research questions

 you will reflect on the problem statement from your Prospectus Form and develop research questions for your Doctoral Study. 

Please provide two questions based on problem statement in prospectus form

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DHAProspectus Form

Students | Complete your

doctoral

prospectus

within this form. Write your responses in the white spaces using a scholarly tone and include in-text citations and APA reference entries where appropriate. You can click on underlined terms and headings for descriptions, resource links, and examples located in the

Appendix

. For additional prospectus information and resources, refer to the

Doctoral Research Coach

. Complete the

Research Design Alignment Table

within this form using the information from earlier sections and self-assess your research design alignment. Submit this completed form into

MyDR

for formal evaluation and feedback when your committee chair indicates that you are ready to do so.

Student’s Name | Sherri Williams Student ID | A01031204

Program and Specialization* | DDHA 8246 Submission Date | 12/20/2021

*Remember that your study focus must be within the realm of your program and specialization area.

Evaluators Only | Complete this section and provide feedback on responses and rubric scores in the form where noted.
Committee Chairperson Name: Click or tap here to enter text. Overall Assessment: Choose score.
Second Committee Member Name: Click or tap here to enter text. Overall Assessment: Choose score.
PhD Program Director: Click or tap here to enter text. Overall Assessment: Choose score.

Title

In 12 words or less, what is the working title for this study? Include the topic, variables and relationship between them, and the most critical key words.

Obstacles to fair access to high-quality health care for rural populations

Supporting Literature
The first step in developing your prospectus is to search the literature related to the general area related to healthcare administration you want to investigate (see social problem below). In your review of recent, empirical literature, what keywords did you search and in what databases?

The keywords and databases searched included Replace this text with your response.

Search Log

Database

Search Terms

Results

Notes

Google Scholar

HealthCare Costs, Benefits, Cost Control, Transportation, Health Barriers, Challenges

460,000

Too Broad

Google Scholar

HealthCare Costs, Benefits, Cost Control, Transportation, Health Barriers, Challenges

17,700

Still Too Broad

ProQuest

Transportation in rural areas

1234

Better relevant to the topic

Provide at maximum of 10 brief summaries of recent, scholarly (peer-reviewed) articles and empirical literature. The summaries should include: a) 3 – 5 brief summaries within the last 5 years that justify a current and relevant problem in your discipline or professional field; b) article(s) that support your theoretical/conceptual framework; c) article that supports your Nature of the Study section; d) additional articles that support that your problem is current and relevant to your discipline or professional field for a total of 10 brief summaries.
Include the complete, APA reference entry and (a) an in-text citation; (b) what was studied; (c) what was found; and (d) why this research is important in relation to your study. This evidence provides the justification for your research problem.

HSO Justification Literature

Three annotated literature summaries

Zahnd, W. E., Murphy, C., Knoll, M., Benavidez, G. A., Day, K. R., Ranganathan, R., … & Eberth, J. M. (2021). The intersection of rural residence and minority race/ethnicity in cancer disparities in the United States. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), 1384.
Zahnd et al. (2021) investigated how racial and ethnic segregation of rural people affect access to healthcare. According to the research, the Black and American Indian or Alaska people in the rural areas are impoverished and have inadequate access to services, making them more likely to get cancer and have inferior cancer treatment and survival results. Segregation impacted access to conventional sources of health care the greatest. More study is needed to understand better inequities for all rural racial/ethnic minority communities.
Ford, J. A., Jones, A. P., Wong, G., Clark, A., Porter, T., & Steel, N. (2017). P31 access to primary care for socio-economically disadvantaged older people in rural areas.
Ford et al. (2017) examined the difficulties socio-economically disadvantaged older people have while seeking primary care in rural areas. They noted that most rural populations are socio-economically disadvantaged and lack access to quality health care. They observed that the experience of rural, low-income older people seeking primary care might get characterized in terms of a social contract. The patient commits not to bother the doctor in exchange for more kindness if they become ill. When clients went to primary care, the perceived social contract got frequently broken due to congested phone lines, appointment availability, and contacts with receptionists. While adjusting save money in primary care, commissioners and practitioners must Keep in mind the social contract and care models that many older persons use to connect with the service.
Douthit, N., Kiv, S., Dwolatzky, T., & Biswas, S. (2015). Exposing some important barriers to health care access in the rural USA. Public health, 129(6), 611-620.
According to Douthit et al. (2015), The availability of healthcare in The U. S’s rural areas got explored. They discovered that healthcare access issues had a significant impact on healthcare outcomes. According to the study’s findings, access to care varies substantially across rural and urban locations. Due to cultural and societal restraints, many individuals in rural regions are hesitant to seek medical treatment. There is a lack of services in remote areas and insufficient public transit, a scarcity of trained physicians, and a local internet connection. Rural inhabitants have poorer health due to their inability to attract and retain physicians and maintain the same quality of service delivery as urban areas.

