Quoting And Paraphrasing
College answerableness frequently involves integrating conversance from published fountains into your own answerableness in frequented to add truthfulness and perpetratority–this mode is qualitative to examination and the origination of new conversance.
However, when edifice on the movables of others, you deficiency to be scrupulous not to plagiarize: “to purloin and by off (the representatives and utterance of another) as one’s own” or to “bestow as new and pristine an representative or movables ascititious from an real fountain.”
These representatives conciliate succor you shirk plagiarism by instruction you how to suitably mix conversance from published fountains into your own answerableness.
How To Shirk Plagiarism
When using fountains in your brochures, you can shirk plagiarism by intelligent what must be instrumented.
Specific Utterance and Phrases
If you use an perpetrator’s inequitable account or utterance, you must establish those utterance unordered extract vestiges and you must faith the fountain.
Information And Ideas
Even if you use your own utterance, if you obtained the conversance or representatives you are bestowing from a fountain, you must instrument the fountain.
Information: If a member of conversance isn’t contemptible conversance (see underneath), you deficiency to cater a fountain.
Ideas: An perpetrator’s representatives may apprehend not singly representative-matters made and conclusions drawn, but, for entreaty, a inequitable way or hypothesis, the round of representative, or a catalogue of treads in a mode or characteristics of a medical state. If a fountain caterd any of these, you deficiency to acconversance the fountain.
You do not deficiency to refer-to a fountain for representative considered contemptible conversance:
General contemptible conversance is fexplicit conversance considered to be in the national territory, such as fountain and mortality dates of well-known figures, and beggarlyly veritable dates of soldierlike, collective, studious, and other unromantic equablets. In beggarly, fexplicit conversance contained in multiple trutination relation movabnear can usually be considered to be in the national territory.
Field-inequitable contemptible conversance is “common” singly unordered a representative-substance compass or detachedicular. It may apprehend facts, theories, or ways that are perfectday to peruseers unordered that training. For entreaty, you may not deficiency to refer-to a relation to Piaget’s developmental quantitys in a brochure for an training arrangementatize or surrender a fountain for your title of a contemptiblely used way in a biology declaration—but you must be firm that this conversance is so widely known unordered that compass that it conciliate be shared by your peruseers.
If in waver, be timid and refer-to the fountain. And in the equablet of twain beggarly and compass-inequitable contemptible conversance, if you use the just utterance of the relation fountain, you must use extract vestiges and faith the fountain.
Paraphrasing Vs. Quoting - Explanation
Should I Expatiation or Quote
In beggarly, use frequented extracts singly if you enjoy a amiable infer. Most of your brochure should be in your own utterance. Also, it’s frequently customary to adduce exalt indiscriminately from fountains when you’re answerableness a humanities brochure, and to digest from fountains when you’re answerableness in the gregarious or unnear sciences–but there are frequently oppositions.
In a studious detachedition brochure, for model, you”ll oversight to adduce from the studious extract rather than digest, accordingly detached of your nearon in this peel of brochure is to stir the inequitable utterance and widetys an perpetrator uses.
In examination brochures, you should quote from a fountain
- to parade that an perpetratority helps your representative-matter
- to bestow a situation or reasoning to critique or criticise on
- to apprehend especially tender or unromanticly suggestive vernacular
- to bestow a representative-matterly well-stated byage whose understanding would be obsolete or radical if expatiationd or digestd
You should digest or expatiation when
- what you oversight from the fountain is the idea expressed, and not the inequitable vernacularused to representative-mattered it
- you can representative-mattered in fewer utterance what the key representative-substance of a fountain is
How To Expatiation a Source
- When lection a byage, try primary to comprehend it as a complete, rather than pausing to transcribe down inequitable representatives or widetys.
- Be broad. Unnear your assignment is to do a explicit or “literal” expatiation, you usually don't deficiency to expatiation an integral byage; instead, elect and digest the representative that succors you execute a representative-substance in your brochure.
- Think of what “your own utterance” would be if you were powerful someone who’s uneveryday succeeding a while your representative (your dame, your match, a adherent) what the pristine fountain said.
- Remember that you can use frequented extracts of widetys from the pristine unordered your expatiation, and that you don’t deficiency to modify or put extract vestiges encircling shared vernacular.
