The Grand Renaissance Dam

This needs to be a 5 page paper on The Grand Renaissance Dam being built in Ethiopia and the controversy behind it (between the countries further up the Nile such as Egypt) .

– I have provided 3 scholarly sources which can be used. I have completed the first 2 pages of the paper, so I just need the last 3 completed.

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History 304

18 January 2020

The Grand Renaissance Dam

The Nile River is one of the most unique and powerful water sources in the world. The Nile is over 4,000 miles in length and is the longest river in Africa and arguably in the world. The main river receives water from Lake Victoria as well as the White Nile and Blue Nile. These powerful waters flow through 11 countries including: Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, Sudan and Egypt. The Nile has many factors which make it unique as compared to other rivers. One factor is the flow of this water is unique because it is the only river which flows from South to North. Another unique factor about this river is how it floods. The Nile is the only river in the world where there is a predictable flood pattern. Each year, heavy summer rains upstream and melting snow in the Ethiopian Mountains would fill the Blue Nile well over its capacity and send loads of water downstream. The extra water would then spill over the banks onto the dry desert land of Egypt. This over flow of water would create what is known as Kemet, which is black fertile soil which is filled with nutrients for crops.

The power and uniqueness of this river has led to many disputes over which country should have control over it. Ever since the countries which the Nile runs through have been developed, there has been attempts to collaborate on who should officially have rights to that waters. Finally, in 1927, a treaty called The 1929 Nile Water Agreements, settled the commotion. In the Treaty, “It contemplates that the Sudan shall be permitted to draw from the Nile such a quantity of water as will not impinge upon this traditional prerogative or infringe the “requirements of the agricultural extension” of Egypt”[footnoteRef:1]. This gave rights to veto projects higher up the Nile that would affect its water share. The treaty may be confusing to some due to it being mainly only between Egypt and Britain, as well as why Egypt gets favor out of the other 10 countries. Egypt received favor in this treaty because due to history and need. It is known in Egypt is one of the oldest civilization in the world, and since the beginning of it’s history this water is their source of life with all of the countries cities being built upon it. The treaty was between Egypt and Britain because Britain at the time represented Uganda, Kenya, Tanganyika (now Tanzania) and Sudan. [1: Pierre Crabitès. 1929. “The Nile Waters Agreement.”]

The Nile river has been in recent news with the construction of The Grand Renaissance Dam in Ethiopia. Though it is being constructed in Ethiopia, because it is being built along the Nile, which flows Further north countries will also be affected by this decision, one of these countries being Egypt. The controversy in this topic arises because Ethiopia began construction of this dam without the consent of their neighbor country Egypt, which is within violation of the Treaty. Possible arguments which this topic will bring to surface is are the benefits which Ethiopia will gain from this dam worth more than what Egypt will lose from this project.

History 304

6 January 2020

Paper topic assignment

1) What are you planning on writing about?

2) Where in the Mediterranean does your topic come from?

3) What possible questions do you have about this topic prior to researching it?

4) What kinds of arguments is it possible to make about this topic?

For my research paper, I will be reviewing the construction of The Grand Renaissance Dam in Ethiopia. Though it is being constructed in Ethiopia, because it is being built along the Nile, which flows from south to north, Further north countries will also be affected by this decision, one of these countries being Egypt. The controversy in this topic arises because Ethiopia began construction of this dam without the consent of their neighbor countries, which is not only not thoughtful but may also be within violation of laws. Questions I have about this topic is does Ethiopia actually have to ask permission to build in their own land. Possible arguments which this topic will bring to surface is are the benefits which Ethiopia will gain from this dam worth more than what Egypt will lose from this project.

Bibliography

1. Whittington D, Waterbury J, and Jeuland M. 2014. “The Grand Renaissance Dam and Prospects for Cooperation on the Eastern Nile.” Water Policy 16 (4): 595–608. doi:10.2166/wp.2014.011.

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https://search.proquest.com/docview/1943077086/fulltextPDF/45B25E8178A5489DPQ/1?accountid=36823

2. Gebreluel, Goitom. 2014. “Ethiopia’s Grand Renaissance Dam: Ending Africa’s Oldest Geopolitical Rivalry?” The Washington Quarterly 37 (2): 25–37. doi:10.1080/0163660X.2014.926207.

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http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=1&sid=5da1ee59-cba2-48ee-a6f8-0a889e190aeb%40sdc-v-sessmgr02&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=96764513&db=f5h

3. Crabitès Pierre. 1929. “The Nile Waters Agreement.” Foreign Affairs 8 (1): 145–49.

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http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=6103e7b0-635b-4ecf-ac0e-6a89c284d192%40pdc-v-sessmgr03

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