HSO Problem Supporting Sources

Several barriers prohibit rural residents from having equal access to high-quality healthcare, resulting in poor treatment of rural communities that are socio-economically disadvantaged.
Del Rio, M., Hargrove, W. L., Tomaka, J., & Korc, M. (2017). Transportation Matters: A Health Impact Assessment in Rural New Mexico. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(6), 629. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060629

Framework Literature
Health Costs The rural community is affected by several factors and is not the same for urban. The framework of rural community consists of place, location, culture, individuals, education, health, socioeconomic status, accessible health services. They are interconnected and affect each other.
Donato, Emily, (2015), An evolving rural health conceptual framework www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Nature of Study Literature Methods and Analysis
Older adults have more barriers to getting healthcare. This study will allow elder adults in rural to vocalize on their experiences. Research can provide information in a discussion forum where they can express their views about the current healthcare system.
Goins RT, Williams KA, Carter MW, Spencer M, Solovieva T. Perceived barriers to health care access among rural older adults: a qualitative study. J Rural Health. 2005 Summer;21(3):206-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-0361. 2005.tb00084.x. PMID: 16092293.

Nature of Study Literature Dataset
Dependent riders provide a great percentage of medical, or trips will provide more benefit per trip. Providing a trip to someone who would not be able to travel is high.
Mattson, Jeremy, (July 2014), Cost Benefit Analysis of Rural and small Urban Transit www.nctr.ust.edu

Rubric Standard | Justified >
Is evidence presented that this problem is significant to the discipline and/or professional field?

Problem

What was the social problem and the healthcare administration problem that prompted you to search the literature to find out more? Write in complete sentences using a scholarly tone.

Living in a rural area I see firsthand the cost of healthcare and the challenges and barriers that come with living in a rural popilation.

Based on all of the above justification and supporting information (literature, social problem, healthcare administration problem), in one sentence, what is your operational/
research problem
?

The purpose of the study is to look at the different challenges that block equitable access to high-quality healthcare in rural areas and possible solutions.

Now that you have read and summarized some of the recent literature, what meaningful
gap
in the literature that aligns with your HSO research problem your study will address? (What is still not known?)

Rural areas vs urban communities have a higher risk for poor health outcomes

Rubric Standard | Meaningful >
Has a meaningful problem and gap in the research literature been identified?

Rubric Standard | Original >
Does this doctoral study have potential to make an original contribution?

Purpose
To address your stated research problem, what is the purpose of your study? Will you compare, explore, examine, etc.? Complete the purpose sentence below and be sure to clarify your dependent and independent variables of interest.

The purpose of this quantitative study is to study the obstacles facing fair access to high-quality healthcare for rural populations. Rural regions have suffered a population loss, even though roughly one in five Americans reside there (Okkels, et al., 2018). As a result of economic and social issues, many rural areas have been left with insufficient infrastructure, an aging population, and an overextended healthcare system. Reduced access to preventive care and there have been barriers in rural population and population that are insured. Barriers of preventive care in rural populations are not understood. This purpose will show barriers and access to preventive care among adults and children.

Framework (Conceptual or Theoretical)
What theory(ies) and/or concept(s) support (frame) your study and who are the original authors? Provide an in-text citation with your response, and the complete APA reference entry with summary in the Supporting Literature section.

The theories and/or concepts that ground this study include the ecological health theory and the health care seeking behavior framework (HSB). The ecological theory examines the interaction between individuals, the social and physical environment and how it affects their healthcare statuses. The ecological theory of healthcare recognizes individual factors and behaviors that influence their health such as education levels, beliefs and personal perceptions. The theory also encompasses interpersonal factors such as interactions with other people and how it affects the health wellness of individuals (Ryvicker, 2017) . Other considerations included in the ecological theory in healthcare include community factors, government policies and organizational factors. The ecological model theory helps in identifying the different factors with an environment that enhance or hinder accessibility to health services. It is critical in identifying the healthcare disparities existing within different communities. The healthcare system in the United States is complex and citizens are required to have prerequisite skills that can bolster their access to healthcare (Ryvicker, 2017). Consequently, their immediate environment exerts influence on how they access health.

