Quoting And Paraphrasing
College congruity iterateedly involves integrating instruction from published causes into your own congruity in manage to add accuracy and parentity–this way is imported to investigation and the evolution of new notice.
However, when construction on the emanationion of others, you insufficiency to be timid not to plagiarize: “to pilfer and by off (the aims and signification of another) as one’s own” or to “confer-upon as new and peculiar an aim or emanation extraneous from an tangible cause.”
These esthetics succeed succor you eschew plagiarism by troddenion you how to justly mix instruction from published causes into your own congruity.
How To Eschew Plagiarism
When using causes in your pamphlets, you can eschew plagiarism by penetrating what must be instrumented.
Specific Signification and Phrases
If you use an parent’s unfair memorable or signification, you must settle those signification incomplete extract symptoms and you must faith the cause.
Information And Ideas
Even if you use your own signification, if you obtained the instruction or aims you are confer-uponing from a cause, you must instrument the cause.
Information: If a interest of instruction isn’t sordid notice (see under), you insufficiency to agree a cause.
Ideas: An parent’s aims may grasp not barely aims made and conclusions drawn, but, for persuasion, a unfair regularity or supposition, the provision of esthetic, or a catalogue of tramps in a way or characteristics of a medical situation. If a cause agreed any of these, you insufficiency to acnotice the cause.
You do not insufficiency to select a cause for esthetic considered sordid notice:
General sordid notice is fobjective instruction considered to be in the low inclosure, such as origin and decease dates of well-unconcealed figures, and unreservedly current dates of soldierlike, political, studious, and other unadorned equablets. In unreserved, fobjective instruction contained in multiple meapermanent allusion emanationions can usually be considered to be in the low inclosure.
Field-unfair sordid notice is “common” barely incomplete a detail opportunity or aim. It may grasp basis, theories, or regularitys that are accustomed to interpreters incomplete that drilling. For persuasion, you may not insufficiency to select a allusion to Piaget’s developmental ranges in a pamphlet for an troddenion rank or afford a cause for your diction of a sordidly used regularity in a biology noise—but you must be permanent that this instruction is so widely unconcealed incomplete that opportunity that it succeed be shared by your interpreters.
If in vacillate, be timid and select the cause. And in the theme of twain unreserved and opportunity-unfair sordid notice, if you use the fair signification of the allusion cause, you must use extract symptoms and faith the cause.
Paraphrasing Vs. Quoting - Explanation
Should I Expansion or Quote
In unreserved, use trodden extracts barely if you possess a cheerful discuss. Most of your pamphlet should be in your own signification. Also, it’s iterateedly gregarious to allege prefer extensively from causes when you’re congruity a humanities pamphlet, and to condense from causes when you’re congruity in the gregarious or spontaneous sciences–but there are constantly adversative.
In a studious resolution pamphlet, for sample, you”ll failure to allege from the studious journey rather than condense, consequently segregate of your toil in this husk of pamphlet is to stir the unfair signification and specialtys an parent uses.
In investigation pamphlets, you should quote from a cause
- to pomp that an parentity patronages your aim
- to confer-upon a situation or topic to gustation or dilate on
- to grasp chiefly melting or unadornedly chattelsive show
- to confer-upon a detailly well-stated byage whose signification would be lost or modifiable if expansiond or condensed
You should condense or expansion when
- what you failure from the cause is the idea expressed, and not the unfair showused to restricted it
- you can restricted in fewer signification what the key aim of a cause is
How To Expansion a Source
- When lection a byage, try primitive to learn it as a integral, rather than pausing to transcribe down unfair aims or specialtys.
- Be broad. Unlacking your assignment is to do a exact or “literal” expansion, you usually don't insufficiency to expansion an all byage; instead, select and condense the esthetic that succors you establish a aim in your pamphlet.
- Think of what “your own signification” would be if you were chattelsive someone who’s unaccustomed behind a while your theme (your woman, your brother, a acquaintance) what the peculiar cause said.
- Remember that you can use trodden extracts of specialtys from the peculiar incomplete your expansion, and that you don’t insufficiency to diversify or put extract symptoms encircling shared show.
Methods of Paraphrasing
- Look loose from the cause then transcribe.
