcourse made in 1962 embraced unpositive articles, including the “good character” exactment for outlandish wives of burgesss when adduceing for burgessship. By another discipcourse to Supply 2 of Article 15,burgess hues could be profitd by any offshoot of a burgess. This discipcourse puts wpresage on par succeeding a occasion men as concerns the granting of automatic burgessship of upshot born to them. However, outlandish spouses of Malaysian wpresage are robbed such hues inveterebuke on the self-confidence that, upon wedlock, wpresage would ensue their mates to their pernoctation countries. With the essential discipcourse of Article 8 (b),steps penetratetain been fascinated to oust the irrelativeial matter expressive the compensation of burgessship hues by the outlandish spouses of Malaysian wpresage (as announced by the Deputy Prime Minister cum Minister of Pernoctation Affairs on Women’s Day 2001). Calling Comp and Wpresage 1. 29 The Calling Act 1955 (revised in 1981, 1994 and 1999) is the ocean comp which regulates all labour relevancys, and infallible severs adduce resemblingly to men and women,such as contracts of profit, compensation, tranquillity hours, hours of toil,holidays, annual concession, impaired concession, messageicareer and layoff profits. There are, stagnant, narrowed severs in the Act, which pertain merely to women, such as maternity secureion and obscurity toil. There is no article in the Act which prohibits employers paying inferior compensation to their wpresage employees, as compared to severey toilers, for doing the corresponding resemblingity of toil. Wpresage in the secret sector may consequently be theme to wage sagacity. In the unconcealedly-known sector, stagnant, wpresage penetratetain resembling pay for resembling toil. At give,wpresage in the secret sector to-boot do not penetratetain any lawful revise opposing wage sagacity. Sever VIII of the Calling Act 1955,“Prohibition Opposing Nightwork” avows that no employer shall exact feminine employees to toil betwixt 10 o’clock in the schemeeing and 5 o’clock in the waking in the unroving or industrial sectors. However, the Calling Wpresage Shelve Workers Regulations 1970 stipulates that “any feminine employee occupied in shelve toil in any prevailing subordinateneathtaking which operates at meanest two shelves per day may toil at such spaces succeeding a occasionin the hours 27 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection of 10 o’clock in the schemeeing and 5 o’clock in the waking, as the Director of Labour may approve” The consequence of the 1970 regulations is to sanction wpresage . to toil at obscurity, succeeding a occasion the consequence that feminine employees toiling in obscurity shelves penetratetain besucceeding the unconcealed government rather than the disengagement. Section 35 of the Calling Act to-boot prohibits the calling of wpresage in subordinateneathreason toil,intrinsic the Minister produces an privilege. . 30 Sever IX of the Calling Act prepares for compensated maternity concession for a name of not neighboring than 60 coherent days for complete feminine employee in the secret sector. In May 1998,the Synod re-examinationed and adduceed the maternity concession for wpresage employees in the unconcealedly-known sector from 42 days to 60 days, for a culmirealm of up to five deliveries. Generally-known sector wpresage employees can adopt to adduce their maternity concession up to three months as uncompensated concession. Paternity concession of up to threedays is to-boot producen to severey employees in the unconcealedly-known sec tor. 1. 31 In 1998, another discipcourse was made to the Calling Act, which prepares for yielding toiling hours. This edibles expands the opportunities for women,including pernoctationmakers, to be reachfully occupied in sever-space toil. It to-boot prepares opportunities for employees to fashion flexibility in toil regularityes and arrangements, such as teleworking, pernoctationinveterebuke toil, job sharing, and housed toilweek that would enefficacious wpresage employees to weigh their toil and nobility demands. Other Laws Expressive the Foothold of Wpresage 1. 32 All Malaysians penetratetain resembling suittelling to command subordinateneath the Constitution of Malaysia. This implies that there is no sagacity opposing wpresage and men. Article 12(1) avows that there shall be no sagacity opposing any burgess on the reasons of faith, source, depth or locate of nativity: • • n the government of any commandal organization oceantained by a unconcealedly-known causeity, and in detail, the approximation of pupils or scholars or the cancelment of fees;or in providing out of the funds of a unconcealedly-known causeity financial aid for the oceantenance of command of pupils or scholars in any commandal organization (whether or not oceantained by a unconcealedly-known causeity and whether succeeding a occasionin or beyond the Federation). 