Ecological Theory/Model

Interpersonal factors
Individual factors

Community factors
Organizational factors

Health accessibility/inaccessibility

The healthcare seeking behavior(s) (HSB) refers to action or inaction taken by individuals when they feel or suspect having a health problem. The motivation to seek or not seek healthcare services is influenced by various factors including family background, cultural and religious practices and influence from peers (Eley et al., 2019). Since these factors vary from one community to another or one region to another, they can reduce or increase barriers to health services and create health equality or inequality (Eley et al., 2019).

Health Seeking Behavior(s) (HSB)

Cultural factors
Family

Social factors

Healthy Inequality/Equality

References
Eley, N. T., Namey, E., McKenna, K., Johnson, A. C., & Guest, G. (2019). Beyond the individual: Social and cultural influences on the health-seeking behaviors of African American men. American Journal of Men’s Health, 13(1), 155798831982995. https://doi.org/10.1177/1557988319829953
Ryvicker, M. (2017). A conceptual framework for examining healthcare access and Navigation: A behavioral-ecological perspective. Social Theory & Health, 16(3), 224–240. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41285-017-0053-2

How do these theories and/or concepts relate to your research problem, purpose, and the nature of your study?

The purpose of the study is to identify obstacles to fair access to high-quality healthcare among rural populations. The ecological theoretical framework is crucial in identifying individual, community, institutional and interpersonal factors that influence fair access to high-quality healthcare. For example, high literacy levels in rural areas can influence health accessibility since education is a social determinant of health. Likewise, some cultural beliefs such as preference for traditional medicine can impact healthcare accessibility in rural areas. Institutional factors such poor infrastructure in rural areas also influences health outcomes. Therefore, ecological theory is fundamental in examining all the factors that negatively influence healthcare among rural populations. The HSB conceptual framework is connected to the purpose of the study because it will explore the disparities in behavior that motivate or demotivate individuals to seek health services in rural areas.

Rubric Standard | Grounded >
Is the problem framed to enable the researcher to either build upon or counter the previously published findings on the topic?

Research Question(s) and Hypotheses

List the question(s) that you plan to use to address the research problem. Your questions must align with your study purpose and include the dependent and independent variables and how they will be examined.

Replace this text with your research question(s) and hypotheses (if applicable).

Nature of the Study

What systematic approach (methodology and research design) do you plan to use to address your research question(s)?

To address the research questions in this Choose approach/method study, the specific research design will include Replace this text with your response.
Reference entry for the work on which this research design is based:
Replace this text with your response.

What is the possible secondary data source(s)?

For my planned research design, I will need Replace this text with your response.

What specific data points from these sources do you plan to use to answer your research question(s)?

Replace this text with your response.

What limitations, challenges, and/or barriers might you need to address while conducting this study (e.g., access to participants, access to data, requirements for storing data, separation of roles or other ethical considerations, instrumentation fees, etc.)?

Replace this text with your response.

Rubric Standard | Feasible >
Can a systematic method of inquiry be used to address the problem; and does the approach have the potential to address the problem while considering potential risks and burdens placed on research participants?

Significance
How will your study address the meaningful, discipline-specific issue that you identified and therefore contribute to your field, discipline, professional practice, etc. contributing to positive social change?

This study is significant in that Replace this text with your response.

Rubric Standard | Impact >
Does this doctoral study have potential to affect positive social change?

Rubric Standard | Objective >
Is the topic approached in an objective manner?

Partner Site Masking Self-Check
Walden capstones typically mask the identity of the partner organization. The methodological and ethical reasons for this practice as well as criteria for exceptions are outlined here (link to posted guidance).

☐ Check here to confirm that you will mask the identity of the organization in the final capstone that you publish in ProQuest.
☐ If you perceive that your partner organization’s identity would be impossible to mask or if there is a strong rationale for naming the organization in your capstone, please check this box so that your Program Director can review your request for an exception. If granted, that exception must be confirmed by the IRB during the ethics review process. The IRB will also ensure that your consent form(s) and/or site agreement(s) permit naming the organization.