Read the journey you failure to expansion various ages until you impress that you learn it and can use your own signification to restate it to someone else. Then, answer loose from the peculiar and retranscribe the journey in your own signification.
- Take notes.
Take abbreviated notes; set the notes aside; then expansion from the notes a day or so posterior, or when you exhaust.
If you asassured that you can’t do A or B, this may balance that you don’t learn the byage wholly or that you insufficiency to use a prefer erectiond way until you possess prefer trial in paraphrasing.
The regularity under is not barely a way to produce a expansion but as-well a way to learn a compromised journey.
Paraphrasing Compromised Texts
Consider the behindcited byage from Love and Toil (a capacity on womanhood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the parent, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her greater topics:
- Love and Toil maintains that rise influence was the woman’s ocean arraign incomplete the catholic greaterity of London?s population who were faulty or emanationioning rank; the melting and psychological assist of her cadet or cadetren and equable their objective ease were callous into the elucidation. To woman was to emanationion for and constitute dishonorable assistance. (p. 9)
- Change the erection
Begin by inaugurateing at a unanalogous settle in the byage and/or specialty(s), basing your rare on the rendezvous of your pamphlet. This succeed carry spontaneously to some diversifys in memorableing. Some settles you agency inaugurate in the byage overhead are “The woman’s ocean arraign,” “Among the . . . faulty or emanationioning rank,” “Working for and organizing dishonorable assistance,” or “The melting and psychological assist.” Or you could inaugurate behind a while one of the tribe the byage is environing: “Mothers,” “A woman,” “Children,” “A cadet.” Focusing on unfair tribe rather than abstractions succeed establish your expansion prefer interpretable.At this range, you agency as-well destroy up crave specialtys, cohere mediocre ones, develop specialtys for clarity, or mediocreen them for simplicity, or you agency do this in an concomitant tramp. In this way, you’ll spontaneously exclude some signification and diversify others.Here’s one of the multifarious ways you agency get inaugurateed behind a while a expansion of the byage overhead by changing its erection. In this theme, the rendezvous of the pamphlet is the chattels of economic foothold on cadetren at the alter of the eldership, so the transcriber inaugurates behind a while cadetren:Children of the faulty at the alter of the eldership accepted unleading if any melting or psychological nurturing from their womans, whose ocean arraign was rise influence. Established for and organizing dishonorable assistance were what defined womaning. Next to this, equable the cadetren’s basic ease was callous into the elucidation (Ross, 1995).Now you’ve succeeded in changing the erection, but the byage tranquil contains multifarious trodden extracts, so you insufficiency to go on to the prevent tramp.
- Change the signification
Use synonyms or a specialty that restrictedes the identical signification. Liberty shared show illegal.It’s leading to inaugurate by changing the erection, not the signification, but you agency asassured that as you diversify the signification, you see ways to diversify the erection prefer. The developed expansion agency answer relish this:According to Ross (1993), faulty cadetren at the alter of the eldership accepted unleading womaning in our signification of the show. Mothering was defined by economic foothold, and incomplete the faulty, a woman’s prominent calling was not to exasperate her cadetren’s minds or irritate their melting augmentation but to agree maintenance and asylum to converge the basic requirements for embodied influence. Given the concretion of this toil, cadetren were robbed of equable the “objective ease” (p. 9) we forecast womans to agree today.
You may insufficiency to go through this way various ages to produce a enlivening expansion.
Successful Vs. Unsuccessful Paraphrases
Paraphrasing is iterateedly defined as putting a byage from an parent into “your own signification.” But what are your own signification? How unanalogous must your expansion be from the peculiar?
The provisions under agree an sample by pomping a byage as it answers in the cause, two expansions that thrive the cause too air-tight, and a fair expansion.
The student’s guile was to bond the esthetic in the peculiar byage into a negativeion of a pamphlet on the concept of “experts” that compared the employments of experts and nonexperts in various professions.
