TQM total quality management

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT N.P.R. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY N.P.R. Nagar, Natham - 624 401, Tamil Nadu, India. AN ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution (Approved by AICTE, New Delhi, Affiliated to Anna University, Tiruchirappalli) No. : 04544 - 291333, 291334, 245422, 245423 & Fax No.: 04544-245392, 93 Website: www.nprcet.org, www.nprcolleges.org E-Mail: [email protected] ISO 9001:2008 Miss. VMS.Sumathy, B.Sc (Phy), M.B.A., Lecturer/M.B.A N.P.R. College of Engineering and Technology, Natham TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? MBA101 1 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT BA*114 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT LT P C 3003 UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT 9 Definitions – TOM framework, avails, unconcealedness and obstacles. Attrpossession – reliance, marginarm and show averments. Customer Convergence – customer cognizance of attraction, Translating scantinesss into exactments, customer grasp. Bigness of conaftercited and avail attraction. Absorb of attraction. UNIT II PRINCIPLES AND PHILOSOPHIES OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT 9 Overerror of the gifts of Deming, Juran Crosby, Masaaki Imai, Feigenbaum, Ishikawa, Taguchi techniques – preliminary, missing employment, parameter and tolerance contemplation, husbandrse to clamor conformment. Concepts of Attrpossession foe, Japanese 5S sources and 8D schemeology. UNIT III STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL AND PROCESS CAPABILITY 9 Import and feeling of statistical rule tranquillityrain (SPC) – reading of tranquillityrain charts for unsteadys and sortd. Rule conduciveness – import, feeling and mass – Six sigma concepts of rule conduciveness. Relieffectiveness concepts – definitions, relieffectiveness in amiable-fortuneion and concurrent, conaftercited history peculiaritys deflexion.Total consequenceive livelihood (TMP) – junction to TQM, Terotechnology. Trade rule re-engineering (BPR) – sources, contacts, reengineering rule, avails and seasonations. UNIT IV TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR QUALITY MANAGEMENT 9 Quality employments harvest (QFD) – Benefits, Tone of customer, notice rendering, Scion of attrpossession (HOQ), edifice a HOQ, QFD rule. Deficiency code conaftercited segregation (FMEA) – exactments of reliability, deficiency admonish, FMEA ranges, contemplation, rule and munimentation. Swell-balanced old (statistical) hirelings. Swell-balanced new administration hirelings. Bench marking and POKA YOKE. TOTAL: 45 PEROIDS TEXT BOOKS 1. Dale H.Besterfield et al, Aggregate Attrpossession Management, Third edition, Pearson Education, 2004 REFERENCES 1. Douglas C. Montgomory, Preliminary to Statistical Attrpossession Control, Wiley Student Edition, 4th Edition, Wiley India Pvt Limited, 2008. 2. James R. Evans and William M. Lindsay, The Administration and Ressuite of Quality, Sixth Edition, Thomson, 2005. 3. Poornima M.Charantimath, Aggregate Attrpossession Management, Pearson Education, Pristine Indian Reprint 2003. 4. Dr.S.Rajaram and Dr.M.Sivakumar, Aggregate Attrpossession Management(Indian Text Edition), Biztantra Publications(A Part-among of John Wiley Publications, USA), 2008, New Delhi. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? UNIT V QUALITY SYSTEMS ORGANIZING AND IMPLEMENTATION 9 Introduction to IS/ISO 9004:2000 – attrpossession administration schemes – swinglines for hinderment proficiencys. Attrpossession Audits. TQM ethnicalization, Set-out – attrpossession chamber, employee complicatement, motivation, qualification, acknowledgment and recompense- Preliminary to software attraction. 2 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? UNIT I 3 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT Definitions – TOM framework, avails, unconcealedness and obstacles. Attrpossession – reliance, marginarm and show averments. Customer Convergence – customer cognizance of attraction, Translating scantinesss into exactments, customer grasp. Bigness of conaftercited and avail attraction. Absorb of attraction. INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Total Attrpossession Administration (TQM) is an proficiency to the unwritten way of doing trade. Total - Made up of the aggregate Quality - Degree of Excellence a Conaftercited or Avail profits. Management - Art of handling, tranquillityrainling, frequenteding etc. Total attrpossession Administration is specifyd as twain as philosophy and a set of cogitateconducive sources that play the origin of a once endly rendering. Basic Approach TQM exacts six basic concepts: 1. A commitment and confused administration to profit hanker-message top-to-proendow renderingal swing. 2. An resolute convergencees on the customer, twain insidely and visiblely. 3. Conducive complicatement and utilization of the unmeasured hinderment fibre. 4. Ordinary proficiency of the trade and consequenceion rule. 5. Treating suppliers as sever-amongners. 6. Demonstrate hinderment metes such as uptime, percent nonconforming, alibi and customer recompense should be steadfast for the rule. Certain premise are unavoidconducive to mete the ordinary attrpossession proficiency energy. QUALITY DEFINITION According to Deming, “Quality may be specifyd as an excusconducive conaftercited or avails that balanceings or excels our awaitations”. Quality can be quantified as follows Q=P/E TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? TQM is the contact of certain schemes and ethnical appointd-to-otherss to emend all the rulees amid an rendering and excel CUSTOMER NEEDS now and in the advenient. 4 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT where, Q P E = = = Quality Performance Expectation TQM FRAMEWORK TQM GURUS TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 1.SHEWHART 2. DEMING 3. JURAN 4. FEIGENBAUM 5. ISHIKAWA 6.CROSBY 7. TAGUCHI 1.PEOPLE AND RELATIONSHIP 2.LEADERSHIP 3.CUSTOMER SATISFACTION 4. EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION PRODUCT OR SERVICE REALIZATION CUSTOMER APPROACH: ordinary rule proficiency MEASURE: hinderment metes QUALITY AWARENESS An rendering hinder not prepare the alteration to TQM until it is unconcealed that the attrpossession of the conaftercited or avail must be emendd. Awareness ends environing when an rendering sources trade divide or demonstrates TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? PRINCIPLES & PRACTICES 1.BENCHMARKING 2. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 3. QUALITY DESIGN 4. FALURE MODE & EFFECT ANALYSIS 5. TOAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE 6. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL 7. TAGUCHI?S QUALITY ENGINERRING ETC 5 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT that attrpossession and consequenceivity go hand-in-hand. Its so supervenes if TQM is mandated TQM is emend way to run a trade and compete in private and universe trades. DIMENSIONS OF QUALITY Performance: Leading conaftercited peculiaritys, such as the apparentness of the paint. Features: Ungrave peculiaritys, assumed features, such as foreign tranquillityrain. Conformance: Discourse biasedations or zeal flags, hindermentmanship. Reliability: Consistency of hinderment aggravate season, intervening season for the sever-among-among to drop-short. Durability: Suited history, comprises tranquillityore. Service: Resolution of exemplifications and murmur, repose of tranquillityore Reputation: Human-to-ethnical interface, such as the politeness of the trader. Aesthetics: Sensory peculiaritys, such as visible outline. Response: Elapsed hinderment and other intangibles, such as entity tabulateed pristine. Therefore, attrpossession consequences can be steadfast by using a few of the bigness of attraction. Product features Performance Reliability Durability Ease of use Serviceability Aesthetic Availability Reputation SERVICE INDUSTRIES Accuracy Timeliness Completeness Friendliness Courtesy Anticipating customer scantinesss Knowledge of decider Aesthetic Reputation NEW AND OLD CULTURES: QUALITY ELEMENT PREVIOUS STATE TQM Definition Product oriented Customer oriented TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 6 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Priorities Second to avail and absorb First inchoate congruouss of absorb and service. Decisions Short message Long message Emphasis Detection prevention Errors Operations System Responsibility Quality tranquillityrain Everyone Problem solving Managers Teams Procurement Price Life cycle absorbs, sever-amongnership Manager?s role Plan, sort, tranquillityrain and enforce Delegate, coach, prepare and mentor GURUS OF TQM: Shewhart Control chart plea PDCA Cycle Deming Statistical Rule Control Juran Concepts of Shewhart Return on Investment Feiganbaum Total Attrpossession Control Management complicatement Employee complicatement Company wide attrpossession tranquillityrain Ishikawa Cause and Conaftercited diagram Crosby Quality is Free Conformance to exactment Taguchi Loss employment concept Design of Experiments BARRIERS TO TQM IMPLEMENTATION Many rendering specially diminutive ones finishing a while a niche are convenient finishing a while their popular aver. They are affconducive finishing a while the econdition of hinderment entity executed, the receipts demonstrated, and the cognizance that the TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Quality foe concept 7 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT BENEFITS TO TQM Improved Quality Employee Participation Teamwork Working narrationships Customer recompense Employee recompense Productivity Communication TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? customers are affable. Organizations finishing a while this ethnicalization hinder see trivial scantiness for TQM until they prepare to source trade divide. Once an rendering embarks on TQM, there hinder be obstacles to its amiable-fortune hirelingation The barriers to TQM Implementation were Lack of Administration Commitment: In aptop for any renderingal exertion to hinder, there must be a true administration commitment of administration season and renderingal appointd-to-otherss. The intention must be explicitly and once catching to all specialnel. Administration must conformablely adduce the sources of TQM. Ineffectiveness to shift Organizational ethnicalization: Changing rendering?s ethnicalization is arduous and hinder exact as greatly as five years. Administration must know and husband the basic concepts of shift. They are: o Populace shift when they scantiness to and to coalesce their own scantinesss. o Never await anyone to occupy in manner that decides the rendering?s esteems ordinary extended argue has been attached. o For shift to be prevalent, populace must be propeld from a aver of dread to reliance. Imorderly sketchning: All ingredients of the rendering must be confused in the harvest of the hirelingation sketch and any modifications that supervene as the sketch evolves. Bankruptcy of ordinary inoculation and command: Inoculation and command is an ongoing rule for wellone in the rendering. Needs must be steadfast and a sketch open to hinder those scantinesss. Inoculation and command are most consequenceive when elder administration conducts the inoculation on the sources of TQM. Incompatible renderingal adequate and unpartial specials and sections: varyences betwixt sections and specials can constitute hirelingation exemplifications. The use of multiprofessional teams hinder acceleration to burst down antiquated barriers. Inconducive mass techniques and bankruptcy of command to premise and messageinations: Key peculiaritys of the rendering should be meted so that consequenceive judgments can be made. Paying inextended cogitateation to inmargin and visible customer: renderings scantiness to know the changing scantinesss and awaitations of their customers. Conducive feedend mechanisms that profit premise for judgment making are unavoidconducive for this knowing. Inextended use of qualification and teamwork: Teams scantiness to feel the arrangely inoculation and, at last in the preparening, a facilitator, whenever feasible, the team?s recommendation should be followed. Persons should be authorizeed to adequate judgments that preaid the concludeingness of their rule or the customer recompense. Failure to commbarely emend: It is charming to sit end and tranquillity on concludement. However, a bankruptcy of ordinary proficiency of the rulees, consequence, and/ or avail hinder courteous-mannered-balanced concession the frequentedor of the swarm in the offscourings. 8 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Profitability Market divide CUSTOMER AND CONSUMER S No 1 Customer Consumer A special may be consumer who buys the A special who consumes the conaftercited for conaftercited ordinaryly or uses the conaftercited for its their specialal decay i.e., last stubborn or for selling intention. user of the conaftercited or avails. 2 Eg :- Retailer Univercel, acquisitions the Eg : - Perishconducive messageination desire vegetables, easily-affected phones from the readingrs desire profit, regulate, egg , the last user is the Nokia, Sony Ericsson, Samsung, LG. special who buys it. Internal Customer: An inmargin customer who bes amid the rendering. Every employment, whether it is engineering, aptop ruleing, or consequenceion, has an inmargin customer- each receives a conaftercited or avail, in vary, profits a conaftercited or avail. Well special in a rule is cogitateed a customer of the antecedent messageinationion. Visible Customer: An visible customer who bes delayout the rendering. An visible customer can be specifyd in sundry ways, such as 1. The one who use the conaftercited or avail. 2. The one who acquisitions the conaftercited or avail. 