SE494 A 1

 Prepare report on Haptic Interface for Mobile Technology. It should be in IGU writing format

Your two pages MS Word  document  should address the following topics.

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  • Definition of haptic interface.
  • The difference between Haptic Touch vs 3D Touch in the mobile technology
  • Classification of haptic interactions with real environments 
  • Haptic interfaces for Body-based devices for mobile healthcare applications
  • Skin-integrated wireless haptic interfaces for mobile healthcare applications
  • Haptic Interface mobile phone examples for mobile healthcare applications
Mobile Interaction Design
Matt Jones
Gary Marsden

ISBN 0-470-09089-8

Chapter 1
Mobiles everywhere
What should they be?
Impoverished interactions?
Imaginative designs
Impoverishing design
How Times Have Changed
“In 1954, the Marquis of Donegal heard that the Duke of Edinburgh possessed a mobile radio set with which he phoned through to Buckingham Palace – and anyone else on the network – while driving in London. The Marquis was more than a little jealous, and enquired of the postmaster general whether he, too, could have such a telephone. The polite but firm reply was “no”. In the mid-1950s, if you were the husband of the Queen you could have a mobile telephone connection to the public network. But if you were a mere marquis, you could go whistle”

(Agar, J. (2004). Learning from the mobile phone. Journal of the Royal Society of Arts (January 2004): 26-27.)
Phenomenal Success
Nearly two billion mobile phones users
Under 10m in 1993; by mid 2003 ten times this in China alone
Multiple handsets per user in some countries
Singaporean users sent and received two hundred text messages per month on average.
…and Disappointment
In 2005, just several million PDAs sold
Lacklustre take up of early advanced handsets and services
Basic mobile devices and services (voice and messaging) are so successful because they meet human needs in direct and simple ways
Need a mobile design perspective that:
More about people than smartPhones
People can be smart, creative,busy (or plain bored)
But What Are Mobiles?
Diverse set of functions
some simple messaging; others mini-computers
Diverse form factors
size, shape, interaction elements
Users attachment to them…
wearables, RFID, implants…
Example Mobiles
Thad Starner and the eyeglass output device (Starner, 2003). Reproduced by permission of the Georgia Institute of Technology
MediaCup (coffee cup with sensors and communication technologies embedded in base) (Gellerson et al., 2002). Reproduced by permission of Michael Beigl
IBM wristwatch device (Raghunath and Narayanaswami, 2002). Reproduced by permission of IBM Research
What Should They Be?
Communication or information device?
Appliance or Swiss-army device?
Cherished item or throwaway?
Communication or Information Devices?
Used to be 2 species of mobile device
Communication orientated
Information orientated
But 1997 saw the species barrier begin to divide…
Communication or Information Devices?
The information revolution optimists:
Mobile phones used to be functionally direct replacements of their wired forebears. Now they have suddenly become platforms for entertainment and commerce and tools for information management and media consumption”
Lindholm, C. et al (2003). Mobile Usability – How Nokia Changed the Face of the Mobile Phone, McGraw-Hill Professional.
Communication or Information Devices?
The communication advocate:
“…mobile devices will be first and foremost about offering users the ability to keep in touch with friends, family and colleagues, and that this will take precedence over technologies and applications that will offer information access and use.”

“If one thinks about human communication in the (sic) general, one will note that exchanges between people are not all the same, as if a hello were the same as a summons, as if a whisper from a lover is the same as a bellow from the boss. Yet if one looks at current communications applications and protocols one will see there are few alternatives made available to the user, and people cannot vary the way they call their friends, partners or colleagues, except perhaps through the use of text”