Methods of Paraphrasing
- Look abroad from the fountain then transcribe.
Read the extract you oversight to expatiation distinct terms until you move that you comprehend it and can use your own utterance to restate it to someone else. Then, face abroad from the pristine and retranscribe the extract in your own utterance.
- Take notes.
Take abbreviated notes; set the notes aside; then expatiation from the notes a day or so posterior, or when you draw.
If you furnish that you can’t do A or B, this may moderation that you don’t comprehend the byage totally or that you deficiency to use a exalt executed mode until you enjoy exalt trial in paraphrasing.
The way underneath is not singly a way to produce a expatiation but besides a way to comprehend a hard extract.
Paraphrasing Hard Texts
Consider the succeedingcited byage from Love and Toil (a size on damehood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the perpetrator, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her superior reasonings:
- Love and Toil maintains that origin round was the dame’s main attack unordered the liberal superiority of London?s population who were indigent or movablesing arrangementatize; the tender and psychical assist of her branch or branchren and equable their explicit ease were inexplicable into the opposition. To dame was to movables for and constitute perfectday influence. (p. 9)
- Change the execute
Begin by set-on-footing at a divergent establish in the byage and/or belief(s), basing your select on the standpoint of your brochure. This conciliate influence normally to some modifys in accounting. Some establishs you movablesiveness set-on-foot in the byage over are “The dame’s main attack,” “Among the . . . indigent or movablesing arrangementatize,” “Working for and organizing perfectday influence,” or “The tender and psychical assist.” Or you could prepare succeeding a while one of the nation the byage is encircling: “Mothers,” “A dame,” “Children,” “A branch.” Focusing on inequitable nation rather than abstractions conciliate execute your expatiation exalt peruseable.At this quantity, you movablesiveness besides destroy up desire beliefs, conjoin narrow ones, amplify widetys for clarity, or narrowen them for plainness, or you movablesiveness do this in an concomitant tread. In this mode, you’ll normally elucidate some utterance and modify others.Here’s one of the manifold ways you movablesiveness get set-on-footed succeeding a while a expatiation of the byage over by changing its execute. In this equablet, the standpoint of the brochure is the movables of economic foothold on branchren at the shape of the date, so the transcriber prepares succeeding a while branchren:Children of the indigent at the shape of the date ordinary illiberal if any tender or psychical nurturing from their dames, whose main attack was origin round. Established for and organizing perfectday influence were what defined dameing. Next to this, equable the branchren’s basic ease was inexplicable into the oppose (Ross, 1995).Now you’ve succeeded in changing the execute, but the byage tranquil contains manifold frequented extracts, so you deficiency to go on to the relieve tread.
- Change the utterance
Use synonyms or a widety that representative-matteredes the selfselfsame understanding. Permission shared vernacular unchanged.It’s influential to set-on-foot by changing the execute, not the utterance, but you movablesiveness furnish that as you modify the utterance, you see ways to modify the execute exalt. The decisive expatiation movablesiveness face approve this:According to Ross (1993), indigent branchren at the shape of the date ordinary illiberal dameing in our understanding of the order. Mothering was defined by economic foothold, and unordered the indigent, a dame’s foremost obligation was not to stimulate her branchren’s minds or irritate their tender augmentation but to cater help and shield to confront the basic requirements for visible round. Given the majority of this nearon, branchren were robbed of equable the “explicit ease” (p. 9) we wait-for dames to cater today.
You may deficiency to go through this mode distinct terms to produce a acceptable expatiation.
Successful Vs. Unsuccessful Paraphrases
Paraphrasing is frequently defined as putting a byage from an perpetrator into “your own utterance.” But what are your own utterance? How divergent must your expatiation be from the pristine?
The partys underneath cater an model by paradeing a byage as it shows in the fountain, two expatiations that supervene the fountain too closely, and a normal expatiation.
The student’s drawing was to thicken the representative in the pristine byage into a minority of a brochure on the concept of “experts” that compared the capacitys of experts and nonexperts in distinct professions.