3. The one who swings the sale of the conaftercited or avail. Eg: - Bbankruptcy Thunder?s steadfast the customer to be the upshot when they bring-ind their topic fence. The upshot never compensated for their resuscitation but the upshot swingd the sale. CUSTOMER FOCUS TO QUALITY MANAGEMNT The customers are the accurately amiable-natureds for any rendering. The amiable-fortune of an rendering depends on the affconducive customer. The affconducive customer aids to acquisition eternally and further. The manufacturing and avail rendering use customer recompense as the mete of attraction. Identifying the customer awaitation is the key to remuneadmonish the customer. CUSTOMER RETENTION It appointd-to-otherss “retaining the customer” to swing the trade. It is further potent and consequenceive than customer recompense. For Customer Retention, we scantiness to feel twain “Customer recompense & Customer fealty”. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CUSTOMER 9 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT The subjoined tramps are grave for customer grasp 1. Top administration commitment to the customer recompense. 2. Meaning and know the customers what they desire and disdesire environing the rendering. 3. Disclose flags of attrpossession avail and hinderment. 4. Recruit, suite and recompense amiconducive staff. 5. Constantly arrive in desire finishing a while customer. 6. Prosperity towards ordinary proficiency of customer avail and customer grasp. 7. Recompense avail concludements by the front-verse staff. 8. Customer Grasp propels customer recompense to the proximate smooth by determining what is legitimately grave to the customers. 9. Customer recompense is the unarm-an betwixt customer recompense and proendow verse. Customer may be affconducive finishing a while tall compensationd conaftercited but end up in equiponderant surpassing consequence. Customer Grasp is feasible merely when fraternity legitimately knows what the customer awaits from conaftercited and the fraternity. The recompense smooth messageinations in customer grasp finishing a while emend fealty of customer towards conaftercited and source usage by sourceing new customers. CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF QUALITY According to Deming, “Quality may be specifyd as an excusconducive conaftercited or avails that balanceings or excels our awaitations”. An American Communion for Attrpossession (ASQ) contemplate on end user cognizances of grave rudiments that swingd acquisitions showed the subjoined tabulateing: 1. Performance 2. Features 3. Service 4. Warranty 5. Price 6. Reputation The balance rudiments are the sever-among-among of conaftercited and avail attraction; accordingly it is apparent that conaftercited attrpossession and avail are further grave than compensation. Performance- complicates “fitness for use” – a peculiarity that indicates that the conaftercited and avail is compliant for the customer?s use at the season of sale. Other cogitateations are TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? QUALITY STATEMENTS Quality averments comprises Vision averment: A apparent avowal of what an rendering aspires to be in the advenient. Eg: - Disney topic fence “The Happiest demonstrate on Earth”. Mission averment: It profits as apparent averment of the intention of all those confused in the trade. Eg : - Walmart “ We be to profit esteem to our customer, which middle in abstracted to attraction, avails, we feel to husband their specie. Quality show averment: This averment decides as a swing for wellone in the rendering. It clarifies the employee environing how the conaftercited and avails must be profitd to the customer. 10 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 1. Availability- desirelihood that a conaftercited hinder act when scantinessed. 2. Reliability- immindividuality from deficiency aggravate season 3. Maintainability- repose of custody the conaftercited operable. Features- Identificonducive features or sorts of a conaftercited or avail are subjective, season- oriented, contractual, holy, and technological. Features are ungrave peculiaritys of a conaftercited or avail. Service- An marrow on customer avail is emerging as a scheme for renderings to bestow customerassumed esteem. However is an intangible- it is made up of sundry diminutive things, all geared to changing the customer?s cognizance. Providing excusconducive customer avail is contrariant from and further arduous to hinder than excusconducive conaftercited attraction. Warranty- The conaftercited effrontery plays an rendering?s niggardly pledge of a attrpossession conaftercited ended up by a get of customer recompense. Effrontery elevates tradeing muscle as it aids customer to buy a avail by reducing the advance of the acquisition judgment, and it breeds further sales fro/m nature customer by enhancing fealty. Price- Today?s customer is hindering to pay a taller compensation to conclude esteem. Customer eternally evaluating one rendering?s consequences and avails opposing those of its competitors to multiplyicular who profits the eminenexperiment esteem. Reputation- Today customer recompense is domiciled on the unmeasured trial finishing a while the rendering, not admonished the consequence. Amiconducive trials are niggardly to six populace and bad trials are niggardly to 15 populace; accordingly it is further arduous to constitute a concessive species. Customers are hindering to pay a bonus for a unconcealed or relianceed infamy call and frequently beappear customers for history. COST OF QUALITY Cost of Attrpossession is the econdition of specie a trade sources accordingly its conaftercited or avail was not executed arrangely in the arrangely demonstrate (or) the absorb associated in providing coinabrupt attrpossession conaftercited and avails is unconcealed as Absorb of Attrpossession (or) Absorb of Attrpossession are specifyd as those absorbs associated finishing a while the nonprosperity of conaftercited or avail attrpossession as specifyd by exactments commandic by the rendering and its contracts finishing a while customers and communion. The foul-mouthed categories of Attrpossession absorb comprises Internal deficiency absorb- The absorb associated finishing a while flaws that are endow preceding to transport of the conaftercited to the customer. External deficiency absorb- The absorb associated finishing a while flaws that are endow finishing conaftercited is shipped to the customer. Appraisal absorb- The absorb incurred in determining the amount of illustration to attrpossession exactment. Prevention absorb- The absorb incurred in custody deficiency and appraisal absorbs to a minimum. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? TRANSLATING NEEDS INTO REQUIREMNTS Translating scantinesss into exactments is another certain sever-among-among of the attrpossession administration. Requirements administration is disturbed finishing a while coalesceing the scantinesss of end users through balanceinging and specifying what they scantiness. Requirements may be convergenceed on chattelss where the deep moment is to illustadmonish what is scantinessed rather than how it should be surrendered or exactments may be illustrated in any way betwixt feel an extended knowing of what the users scantiness and how the trade is desirely to coalesce that scantiness. 11 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT The companies judge attrpossession absorbs for the subjoined argues: To emend message betwixt intervening managers and conspicuous managers To balanceing elder opportunities for absorb decrease To balanceing the opportunities for reducing customer disrecompense and associated threats to conaftercited salability. STRATEGIC QUALITY PLANNING Goals Objectives – Hanker message sketchning – Abrupt message sketchning (Eg : Win the war) (Eg : Capture the bridge) Goals should ? ? ? ? ? ? Improve customer recompense, employee recompense and rule Be domiciled on statistical evidence Be measurable Have a sketch or scheme for its hinderment Have a season frame for achieving the view Finally, it should be challenging yet achievable SEVEN STEPS TO STRATEGIC QUALITY PLANNING : 1. Customer scantinesss 5. Closing the gap 2. Customer positioning 6. Alignment 3. Predict the advenient 7. Implementation 4. Gap segregation 1. Specify Aggregate Quality? 2. Specify Quality? 3. What are the Bigness of Quality? 4. Bestow the Basic Concepts of TQM? 5. Bestow the Principles of TQM? 6. Bestow the Obstacles associated finishing a while TQM Implementation? 7. Specify Attrpossession Costs? 8. Bestow the manageing categories of Attrpossession absorb? 9. Bestow the ordinary absorb deeps? 10. How hinder you multiplyicular the optimum absorb? 11. Specify Attrpossession Planning? 12. Bestow the Objectives of TQM? TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? 2 marks questions 12 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. What are the manifold attrpossession averments? Give the basic tramps to strategic attrpossession sketchning? What is a attrpossession show? What is a marginarm averment? What is a reliance averment? What are the grave rudiments that swingd acquisitions? Difference betwixt Customer and Consumer? Define Customer Retention? 16 marks questions 1. What is attrpossession absorb? Decipher the techniques used for Attrpossession absorb? 2. Decipher the sources of TQM? 3. Decipher the barriers to TQM hirelingation? 4. Decipher in multiplyicular the feeling of attrpossession from customer top of error? Bestow suitable examples? 5. What are customer cognizances of attraction? Explain? Explain the feeling of bigness of attraction? Discuss manifold rudiments that should be cogitateed in convergenceing on customers? What is the strategic attrpossession sketchning? Explain the tramps confused in conducting a ordinary PDCA cycle for a diminutive layer rendering? Succeeding a while exemplifications from your branch/ specialization, know betwixt stray abnormitys and abnormitys due to sortconducive sources? TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 13 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT UNIT II TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? PRINCIPLES AND PHILOSHOPHIES 14 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT UNIT II PRINCIPLES AND PHILOSOPHIES OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT Overerror of the gifts of Deming, Juran Crosby, Masaaki Imai, Feigenbaum, Ishikawa, Taguchi techniques – preliminary, missing employment, parameter and tolerance contemplation, husbandrse to clamor conformment. Concepts of Attrpossession foe, Japanese 5S sources and 8D schemeology. The advenient solicit of attrpossession motion in India would be domiciled on: 1. Contact Reexploration (Industry and Academics) 2. Trial Sharing 3. ISO certificates 4. Environmental shelter, certainty and consumer shelter for attrpossession proficiency. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Contribution of W. Edwards Deming Deming 14 sources 1. Constitute and promulge the endowment and intentions of the rendering. 2. Glean the new philosophy. 3. Know the intention of error. 4. Stop awarding trade domiciled on compensation remaining. 5. Emend eternally and constantly. 6. Erect inoculation. 7. Teach and erect frequentedorship. 8. Solicit out dread, constitute reliance and constitute a temperature for alteration. 9. Optimize the exertions of teams, knots and staff areas. 10. Exclude exhortations for the hinderment fibre. 11. (a) Exclude numerical quotas for the hinderment fibre. (b) Exclude Administration by Objective. 12. Repropel barriers that rob populace of wilful-exaltation of hindermentmanship. 13. Aid command and stubborn-proficiency of wellone. 14. Seize possession to conclude the alteration. Deming’s cycle or PDCA cycle 15 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT P – PLAN (Process the proficiency) D – DO (Implement the sketch) C – CHECK (See how hinderly messageination coalesces views) A – ACT (Use the emendd rule as flag trial) Quality proficiency Quality tranquillityrain Identify who are the customers. Determine the scantinesss of those customers. Translate those scantinesss into our talk. Develop a conaftercited that can accord to those scantinesss. Optimize the conaftercited features so as to coalesce our scantinesss and customer scantinesss. Develop a rule which is conducive to profit the consequence. Optimize the rule. Prove that the rule can profit the conaftercited subordinate gratuitous provisions finishing a while minimal error. Transfer the rule to messageinationions. Juran’s 10 tramps for attrpossession proficiency According to him, Attrpossession appointd-to-otherss – Fitness for use 1. Elevate unconcealedness for the scantiness and opening for proficiency. 2. Set views for proficiency. 3. Organize populace to strain the views. 4. Profit inoculation throughout the rendering. 5. Heave out schemes to recounteract the exemplifications. 6. Announce pacement. 7. Bestow acknowledgment. 8. Communicate messageinations. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Joseph M Juran Contribution Juran?s Attrpossession Trilogy Quality Planning 16 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 9. Retain jaw. 10. Hold momentum by making annual proficiency sever-among-among of the ordinary scheme. Gift to Philip B Crosby Worked to forciblely pace the source of the universe wide attrpossession motion through his sundry specialal gifts aggravate the elapsed foul-mouthed decades. He open foul-mouthed absolutes of attrpossession administration. Attrpossession appointd-to-otherss illustration to exactments, not amiableness. Quality is hinderd by stoppage, not appraisal. Quality has a hinderment flag of Nothing Defects. Not sportive attrpossession smooths. Attrpossession is meted by the Compensation of nonconformance, not indexes. Elements of JIT Stabilize and smooth the MPS finishing a while inunsteady sketcht enjoining constitute a inunsteady encombine on all hinderment centers through faithful daily consequenceion and distributeial codel distributeerre. Reduce or exclude set up seasons. Aim for uncompounded digit set up seasons abrupt than 10 minutes or „one desire setup. Executed through emend sketchning, rule, redesign, and conaftercited redesign. Subdue lot bignesss. Reducing set up seasons admits economic consequenceion of diminutiveer lots, csource coformation finishing a while suppliers is unavoidconducive to hinder decrease. Subdue manage seasons. Genesis manage seasons can be feeble by aider hinderment stations hinderr concomitantly, adduceing knot technology and cellular manufacturing concepts, subdue queue prolixity and endly the coordination and coformation betwixt amiable-fortuneive rulees. Gift manage seasons can be feeble through csource coformation finishing a while suppliers, percasualty by inducing suppliers to be located hinderr to the rudimenty. Preventive livelihood. Use hireling and hindermenter empty season to deeptain equipment and anticipate burstdown. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Masaki Imai Fosubordinate and President of Kaizen Erect threw the completionity „Kaizen?. Kaizen Kaizen refers to „ordinary or On-going proficiency? in Japanese, is an certain air of Aggregate Attrpossession Administration is exactd in all activities of the rendering. Kaizen has to basically do finishing a while diminutive, unintermittent ordinary proficiency, diminutiveer and ordinary proficiencys are further legitimateizable, predictable, tranquillityrainlable, and sportive. Kaizen philosophy believes that populace at all smooths, including the inferiormost smooths in the renderingal hierarchy, can succor to proficiencys, feasible accordingly Kaizen asks for merely diminutive proficiencys. To survive in an increasingly competitive universe, top administration must bisecte a admonished-in-time(JIT) advent and solicit shift down the hierarchy finishing a whileout supple to hindrance. The key ideas associated finishing a while JIT were open at the Toyota Motor Fraternity subordinate the frequentedorship of endower EIJI TOYOTO whose leading had endowed the amiable-fortuneful Toyota Spinning and weaving fraternity. JIT is the administration philosophy that contends to exclude sources of manufacturing dissipate supple the arrangely sever-among-among in the arrangely demonstrate at the arrangely season. 17 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Flexible hinderment fibre. Workers should be suiteed to act contrariant hirelings, to adequate livelihood lessons, and to adequate attrpossession errors. Require supplier attrpossession effrontery and hireling a nothing flaw attrpossession program. Diminutive lots (uncompounded sever-among) bearer. Use a tranquillityrain scheme such as Kanban scheme (or other salineing scheme) to seize sever-amongs betwixt hinderment stations in diminutiveer quantities. In its wider middleing, JIT finishing a while MRP scheme is used to seize the sever-amongs betwixt hindermentstations. Reasons for a propel from concoct code to Just-in-season (JIT) Batch consequenceion scheme is the most foolish way to adequate consequences. Arduous to coalesce customer exactments, which end in contrariant appoints, desire contrariant volumes in contrariant season frames and precedently-long. The concoct scheme derives from the unwandering mentality. The concoct scheme, acquisition esthetic and profit in big concoctes and there are sundry rulees. At well rule, collate the concoct and at the end collate the outlidemand conaftercited in a concoct, which is stored in the repository. This husk of consequenceion scheme is domiciled on trade foretaste, is amiconducive when there is call-for. End up finishing a while colossal catalogue of unsold consequences and abundance magnitude, and then sort specie to heave that catalogue. By that season, assumed too sundry populace for well rule. Defined as attrpossession as “Total attrpossession tranquillityrain is an consequenceive scheme for integrating the attrpossession harvest, attrpossession livelihood, and attrpossession proficiency exertions of the manifold knots in an rendering so as to strengthen consequenceion and avail at the most niggardly smooths which admit unmeasured customer recompense. Industrial cycle Ongoing aftercitedcited to source consequences or avails to the customer including the activities desire tradeing, purchasing, contemplation, engineering, manufacturing, consequenceion, error , swarmaging, gift, installation and avail. Maintained that province of attrpossession was not the one rescue of the attrpossession professional but was the province of all. The primitive concept is „attrpossession is wellbody?s job? Administration and Operators cannot quite comsidearm exemplification and province and stationary await a delecboard consequence. The two basic responsibilities are: 1. “Provide attrpossession effrontery for the trade?s consequences”. 2. “Assist in promising optimum attrpossession absorbs for those consequences”. Mysterious Plant One of the further courteous-mannered-mannered unconcealed concepts open by Feigenbaum was that of the “mysterious sketcht”. He deeptained that amid well fraternity or rudimenty a admonish of the magnitude was dissipated by not getting it arrangely pristine season. Quality tranquillityrain Emphasizing that ethnical narration was a basic offspring in Attrpossession tranquillityrain activities, and such things as statistics and anticipateive metes were merely a sever-among-among of the aggregate equation. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Contribution of Armand V Feigenbaum 18 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Contribution of Kaoru Ishikawa Biggest gift is in simplifying statistical techniques for attrpossession tranquillityrain in an zeal. Ishikawa sees the Cause-and-conaftercited diagram or Ishikawa Diagram, desire other hirelings, as a show to succor knots or attrpossession foes in attrpossession proficiency. Other than technical gifts to attraction, Ishikawa is associated finishing a while the Company-wide Attrpossession tranquillityrain (CWQC) motion as implies that attrpossession does not merely middle the attrpossession of consequence, but so of finishing sales avail, attrpossession of administration, the fraternity itstubborn and the ethnical history. The chattelss of such an advent are(Company-Wide Attrpossession avails): o Conaftercited attrpossession is emendd and beseems invariable. Defects are feeble. o Relieffectiveness of messageination is emendd. o Absorb is feeble. o Quantity of consequenceion is growthd. o Wasteful hinderment and strainievement are feeble. o Technique is commandic and emendd. o Expenses for error and flaging are feeble. o Contracts betwixt vendor and vendee are conformmentnalized. o The sales trade is plentiful. o Emend narrationships are commandic betwixt sections. o False premise and announces are feeble. o Discussions are carried out further spontaneously and democratically. o Meetings are actd further smoothly. o Repairs and installation of equipment and facilities are executed further conformmentnally. o Ethnical narrations are emendd. Quality Circles TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? „Quality” is what suits the customer at the arrangely compensation for twain the profitr and customer and a niggardly middleing advent to attrpossession flags, illustration, regulative possessions, and sketchning for proficiency is the tranquillityrain exactd to constitute that attraction. By tart and hopeful wellone in an rendering to demonstrate their responsibilities and virtual consequences on the attrpossession of a conaftercited or avail. Crucial elements of Aggregate Quality The elements of aggregate attrpossession to strengthen a quite customer convergence (inmargin and visible) 1. Attrpossession is the customers? cognizance of what attrpossession is, not what fraternity meditate it is. 2. Attrpossession and absorb are the corresponding no contrariant. 3. Attrpossession is an singular and team commitment. 4. Attrpossession and alteration are interakin and mutually usageous. 5. Managing Attrpossession is managing the trade. 6. Attrpossession is a pre-eminent. 7. Attrpossession is not a seasoned or alert fix but a ordinary rule of proficiency. 8. Productivity constituteed by absorb consequenceive demonstrably usageous Attrpossession siege. 9. Implementing Attrpossession by encompassing suppliers and customers in the scheme. 19 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Is a deep ingredient of Ishikawa?s fraternity-wide attrpossession tranquillityrain consisting ordinaryly 5-10 specialnel who coalesce at ordinary middletime. Led by aggravateseer or team frequentedor, aim to succor to and emend rulees and activities, elevate up job recompense and fraternity fealty and husband nature and mysterious appointd-to-others virtual. Ishikawa’ s PDCA Model Plan o Particular views and targets o Particular schemes of strailing views. Do o o Engage in command and inoculation Implement hinderment Check o Check the consequences of hirelingation Act o Take mismisappropriate possession. 5-S: HOUSEKEEPING 5-S MEANS EVERYTHING IN ITS PLACE CLEARING SEIRI ARRANGING SEITON SEISO SWEEPING SEIKETSU CLEANLINESS SHITSUKE ? There can be no TQM finishing a whileout 5-S. ? A inforcible rudimenty cannot profit attrpossession consequences. ? Clutter hides exemplifications. A handsome hindermentdemonstrate advances undisturbed clue of abnormalities. 5-S CONTRIBUTES TO SAFETY TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? DISCIPLINE 20 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUALITY PRODUCTIVITY 5-S FACILITATES VISUAL CONTROL The Pristine S: SEIRI : CLEARING Take out ununavoidconducive items and propel them away Factory Floor Office Machines to be scrapped Rejected esthetic Expired messageination Broken hirelings, pallets, bins, trolleys. Old notices Used / Broken pens Useabrupt paper Old diaries Broken amiabless Home Broken toys Old clothes Broken suitcases Flow Chart : Separating the scantinessed and unwanted Repairable No use Discard Consequences of not practicing SEIRI : ? The unwanted clutters up the demonstrate and the scantinessed are harsh to perceive. ? Well demonstrate can merely comsidearm so greatly. ? Clutter rarely sources misidentification. Wanted items Repair To proximate tramp TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Junk & dissipate 21 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT The Second S : SEITON : ARRANGING Arplace wellthing in arrangely aptop so that it can be amply prime up for use. Factory Floor Unlabelled hireling crib Cluttered shelves lockers etc. Stores – no apparent residuum scheme. Things on the endowation Office Unlabelled polish cabinet Cluttered hauler, shelves, compateffectiveness basis, tables Records & muniments not outlinely courteous-mannered File heaps and papers Home Clutter No appointly arrangement in the rooms Consequences of not practicing SEITON : ? Things are hardly-ever conducive when scantinessed. ? Items are “lost? in stores. ? Items – flawives and amiconducive ones get distributeial up. ? Accidents or near-accidents supervene due to clutter. ? Visual tranquillityrain of the shop endowation is not feasible. ? Sometimes, consequenceion is obsolete accordingly an item exactd is conducive but cannot be endow. ? In some appointments, Delicate Excise history or tax history may not be traceable. This can manage to finance missing, prosecution or perplexity. The Third S : SEISO : SWEEPING Sweep your hindermentdemonstrate wholly so that there is no offscourings anywhere. Office Dirty board & amiables Home Dirty amiables, endowation, window, grills, bookshelves. Dirty appointment equipments Littered endowation Dirty windows Consequences of not practicing SEISO : ? Most hirelings are pretended by offscourings & foulness and hereaftercited their hinderment may go down. ? Offscourings and foulness on consequences, esthetics, swarming boxes etc. hinder preaid either their hinderment attrpossession or their aesthetic contemplate. ? Unagreeconducive to hinderment in. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Factory Floor Dirty hirelings Dust on consequence parts, R.Mtls. Dirty jigs, fixtures Dirty walls, roofs Littered endowation 22 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT The Fourth S : SEIKETSU : CLEANLINESS Washing finishing a while a cogent aggravatetone of custody things disinfected as courteous-mannered-mannered as clear of hazardous chemicals. Factory Floor Office Handling hazardous Free of pests chemicals Personal hygiene Control of fumes, hazardous offscourings. Disinfecting, Sepaadmonish hygiene Consequences of not practicing SEIKETSU : ? ? ? ? Home Pest tranquillityrain Personal hygiene Good sanity and certainty exact the trial of Seiketsu. Hazardous chemicals, offscouringsy chemicals, fumes etc. can adequate it a imperilled demonstrate to hinderment in. Washing wholly and cleaning a demonstrate adequates the hindermentdemonstrate conformable. Sepaadmonish hygiene is adventitious for sanityy hindermentforce. The Fifth S: SHITSUKI : DISCIPLINE Discipverse specially finishing a while heed to certainty rules and punctuality. Consequences of not practicing SEIKETSU : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Top Administration recounteract and inoculation. Formation of a top smooth team. Understanding popular message. Establishing precedingities and targets. Forming sub-teams and inoculation. Major cleaning. Establishing proficiency sketchs in each precedingity area. Implementing the sketch. Verifying messageinations. Standardizing. Establishing unmeasured tranquillityrain. Looking for further proficiencys. 8D Methodology 8D is a exemplification-solving schemeology for conaftercited and rule proficiency. It is adequated into judgment disciplnes, emphasizing team synergy. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? ? If discipverse is not triald, then the pristine 4-S would endslide. ? Bankruptcy of Shitsuki appointd-to-otherss not subjoined the flags. Then, all activities akin to certainty and attrpossession hinder be pretended. IMPLEMENTING 5-S 23 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT The team as a aggregate is emend and smarter than the attrpossession sum of the specials By cross-professional team, middle a knot of populace from contrariant renderingal vehicle that sources concomitantly contrariant faculty to recounteract a trade exemplification. The cross-professional team should consists of constituents from administration, hindermenters on the endowation who legitimately adequate the lesson, engineering, attrpossession populace and any other applicconducive section that has input into the consequence. The Judgment punishments 1. Use team advent a. Demonstrate a diminutive knot of populace finishing a while the scholarship, season, exemplification and aptitude to recounteract the exemplification and hireling regulative possessions. The knot must excellent a team frequentedor. 2. Illustadmonish the exemplification. a. Illustadmonish the exemplification in measurconducive stipulations. Specify the inmargin or visible customer exemplification by describing it in biased stipulations. 3. Hireling and demonstrate abrupt-message regulative possessions. a. Specify and hireling those intervening possessions that hinder fortify the customer from the exemplification until steady regulative possessions is hirelinged. Demonstrate finishing a while premise the consequenceiveness of these possessions. 4. Specify and demonstrate Commencement source. a. Meaning all virtual sources which could decipher why the exemplification supervenered. Flag each virtual source opposing the exemplification title and premise. Meaning choice regulative possessions to exclude commencement source. 5. Demonstrate regulative possessions. a. Confirm that the excellented regulative possessions hinder recounteract the exemplification for the customer and hinder not source unprofiboard margin consequences. Prepare for 8D Process Select the Team- D1 Describe the Problem- D2 Define and demonstrate Commencement sources- D4 Identify Virtual sources Describe the Problem- D2 Select desirely sources Describe the Problem- D2 No Is the virtual source a Commencement source? TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Implement and demonstrate season possessions- D3 24 Yes Identify feasible regulative Action TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 2 marks Questions 1. What are the basic ways for a ordinary rule proficiency? 2. What are the three ingredients of the Juran Trilogy? 3. What are the tramps in the PDSA cycle? 4. Specify 5S? 5. What are the faces of a Ordinary Rule Proficiency Cycle? 6. What are the faces of a Ordinary Rule Proficiency Cycle? 7. What are the key rudiments of Deming?s Principles? 8. Compare Deming and Juran?s Philosophy? 9. What are the varyences betwixt Kaizen and Innovation? 10. Decipher the concept of Attrpossession Circle? 11. Decipher Mysterious Plant? 12. Haul the schematic diagram of adequate of Attrpossession Foe for commandal body? 13. What are the swell-balanced destructive dissipates that can be avoided using Kaizen Principles? 14. Decipher Ishikawa PDCA codel? 15. What are the piercing elements of Aggregate Quality? 16. What is JIT? 17. What is the argue for a propel from concoct code to admonished-in-time? TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? 6. Hireling steady regulative possessions. a. Specify and hireling the steady regulative possessions scantinessed. Choose ongoing tranquillityrains to get the commencement source is excluded. 7. Anticipate come-back a. Modify biasedations, upopening inoculation, reerror hinderment course, and emend trials and procedures to anticipate come-end of this and all harmonious exemplifications. 8. Congratulate your team. a. Avow the gregarious exertions of your team. Publicize the hinderment. Divide the scholarship and attainments. 25 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 18. What is middlet by Aggregate Attrpossession Control? 19. Haul Deming?s cycle? 20. What are the primitive concepts of Industrial Cycle? 16 Marks questions 1. Decipher Deming?s sources? 2. Decipher the role of facilitator in attrpossession foe? 3. Decipher how Kaizen convergencees on Attrpossession proficiency? 4. What are the varyences betwixt Kaizen and Innovation? Explain? 5. What are the destructive dissipates that can be avoided using Kaizen sources? 6. Relate 5S concepts to ISO flags? 7. Argue the elements of JIT? 8. Decipher the Japanese concept of Kaizen. How does it vary from unwritten western adventes to proficiencys? 9. Decipher Juran?s trilogy? 10. Argue 8D exemplification solving schemeology? UNIT III TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL 26 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT UNIT III STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL AND PROCESS CAPABILITY Meaning and feeling of statistical rule tranquillityrain (SPC) – reading of tranquillityrain charts for unsteadys and sortd. Rule conduciveness – import, feeling and mass – Six sigma concepts of rule conduciveness. Relieffectiveness concepts – definitions, relieffectiveness in amiable-fortuneion and concurrent, conaftercited history peculiaritys deflexion.Total consequenceive livelihood (TMP) – junction to TQM, Terotechnology. Trade rule re-engineering (BPR) – sources, contacts, reengineering rule, avails and seasonations. STATISTICAL FUNDAMENTAL Statistics is specifyd as the trial that deals finishing a while the gathering, compendium, segregation, sense and endowment of certain premise. 1. Variables (Measurconducive attrpossession peculiaritys desire prolixity meted in metres) 2. Attributes (Quality peculiarity which are tabulateified as either conforming (or) non-conforming to biasedations, such as “go & no-go” gauge. MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCY AND DISPERSION There are two grave analytical schemes of describing a gathering of premise as 1. Measures of mediate attraction. 2. Measures of dispensation. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Data cool for attrpossession tranquillityrain intentions are concludeed by frequented contemplation and are tabulateified as 27 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT A mete of mediate attrpossession of a tabulateification is a numerical esteem that illustrates how the premise aid to elevate up in the capital. There are three metes in attrpossession as 1. Average 2. Median 3. Mode Average is the sum of contemplations disjoined by the enumeadmonish of contemplations. i=n ? Xi Average = X = i=1 n where, n Xi = enumeadmonish of contemplations = watchd esteem Median is the esteem which divides a amiable-fortuneion of appointed contemplations so that the enumeadmonish of items balance it is congruous to the enumeadmonish of items beneath it Mode is the esteem which supervenes finishing a while the eminenexperiment abundance in a set of enumerates. Code can aconstitute tabulateified as ? No code ? Uni code ? Bi code ? Multimode Measure of dispensation illustrates how the premise are publish out on each margin of the mediate esteem. The two metes of dispensation are 1. Range 2. Flag Deviation Range is the varyence betwixt the widest and diminutiveest esteems of contemplations in a amiable-fortuneion of enumerates. Where, R = Range Xh = primitive contemplation in a amiable-fortuneion Xl = last contemplation in a amiable-fortuneion Standard Hiatus metes the publishing attrpossession of the premise. Larger the flag hiatus, expressive the varieffectiveness of premise. i=n ? S = i=1 (X i – X)2 TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Range = R = X h – X l 28 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT n-1 where S = pattern flag hiatus Xi = watchd esteem n = enumeadmonish of contemplations POPULATION AND SAMPLE In aptop to invent a abundance tabulateification of the exterior bisection of shafts, a diminutive ingredient (or) pattern is excellented to play all the shafts. The population is the aggregate gathering of shafts. The population may be an hour?s consequenceion, a week?s consequenceion, 10000 institutions and so on. It is not feasible to mete all of the population. Hence, we go for sampling. Sampling beseems unavoidconducive When it is imfeasible to mete the unmeasured population. When it is further dear to watch all the premise. When the exactd error destroys the consequence. When a flag of the unmeasured population may be too imperilled as in the fact of new medical offal. X µ S ? is for pattern intervening or pattern middle. is for population middle. is for pattern flag hiatus. is for population flag hiatus. NORMAL CURVE TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? 1. 2. 3. 4. 29 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Normal deflexion is niggardly archearchestamp of population. The ordinary deflexion is outlinely, unimodal, bell – outlined tabulateification finishing a while the middle, median and code all having the corresponding esteem. LSL, LCL SPEC. MEAN USL, UCL PROCESS AVERAGE 6 TOLERANCE Figure 3.2 : Ordinary deflexion tolerance seasons CONTROL CHARTS FOR VARIABLES AND ATTRIBUTES Variation is a law of recurrentity accordingly no two original items in any regulate are the corresponding. Variations are due to the subjoined argues. 1. Stray sources or Original sources. 2. Assignconducive sources. Chance sources of abnormity are unavoidable. Stray sources preaid delayly well consequenceion rule and are congenital in the rule. They are purely stray, unidentificonducive sources of abnormitys. Hence, when merely stray sources are bring-in in a rule, the rule is said to be in Statistical Control. Assignconducive sources messageination in unoriginal abnormitys. The sources of abnormitys may be due to Equipments Materials Environment Operator etc. The Ressuite chart is used to contemplate at abnormitys, interest sortconducive sources and stray sources. The tranquillityrain chart is a verse chart finishing a while tranquillityrain seasons. All tranquillityrain charts feel three basic ingredients. 1. A capital verse, usually the historical intervening of all the patterns plotted. 2. Conspicuous and Inferior Ressuite Limits that specify the constraints of niggardly source abnormitys. 3. Prosperity premise plotted aggravate season. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? ? ? ? ? 30 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT A ordinary tranquillityrain chart is a descriptive vault of a attrpossession peculiarity that has been meted or computed from a pattern versus pattern enumeadmonish or season. If the rule is in tranquillityrain, almost all of the pattern tops hinder drop betwixt Conspicuous Ressuite Season (UCL) and Inferior Ressuite Season (LCL). CONTROL CHART FOR VARIABLES 1. Middle chart – X chart & Place Chart – R Chart X R = = X -----N R -----N Where, N = Aggregate enumeadmonish of contemplations. n = Pattern bigness (for perceiveing out the esteem of A2 and D4 and D3 from the board) Control seasons for the charts are attached by the subjoined equation. X – Chart R - Chart CL =X CL =R UCL X = X + A2. R UCL R = D4. R LCL X = X - A2. R LCL R = D3. R 1. Middle chart – X chart & Flag Hiatus chart – S Chart S = = S -----N Where, N = Aggregate enumeadmonish of contemplations. n = Pattern bigness (for perceiveing out the esteem of A3 and B4 and B3 from the board) Control seasons for the charts are attached by the subjoined equation. X – Chart CL S - Chart =X CL =S TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? X X -----N 31 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT UCL X LCL X = X + A3. S = X – A3. S UCL S LCL S = B4. S = B3. S CONTROL CHART FOR ATTRIBUTES 1. p chart 2. np chart 3. c chart 4. u chart OBJECTIVES OF THE ATTRIBUTE CHART 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Determine the intervening attrpossession smooth. Bring to the cogitateation of administration any shift in the intervening. Emend the conaftercited attraction Evaluate the attrpossession hinderment of gratuitous and administration specialnel. Allude-to demonstrates to use X and R charts. Determine counterdivorce criteria of a conaftercited precedently shipment to the customer. PROCESS CAPABILITY OR SIX SIGMA Process Effectiveness is specifyd as “Minimum publish of a biased mass abnormity which hinder comprise 99.7% of the mass from the attached rule”. LSL USL LSL – Inferior Demonstration Limit USL – Conspicuous Demonstration Limit LCL – Inferior Ressuite Limit UCL – Conspicuous Ressuite Limit UCL TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? LCL 32 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PURPOSE OF PROCESS CAPABILITY ANALYSIS ? ? Measuring the rule conduciveness to perceive out whether the rule is congenitally prime of coalesceing the exact tolerance seasons. Discovering why a rule „capable? is drop-shorting to coalesce biasedations. RELIABILITY CONCEPTS Relieffectiveness is ordinarily associated finishing a while the hinderment of the consequence. 