Research Design Alignment Table | Using an alignment table can assist with ensuring the alignment of your research design.
Research Design Alignment Table Video Tutorial (YouTube) | Doctoral Research Design Alignment Appointments or Office Hours

Note
. At prospectus stage, not all items in the table below can be identified (e.g., data points, data analysis). Please complete the items that you have identified in this prospectus form. During proposal development, you will revisit this form to adjust, as needed, and finalize your research design.

Research Problem, Purpose, and Framework
Provide one sentence for each. These must align with all rows.

Research Question(s), Method, & Design
List one or more RQs, as needed; select method; identify design. Use a separate form for additional RQs.

Data Collection Tools & Data Sources
List the instrument(s) and people, artifacts, or records that will provide the data for each RQ.

Data Points
List the variables, specific interview questions, scales, etc. that will be used for each RQ.

Data Analysis
Briefly describe the statistical or qualitative analysis that will address each RQ.

Problem: Replace text with response.
Purpose: Replace text with response.
Framework: Replace text with response.

RQ1: Replace text with response.
Method: Quantitative
Design: Replace text with response.

Replace text with response.

Replace text with response.

Replace text with response.

RQ2: Replace text with response.
Method: Quantitative
Design: Replace text with response.

Replace text with response.

Replace text with response.

Replace text with response.

RQ3: Replace text with response.
Method: Quantitative
Design: Replace text with response.

Replace text with response.

Replace text with response.

Replace text with response.

Note. The information in the first column must align with all rows, and each individual RQ row must show alignment across the columns for that row.

Once your Research Design Alignment Table is completed, reflect on your design alignment. Ask yourself:
1. Is there a logical progression from the research problem to the purpose of the study?
2. Does the identified framework ground the investigation into the stated problem?
3. Do the problem, purpose, and framework in the left-hand column align with the RQ(s) (all rows)?
4. Does each RQ address the problem and align with the purpose of the study?
5. Does the information across each individual row match/align with the RQ listed for that row?
5. By row, will the variables listed address the RQ?
5. By row, will the analysis address the RQ?
5. By row, can the analysis be completed with the data points that will be collected?

Rubric Standard | Aligned >
Do the various aspects of the prospectus align overall?

Appendix

The Doctoral Prospectus
The
Doctoral Prospectus
is a brief document that provides preliminary information about your doctoral research and is used in two ways:
1. It serves as the tentative
plan for developing the proposal
and is evaluated to ensure doctoral-level work (e.g., feasibility, alignment, etc.).
1. It provides information used to assign the committee University Research Reviewer.
Prospectus approval from the committee chair, second committee member, and a program-level designee is required for you to move forward and work on your proposal. The plan is subject to change, and parts of your research design may need to be adjusted after you complete your exhaustive review of the literature during proposal development.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
Title

Example
The Relationship Between Nurse Leader Self Efficacy, Burnout, and Intent to Leave

…………………………………………………………………………………………………
Supporting Literature
Probably the most important step in the research process is
searching recent, peer-reviewed literature
and reading articles related to the general area you want to investigate. The area is based on an identified social problem. As you read and learn, you will narrow your focus. This is how you will identify a discipline-specific research problem.

[Note: Scholarly, empirical articles and how to find them.]
First, you’ll need to determine your search terms or keywords
and the databases you should search. As you conduct your search of the literature, stay organized by keeping a search log.

Example for this Form
The keywords and databases searched included
hospital nurse leader retention
, nurse leader intent to leave employment, nursing burnout, nursing stress and nursing turnover in the databases MedLine, PubMed, and NIH.

Search Log Example

Database

Search Terms

Results

Notes

CINAHL

nurse leader turnover, nurse manager turnover, nurse manager burnout, nurse manager, limited to peer reviewed, 2016-present

1175

Search too broad; Narrow by using multiple terms

Thoreau

nurse leader turnover, nurse manager turnover, nurse manager burnout, nurse manager, nurse leader self-efficacy, self-efficacy and burnout; limited to peer reviewed, 2016-present

875

Still too broad

Thoreau

Combined the above terms; limited to peer reviewed, 2016 to present

75

Much better, several relevant articles found

As you read and evaluate literature, you also need to organize your research. A literature review matrix is one way to help you visualize what has and hasn’t been done in your field. It will help you understand the scholarly works related to your area of interest. The importance of organizing and recording your review of literature cannot be overstated. You will refer to your notes as you write, so start on the right track from the beginning!
[Suggestion: If you keep your search log in an Excel workbook, use the second tab in the same workbook for your literature review matrix.]