“Many information delivering services and products, for example, require larger screens than most current GSM devices do, and this may lead to expanding the form factor to a level that makes constant carrying difficult or at least irritating and burdensome”.
Harper, R. (2003). People versus Information: The Evolution of Mobile Technology. 5th International Symposium on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (Mobile HCI 2003), Udine, Italy, Springer.
Design Exercise – Expressive Communication
What features might a future mobile device have to help users express themselves more fully when communicating with another person in another location?
Discuss the pros and cons of each proposal.
Appliance or Swiss Army Knife
Specialised purpose device (e.g. document reader; image capture)
Small, focussed set of functions
Used in conjunction with other appliances
Appliance or Swiss Army Knife?
Swiss Army Knives
“Sure, it is fun to look at, sure it is handy if you are off in the wilderness and it is the only tool you have, but of all the umpteen things it does, none of them are done particularly well.”
Norman, D. A. (1999). The Invisible Computer – Why Good Products Can Fail, The Personal Computer is So Complex, And Information Appliances are the Solution. Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press.
Over-featured computing devices
Trying to do everything, always
Mobile Appliances?
Why might the simplfying “appliance” vision be particularly attractive in the mobile context?
What are the downsides?
Cherished Device or Commodity Tool?
Vertu vs disposable phones
The importance of style and fashion
Walk-up and Use Mobiles…
Not all mobiles are well-loved, personal devices with one long-term user who wants to personalise and adapt it to suit their specific needs and image.
Some are mobile equivalents of familiar walk-up and-use technologies like cash-dispensing machines and public transport ticket vending devices.
Discuss the characteristics of these sort of mobiles….
Impoverished Designs?
Imaginative ways of overcoming size limitations
Peephole displays; Fastap keypad
Textual, audio, gestural, tactile, embodied interaction…
Overcoming Limited Screen Size?
Peephole displays
Large virtual display area, browsed through lens of handheld
Unfoldable displays
e.g. FOLED technology
Overcoming Limited Input Space
Twiddler – active chording techique
Reproduced by permission of Kent Lyons
Fastap – passive chording techique
Reproduced by permission of Digit Wireless
Modalities – Alternative Ways of Interacting
auditory icons
speech synthesis/recognition
nomadic radio:
combines spatialised audio
auditory cues
speech synthesis/recognition
The Trouble with Speech
Out-of-vocabulary words.
Cognitive burden.
Speech recognition and synthesis look natural choices for mobile interaction, but there are problems:
Haptic interfaces
Simple uses in mobiles? (vibration instead of ringtone)
Sony’s Touchengine
physiological experiments show you can perceive two stimulus 5ms apart, and spaced as low as 0.2 microns
Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs)

GUMMI bendable display prototype
Reproduced by permission of Sony CSL

Gestural interfaces
1. Micro-gestures
(unistroke, smartPad)
2. Device-based gestures
(tilt based examples)
3. Embodied interaction
(eye toy)
Can combine modalities
Redundancy is useful to overcome ambiguity and missed input
More efficient way of interacting: “Give me this” (pointing) vs “Give me the lamb al fornia in bol sauce”.
Quickset Tablet PC
Impovershing Interactions
Emotional impact
People often very frustrated with conventional computers. Some causes:
badly worded error messages;
non-robust data connections;
system freezes;
long download times; and,
difficult navigation schemes
All of above potentially worse on mobile
Impoverishing Design
Rather than making excuses for our bad design based on the “impoverished” interfaces, try to address the poor designs being developed.
Look now at impacts of bad design
Reasons for bad design
Mobiles Are in Safety-critical Contexts
Ethical impacts
“one of the processors embedded in your car could signal your PDA that it’s time for an oil change. The request for an appointment is simultaneously received by your cell phone, which interacts transparently with the PDA to schedule both the appointment and the oil change.” (Di Pietro and Mancini 2003).
Mobiles Are in Safety-critical Contexts
A car radio analysis shows how a range of interaction design problems might lead to a driver being seriously distracted (Marsden, Duquenoy et al. 1999). Examples include:
routine tasks when operating the radio took a long time, requiring the drivers full attention;
drivers had to move their head closer to the device, reducing their road vision, to read a display;
and, the device used “time-outs”, undoing some sequence of user settings if the driver failed to complete the process in time, encouraging them to persist in interacting with the radio when they should return their full attention to the driving conditions.
Radios are relatively simple compared to the navigation and route guidance systems, traffic congestion monitors and other services becoming available to drivers.
Environmental Impact
“ Maybe it’s too pragmatic, too, modest but I guess we can design products that people will actually want to keep, even when they are technologically obsolete”.
Jonathan Ive, vice-president of industrial design, Apple and designer of iMac and iPod (Ive 2004)
Environmental Impact
Working with Motorola, researchers at Warwick University (UK) developed mobile phone covers which when planted, naturally degrade and grow into a flower. Work was motivated by the environmental impact of increasing mountains of disposed mobile phones.
Reproduced by permission of the University of Warwick
Economic Impact
For many years now, usability evangelists have used economic argument to urge companies to take interaction design issues seriously.
Jacob Nielsen, one of the most successful and vocal of the ease-of-use gurus puts it this way: “…usable design saves money and saves jobs” (Nielsen 2003)
Significance for mobiles?
Reasons for Bad Design

Financial short-termism
Technical difficulties
Bug blindness
Early adopter bias


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