week 4 discussion of cognitive psych

Perception illusions, or optical illusions, illustrate that our visual perception cannot be always trusted. Another is how we process information such as bottom-up or top-down.

  • Research scholarly articles on optical illusions and explain what research has been done in this area. Explain why optical illusions occur, providing specific reasons.
  • Research scholarly articles regarding bottom-up and top-down information processing and explain what research has been done in this area. Describe some examples of the two types.

Respond to at least two students response of the same discussion classmates. Participate in the discussion by asking a question, providing a statement of clarification, providing a point of view with a rationale, challenging an aspect of the discussion, or indicating a relationship between one or more lines of reasoning in the discussion.

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Top-Down Theories.html

Top-Down Theories

Your perception of anything in this world is derived from your sensory data, and this is called the data-driven, or bottom-up, approach. You must view the world as it is, rather than as you expect it. However, in many situations, your knowledge or expectation may influence the way you perceive things. This is called the schema-driven, or top-down, approach, where schema means prior experienced, seen, or known pattern. Top-down theories involve a higher level of thought process. The recipient of the stimulus builds upon the stimulus using sensory as well as other sources of information, which is derived from the recipient’s prior knowledge or experience.


An important way in which knowledge contributes to perception is that you can identify objects even if the stimulus quality is degraded. For example, it is easy to identify a visual object even if part of the object is obstructed. An auditory example is a poor phone connection. As long as you know the topic of the conversation, you probably can figure out what the person on the other end of the phone is saying. You frequently encounter degraded stimuli, and your knowledge of the world helps you in your perception without the need to put in too much cognitive effort.

 Real-time information from the sensory systems interacts with your knowledge of the world and enables you to perceive and interact with your environment.


Let’s now focus on vigilance and detection theory.

    Additional Material

     View the PDF transcript for  Do I See What I See?


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© 2009 South University

Do I See What I See?

Have you ever thought about how you see and hear things? Has it occurred to you that what you
perceive is actually what is in your environment? If it has, then you’re not alone.

This is a picture showing both an old woman and a young girl. If you were not aware of this fact
about the picture (knowledge), would you have been able to guess it? After you read about the
picture, were you able to see the two figures?

We usually function so well in our world that perception seems flawless, seamless, and like a
direct reflection of our environment. However, perception is influenced by many factors. Your
knowledge and cognitive processes also affect perception. Ambiguous figures provide a good
example of how knowledge affects perception. Once you know what to look for, you will be able
to see it (which you could not see without prior knowledge).

ValerieJeffcoat posted Feb 1, 2022 3:13 AM


· Research scholarly articles on optical illusions and explain what research has been done in this area. Explain why optical illusions occur, providing specific reasons.

Color, light, and patterns may generate optical illusions that deceive or deceive our minds (Carbon, 2014). The brain analyzes the information gathered by the eye, resulting in a perception that differs from the real image. Optical illusions have most likely been seen by humans for as long as they have existed. Even though retinal pictures are flat representations on a curving surface, humans can see in three dimensions in some optical illusions (Wackermann, 2020). The brain must use interpretative rules to obtain three-dimensional information from confusing two-dimensional visuals. Many optical illusions, particularly those involving the sense of geometry, have mathematical relationships.

Mathematicians utilize optical illusions in the classroom to interest pupils and develop their visual abilities (Wackermann, 2020). It’s neither an optical illusion nor a misinterpretation of sensory data. They are expressions of the visual system’s principles. The study of optical illusions in both laboratory and natural settings adds a lot to our knowledge of vision and the nature of the visual world (Wackermann, 2020). For many decades, scientists have been attempting to find out how optical illusions operate. Unfortunately, we don’t always understand how our brain and eyes work together to generate these deceptions. The information gathered by our eyes travels a lengthy and convoluted path to the brain.

· Research scholarly articles regarding bottom-up and top-down information processing and explain what research has been done in this area. Describe some examples of the two types.

Bottom-up processing starts with the recovery of sensory data from our surroundings in order to construct perceptions based on the present visual data (Goldstein, 2015). The interpretation of new data based on existing information, experiences, and expectations is known as top-down processing. We know that past information, experience, and expectations are important in establishing perceptions of new stimuli in top-down processing, therefore previous knowledge, experience, and expectations are the driving force in top-down perception. In contrast, no learning is necessary in bottom-up processing, and perceptions are simply dependent on fresh stimuli from one’s present external environment, implying that the stimulus now being experienced inside one’s external environment is the driving force of perception in bottom-up processing.

Yet, research on this topic has demonstrated that interpretation is a top-down technique when the stimulus is presented briefly and the meaning is uncertain, resulting in an ambiguous stimulus. Bottom-up processing, on the other hand, is a way in which there is a continuous flow from the individual components to the total system (McMains & Kastner, 2011). When attempting to decipher complicated handwriting, top-down processing occurs. It is simpler to comprehend full sentences than simple and isolated phrases since the meaning of the words around them gives a framework for comprehension. When we process from the bottom up, it’s called bottom-up processing. If you see a picture of a single letter on your screen, your eyes transfer the information to your brain, which then combines it (McMains & Lastner, 2011).