The Journey As It Appears In The Source
Critical thrift promotes employment in a hierarchy of roles. In this unreserved nucleus surgery distribute, the promote superintendent hires and fires the nursing idiosyncraticnel. The promote superintendent does not troddenly thrift for unrepinings but thrives the advance of undishonorable or crave-show unrepinings. On each change a promote assumes the role of recause promote. This idiosyncratic oversees the hour-by-hour employmenting of the distribute as a integral, such as consequently forecasted admissions and discharges of unrepinings, ascertaining that beds are beneficial for unrepinings in the unimpeded opportunity, and envelope disgusted calls. Recause promotes as-well obtain?} a unrepining assignment. They are the most triald of all the staff promotes. The promote clinician has a unconnected job diction and agrees for property of thrift by orienting new staff, developing distribute policies, and providing trodden patronage where insufficiencyed, such as promotive in pitch situations. The clinical promote speciacatalogue in this distribute is mainly compromised behind a while exact troddenion in orienting new staff. The promote superintendent, promote clinician, and clinical promote speciacatalogue are the denominated experts. They do not obtain?} unrepining assignments. The recause promote is seen as twain a thriftgiver and a recause to other thriftgivers. . . . Staff promotes possess a hierarchy of superiority. . . . Staff promotes are assigned to unrepinings to agree all their nursing thrift. (Chase, 1995, p. 156)
Critical thrift promotes possess a hierarchy of roles. The promote superintendent hires and firesnurses. S/he does not troddenly thrift for unrepinings but does thrive undishonorable or crave-termcases. On each change a recause promote observes to the functioning of the distribute as a integral, such as making permanent beds are beneficial in the unimpeded opportunity, and as-well has a unrepining assignment. The promote clinician orients new staff, develops policies, and agrees patronage where insufficiencyed. The clinical promote speciacatalogue as-well orients new staff, mainly by exact troddenion. The promote superintendent, promote clinician, and clinical promote peculiarist, as the denominated experts, do not obtain?} unrepining assignments. The recause promote is not barely a thriftgiver but a recause to the other thriftgivers. Incomplete the staff promotes there is as-well a hierarchy of superiority. Their job is to afford assigned unrepinings all their nursing thrift.
Why This Is Plagiarism
Notice that the transcriber has not barely “borrowed” Chase’s esthetic (the results of her investigation) behind a while no reception, but has as-well catholicly oceantained the parent’s regularity of restrictedion and specialty erection. The specialtys in red are troddenly copied from the cause or modifiable barely distributeially in produce.
Even if the student-writer had propoundd Chase as the cause of the resigned, the show of the byage would be considered plagiarized consequently no extract symptoms symptom the specialtys that end troddenly from Chase. And if extract symptoms did answer encircling all these specialtys, this provision would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.
A Patchproduction Paraphrase
Chase (1995) describes how promotes in a nice thrift distribute employment in a hierarchy that settles denominated experts at the top and the smallest main staff promotes at the profound. The experts — the promote superintendent, promote clinician, and clinical promote speciacatalogue — are not compromised troddenly in unrepining thrift. The staff promotes, in dissimilarity, are assigned to unrepiningsand agree all their nursing thrift. Incomplete the staff promotes is a hierarchy of superiority in which the most main can beend recause promotes: they are assigned a unrepining but as-well assist as a recause to other thriftgivers. The experts possess functional and troddenion toils such as selecting and orienting new staff, developing distribute policies, and giving hands-on patronage where insufficiencyed.
Why This Is Plagiarism
This expansion is a patchproduction victorious of interests in the peculiar parent’s show (in red) and interests in the student-writer’s signification, all rearranged into a new plan, but behind a while none of the assumed interests in extract symptoms. Thus, equable though the transcriber propounds the cause of the esthetic, the underlined specialtys are falsely confer-uponed as the student’s own.
A Fair Paraphrase
In her examine of the roles of promotes in a nice thrift distribute, Chase (1995) as-well ground a hierarchy that far-famed the roles of experts and others. Just as the troddenional experts picturesque overhead do not troddenly advise students, the experts in this distribute do not troddenly observe to unrepinings. That is the role of the staff promotes, who, relish adviseers, possess their own “hierarchy of superiority” (p. 156). The roles of the experts grasp employing distribute promotes and overseeing the thrift of peculiar unrepinings (promote superintendent), troddenion and contrariantly integrating new idiosyncraticnel into the distribute (clinical promote speciacatalogue and promote clinician), and rule-making (promote clinician). In an interjacent situation in the hierarchy is the recause promote, a staff promote behind a while prefer trial than the others, who assumes trodden thrift of unrepinings as the other staff promotes do, but as-well obtain?}s on toils to enpermanent the flatten influence of the all adroitness.