For this prospectus form, include the complete, APA reference entry and (a) an in-text citation; (b) what they studied; (c) what they found; and (d) why this is important in relation to your study. This evidence provides the justification for your research problem. These sources provide
justification
that this problem is meaningful to the discipline or professional field. The background literature must include the following:
1. 3-5 credible sources within the last 5 years that all talk about the same professional practice problem
1. Reference entries related to the framework
1. Reference entry related to the Nature of the Study.
1. Additional reference entries that support and justifying the research problem.
[Note: During proposal development, you will conduct an exhaustive review and synthesize your sources, rather than summarize.]

Supporting Literature Examples

Justification Literature

William, C. & Looker, H. (2020). The influence of frontline manager job stress on burnout, commitment, and turnover intention: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49, 1800-1833. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2015.09.006
(a) William and Looker (2020); (b) studied the relationship between nurse manager job strain, burnout, lower organizational commitment, and higher turnover intention; (c) they found that nurse leaders have a high turnover, job strain and burnout; (d) this in important in relation to my study because establishes direct relationship between an operational problem and conditions influencing the problem.
Heido, S., Bron, P., Frazer, K., & Wing, C., (2019). Factors influencing nurse leader’s intent to stay or leave employment: a quantitative analysis. Journal of Nursing Management, 23, 105-106. https://doi.org/10.1111/ 12252
(a) Heido et. al, 2019; (b) studied the prevalence of nurse leaders intending to leave their jobs; (c) they found that up to 40% of nurse leaders will leave their jobs in the next two years as a result of burnout and work dissatisfaction; (d) this is important in relation to my study because it supports the currency and significance of the operational problem.
Adral, J., Link, A., & Bog, T. (2018). Predictors of occupational stress, health and well-being in nurse managers: A cross-sectional survey study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 12, 81-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/ ijnurstu.2017.05
(a) Adral et al., (2018); (b) studied predictors of occupational stress with nurse leaders; (c) they found that nurse leaders are making the difficult decision to leave their jobs while reporting increasing levels of burnout due to increasing occupational stressors; (d) this is important in relation to my study because it provides justification of the operational problem and future magnitude of the problem.
Wing, C. & Lasky, H. (2019). The influence and impact of frontline manager job strain on burnout, commitment, and turnover intention: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 18, 1500-1533. https://doi.org/10.985/j.ijnurstu.2015.09.006
(a) Wing & Lasky (2019); (b) studied the causes and influences nurse leader burnout and commitment; (c) they found that job strain and stress had a direct relationship to nurse leaders commitment to employment and intent to leave employment; (d) this is important in relation to my study because it provides justification that an operational problem exist with job stress, burnout and intent to leave employment for nurse leaders.

Supporting Literature

Teal, Y., Zack, S., Gate, X. Andrew, Z., Wang, S., Link, H., Lang, Y., Goatz, L., Lutz, L. & Donalds, Z. (2020).
General self-efficacy modifies the effect of stress on burnout in nurses with different personality types. BMC Health Services Research, 81, 367-385. doi: 10.1186/s12913-018
(a) Teal et al., (2020); (b) studied self-efficacy as one type of self-influence that moderates burnout in professionals who serve others; (c) they found that increasing self-efficacy may serve as a protector against burnout or a way to heal from existing burnout; (d) this is important in relation to understanding the connection between protecting and healing from burnout that results with intent to leave employment.
Figueroa, C., Harrison, R., Chauhan, A., & Meyer, L. (2019). Priorities and challenges for health leadership and workforce management globally: a rapid review. BMC Health Services Research, 1, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4080-7
(a) Figueroa et al. (2019); (b) studied challenges healthcare leaders are facing with workforce management; (c) they found that health care executives are challenged with sustaining a health services leadership workforce that provides safe, accessible, high quality, people-centered care across the health care services continuum; (d) this is important in relation to my study because it supports the social health problem facing healthcare administrators.
McFitz, G., Jackvilee, D., Vickson, M., & Williams, L. (2019). Surviving workplace adversity: a qualitative study of nurses and midwives and their strategies to increase personal resilience. Journal of Nursing Management, 24, 123-131. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12293
(a) McFitz et al. (2019); (b) studied how strategies used by nurses and midwives to increase personal residence to workplace stress; (c) they found that nursing professionals can survive workplace adversity using their own internal self-motivation, self-organization, and involvement in support networks; (d) this is important in relation to my study because it support the positive impact intrinsic motivation, organization and support network may have mitigating the negative effects of burnout.