28 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection 1. 33 The Universities and University Colleges Act 1991 stipulates generally-known commsingleness to all irnot-absolute of gender. The New Economic Pur-pose of 1970 to-boot prepares resembling admittance to educ ational opportunities for twain severey and feminine Malaysians. 1. 4 Succeeding a occasion concern to the lawful acknowledgment of the defence of upshot, the Defence of Infants Act 1961 initially militated opposing women. The Act was amended in 1999 to sanction for elbow defence of upshot in matters environing to colonization and registration. Succeeding a occasion the applianceation of the discipcourse in 2000 mothers are sanctioned to prognostic all muniments involving their subordinateneathaged upshot. 1. 35 The Insucceeding Tax Act 1967 (amended in 1975,1978 and 1991) produces an non-interference to married wpresage to penetratetain sepascold insucceeding tax toll. The supply prohibiting a married toiling dowager from sepascold insucceeding tax toll was theme to divers disciplines (1975,1978 and 1991). The discipcourse of 1991 sanctioned for sepascold tolls for married wpresage intrinsic they adopt to be assessed elbowly. Today, wpresage taxpayers, whose mates penetratetain no taxefficacious pay, are desirtelling for taxefficacious mitigation common to that availefficacious to a severey taxpayer whose spouse has no taxefficacious pay. 1. 36 Succeeding a occasion concern to the secureion of wpresage opposing domiciliary fury, the Domiciliary Fury Act was passed in 1994 and applianceed in 1996. Domiciliary fury is now traffict succeeding a occasion as a guilty injury succeeding a occasion mismisdivert penalties imposed. Realising that comp may merely oust the weigh bellowing discriminatory practices, the Synod and NGOs in Malaysia abide to urge for ocean genuineness of procedures adopted by police personnel, and penetratetain urged for the mismisdivert grafting and gender sensitisation of the bearing severies. Currently, the NGOs are urgeing for a re-examicareer and discipcourse of the Act. 1. 37 The Cabinet of Anthropological Instrument issued the Code of Practice on the Prevention and Handling of Sexual Harassment in the Worklocate on 1 March 1999. This Code of Practice embraces guidelines to employers on the advantage and applianceation of in-house destructive and revise mechanisms to indifferentize and root-out sexual harassment at the toilplace. This vestibule is believed to be the most potent way of trafficing succeeding a occasion the gist. Employers are encouraged to appliance policies and programmes on anti-sexual harassment, as courteous-mannered-mannered as to prepare revise mechanisms at the 29 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection organisational pur-posee. 1. 8 There is to-boot a narrowed comp to secure the hues and seemliness of women. The Wpresage and Girls Pro te ction Act 1973 and the Offshoot Security Act 1991 were re-examinationed and streamlined into the Offshoot Act 2000. Twain the Wpresage and Girls Security Act (which embraces edibneighboring for prosecuting individuals implicated in prostitution and trafficking of women) and the Offshoot Security Act were criticised as nature very vaguely accounted and could be liberally interpreted. An subordinateneathaged lass,if set in a suspected locate or circumstances, may be interpreted to be “in want of secureion” and may be detained in a preventative centre. Twain Acts embsource some estimates of sagacity,which could be prejudicial to victims. Box 1. : Restriction of Sagacity Article 1 of the Convention on the Elimicareer of All Forms of Sagacity Opposing Wpresage (CEDAW) avows that“sagacity opposing women” shall moderation: “any dignity, nonparticipation or narrowion made on the premise of sex which has the consequence or mind of impairing,or nullifying the acknowledgment,operation or employment by women, irnot-absolute of their nuptial foothold, on a premise of coextension of men and women,of anthropological hues and fundaunsubstantial insubservience in the collective,economic, gregarious,cultural,civil,or any other field” . This restriction implies that adduceing a indifferent government for wpresage and men get institute sagacity if the consequence is that wpresage do not like the calculated profit. 1. 9 In 1995, antecedent to the Fourth Earth Conference on Wpresage in Beijing, Malaysia ratified the Convention on the Elimicareer of All Forms of Sagacity Opposing Wpresage (CEDAW),succeeding a occasion some reservations. VIII. CONCLUSION 1. 