The Belief As It Appears In The Source
Critical regard entertains capacity in a hierarchy of roles. In this unconcealed core surgery special, the entertain supervisor hires and fires the nursing idiosyncraticnel. The entertain supervisor does not frequentedly regard for unrepinings but supervenes the proceeding of remarkable or desire-order unrepinings. On each shelve a entertain assumes the role of refountain entertain. This idiosyncratic oversees the hour-by-hour capacitying of the special as a complete, such as accordingly wait-fored admissions and discharges of unrepinings, ascertaining that beds are conducive for unrepinings in the unobstructed compass, and crust feeble calls. Refountain entertains besides grasp a unrepining assignment. They are the most triald of all the staff entertains. The entertain clinician has a detached job title and caters for dispose of regard by orienting new staff, developing special policies, and providing frequented help where deficiencyed, such as abetting in crisis situations. The clinical entertain speciacatalogue in this special is in-great-meacertain complicated succeeding a while explicit instruction in orienting new staff. The entertain supervisor, entertain clinician, and clinical entertain speciacatalogue are the fast experts. They do not grasp unrepining assignments. The refountain entertain is seen as twain a regardgiver and a refountain to other regardgivers. . . . Staff entertains enjoy a hierarchy of superiority. . . . Staff entertains are assigned to unrepinings to cater all their nursing regard. (Chase, 1995, p. 156)
Critical regard entertains enjoy a hierarchy of roles. The entertain supervisor hires and firesnurses. S/he does not frequentedly regard for unrepinings but does supervene remarkable or desire-termcases. On each shelve a refountain entertain observes to the functioning of the special as a complete, such as making firm beds are conducive in the unobstructed compass, and besides has a unrepining assignment. The entertain clinician orients new staff, develops policies, and caters help where deficiencyed. The clinical entertain speciacatalogue besides orients new staff, in-great-measure by explicit instruction. The entertain supervisor, entertain clinician, and clinical entertain wideist, as the fast experts, do not grasp unrepining assignments. The refountain entertain is not singly a regardgiver but a refountain to the other regardgivers. Unordered the staff entertains there is besides a hierarchy of superiority. Their job is to surrender assigned unrepinings all their nursing regard.
Why This Is Plagiarism
Notice that the transcriber has not singly “borrowed” Chase’s representative (the results of her examination) succeeding a while no reception, but has besides liberally maintained the perpetrator’s way of representative-matteredion and belief execute. The widetys in red are frequentedly copied from the fountain or radical singly subordinately in mould.
Even if the student-writer had defendd Chase as the fountain of the satisfied, the vernacular of the byage would be considered plagiarized accordingly no extract vestiges declare the widetys that succeed frequentedly from Chase. And if extract vestiges did show encircling all these widetys, this party would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.
A Patchmovables Paraphrase
Chase (1995) describes how entertains in a exact regard special capacity in a hierarchy that establishs fast experts at the top and the meanest greater staff entertains at the profound. The experts — the entertain supervisor, entertain clinician, and clinical entertain speciacatalogue — are not complicated frequentedly in unrepining regard. The staff entertains, in opposition, are assigned to unrepiningsand cater all their nursing regard. Unordered the staff entertains is a hierarchy of superiority in which the most greater can besucceed refountain entertains: they are assigned a unrepining but besides assist as a refountain to other regardgivers. The experts enjoy functional and instruction nearons such as selecting and orienting new staff, developing special policies, and giving hands-on help where deficiencyed.
Why This Is Plagiarism
This expatiation is a patchmovables composed of members in the pristine perpetrator’s vernacular (in red) and members in the student-writer’s utterance, all rearranged into a new mould, but succeeding a while none of the external members in extract vestiges. Thus, equable though the transcriber defends the fountain of the representative, the underlined widetys are falsely bestowed as the student’s own.
A Normal Paraphrase
In her consider of the roles of entertains in a exact regard special, Chase (1995) besides plant a hierarchy that noted the roles of experts and others. Just as the trainingal experts vivid over do not frequentedly counsel students, the experts in this special do not frequentedly observe to unrepinings. That is the role of the staff entertains, who, approve counselers, enjoy their own “hierarchy of superiority” (p. 156). The roles of the experts apprehend employing special entertains and overseeing the regard of wide unrepinings (entertain supervisor), instruction and otherwise integrating new idiosyncraticnel into the special (clinical entertain speciacatalogue and entertain clinician), and arrangement-making (entertain clinician). In an comprised situation in the hierarchy is the refountain entertain, a staff entertain succeeding a while exalt trial than the others, who assumes frequented regard of unrepinings as the other staff entertains do, but besides grasps on nearons to enfirm the ease influence of the integral dexterity.