Framework Literature

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company.
(a) Bandura (1997); (b) studied the ability a person to regulate one’s own level of motivation and behavior; (c) he found that individuals who could regulate one’s own motivation and behavior were defined by their destiny whereby and not external environment that might cause them to fail due to stress; (d) this is important in relation to my study because it establishes a framework that connects the conditions surrounding employment burnout and to possible intent to leave employment.

Nature of Study Literature

Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Leon-Guerrero, A., & Davis, G. (2020). Social statistics for a diverse society (9th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
(a) Frankfort-Nachmias, Leon-Guerrero & Davis (2020); (b) published textbook on quantitative linear regression research design; (c) found how a Pearson correlation can help to understand the magnitude or impact of one variable on another; (d) this is important in relation to determining a statistical significance between the dependent and independent variable in the study.
AONL (2019). American Organization of Nursing Leadership. Database for nursing employment, job satisfaction, self-efficacy and retention. Retrieved from https://www.aonl.org

(a) AONL (2019); (b) the AONL houses secondary data on nurse leaders; (c) will provide access to secondary data collected from nursing managers using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS) and Leader Efficacy Questionnaire (LEQ); (d) it is important in relation to my study because it will provide data points for the dependent and independent variable to be analyzed.

Rubric Standard | Justified >
Is
evidence
presented that this problem is significant to the discipline and/or professional field?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………
Problem
Social Problem
The situation or issue being experienced by a population or within your discipline that prompted you to search the literature to find out more is sometimes called a social problem. It is the issue that students see “on the ground” so to speak. The social problem is often what prompts students to think about a topic of interest. Usually such a topic is one that students identify with, sometimes having personally experienced some aspect of the problem as it exists in the world.

Social Problem Example
The issue that prompted me to search the literature is that hospital executives are challenged with sustaining a health services leadership workforce that provides safe, accessible, high quality, people-centered care across the health care services continuum.

Research Problem
A research problem is a focused topic of concern, a condition to be improved upon, or troubling question that is supported in scholarly literature or theory that you study to understand in more detail, and that can lead to recommendations for resolutions. It is the research problem that drives the rest of the dissertation: the purpose, the research questions, and the methodology.

Research Problem Example
In one sentence, the specific research problem is
that hospitals are struggling to retain nurse leaders as a result of increasing levels with nursing burnout due to increasing occupational stressors.

Gap
The need to address an identified

gap in the research literature

must be clear and there must be current relevance to the discipline and area of practice. Keep in mind that a gap in the research is not, in and of itself, a reason to conduct research. The gap relates to the rubric standard: Meaningful.

Research Gap Example
Although researchers have investigated this issue, there is very little or no literature on the role self-efficacy plays with the nurse leader burnout, employment stressors and intent to leave employment.

Rubric Standard | Meaningful >
Has a meaningful problem and gap in the research literature been identified?

Rubric Standard | Original >
Does this doctoral study have potential to make an original contribution?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

Purpose
To address your stated research problem, what is the purpose of your study? Will you describe, compare, explore, examine, etc.? Be sure to clarify your variables/concepts of interest. For example: In quantitative studies, state what needs be studied by describing two or more factors (variables) and a conjectured relationship among them related to the identified gap or problem.

Purpose Example
The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine if there is an association between self-efficacy of nurse leaders and self-reported burnout, occupational stress and intent to leave.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

Framework
The framework includes the theories and/or concepts relevant to your topic. Align the framework with the problem, purpose, research questions, and background of your study. This theoretical or conceptual framework is the basis for understanding, designing, and analyzing ways to investigate your research problem (data collection and analysis). Provide the original scholarly literature (citing original authors) on the theory and/or concepts, even if it is more than 5 years old. Please do not cite secondary sources.

Example Theoretical Framework
The theories and/or concepts that ground this study include Bandura’s (1997) theory of self-efficacy, focusing specifically on one’s perception of how well one can achieve something that appears beyond their reach.

Next, explain how these theories and/or concepts relate to your research problem, purpose, and the nature of your study. Your topic/approach should align with the identified framework so that you will either build upon or counter the previously published findings on the topic.