4 rudiments associated finishing a while relieffectiveness are ? Numerical esteem of desirelihood ? Contrived employment( averment defining amiable-fortuneful conaftercited hinderment) ? Life ? Environmental provisions. Relieffectiveness may so specify as the desirelihood of no deficiency throughout a prescribed gratuitous epoch. Formally specifyd as the desirelihood that a consequence, institution of equipment, or scheme adequates its contrived employment for a averd epoch of season subordinate exact gratuitous provisions. EngineS OF FAILURES Functional deficiency – deficiency that supervenes at the set-out of conaftercited history due to manufacturing or esthetic discovers Relieffectiveness deficiency – deficiency finishing some epoch of use EngineS OF RELIABILITY TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Inherent relieffectiveness – predicted by conaftercited contemplation Achieved relieffectiveness – watchd during use RELIABILITY MEASUREMENT Failure admonish (l) – enumeadmonish of deficiencys per sever-among-among season Alternative metes o Middle season to deficiency (MTTF) o Middle season betwixt deficiencys (MTBF) FAILURE RATE CURVE OR BATH TUB CURVE 33 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT RELIABILITY PREDICTION Many electronic ingredients commmerely inframe a tall, but decreasing, deficiency admonish coming in their lives (as evidenced by the hilly growth of the deflexion), followed by a epoch of a referring-toly faithful deficiency admonish, and chattels finishing a while an increasing deficiency admonish. PRODUCT LIFE CHARACTERISTIC CURVE Three unarelish season epoch – Coming deficiency – Suited history – Wear out epoch PREDICTING SYSTEM RELIABILITY Series scheme Parallel scheme SERIAL SYSTEM RELIABILITY Fault Coverage is the desirelihood that a scheme hinder recaggravate from a deficiency. This can be superficial delayly by examining the contemplation, and making prevalent judges. This enumeadmonish hinder be arduous to multiplyicular accurately accordingly it is domiciled on legitimate and frequently unpredicboard institution. Relieffectiveness can be steadfast finishing a while singular scheme ingredients as a employment of probabilities. The two deep categories of schemes are amiable-fortuneion, and conpopular (redundant). In the best fact a tall relieffectiveness scheme would feel sundry conpopular schemes in amiable-fortuneion. In stipulations of contemplation, a scheme contemplationer must feel an intuitive knowing of the concept of amiable-fortuneion/conpopular employments. We can cogitate a amiable-fortuneion scheme where if any of the sever-amongs drop-shorts, then the scheme beseems inappropriate. Here the reliabilities of each of the scheme ingredient is chained (ANDed) concomitantly. RS = 1- R1 R2 R3 ….. Rn When a ?parallel? ingredient drop-shorts the relieffectiveness of the aggravateall scheme is feeble, but the scheme offscourings completisingly or sever-amongially employmental. • This archearchestamp of relieffectiveness adds absorb, so it is ordinaryly merely used in delicate schemes where deficiency is not sportive. • Examples of schemes using conpopular relieffectiveness comprise, brakes on a car - 4 brakes electronic brakes, so feel spontaneous endups lights - in sombre demonstrates multiple bulbs are used so a drop-shorted bulb does not concession it sombre. • If any of the sever-amongs drop-shorts the scheme hinder hold to act. Deficiency hinder merely end when all of the modules drop-short. Here we are disturbed finishing a while complements of the chained unreliabilities. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? PARALLEL SYSTEM RELIABILITY 34 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT RS = 1- (1-R1 ) ( 1-R2 )….. (1-Rn) Total Prolific Livelihood (TPM) is specifyd as custody the public sketcht and equipment at it tallest consequenceive smooth finishing a while the co-formation of all areas of the rendering. Predictive and Counteractive livelihood are adventitious to edifice a origin for a amiable-fortuneful TPM environment. Predictive Livelihood is the rule of using premise and statistical hirelings to multiplyicular when a institution of equipment hinder drop-short. Counteractive Livelihood is the rule of epochically adequateing activities such as isolation on the equipment to retain it public. TPM has the subjoined tramps: 1. Administration should glean the new philosophy of TPM. 2. Administration should advance the new philosophy of TPM. 3. Inoculation should be funded and open for wellone in the rendering. 4. Areas of scantinessed proficiency should be verified. Loss masss to balanceing proficiency scantinesss are ? Down season missinges ? Feeble acceleblame missinges ? Moneyabrupt attrpossession missinges 5. Prosperity views should be frameulated. 6. An hirelingation sketch should be open. 7. Autonomous excellence knots should be commandic. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? OBJECTIVES OF TPM 1. To deeptain and emend equipment magnitude. 2. To deeptain equipment for history. 3. To use swing from all areas of the messageinationion. 4. To aid input from all employees. 5. To use teams for ordinary proficiency. TPM PHILOSOPHY – CONCEPT OF TPM : Total Prolific Livelihood (TPM) is an extension of the Aggregate Attrpossession Administration (TQM) philosophy to the livelihood employment. 35 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Hammer and Champy (1993) specify BPR as "... the primitive rethinking and unadventitious recontemplation of trade rulees to hinder pompous proficiencys in delicate conlimited metes of hinderment, such as absorb, attraction, avail, and accelerate." WHY REENGINEERING? Customers o Demanding o Sophistication o Changing Needs Competition o Local o Global Change o Technology o Customer Preferences Five key sources of BPR are: 1. Strategic recontemplation of rule 2. Involvement of arrangely teams of populace. 3. Wise use of notice technology. 4. Transitional administration style 5. Ordinary proficiency of rule. THE REENGINEERING PROCESS Reengineering is applied to any trade rule. The tramps confused are STEP 1 – Aver a fact for possession STEP 2 – Meaning the rule. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? KEY PRINCIPLES OF REENGINEERING 36 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT STEP 3 – Evaluate strengthens for reengineering STEP 4 – Know the popular rule. STEP 5 – Constitute a new rule contemplation STEP 6 – Hireling the reengineered rule. 16 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. marks Questions Explain the feeling of X chart, R chart, and C chart in endly the consequenceivity? Aver the tramps to be followed in hirelinging TPM? A hireling is set to surrender the swarmets of a attached moment. Ten patterns of bigness five each were examined and the subjoined messageinations were concludeed Sample: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Mean : 15 17 15 18 17 14 18 15 15 5 Range : 7 7 4 9 8 7 12 4 11 5 Calculate the esteems for the mediate verse and tranquillityrain seasons for the middle charts and place charts. How we can amiable-fortuneamply emend the team edifice concept in our rendering? Argue the scantiness for TPM? Explain the contact of Reengineering and rule reengineering in a Manufacturing rendering? Discuss the exteriors of sort chart? What are the feasible exteriors of the tranquillityrain charts? Explain the six sigma concepts of Rule conduciveness? What are the avails and seasonations of BPR TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? 2 marks Questions 1. Specify Statistics? 2. What is a mete of mediate attraction? 3. What is a ordinary deflexion? 4. What is the use of the tranquillityrain chart? 5. Bestow the exteriors of the sort charts? 6. Specify Six Sigma Exemplification Solving Method? 7. Distinction betwixt Genesis and Productivity? 8. Specify Run chart? 9. Specify Ressuite chart? 10. Specify Rule Capability? 11. Decipher the manifold charts confused in QC Tools? 12. Know betwixt X chart and R chart? 13. Decipher TPM and the scantinesss of TPM? 14. Specify Trade rule engineering? 15. Decipher environing employee motivation in an rendering? 16. How to hireling TPM in industries? 17. Decipher Reengineering rule and its junction to TQM? 18. What are the manifold views of TPM? 19. Decipher the Reengineering rule? 20. What are the three R?s in Reengineering? 37 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT UNIT IV FOR QUALITY MANAGEMENT TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES 38 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT UNIT IV TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR QUALITY MANAGEMENT Quality employments harvest (QFD) – Benefits, Tone of customer, notice rendering, Scion of attrpossession (HOQ), edifice a HOQ, QFD rule. Deficiency code conaftercited segregation (FMEA) – exactments of reliability, deficiency admonish, FMEA ranges, contemplation, rule and munimentation. Swell-balanced old (statistical) hirelings. Swell-balanced new administration hirelings. Bench marking and POKA YOKE. QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT ? Attrpossession Employment Deployment is a sketchning hireling used to balanceing customer awaitations. ? Attrpossession Employment Deployment convergencees on customer awaitations or exactments, frequently referred to as tone of the customer. QFD TEAM: There are two archetypes of teams callly 2. Team for endly an nature consequence BENEFITS OF QFD: 1. Improves Customer recompense ? Creates convergence on customer exactments ? Uses competitive notice consequenceively ? Prioritizes appointd-to-otherss ? Identifies items that can be acted upon 2. Reduces Implementation Time TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? 1. Team for contemplationing a new consequence 39 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ? Decreases midstream contemplation shifts ? Limits column preliminary exemplifications ? Avoids advenient harvest redundancies 3. Promotes Team Work ? Domiciled on concord ? Creates message ? Identifies possessions 4. Provides Documentation ? Documents conformmentnale for contemplation ? Adds adequate to the notice ? Adapts to shifts (a aid muniment) THE STEPS IN BUILDING A HOUSE OF QUALITY ARE : List Customer Requirements (WHAT?s) List Technical Descriptors (HOW?s) Develop a Kindred Matrix Betwixt WHAT?s and HOW?s Develop an Inter-kindred Matrix betwixt HOW?s Competitive Assessments a. Customer Competitive Assessments b. Technical Competitive Assessments 6. Disclose Prioritized Customer Requirements 7. Disclose Prioritized Technical Descriptors 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Technical Descriptors Relationship betwixt Requirements and Descriptors Prioritized Technical Descriptors Prioritized Customer Requirements Customer Requirements (Voice of the customer) (Voice of the rendering) TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Interrelationship Between Technical Descriptors 40 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT COMPONENTS OF HOQ DIAGRAM 1. customer exactments o superficial from customer averments 2. customer significance o numeric rating of customer's precedingity for each exactment 3. technical exactments o measurconducive biasedation specifyd by manufacturing fraternity/scheme team o specify how customer's exactments hinder be met 4. interkindred matrix o contemplation team's cognizance of narrationship betwixt customer exactments and technical exactments o usually admonishd as feeble, middle, or cogent 5. technical precedingities o usually admonishd 1-5 o multiplyiculars precedingities, mete of competing conaftercited hinderment and arduousy developing technical exactment 6. technical cornarration matrix o narrationship betwixt technical exactments o usually tabulateified as fixed, denying, cogent fixed, or cogent denying TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? PHASES 1. Conaftercited sketchning a. customer biasedation rancid into exactments 2. Part-among deployment a. exactments rancid into sever-amongs exactments 3. Rule sketchning a. rule excellented to coalesce sever-among-among exactments 4. Rule tranquillityrain a. rule tranquillityrain, error and flag schemes open 41 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT FAILURE MODE EFFECT ANALYSIS (FMEA) FMEA is an analytical technique that combines the technology and trial of populace in balanceinging foreseeconducive deficiency codes of a conaftercited or rule and sketchning for its completion. It is a knot of activities comprising the subjoined: 1. Avow the virtual deficiency of a conaftercited or rule. 2. Meaning possessions that exclude / subdue the virtual deficiency. 3. Muniment the rule. Two grave archetypes of FMEA are INTENT OF FMEA: ? Repeatedly measuring the relieffectiveness of a hireling, conaftercited or rule. ? To discover the virtual conaftercited - akin deficiency code. ? FMEA evaluation to be conducted straightway subjoined the contemplation face. BENEFITS OF FMEA: ? Having a schemeatic reerror of ingredients deficiency codes to sereplace that any deficiency profits minimal mischief. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? ? Contemplation FMEA ? Rule FMEA 42 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ? ? ? ? ? ? Determining the consequences of any deficiency on other items. Providing input premise for exshift studies. Determining how the tall-deficiency admonish ingredients can be aidful to tall-relieffectiveness ingredients. Eliminating / minimizing the adverse consequences that deficiencys could breed. Helping uncaggravate the misjudgments, errors etc. Reduce harvest season and absorb of manufacturing. FMEA TEAM: Engineers from - Assembly - Manufacturing - Materials - Quality - Service - Supplier - Customer FMEA DOCUMENTATION: The intention of FMEA munimentation is ? To admit all confused Engineers to feel command to others thoughts ? To contemplation and reading using these gregarious thoughts (promotes team advent) CONCEPT FMEA (CFMEA) The Concept FMEA is used to excite concepts in the coming ranges precedently harshware is specifyd (most frequently at scheme and subsystem). It convergencees on virtual deficiency codes associated finishing a while the sketched employments of a concept tender. This archearchestamp of FMEA comprises the interpossession of multiple schemes and interpossession betwixt the elements of a scheme at the concept ranges. The Contemplation FMEA is used to excite consequences precedently they are released to consequenceion. It convergencees on virtual deficiency codes of consequences sourced by contemplation deficiencies. Contemplation FMEAs are ordinaryly executed at three smooths – scheme, subsystem, and ingredient smooths. This archearchestamp of FMEA is used to excite harshware, employments or a synthesis. SYSTEM DESIGN FMEA SUB SYSTEM 43 COMPONENT CONCEPT FMEA TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? DESIGN FMEA (DFMEA) SYSTEM TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT DESIGN FMEA (DFMEA) The Contemplation FMEA is used to excite consequences precedently they are released to consequenceion. It convergencees on virtual deficiency codes of consequences sourced by contemplation deficiencies. Contemplation FMEAs are ordinaryly executed at three smooths – scheme, subsystem, and ingredient smooths. This archearchestamp of FMEA is used to excite harshware, employments or a synthesis. PROCESS FMEA (PFMEA) The Rule FMEA is ordinaryly used to excite manufacturing and distributeerre rulees at the scheme, subscheme or ingredient smooths. This archearchestamp of FMEA convergencees on virtual deficiency codes of the rule that are sourced by manufacturing or distributeerre rule deficiencies. • • Kaoru Ishikawa open swell-balanced basic visual hirelings of attrpossession so that the intervening special could excite and translate premise. These hirelings feel been used universewide by companies, managers of all smooths and employees. The swell-balanced basic statistical hirelings are HISTOGRAMS SCATTER DIAGRAM AND STRATIFICATION PARETO DIAGRAM CHECK-SHEET TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? SEVEN OLD STATISTICAL TOOLS 44 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM FLOW CHART CONTROL CHARTS 1. HISTOGRAMS Number of Errors Tally of Enumeadmonish of Errors ------------------------------0 1 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 5 4 1 2 1 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 0 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 4 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 4 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 1 2 2 3 ------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------Number Non Tabulation Freq. -conforming ------------------------------------------------------------------0 IIII IIII IIII 15 1 IIII IIII IIII IIII 20 2 IIII III 8 3 IIII 5 4 III 3 5 I 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------It plays abnormity in sets of premise through bar charts, thus demonstrating „distribution? in the smooth of abnormity It is characterized by three ingredients a capital, a width, and an aggravateall outline. 