40 Malaysian wpresage penetratetain made speaking proceeding gone Malaysia reached insurrection in 1957. The proceeding is apprecitelling and neighboring exhaustive, succeeding a occasion weigh Malaysian women, in twain absolute and referring-to articles, nature 30 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection implicated in all key socio-economic areas than anteriorly: in command, in soundness, in the arrangement, and in influence-sharing and sentence-making. The exploration for ocean gender coextension has been referring-toly auspicious,although speedions can stagnant be made in infallible sectors. It get be compulsory for the Government, which has portrayed a induced role in women’s proceeding in the kingdom, to abide providing the compulsory oceantenance and legislative oceantenance to oust permanent barriers and to incorporate track the reachs and proceeding already concluded. 1. 41 The Government’s commitment to rectify the foothold of wpresage has exorbitant weigh space. Mainstreaming gender into gregarious and economic bud contrivances is a consistent regularity to be subordinateneathfascinated by row ministries and avow agencies (implementing wpresage narrowed programmes and projects). Plane so, Malaysia is an illustration of a kingdom which has, gone reaching insurrection, made magnanimous proceeding in neat the sort of conduct and foothold of women, detailly in providing them succeeding a occasion ever-increasing opportunities to besucceeding stakeholders in the kingdom’s economic bud. Box 1. : Separated Bearing Declarations and Employment Plans Signed by the Synod of Malaysia • Resembling Remuneration Convention (ILO No. 100),1951; • Sagacity (Employment and Occupational) Convention (ILO No. 111),1958; • Regulative Earth Conference on Wpresage 1975; • Intergenerally-known Women’s Decade (1975–1985); • The Convention on the Elimicareer of All Forms of Sagacity Opposing Wpresage (CEDAW),1978; • • • • • Third Earth Conference on Women,1985; Declaration on the Procession of Wpresage in the ASEAN Region,1988; Earth Summit Agenda,1991; Geneva Declaration for Unroving Wpresage by the Summit on the Economic Procession of Unroving Women,1992; 31 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection • • • • • • World Gregarious Bud Conference, 1994; Intergenerally-known Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 1994; Fourth Earth Conference on Women, Beijing 1995; Earth Aid Summit, 1996; Micro-Credit Summit, 1997; An Update to the 1995 Commonwealth Contrivance of Employment on Gender and Development: Advancing the Commonwealth Agenda for Gender Coextension into the New Millennium (2000–2005);and • Beijing Plus 5, Wpresage 2000: Gender Equality, Bud and Dispose for the 21st Date (Special Session of the Venereal Assembly, 5–9 June 2000). 32 The Proceeding of Wpresage Gone Insurrection Article 2 EDUC ATION AND TRAINING OF WOMEN I. INTRODUCTION 2. 01 Article 12 (1) of the Federal Constitution which guarantees the suittelling to command for all Malaysians concernneighboring of gender has empowerd Malaysian wpresage to reach resembling admittance to command and grafting. They penetratetain profited from the acceptiond admittance as implicated by the speedion in women’s literacy scolds and net enrolment at all pur-posees of command gone insurrection. Education, arrangeal and non-precise has been animateity-containing for the particular, gregarious and economic bud of the wpresage in Malaysia. An ongoing regularity,it has been the materials for neat the conversance, skills and attitudes of Malaysian wpresage and their bud calibre. Succeeding a occasion eminent commandal acquirements Malaysian wpresage are efficacious to severicipate locomotively in the bud of the career, employment their opinion in the nobility, the communit y, locate of toil and the unconcealedly-known province of politics as courteous-mannered-mannered as like ocean economic insurrection. Notwithstanding the rectifyd commandal acquirements of Malaysian women, gender differences stagnant endure in enrolment in conceiveing and technical themes,and the command they admit has gender stereotypes that eternize gender dissimilarity. 2. 2 This article get tsource the concludement of wpresage in command and grafting, arrangeal and rough, gone insurrection. The sortment of wpresage in arrangeal command get be examineed in articles of the proceeding made succeeding a occasion concern to admittanceibility to command as courteous-mannered-mannered as the gender-related anxietys such as enrolment in conceiveing and technology command. Gendersensitive indicators such as the inclines in feminine enrolment, the adaptation of severey to feminine scholar enrolment at the elementary, inferior and tert