Example Connection for the Conceptual Framework
The logical connections between the framework presented and my study approach include Bandura’s (1997) theoretical work which shows that an individual can influence their own self-efficacy. Further, subsequent research application of Bandura’s theory offers guidance that increasing self-efficacy may serve as a protector against burnout (Teal et al., 2020).

Rubric Standard | Grounded >
Is the problem framed to enable the researcher to either build upon or counter the previously published findings on the topic?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

Research Question(s) and Hypotheses
List the overarching question and/or a series of related questions that are informed by the study purpose, that will be used to address the research problem. A research question informs the research design by providing a foundation for the generation of null and alternative hypotheses in quantitative studies.

Research Questions Example

RQ1 – Is there a correlation between higher self-efficacy scores for nurse leaders and lower scores for burnout, occupational stress and intent to leave?
H₀1 – There is no statistically significant correlation between higher self-efficacy scores for nurse leaders and lower scores for burnout, occupational stress and intent to leave.
Ha1 – There is a statistically significant correlation between higher self-efficacy scores for nurse leaders and lower scores for burnout, occupational stress and intent to leave.
RQ 2 – Are self-efficacy scores for nurse leaders associated with scores for burnout, occupational stress and intent to leave, after controlling for age, gender, and race / ethnicity?
H₀1 – There is no statistically significant association between self-efficacy scores for nurse leaders and self-reported scores for burnout, occupational stress and intent to leave, after controlling for age, gender, and race / ethnicity.
Ha1 – There is a statistically significant association between self-efficacy scores for nurse leaders and self-reported scores for burnout, occupational stress and intent to leave, after controlling for age, gender, and race / ethnicity.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
Nature of the Study
Explain the systematic approach (research design) you plan to use to address your research question(s). Examples of study design are as follows:
Quantitative—for experimental, quasiexperimental, or nonexperimental designs; treatment-control; repeated measures; causal-comparative; single-subject; predictive studies; or other quantitative approaches

Research Design Example
To address the research questions in this quantitative study, the approach I plan to use will include a Pearson Correlation that will be used for RQ1 to understand the correlation between the independent variable and each of the dependent variables (Frankfort-Nachmias, Leon-Guerrero, & Davis, 2020). To address the second research question in this quantitative study, a multivariate multiple regression analysis will be used (Frankfort-Nachmias, Leon-Guerrero, & Davis, 2020).

Reference entry for the work on which this approach is based:
Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Leon-Guerrero, A., & Davis, G. (2020). Social statistics for a diverse society (9th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Then, for your planned research design, present the type of data you will need, and a list of possible secondary data sources that could be used to address the proposed research question (s). At this point, you should have an idea of the type of data needed to address your research question(s). Identify the data source and how the data will be accessed. Possible secondary data sources, by program, are available on the Center for Research Quality website. [Note. This is your tentative plan, so keep in mind that things might need to be modified during the proposal stage—particularly after you have completed your exhaustive review of the literature.]

Data Source Example
For my planned research design, I will need to request access to the American Organization for Nursing database where the secondary data exist for the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and Leader Efficacy Questionnaire (LEQ).

Next, provide the specific data points that you plan to use to answer your research question(s). Data points are the specific variables or type of information that you will use in your analysis. For example, items on a survey or types of interview questions (not the actual survey or interview questions). When using secondary data, you must ensure the data include the dependent and independent variables or data points that you need to address your research question.

Example

The MBI-HSS will provide data points for nursing leader burnout, occupational stress and intent to leave and LEQ will provide data for nursing leader self-efficacy ratings.

Finally, provide information on limitations, challenges, and/or barriers that may need to be addressed when conducting this study. These may include access to participants, access to data, separation of roles (researcher versus employee), instrumentation fees, etc. If you are thinking about collecting data on a sensitive topic or from a vulnerable population, an early consultation with the Institutional Review Board (IRB; IRB@waldenu.edu) during your prospectus process is recommended to gain ethics guidance that you can incorporate into your subsequent proposal drafts and research planning. [Note. Find more information on research ethics and potential “red flag” issues on the IRB Guides and FAQs.]

Example

Limitations include participant responses may vary from one organization to another that is not captured in the existing dataset. Also, the statistical analyses include multiple variables from two different scales. Both challenges can be overcome; however, the researcher must take time to work through the challenges when conducting the study. The researcher has consulted with an instructional specialist from Walden’s Center for Research Quality (CRQ) and will continue to work with committee mentors and CRQ tutors during the doctoral study process.