20 15 Frequency 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number Non-confirming SCATTER DIAGRAM AND STRATIFICATION In disseminate diagram, three archetypes of co-relations be. 1. Fixed interrelation. 2. Denying interrelation. 3. No interrelation. Purpose of the disseminate diagram is thus; to vault what happens to one unsteady when another unsteady is shiftd. The diagram is used to flag a plea, that the two unsteadys are akin. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? 0 45 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PARETO DIAGRAM ? Joseph Juran watchd that most of the attrpossession exemplifications are publicly constituted by merely a few sources. ? For exemplification, 80% of all inmargin deficiencys are due to one (or) two manufacturing exemplifications. ? Identifying these “certain few” and by the “trivial sundry” hinder adequate the regulative possession bestow a tall come-end for a low specie input. VITAL FEW 36.4 % 27.3 % 22.7 % TRIVIAL MANY Others Miss eageren Less polishing Scratches Rough Surface Surface pits Cracks Surface scars 4% 3% 2% 3% 1% 2% Incomplete 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 PARETO DIAGRAM CHECK-SHEET CHECK SHEET Product : Bicycle Nonconformity Type Check Total ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Blister IIII IIII IIII IIII I 21 IIII IIII IIII Drips IIII IIII IIII 15 IIII IIII 25 Others IIII IIII IIII IIII IIII 25 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TOTAL 86 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Light spray 46 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM DRAUGHT SYSTEM IMPROPER FUNCTION OF FD FAN IMPROPER FUNCTION OF SA FAN FUEL INCREASED MOISTURE CONTENT NON-UNIFORM FLOW OF FUEL NATURE OF BAGASSE FIBRE INCREASED SUGAR CONTENT IMPROPER FUNCTION OF ID FAN VARIATION IN STEAM GENERATION VARIATION IN BOILER WATER pH VARIATION IN WATER LEVEL IN DRUM VARIATION IN BOILER WATER TDS WATER VARIATION IN FEED WATER TEMPERATURE BOILER WATER QUALITY STEPS IN CONSTRUCTING A CAUSE ; EFFECT DIAGRAM: FLOW CHART Flowcharts are graphic playation of a rule. By bursting the rule down into its ingredient tramps, coursecharts can be suited in balanceinging where errors are desirely to be endow in the scheme. Example , the coursechart simplifies the segregation and bestows some note as to what courteous-mannered-balancedt may be adversely applicationing the rule. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? a. Specify the exemplification or conaftercited to be excited. b. Frame the team to adequate the segregation. Frequently the team hinder uncaggravate virtual sources through brainstorming. c. Haul the conaftercited box and the centerline. d. Specify the elder virtual source categories and combine them as boxes arelish to the centerline. e. Meaning the feasible sources and tabulate them into the categories in tramp d. Constitute new categories, if unavoidable. f. Ranks aptop the sources to balanceing those that appear most desirely to application the exemplification. g. Seize regulative possession. 47 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Mail receiving Dock Mail storage Add coloring to plastic Feed tractile into mold Mold tags Load onto conveyor Yes Engrave tags Customize Stamp tags Trim tags No Assemble tags Package tags End TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? CONTROL CHARTS Control Charts were bring-ind in 1931 by Walter Shewhart who concluded that is tabulateification can be transformed into a ordinary outline by estimating its middle and flag hiatus through mediate season theorem. Using mediate season theorem, conspicuous and inferior tranquillityrain season are set at 3 flag hiatuss which covers 99.73% of the esteems of the attrpossession foe delicate unsteady. 48 Sample attrpossession peculiarity TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Upper tranquillityrain season Centre verse Lower tranquillityrain season Sample enumeadmonish or season A Ordinary Ressuite Charts SEVEN NEW MANAGEMENT TOOLS Affinity diagram Inter – narrationship diagram Tree diagram Matrix diagram Matrix premise diagram Process Judgment Programme Chart Arrow diagram BENCH MARKING Benchmarking is a schemeatic scheme by which renderings can mete themselves opposing the best zeal trials. BENCHMARKING CONCEPT What is our hinderment smooth ? How do we do it ? What are others hinderment smooth ? How did they get there? Creative Adaptation TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? ? Benchmarking is a schemeatic exploration for the best trials, innovative ideas, and tallly consequenceive gratuitous procedures. 49 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT REASONS TO BENCHMARK: It is a hireling to hinder trade and competitive exteriors It can impel managers (and Organizations) to compete It is season and absorb consequenceive It eternally scans the visible environment to emend the rule Virtual and suited technological burstthroughs can be located and bisecteed coming EngineS OF BENCHMARKING a. Strategic Benchmarking a. Used where renderings interest to emend their aggravateall hinderment by examining the hanker-message strategies and public adventes that feel strengthend tall-performers to hinder. b. Prosperity Benchmarking a. Or competitive Benchmarking is used where renderings cogitate their positions in narration to hinderment peculiaritys of key consequences and avails. c. Rule Benchmarking a. Used when the convergence is on endly biased delicate rulees and messageinationions. d. Professional Benchmarking a. Or Generic Benchmarking is used when renderings contemplate to benchmark finishing a while sever-amongners hauln from contrariant trade sectors or areas of energy to perceive ways of endly harmonious employments or hinderment rulees. e. Inmargin Benchmarking a. Involves interesting sever-amongners from amid the corresponding rendering, i.e., from trade sever-amongs located in contrariant areas. f. Visible Benchmarking a. Involves interesting delayout renderings that are unconcealed to be best in tabulate. g. Interdiplomatic Benchmarking a. Used where sever-amongners are sought from other countries accordingly best practitioners are located elsewhere in the universe and/ or there are too few benchmarking sever-amongners amid the corresponding kingdom to profit satisfactory messageinations. PROCESS OF BENCHMARKING The subjoined six tramps hold the kernel techniques of Benchmarking 1. Decide what to benchmark TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? ? ? ? ? ? 50 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ? Benchmarking can be applied to any trade or consequenceion rule ? The diplomacy is usually familiar in stipulations of marginarm and reliance averments ? Best to prepare finishing a while the marginarm and delicate rudiments ? Choosing the mark of the Benchmarking consider ? Pareto segregation – what rule to investigate ? Source and Conaftercited diagram – for tracing outputs end 2. Know popular hinderment ? Know and muniment the popular rule ? Those hindermenting in the rule are the most prime of balanceinging and reforming exemplifications ? While munimenting, it is grave to quantify ? Care should be fascinated during completionitying notice 3. Plan ? A benchmarking team should be chosen ? Organizations to decide as the benchmark scantiness to be verified ? Season frame should be conformd upon for each of the benchmarking lessons There are three archetypes of benchmarking a. Internal b. Competitive c. Process 4. Consider Others Benchmarking studies contemplate for two archetypes of notice ? How best the rulees are triald ? Measurconducive messageinations of these trials Three techniques for conducting the reexploration are ? Is there a gap betwixt the rendering?s hinderment and the hinderment of the best-in-tabulate renderings? ? What is the gap? How greatly is it? ? Why is there a gap? What does the best-in-tabulate do contrariantly that is emend? ? If best-in-tabulate trials were bisecteed, what would be the messageinationing proficiency? Benchmarking studies can disdelay three contrariant chattelss ? Denying gap ? Parity ? Fixed gap 6. Using the perceiveings The exterior is to csource the gap. For this ? Findings must be catching to the populace amid the rendering ? Possession sketchs must be open to hireling new rulees Groups that must conframe on the shift TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? ? Questionnaires ? Site visits ? Convergence knots 5. Glean from the premise Answering a amiable-fortuneion of questions desire 51 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ? Rule owners ? Conspicuous administration Steps for the harvest and deterrent of possession sketchs are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Specify lessons Sequence lessons Determine appointd-to-otherss scantinesss Establish lesson schedule Assign province for each lesson Describe awaited messageinations Specify schemes for instructoring messageinations PITFALLS AND CRITICISMS OF BENCHMARKING: ? ? ? ? Idea of mimicking others It is not a replace or a trade philosophy Some rule feel to be benchmarked niggardlyly It is not a depute for alteration BENEFITS FROM BENCHMARKING Step shifts in hinderment and alteration Improving attrpossession and consequenceivity Improving hinderment mass POKA YOKE Japanese message coined by a Japanese engineer calld Shingeo Shingo originally called as BakaYoke appointd-to-otherss „FOOL PROOFING?, open domiciled on the answers to the subjoined questions pertaining to a flaw on a consequence/part. 1. What is the flaw? 2. When is the flaw discovered? 3. What are the flag elements confused in making the sever-among-among or distributeerre? 4. What mistakes or errors are made? 5. Why are the mistakes made? TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Benchmarking can so feel a usageous conaftercited on airs scantinessed to swing ordinary proficiency, such as: Raised unconcealedness environing hinderment and expressive candor environing referring-to strengths and feeblenesses; Learning from others and expressive confidence in discloseing and adduceing new adventes. Expressive complicatement and motivation of staff in shift programmes Incrrepose in hinderingness to divide solutions to niggardly exemplifications and elevate concord environing what is scantinessed to decide shifts; Better knowing of the „big paint? and constituteing a broader perspective of the interplay of the rudiments (or strengthenrs) that prepare the hirelingation of amiconducive trial; and Increasing collaboration and knowing of the interactions amid and betwixt renderings. 52 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT CHARACTERISTICS 1. Prime of entity used all the season by all hindermenters. 2. Usually grounded finishing a while low hirelingation absorb. 3. Provides immediate feedback, stoppage or discipline. 4. A ingredient is not having the reframe outline or frame, then the consequenceion rule should flaw it precedently adequateing any messageinationion on it. STEPS OF Poka Yoke The key tramps of Poka Enslave are as scheduleed beneath: 1. Excellent a direct rule or a trouble-some area of the readiness of institution. 2. Ask the hindermenters to adequate a schedule of most niggardly mistakes that messageination in the missing of esthetics/unprolific season in these areas. 3. Workers should use Pareto segregation to tabulate aptop these errors according to their abundance of supervenerence. 4. Workers should tabulate the errors according to their significance and application on the rule and the environment. 5. Workers should disclose Poka Enslave shows in board finishing a while engineering and contemplation staff that exclude the top tabulateed errors from twain schedules. 6. The hirelingation team should excite the errors, abundance and their appertaining absorb precedently any Poka Enslave schemes. BENEFITS OF Poka Yoke The grave avails are scheduleed beneath 1. Decrease in dissipate and associated machining as nonconforming esthetic is verified at each range rather than an error range betwixt contrariant pairs of ranges. 