Carbon C. C. (2014). Understanding human perception by human-made illusions. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8, 566.

Goldstein, E. B. (2015). Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research and Everyday Experience, (4th ed.). Cengage Learning. ISBN: 9781285763880.

McMains, S., & Kastner, S. (2011). Interactions of top-down and bottom-up mechanisms in human visual cortex. The Journal of neuroscience: the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 31(2), 587–597.

Wackermann, J. (2020). Optical Illusions. Salem Press Encyclopedia of Science.

Vigilance and Detection Theory-HUD.html

Vigilance and Detection Theory-HUD

Head-up display (HUD) is a modern tool commonly used in aircraft; it superimposes information over the normal view from the front window. HUD has done away with the problem of pilots dividing attention over multiple sources of information while flying the aircraft. With HUD, the pilot does not need to look down at gauges in the aircraft; important information is available on the aircraft’s front window.

   Additional Material

View a Pdf Transcript of HUD of an Aircraft


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© 2009 South University

HUD of an Aircraft

Aircraft pilots train for hours in simulators, where they familiarize themselves with the use of
HUDs before using them for flying aircraft. Several car manufacturers also offer HUDs.

Although a lot of information is available to the pilot, not everything can be processed. Some
research suggests that pilots switch attention between the external environment views and the
superimposed aircraft information, which defeats the purpose of having all information available
at one location, without the need to look in separate areas. HUDs generally are effective in
normal operations, but unexpected environmental events may go unnoticed.

Student one response

Optical Illusions

According to the article written by Carbon C. C. (2014), perceiving illusions may be fun, but it is even more stimulating to know how they work. They can also tell us where the location of the visual constraints is a. It is also possible to analyze the cognitive sub-process underlying our perception. The scientific context of our illusions points to the specific power of human perception. The context of the misconceptions is not to reveal failures of our perceptions or the disfunction of our apparatus. Human perceptions’ primary objective is to amplify and strengthen sensory inputs to perceive, orientate, and act quickly, efficiently, and precisely.

‘We can regularly find out that our perception is indeed mostly very reliable and also objective by analyzing the quality of our perceptual experiences by standard methodological criteria. (Gregory and Gombrich, 1973).”

Regina Wang and associates published an article named “Composition Methodology of Optical Illusion.” Researchers wanted to illustrate how the optical illusion is required to turn a concept design into a picture/composition. Researchers stated, “Optical illusions have interesting visual effects, which attract the viewer and hold their attention during the transfer of information. Thus, vastly used in advertising design, artistic drawing, fashion, and environmental spaces (Wang et al., 2012). Meaning optical illusions can happen when something grabs someone’s visual attention. When an object catches our eye, it grabs our attention, like watching an advertisement on tv or a deer in the field.

Bottom-Up and Top-Down

Perception refers to how sensory information is, organized, interpreted, and consciously experienced. Perception involves both bottom-up and top-down processing. One way to think of the concept is sensation is physical (bottom-up processing), and (top-down processing) is psychological. Bottom-up processing implies that perception is built from sensory input. We interpret these sensations by our available knowledge, experiences, and thoughts. Top-down processing refers to how we interpret feelings because of our general knowledge, experience, and ideas. (Goldstein,2015)

“Top-Down processing is the schemata or knowledge of learners to understand the information received, while Bottom-Up processing is the process of understanding the information through the analysis of sound, sense of the word, and grammar” (Ardini, 2020). Researchers conducted a study to look into students’ problems in learning to listen since the observation results showed the grades were low. The result showed that 90% of the students found that, Bottom-Up processing is more problematic than Top-Down processing (10%). Research has also shown that when the stimulus is, introduced short or fast, and the meaning is unclear, offering a vague incentive is a top-down strategy. However, bottom-up processing is a method where various specific components make up the whole (McMains & Kastner, 2011). For example, top-down processing happens when someone tries to decipher difficult handwriting. It is easier to read whole sentences than to read separated phrases because the meaning of the words around them provides a framework for understanding. While bottom-up processing happens when you see an image of a single letter on your screen, your eyes convey the information to your brain, and your brain puts all of this information together (McMains & Kastner, 2011).

Ardini, S., (2015). Discovery Listening to Improve Listening Competence in Fostering Students’ Critical Thinking in Indonesia: Effect and Perception. ETERNAL (English Teaching Journal) 6(2) DOI:10.26877/eternal. v6i2.5834

Carbon C. C. (2014). Understanding human perception by human-made illusions. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8, 566.


Goldstein, E. B. (2015). Cognitive Psychology Connecting Mind Research and Everyday Experience, (4th ed.). Cengage Learning. ISBN: 9781285763880.

Gregory R. L., Gombrich E. H. (1973). Illusion in Nature and Art. London/UK: Gerald Duckworth and Company Ltd [Google Scholar]

Wang, R. W. Y., & Wang, C. (2012). COMPOSITION METHODOLOGY OF OPTICAL ILLUSION DESIGN. Visible Language, 46(3), 228-245.


journals/composition-methodology-optical-illusion-design/docview/1233235416/se-2? accountid=87314


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