Rubric Standard | Feasible >
Can a systematic method of inquiry be used to address the problem; and does the approach have the potential to address the problem while considering potential risks and burdens placed on research participants?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………

Significance
Here you explain how your study addresses the meaningful, discipline-specific issue that you identified and will therefore contribute to your field, discipline, professional practice, etc. contributing to positive social change. Detail how your findings might support professional practice or allow practical application (answer the So what? question).

Example
This study is significant in that it will add to the growing body of knowledge on self-efficacy, burnout, occupational stress and turnover of nurse leaders. Depending on the results, healthcare leaders can implement strategies to support the development of self-efficacy in nurse leaders or encourage healthcare leaders to look at variables or strategies to reduce burnout and turnover for nurse leaders. Providing nurse leaders with the skill to develop higher levels of self-efficacy may reduce turnover while stabilizing the patient care environment, creating social change.

Rubric Standard | Impact >
Does this doctoral study have potential to affect positive social change?

Rubric Standard | Objective >
Is the topic approached in an objective manner?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………
Research Design Alignment Table | Using an alignment table can assist with ensuring the alignment of your research design.

Research Design Alignment Table Video Tutorial (YouTube)
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Doctoral Research Design Alignment Appointments or Office Hours

Note
. At prospectus stage, not all items in the table below can be identified (e.g., data points, data analysis). Please complete the items that you have identified in this prospectus form. During proposal development, you will revisit this form to adjust, as needed, and finalize your research design.

Research Problem, Purpose, and Framework
Provide one sentence for each. These must align with all rows.

Research Question(s), Method, & Design
List one or more RQs, as needed; select method; identify design. Use a separate form for additional RQs.

Data Collection Tools & Data Sources
List the instrument(s) and people, artifacts, or records that will provide the data for each RQ.

Data Points
List the variables, specific interview questions, scales, etc. that will be used for each RQ.

Data Analysis
Briefly describe the statistical or qualitative analysis that will address each RQ.

Problem: The specific research problem that will be addressed through this study is that hospitals are struggling to retain nurse leaders as a result of increasing levels with nursing burnout due to increasing occupational stressors.

Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine the relationship amongst the dependent variable of nurse leader employment retention and the independent variables of nurse leader burnout, occupational stress and self-efficacy.

Framework: The theories and/or concepts that ground this study include Bandura’s (1997) theory of self-efficacy, focusing specifically on one’s perception of how well one can achieve something that appears beyond their reach.

RQ1 – Is there a correlation between higher self-efficacy scores for nurse leaders and lower scores for burnout, occupational stress and intent to leave?

Method: Quantitative
Design: Correlational

The American Organization for Nursing database where the secondary data exist for the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and Leader Efficacy Questionnaire (LEQ).

-Self-efficacy ratings
-Nurse leader burnout rate
-Occupational stress
-Intent to leave

Pearson’s Correlation

RQ2 – Are self-efficacy scores for nurse leaders associated with scores for burnout, occupational stress and intent to leave, after controlling for age, gender, and race / ethnicity?
Method: Quantitative
Design: Correlational

The American Organization for Nursing database where the secondary data exist for the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and Leader Efficacy Questionnaire (LEQ).

-Self-efficacy ratings,
-Nurse leader burnout rate
-Occupational stress
-Intent to leave
-Age, gender and race

Multivariate regression

RQ3: Replace text with response.
Method: Quantitative
Design: Replace text with response.

Replace text with response.

Replace text with response.

Replace text with response.

Note. The information in the first column must align with all rows, and each individual RQ row must show alignment across the columns for that row.

My Doctoral Research (MyDR)
If you have not done so already, you should familiarize yourself with the
My
DR system. The MyDR system was designed to assist you and your committee in navigating your doctoral research journey, from the very beginning through the final approval. The various landing pages in MyDR will track your progress and will serve as a central location for resources to support that progress. There is a process flow tool in which you exchange and store faculty evaluations of and feedback on your work as you progress along that journey.
You will be entered into the MyDR system when both your committee chair and second member nominees are approved by the academic program. At that point, you will be able to access MyDR from the homepage of your dissertation completion course in Blackboard. The first document that you will submit for approval in MyDR will be your prospectus.

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