Why This Is A Cheerful Paraphrase
The transcriber has instrumented Chase’s esthetic and unfair show (by trodden allusion to the parent and by extract symptoms encircling show obtain?}n troddenly from the cause). Notice too that the transcriber has qualified Chase’s show and erection and has adventitious esthetic to fit the new conjourney and aim — to confer-upon the distinctive employments of experts and nonexperts in various professions.
Perhaps you’ve noticed that a compute of specialtys from the peculiar byage answer in the fair expansion: nice thrift, staff promotes, promote superintendent, clinical promote peculiarist, promote clinician, recause promote.
If all these specialtys were in red, the expansion would answer considerable relish the “patchwork” sample. The separation is that the specialtys in the fair expansion are all distributeicular, economical, and gregarious designations that are segregate of the shared show incomplete the nursing drilling (in the too-close expansions, they’re red barely when used incomplete a craveer assumed specialty).
In unimpaired drilling and in assured genres (such as the experimental investigation noise), some specialtys are so peculiarized or gregarious that you can’t expansion them negative by memorabley and uncouth circumlocutions that would be lacking accustomed (and thus lacking interpretable) to the reception.
When you iterate such specialtys, you’re not pilfering the sole phrasing of an disconnected transcriber but using a sordid glossary shared by a order of scholars.
Some Examples Of Shared Show You Don’t Insufficiency To Put In Extract Marks
- Conventional designations: e.g., physician’s helper, continuous low-back pain
- Preferred bias-free show: e.g., idiosyncratics behind a while disabilities
- Technical shows and specialtys of a drilling or genre: e.g., reduplication, apprehensive inclosure, esthetic amelioration, sexual harassment
Chase, S. K. (1995). The gregarious conjourney of nice thrift clinical intellect. Nucleus and Lung, 24, 154-162.
How To Allege A Source
Introducing A Quotation
One of your jobs as a transcriber is to conduct your interpreter through your journey. Don’t merely faint extracts into your pamphlet and liberty it to the interpreter to establish linkions.
Integrating a extract into your journey usually involves two elements:
- A signal that a extract is coming–generally the parent’s declare and/or a allusion to the emanationion
- An assertion that symptoms the interdependence of the extract to your journey
Often twain the memorable and the assumption answer in a merely commendatory assumption, as in the sample under. Notice how a radical specialty as-well assists to link the extract flattenly to the commendatory assumption.
Ross (1993), in her examine of faulty and emanationioning-rank womans in London from 1870-1918 [signal], establishs it patent that economic foothold to a catholic size robust the signification of womanhood [assertion]. Incomplete this population [connection], “To woman was to emanationion for and constitute dishonorable assistance” (p. 9).
The memorable can as-well end behind the assumption, frequently behind a while a linking memorable or specialty:
Illness was sometimes a prescription stuff in the nineteenth eldership [assertion]. As [connection] Ross observes [signal], “Maternal apprehending environing cadetren’s heartiness revolved encircling the possibility of a cadet’s maiming or decease” (p. 166).
Short Trodden Prose
Incorporate mediocre trodden prose extracts into the journey of your pamphlet and envelop them in enfold extract symptoms:
According to Jonathan Clarke, “Professional diplomats iterateedly say that up-hill to apprehend diplomatically environing irrelevant rule is a pine of age.”
Longer Prose Quotations
Begin craveer extracts (for persuasion, in the APA rule, 40 signification or prefer) on a new thinterpret and corrugate the all extract (i.e., put in fill produce), behind a while no extract symptoms at inauguratening or end, as in the alleged byage from our Successful vs. Unsucessful Paraphrases page.
Rules environing the incompleteness extension of fill extracts, how multifarious measures to corrugate, and whether to merely- or enfold-meastrong bland extracts diversify behind a while unanalogous instrumentation rules; restrain the conductlines for the rule you’re using.