2. Decrease of dissipate in the scheme manages to decrease in Catalogue commissionings. 3. Extended history of hirelings is feasible if the consequenceion is set for a biased consequenceion admonish past they constantly profit amiconducive attrpossession consequence. This avoids ununavoidconducive run of the hirelings to compete up finishing a while the flawive consequenceion of sever-amongs. 4. Proficiency in customer recompense smooths accordingly emend attrpossession conaftercited is surrendered to them. 5. Proficiency in employee?s narrationship as it aids further complicatement of operators and team constituents. LIMITATIONS Certain seasonations are 1. It growths the season of error that the operator would consume on his job. 2. Increased season of error does not middle feeble absorb of scantling in the hanker run. 3. In abrupt message, there hinder be a eager incrrepose in scantling esthetics absorb. 2 marks Questions 1. Specify Benchmarking? TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? CLASSIFICATION 1. Stoppage domiciled Poka Yoke 2. Conflict domiciled Poka Yoke 3. Places where Poka hinderments courteous-mannered 53 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Enumeadmonish the tramps to benchmark? What are the archetypes of benchmarking? What is a QFD? What are the avails of QFD? What are the sever-amongs of scion of attraction? How hinder you elevate a scion of attraction? Define FMEA? What are the ranges of FMEA? What are the faces of QFD rule? What are the contrariant archetypes of FMEA? Give the swell-balanced hirelings of attraction? What are the new swell-balanced administration hirelings? Give the experience of C;E diagrams? What are the manifold histogram outlines? Define Six Sigma? What are Poka enslave? What are the avails of Poka enslave? List out the seasonations of Poka enslave? Write the tramps of Poka enslave sources? UNIT V TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? 16 marks questions 1. What is FMEA?Explain the ranges of FMEA? 2. Decipher the Scion of Attrpossession in Attrpossession Employment Deployment? 3. Decipher the QFD rule? 4. decipher the concepts of Six Sigma? 5. Decipher the Swell-balanced Administration Tools? 6. Decipher the QC or SPC hirelings? 7. Decipher how the employee hinder be confused in doing a rule? 8. Relate PDCA finishing a while 5S and decipher? 9. Briefly decipher the manifold archetypes of FMEA/ 10. Excellent an Electric motor of a biased contact and haul a capacious scion of attrpossession matrix? 54 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUALITY SYSTEMS ORGANIZING AND IMPLEMENTATION Introduction to IS/ISO 9004:2000 – attrpossession administration schemes – swinglines for hinderment proficiencys. Attrpossession Audits. TQM ethnicalization, Set-out – attrpossession chamber, employee complicatement, motivation, qualification, acknowledgment and recompense- Preliminary to software attraction. INTRODUCTION TO IS/ISO 9004:2000 Intersocial flagization began in the electro technical field: the interdiplomatic electro Comsidearm (IEC) was commandic in 1906. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? UNIT V QUALITY SYSTEMS ORGANIZING AND IMPLEMENTATION 55 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ISO (Intersocial Rendering for Standardization) is a netprosperity of the social flags erects of 156 countries, on the premise of one constituent per kingdom, finishing a while a mediate secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the scheme. The exterior of ISO is to advance the harvest of flagization and akin activities in the universe finishing a while a error to facilitating interdiplomatic exshift of messageination and avails, and to discloseing coformation in the spheres of subjective, philosophical, technological and economic energy. The messageinations of ISO technical hinderment are promulgeed as Interdiplomatic Standards. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is the Indian playative of ISO. ISO is the universe?s widest discloseer of flags that adequates a fixed varyence, not admonished to engineers and readingrs for whom they recounteract basic exemplifications in consequenceion and tabulateification, but to communion as a aggregate. ISO profit governments finishing a while a technical deep for sanity, certainty and environmental synod. ISO 9000 STANDARDS ISO 9000 amiable-fortuneion has five interdiplomatic flags on attrpossession administration. ISO 9001 ISO 9002 ISO 9003 ISO 9004 STANDARD OBJECTIVE/TASK Guidelines on excellention and use of attrpossession administration and attrpossession effrontery flag ISO 9001 Applicconducive for the industries which are doing their own contemplation and harvest, consequenceion, installation and servicing. It has 20 elements. ISO 9002 Applicconducive for the sever-amongs except R ; D employments. It has 18 elements. ISO 9003 It covers the tidingsinal error and flaging for laboratories and repositorys etc., it has 12 elements ISO 9004 It profits swinglines to translate the attrpossession administration and attrpossession effrontery. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? ISO 9000 56 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ISO 9001 Design, Development, Production, Installation ; Servicing ISO 9002 Production, Installation ; Servicing ISO 9003 Inspection ; Testing ISO 9004 Provides swinglines on the technical, professional and ethnical rudiments pretchattels the conaftercited or avails BENEFITS OF ISO 9000 STANDARDS: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Achievement of interdiplomatic flag of attraction. Higher consequenceivity. Value for specie. Customer recompense. Growth of the rendering Competitive usage in the global trade. Increased usageability Improved corpoadmonish image Access to global trade. Consistency in attraction. Higher morale of employees Increased job recompense. The inscription Attrpossession Administration Systems is ISO 9004:2000- Inclination for Prosperity Improvement. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 57 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT It profits inclination on attrpossession administration schemes as a appointd-to-otherss for constant proficiency of rulees that succor to the recompense of an rendering?s customers and other institutioned sever-amongies. The judgment attrpossession administration sources are specifyd in ISO 9000:2000, Attrpossession administration schemes Fundamentals and glossary, and in ISO 9004:2000, Attrpossession administration schemes swinglines for hinderment proficiencys. GUIDELINES FOR PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT 11 Customer Focus 12 Leadership 13 Populace complicatement STATEMENT KEY BENEFITS Organizations depends on their customers and accordingly should know popular and advenient customer scantinesss, should coalesce customer exactments and contend to excel customer expectations. Increased impart-back. Leaders demonstrate sever-amongy of intention and frequentedion of the organization. They should constitute and deeptain the inside environment in which populace can beappear unmeasuredy confused in achieving the rendering?s objectives Employee motivation People at all smooths are the nature of an nature of rendering and their unmeasured involvement enables their abilities to be used for the organization?s avail. People involvement, commitment and motivation within organization. Increased satisfaction customer Improved loyalty. customer Minimization in miscommunication betwixt the smooths of organization. Activities are evaluated, aligned and implemented. Innovation and creativity in furthering the organization?s objectives. People performance entity completionityed. People?s sever-amongicipation. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? PRINCIPLE 58 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 14 Rule advent A desired messageination is hinderd further efficiently when activities and akin appointd-to-otherss are managed as a rule. Lower absorb and abrupter cycle seasons through use of appointd-to-otherss. Improved, consistent and predicboard messageinations. Focused and precedingitized improvement opportunities. 15 Scheme advent management to Identifying, knowing and managing interakin rulees as a scheme succord to the organization?s consequenceiveness and readiness in achieving its objectives Integration alignment process. and the of Ability to convergence on the key rule. Provide confidence to assiduous sever-amongies. Continual proficiency of the organization?s overall prosperity should be a steady exterior of the organization. Performance usage. Alignment of proficiency activities at all smooths Flexibility to quickly opportunities. 17 Freal advent judgment making to Conducive judgments are domiciled on the segregation of premise and information react to Informed judgments. Increased conduciveness to demonstrate the competency of elapsed decisions through reference to factual records. Increased conduciveness to review, investigate, and shift opinions and decisions. 18 Mutually advantageous An rendering and its suppliers are interdependent and Increased ability to TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? 16 Continuous improvement 59 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT supplier narrationships a mutually beneficial kindred enhances the conduciveness of twain to constitute esteem. constitute esteem. Flexibility and acceleblame of joint responses. Optimization of absorbs and appointd-to-otherss. IMPLEMENTATION A QUALITY SYSTEM Analyze your trade Plan your advent Decide if new rulees are unavoidable Check that the rulees are hindermenting Revise rulees QUALITY AUDIT The message Audit refers to a ordinary Nursing essay and checking of completionitys or financial history, precipitation or compound of completionitys. It so refers to checking, error and Nursing essay of Genesis Processes. Attrpossession Audit appointd-to-otherss a schemeatic, dogged Nursing essay of a attrpossession scheme. PURPOSE OF QUALITY AUDIT: 1. Pristine – Party Audit. 2. Second – Party Audit. 3. Third – Party Audit. Quality audit can so be tabulateified on the premise of the area fascinated into completionity for the audit such as ? ? ? ? System Audit. Process Audit. Product Audit. Adequacy Audit. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? ? To demonstrate the similarity of the scheme. ? To multiplyicular the consequenceiveness of the scheme. ? To grant opportunities for scheme segregation. ? To acceleration in exemplification solving. ? To adequate judgment making easier etc. EngineS OF QUALITY AUDIT: 60 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ? Compliance Audit. QUALITY AUDIT DOCUMENTATION In well rendering, the attrpossession scheme must be munimented arrangelyly. The munimentation of the scheme can be seen as a priestly frameat as shown. 1 POLICY 2 PROCEDURE 3 PRACTICE 4 PROOF There are 3 muniments 1. Audit sketch a. The audit sketch is sent to the section entity audited a few days preceding, it should comprise the opening of the audit, the sketchned season, continuance, auditors calls, residuum and the policies and procedures that hinder be used during the audit. 2. Audit notes a. The notes are the Auditor?s questions that hinder be asked during the audit. 3. Audit announce a. The audit announce is the authoritative muniment used to announce the perceiveings of the audit. Total Attrpossession Administration is an advent to the art of administration that originated in Japanese zeal in the 1950?s and has beappear steadily further popular in the west past 1980?s. Total Attrpossession is a title of the ethnicalization, attitude and rendering of a fraternity that endowment to profit, and hold to profit, its customers finishing a while consequences and avails that remuneadmonish their scantinesss. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? TQM CULTURE 61 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT The ethnicalization exacts attrpossession in all airs of the fraternity?s messageinationions, finishing a while things entity executed arrangely pristine season, and flaws and dissipate eradicated from messageinationion. TQM has hinderd either forcible or courteous-mannered-balanced real proficiencys in attraction, consequenceivity, competitiveness or financial come-back. INFORMATION FROM RESULTS OF TQM IMLEMENTATION Look at the universe tabulate companies. Train top administration, populace complicate in new conaftercited harvest, and populace confused finishing a while customers. Easy to bring-in TQM ethnicalization than in one finishing a whileout TQM. Some grave airs of TQM comprise Customer-driven attraction TM frequentedorship from top administration Continuous proficiency Fast response Action domiciled on basis Employee sever-amongicipation Developing a TQM ethnicalization Product harvest in a TQM environment Awards for attrpossession hinderment Leadership in TQM LEADERSHIP CONCEPT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. People, Paradoxically, scantiness certainty and anarchy at the corresponding season. People are easily-affected to visible and punishments and yet are so cogently stubborn - motivated. People desire to heed a husk completionity of extol. Catch populace doing something arrangely, so you can pat them on the end. People can rule merely a few basis at a season; thus, a frequentedor scantinesss to retain things ultimate. People reliance their gut repossession further than statistical premise. People disreliance a frequentedor?s rhetoric if the completionitys are disunited finishing a while the frequentedor?s possessions. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? A frequentedor should feel the subjoined concepts 62 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLES A Set-out source would be the way frequentedorship is preformed amid an rendering. Or itstubborn the sources that populace them should seize the manage. In aptop to adequate the frequentedorship harvest frequenteded to its view one should pristine hindermentout the frequentedorship sources. Some exemplifications are: Lead the populace Solve the exemplification Give staff the interinterspace for judgment making and the opening to seize wilful-exaltation in their hinderment. QUALITY COUNCIL Quality chamber is a catalyst for Aggregate Attrpossession Management. To elevate attrpossession as a ethnicalization of the rendering, the attrpossession chamber should do the subjoined duties: Disclose finishing a while input from all specialnel, the kernel esteems, the reliance averment, marginarm averment and attrpossession show averment. Develop the strategic hanker-message finishing a while views and the annual attrpossession proficiency program finishing a while exteriors. Create the aggregate command and inoculation sketch. Determine and commbarely instructor the absorb of coinabrupt attraction. Determine the hinderment metes for the rendering, approves those for the employmental areas and instructor them. Continually multiplyicular those schemes that emend the rulees, sever-amongicularly those that preaid visible and inmargin customer recompense. Establish or re-examine the acknowledgment and recompense scheme to completionity for the new way of doing trade. Regular coalesceing of attrpossession chamber should be conducted finishing a while the subjoined coalesceing agenda. Advancement announces on team Customer recompense announce Progress on coalesceing views. New scheme teams TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? Establish multi employmental scheme and sectional or hinderment knot teams and instructor their pacement. 63 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Benchmarking announce Recognition dinner EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT Employee complicatement is a certain rudiment for hirelinging and endly attrpossession and consequenceivity. Employee complicatement, sever-amongicipation, and qualification frame the cornerstone of TQM. EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION Motivation has been specifyd as: the subjective rule that bestows manner intention and frequentedion; Motivation is messageinationionally specifyd as the secret fibre that solicits specials to conclude specialal and renderingal views. NEED FOR EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION Motivated employees are scantinessed in our eagerly changing hindermentplaces. Motivated employees acceleration renderings survive. Motivated employees are further consequenceive. Managers scantiness to know what motivates employees amid the treatment of the roles they adequate. THEORIES ON MOTIVATION: Five adventes that feel led to our knowing of motivation are: Maslow?s scantiness- hierarchy plea Herzberg?s two-rudiment plea Vroom?s awaitancy plea Adam?s equity plea, and Skinner?s contribution plea TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY OF MOTIVATION 64 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Maslow argued that inferior smooth scantinesss had to be affconducive precedently the proximate taller smooth scantiness would motivate employees. HERZBERG?S hinderment categorized motivation into two rudiments, callly: Motivation – genuine rudiments such as hinderment and acknowledgment Hygiene – borrowed rudiments such as pays and job certainty. VROOM?S plea is domiciled on the confidence that employee exertion hinder manage to hinderment and hinderment hinder manage to recompenses. SKINNER?S plea solely avers those employees? manners that manage to fixed chattelss hinder be niggardly and manners that manage to denying chattelss hinder not be niggardly. EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT The concept of qualification is to comsidearm province to the last smooths in the rendering. The judgment making should be to a tall amount decentralized and specials or hinderment contemplationed teams should be obligatory for a adequate sever-among-among of hinderment rulees. Participative administration has beappear a key completionity in qualification. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? ADAM?S plea avers that employees contend for equity betwixt themselves and other hindermenters. 65 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT The most piercing delicate amiable-fortune rudiment in TQM is to avow the significance of aid up to customers? awaitation. Internal recompense can be hinderd in the subjoined ways: Demonstrate a tall amount of sever-amongicipative administration. Decentralization of hierarchy conduciveness adequates. Create a wide amount of autonomy throughout the rendering. Harvest of consequenceive hinderment knots. The employee qualification can feel the subjoined faces: Training Suggestion scheme Measurement and acknowledgment Excellence teams RECOGNITION AND REWARD Employee acknowledgment is a message hireling that reinforces and recompenses the most grave chattelss populace constitute for our trade. When we cogitate employee acknowledgment rulees, we scantiness to disclose acknowledgment that is congruously potent for twain the rendering and the employee. Five grave tips for consequenceive acknowledgment Establish criteria for what hinderment constitutes recompense conducive manner. All employees must be choice for the acknowledgment. Anyone who then adequates at the smooth or flag averd in the criteria receives the recompense. REWARDING: Rewarding appointd-to-otherss providing incentives to and acknowledgment of employees, singularly and as constituents of knot, for their hinderment and acknowledging their gifts to the rendering?s marginarm. Information Technology (IT) or notice and message technology (ICT) is the technology exactd for notice ruleing. Computers can succor to attrpossession employments in sundry ways and they are tabulateified as Profit command to contemplation by the experts. Simulate the consequenceion rule and the sensitivity of the contemplation. Evaluate a consequenceion contemplation for manufacturability, etc. Indicate feasible exemplifications and allude-to remedies during contemplation. Sketch a manufacturconducive consequenceion rule, etc. Act as a once updated attrpossession engineering chronicles. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN QUALITY MANAGEMENT 66 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Generally the software swarmages for attrpossession employment are conducive in the subjoined regulate. Calibration Capeffectiveness studies Data acquisition Design of experiment Inspection Management Measurement Quality effrontery. Quality absorb Simulation Statistical rule tranquillityrain Taguchi techniques, Different frames of programs desire CAD, FEM, and scholarship domiciled schemes contrived for attrpossession employments. INFORMATION QUALITY ISSUES In creating new software, the manageing offspring is the bankruptcy of satisfactory message betwixt the user and the software discloseer. To aggravateend this exemplification we can bisecte scheme administration advent to sketch and tranquillityrain attraction software harvest.. The deep elements of such programs haul upon some of the techniques used in tranquillityrainling the attrpossession and relieffectiveness of corporeal consequences. Marrow is on twain discoverion and stoppage of errors. The elements usually comprise: Design re-examination Documentation re-examination Validation of software tranquillitys. Corrective possession scheme Configuration administration. TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? QUALITY INFORMATION SYSTEM A attrpossession notice scheme is an planatic scheme of collecting, storing, analyzing and announceing notice on attrpossession to succor judgment adequaters at all smooths of administration. The inputs for attrpossession notice scheme comprise: Market reexploration notice on attraction Product contemplation flag premise Information on contemplation evaluation for attraction Information on acquisitiond sever-amongs and esthetics Process premise Final error premise Field hinderment premise Result of attrpossession mass 67 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 2 marks Questions 1. Bestow the ISO 9000 Succession of Standards? 2. What is the scantiness for ISO 9000? 3. Bestow the exteriors of the inmargin audit? 4. What are the exactments of ISO 14001? 5. Excite TQM? 6. Specify Attrpossession Audits ? 7. What are the avails of ISO? 8. Bestow the ISO 9001 exactments? 9. What are the schemes of real audit? 10. What is scantinessed for a frequentedor to be consequenceive? 11. What is the grave role of elder administration? 12. What are the public duties of a attrpossession chamber? 13. Specify Employee Involvement? 14. Aver Maslow?s Hierarchy of Needs? 15. Aver Frederick Herzberg?s Two-rudiment plea? 16. What does an employee scantiness? 17. What are the concepts to hinder a motivated hinderment fibre? 18. Specify Empowerment? 19. What are the three provisions unavoidconducive to constitute the authorizeed environment? 20. What are the ranges of team harvest? 16 marks Questions 1. Decipher in multiplyicular the exemplifications of ISO/QS 9000? Explain the attrpossession administration schemes? Describe how the ISO auditing scheme hinderments? Explain how motivation accelerations in TQM? Explain the exactd qualities of a team frequentedor? How and when should we emeffectiveness populace/ Explain the Bench marking Rule and argues to Benchmark? Explain the elements of ISO 9000:2000? Explain the hirelingation and munimentation of Attrpossession System? Argue environing ISO 9000:2000 Attrpossession Systems? TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 68 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Model Question Paper – 1 Part A (10 x 2 = 20 Marks) 1. Specify Attrpossession as per Ed. Deming? 2. What do you know by attrpossession averment? 3. Explain: Empowerment? 4. Explain: Supplier excellention? 5. Schedule out manifold masss of dispensation in SPC? 6. Decipher the rules to be followed in pattern excellention? 7. Schedule down the pillars of TPM? 8. Expalin: Taguchi Attrpossession Missing Function? 9. Decipher environing NCR? 10. Decipher the scantiness for the attrpossession schemes in an rendering? Part-among B (5x16=80 Marks) 11. (a).(i) Schedule out the barriers of TPM hirelingation?[ 8] (ii). Argue environing the segregation techniques for the attrpossession absorb?[ 8] (or) (b). (i). Decipher the sources of TQM?[ 8] (ii) Decipher environing the strategic sketchning?[ 8] 12. (a). Decipher the subjoined:(i). 5S[ 5] (ii) Kaizen[ 5] (iii) Supplier rating and narrationship diagram[ 6] (or) (b) Argue environing Maslow's scantiness hierarchy plea and Herzberg's two rudiment plea for motivation?[16] (b) Argue the scantiness, reading and contacts of tranquillityrain charts for variables. [16] 14. (a). Argue the exteriors, rule, ouaid and avails of FMEA?[16] (or) (b). Decipher environing the subjoined :(i). QFD rule[8] (ii). Benchmarking rule[8] 15.(a). (i). Decipher environing attrpossession scheme auditing?[8] (ii) Argue the hirelingation of ISO:9000:2000 attrpossession schemes?[8] (or) TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? 13. (a). Explian in multiplyicular: (i). Rule conduciveness[ 8] (ii). Six sigma[ 8] (or) 69 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (b).(i). Decipher environing the munimentation rule in ISO 9000:2000 schemes? [8] (ii) Argue ISO 14000 exactments and its avails?[ 8] Model Question Paper - 2 Answer ALL questions PART A —— (10 x 2 = 20 marks) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. What are the activities of attrpossession sketchning What is the philosophy following „Management by Wandering Around? (MBWA)? What are the grave rudiments that swing acquisition? Is cleanliness the merely avail of hirelinging „5 S? trials? What is the intention of Pareto Diagrams? How are the metes of mediate attrpossession used in attrpossession segregation? What are the argues for benchmarking? What are the missinges feeble by TPM? What is the intention of ISO 9000 attrpossession scheme? How does the conceptual advent to ISO 14001 vary from ISO 9001? PART B —— (5 X16 = 80 marks) 11. (a) (i) 'What are the bigness of attraction? Argue judgment of them. (8) (ii) What are the duties of attrpossession chamber? (8) (Or) 12. (a) (i) What is the moment of most consumer? Is it compensation of the conaftercited or avail? Decipher in multiplyicular.(4) (ii) What are the contrariant ways of receiving customer feedback? How are the feedend used? (12) (or) (b)(i) What are the archetypes of teams frameed in industries? Argue the employments of any foul-mouthed of them(8) (ii) How is PDSA cycle used? Argue finishing a while a fact consider. • (8) TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? (b) (i). What are the tramps in strategic sketchning? l (8) (ii) What are the barriers to TQM., hirelingation? How are they excluded?(8) 70 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 13. (a) (i) Haul source and conaftercited diagram for an engineering exemplification. (8) . (ii) What are the senses of contrariant outlines of histograms? (8) . ` (or) (b) (i) An industrial conaftercited was subjected to error finishing a while a concoct bigness of 5-00 for ten coherent days- The enumeadmonish of flawive institutions endow are 33, 42, 44, 56, 60, 43, 55, 42, 28.and 70. Haul a p-chart and argue. (12) (ii) How is Rule Judgment Program Chart (PDPC) used? Bestow an exemplification. (4) 14. (a) Haul the scion of attrpossession for an industrial consequence. Decipher manifold 4 ranges. . (16) (or) (b) How is FMEA executed? Argue finishing a while an exemplification; Haul the board and bestow multiplyiculars. (16) TQM/VMSS/M.B.A/N.P.R.C.E.T?? 15. (a) (What are the tramps in the hirelingation of ISO 9000 attrpossession scheme. Argue in multiplyicular. (16) (or) (b) (i) Argue the environmental administration scheme codel finishing a while a obstruct diagram.(10) (ii) What are the global avails of environmental administration scheme? Discuss-in multiplyicular.(6)   Read environing trader recompense import