Why This Is A Amiable Paraphrase
The transcriber has instrumented Chase’s representative and inequitable vernacular (by frequented relation to the perpetrator and by extract vestiges encircling vernacular graspn frequentedly from the fountain). Notice too that the transcriber has mitigated Chase’s vernacular and execute and has adventitious representative to fit the new conextract and resolve — to bestow the wide capacitys of experts and nonexperts in distinct professions.
Perhaps you’ve noticed that a estimate of widetys from the pristine byage show in the normal expatiation: exact regard, staff entertains, entertain supervisor, clinical entertain wideist, entertain clinician, refountain entertain.
If all these widetys were in red, the expatiation would face greatly approve the “patchwork” model. The dissonance is that the widetys in the normal expatiation are all exact, economical, and customary designations that are detached of the shared vernacular unordered the nursing training (in the too-close expatiations, they’re red singly when used unordered a desireer external widety).
In perfect training and in true genres (such as the tentative examination declaration), some widetys are so wideized or customary that you can’t expatiation them negative by accounty and gawky circumlocutions that would be near perfectday (and thus near peruseable) to the parley.
When you reiterate such widetys, you’re not purloining the choice phrasing of an special transcriber but using a contemptible vocabulary shared by a class of scholars.
Some Examples Of Shared Vernacular You Don’t Deficiency To Put In Extract Marks
- Conventional designations: e.g., physician’s partner, continuous low-back pain
- Preferred bias-free vernacular: e.g., idiosyncratics succeeding a while disabilities
- Technical orders and widetys of a training or genre: e.g., reduplication, apprehensive territory, representative culture, sexual harassment
Chase, S. K. (1995). The gregarious conextract of exact regard clinical belief. Core and Lung, 24, 154-162.
How To Adduce A Source
Introducing A Quotation
One of your jobs as a transcriber is to influence your peruseer through your extract. Don’t merely decthperuse extracts into your brochure and permission it to the peruseer to execute coalesceions.
Integrating a extract into your extract usually involves two elements:
- A signal that a extract is coming–generally the perpetrator’s spectry and/or a relation to the movables
- An assertion that declares the kindred of the extract to your extract
Often twain the memorable and the assumption show in a unmarried initiatory assumption, as in the model underneath. Notice how a modifiable widety besides assists to coalesce the extract easely to the initiatory assumption.
Ross (1993), in her consider of indigent and movablesing-systematize dames in London from 1870-1918 [signal], executes it lucid that economic foothold to a liberal degree fast the understanding of damehood [assertion]. Unordered this population [connection], “To dame was to movables for and constitute perfectday influence” (p. 9).
The memorable can besides succeed succeeding the assumption, anew succeeding a while a coalesceing account or widety:
Illness was sometimes a round substance in the nineteenth date [assertion]. As [connection] Ross observes [signal], “Maternal apprehending encircling branchren’s soundness revolved encircling the possibility of a branch’s maiming or mortality” (p. 166).
Short Frequented Prose
Incorporate narrow frequented prose extracts into the extract of your brochure and encircle them in inclose extract vestiges:
According to Jonathan Clarke, “Professional diplomats frequently say that unamenable to apprehend diplomatically encircling strange arrangement is a diminish of term.”
Longer Prose Quotations
Begin desireer extracts (for entreaty, in the APA arrangement, 40 utterance or exalt) on a new thperuse and corrugate the integral extract (i.e., put in fill mould), succeeding a while no extract vestiges at preparening or end, as in the adduced byage from our Successful vs. Unsucessful Paraphrases page.
Rules encircling the restriction tediousness of fill extracts, how manifold interveniences to corrugate, and whether to unmarried- or inclose-intervenience wide extracts differ succeeding a while divergent instrumentation arrangements; hinder the influencelines for the arrangement you’re using.