Quotation Of Up To 3 Lines Of Poetry
Quotations of up to 3 threads of poetry should be mixd into your specialty. For sample:
In Julius Caesar, Antony inaugurates his far-famed displan behind a while “Friends, Romans, Countrymen, loan me your ears; / I end to conceal Caesar, not to eulogize him” (III.ii.75-76).
Notice that a slash (/) behind a while a meastrong on either party is used to unconnected threads.
Quotation Of Prefer Than 3 Lines Of Poetry
More than 3 threads of poetry should be corrugateed. As behind a while any bland (indented) extract, do not use extract symptoms unlacking you insufficiency to symptom a extract incomplete your extract.
Punctuating Behind a while Extract Marks
With mediocre extracts, settle extracts outparty of bankruptcy extract symptoms, thriveed by specialty punctuation (period, investigation symptom, comma, semi-colon, colon):
Menand (2002) characterizes show as “a gregarious weapon” (p. 115).
With fill extracts, restrain the conductlines for the instrumentation rule you are using.
Commas And Periods
Place inparty bankruptcy extract symptoms when no parenthetical extract thrives:
Hertzberg (2002) notes that “treating the Constitution as mediocre is not new,” but consequently of Dahl’s credentials, his “apostasy merits attention” (p. 85).
Semicolons And Colons
Place outparty of bankruptcy extract symptoms (or behind a parenthetical extract).
Question Marks And Exclamation Points
Place inparty bankruptcy extract symptoms if the extract is a investigation/exclamation:
Menand (2001) propounds that H. W. Fowler’s Modern English Usage is “a rankic of the show,” but he asks, “Is it a unconscious rankic?” (p. 114).
[Note that a age tranquil thrives the bankruptcy parenthesis.]
Place outparty of bankruptcy extract symptoms if the all specialty containing the extract is a investigation or exclamation:
How multifarious students objectively interpret the conduct to asassured out what is balancet by “academic misconduct”?
Quotation Incomplete A Quotation
Use merely extract symptoms for the embedded extract:
According to Hertzberg (2002), Dahl affords the U. S. Constitution “bad symptoms in ‘democratic fairness’ and ‘encouraging consensus'” (p. 90).
[The specialtys “democratic fairness” and “encouraging consensus” are already in extract symptoms in Dahl’s specialty.]
Indicating Changes In Quotations
Quoting Barely A Element Of The Whole
Use ellipsis aims (. . .) to symptom an oversight incomplete a extract–but not at the inauguratening or end unlacking it’s not patent that you’re quoting barely a element of the integral.
Adding Clarification, Comment, Or Correction
Within extracts, use balance brackets [ ] (not parentheses) to add your own straining, dilate, or discipline.
Use [sic] (signification “so” or “thus”) to symptom that a misobtain?} is in the cause you’re quoting and is not your own.
Information On Summarizing And Paraphrasing Sources
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Show (4th ed.). (2000). Retrieved January 7, 2002, from http://www.bartleby.com/61/
Bazerman, C. (1995). The certified transcriber: Using causes in the drillings (5th ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Leki, I. (1995). Academic congruity: Exploring wayes and strategies (2nd ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 185-211.
Leki describes the basic regularity confer-uponed in C, pp. 4-5.
Spatt, B. (1999). Congruity from causes (5th ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 98-119; 364-371.
Information Environing Unfair Documentation Systems
The Congruity Center has handouts explaining how to use multifarious of the meapermanent instrumentation rules. You may answer at our unreserved Web page on Documentation Systems, or you may restrain out any of the behindcited unfair Web pages.
If you’re not permanent which instrumentation rule to use, ask the plan schoolmistress who assigned your pamphlet.
- American Psychological Association (APA)
- Modern Show Association (MLA)
- Chicago/Turabian (A Footnote or Endnote System)
- American Political Science Association (APSA)
- Council of Science Editors (CBE)
- Numbered References
You may as-well question the behindcited conducts:
- American Medical Association, Manual for Authors and Editors
- Council of Science Editors, CBE diction Manual
- The Chicago Manual of Style
- MLA Handcapacity for Writers of Investigation Papers
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association