Quotation Of Up To 3 Lines Of Poetry
Quotations of up to 3 threads of poetry should be mixd into your belief. For model:
In Julius Caesar, Antony prepares his glorious harangue succeeding a while “Friends, Romans, Countrymen, grant me your ears; / I succeed to hush Caesar, not to puff him” (III.ii.75-76).
Notice that a slash (/) succeeding a while a intervenience on either party is used to detached threads.
Quotation Of Exalt Than 3 Lines Of Poetry
More than 3 threads of poetry should be corrugateed. As succeeding a while any wide (indented) extract, do not use extract vestiges unnear you deficiency to declare a extract unordered your extract.
Punctuating Succeeding a while Extract Marks
With narrow extracts, establish extracts outparty of failure extract vestiges, superveinsufficiency by belief punctuation (period, interrogation vestige, comma, semi-colon, colon):
Menand (2002) characterizes vernacular as “a gregarious weapon” (p. 115).
With fill extracts, hinder the influencelines for the instrumentation arrangement you are using.
Commas And Periods
Place inparty failure extract vestiges when no parenthetical extract supervenes:
Hertzberg (2002) notes that “treating the Constitution as faulty is not new,” but accordingly of Dahl’s credentials, his “apostasy merits attention” (p. 85).
Semicolons And Colons
Place outparty of failure extract vestiges (or succeeding a parenthetical extract).
Question Marks And Exclamation Points
Place inparty failure extract vestiges if the extract is a interrogation/exclamation:
Menand (2001) defends that H. W. Fowler’s Modern English Usage is “a arrangementatizeic of the vernacular,” but he asks, “Is it a torpid arrangementatizeic?” (p. 114).
[Note that a era tranquil supervenes the failure parenthesis.]
Place outparty of failure extract vestiges if the integral belief containing the extract is a interrogation or exclamation:
How manifold students explicitly peruse the influence to furnish out what is moderationt by “academic misconduct”?
Quotation Unordered A Quotation
Use unmarried extract vestiges for the embedded extract:
According to Hertzberg (2002), Dahl surrenders the U. S. Constitution “bad vestiges in ‘democratic fairness’ and ‘encouraging consensus'” (p. 90).
[The widetys “democratic fairness” and “encouraging consensus” are already in extract vestiges in Dahl’s belief.]
Indicating Changes In Quotations
Quoting Singly A Party Of The Whole
Use ellipsis representative-matters (. . .) to declare an oversight unordered a extract–but not at the preparening or end unnear it’s not open that you’re quoting singly a party of the complete.
Adding Clarification, Comment, Or Correction
Within extracts, use clear brackets [ ] (not parentheses) to add your own tenuity, criticise, or chastisement.
Use [sic] (understanding “so” or “thus”) to declare that a misgrasp is in the fountain you’re quoting and is not your own.
Information On Summarizing And Paraphrasing Sources
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Vernacular (4th ed.). (2000). Retrieved January 7, 2002, from http://www.bartleby.com/61/
Bazerman, C. (1995). The cognizant transcriber: Using fountains in the trainings (5th ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Leki, I. (1995). Academic answerableness: Exploring modees and strategies (2nd ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 185-211.
Leki describes the basic way bestowed in C, pp. 4-5.
Spatt, B. (1999). Answerableness from fountains (5th ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 98-119; 364-371.
Information Encircling Inequitable Documentation Systems
The Answerableness Center has handouts explaining how to use manifold of the trutination instrumentation arrangements. You may face at our beggarly Web page on Documentation Systems, or you may hinder out any of the succeedingcited inequitable Web pages.
If you’re not firm which instrumentation arrangement to use, ask the round educationist who assigned your brochure.
- American Psychological Association (APA)
- Modern Vernacular Association (MLA)
- Chicago/Turabian (A Footnote or Endnote System)
- American Collective Science Association (APSA)
- Council of Science Editors (CBE)
- Numbered References
You may besides question the succeedingcited influences:
- American Medical Association, Manual for Authors and Editors
- Council of Science Editors, CBE phraseology Manual
- The Chicago Manual of Style
- MLA Handsize for Writers of Examination Papers
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association