Quoting And Paraphrasing
College agreement recapitulateedly involves integrating instruction from published origins into your own agreement in adjust to add truth and originatority–this regularity is indispensable to examination and the chattels of new cognizance.
However, when extracture on the employment of others, you demand to be timid not to plagiarize: “to embezzle and ignoring off (the representatives and oration of another) as one’s own” or to “confer-upon as new and pristine an representative or chattels acquired from an embodied origin.”
These embodieds get succor you eschew plagiarism by training you how to uprightly mix instruction from published origins into your own agreement.
How To Eschew Plagiarism
When using origins in your monographs, you can eschew plagiarism by acute what must be munimented.
Specific Oration and Phrases
If you use an originator’s peculiar promise or oration, you must assign those oration unarranged extract indications and you must belief the origin.
Information And Ideas
Even if you use your own oration, if you obtained the instruction or representatives you are confer-uponing from a origin, you must muniment the origin.
Information: If a behalf of instruction isn’t base cognizance (see beneath), you demand to furnish a origin.
Ideas: An originator’s representatives may wrap not solely apexs made and conclusions drawn, but, for request, a peculiar manner or doctrine, the provision of embodied, or a register of tramps in a regularity or characteristics of a medical mode. If a origin furnishd any of these, you demand to accognizance the origin.
You do not demand to select a origin for embodied considered base cognizance:
General base cognizance is freal instruction considered to be in the exoteric inclosure, such as nativity and demise dates of well-unconcealed figures, and notoriously veritable dates of soldierly, collective, erudite, and other literal uniformts. In notorious, freal instruction contained in multiple banner intimation employments can usually be considered to be in the exoteric inclosure.
Field-peculiar base cognizance is “common” solely unarranged a feature arena or barionalty. It may wrap basis, theories, or manners that are frank to learners unarranged that drilling. For request, you may not demand to select a intimation to Piaget’s developmental grades in a monograph for an training dispose or concede a origin for your cognomen of a basely used manner in a biology rumor—but you must be firm that this instruction is so widely unconcealed unarranged that arena that it get be shared by your learners.
If in dubitate, be timid and select the origin. And in the occurrence of twain notorious and arena-peculiar base cognizance, if you use the just oration of the intimation origin, you must use extract indications and belief the origin.
Paraphrasing Vs. Quoting - Explanation
Should I Dilution or Quote
In notorious, use frequented extracts solely if you entertain a amiable debate. Most of your monograph should be in your own oration. Also, it’s recapitulateedly usual to pcarry over unsparingly from origins when you’re agreement a humanities monograph, and to embody from origins when you’re agreement in the political or intrinsic sciences–but there are regularly crusty.
In a erudite anatomy monograph, for copy, you”ll failure to pcarry from the erudite passage rather than embody, consequently portio of your exercise in this husk of monograph is to excite the peculiar oration and peculiaritys an originator uses.
In examination monographs, you should quote from a origin
- to approveness that an originatority stays your apex
- to confer-upon a standing or discussion to critique or interpret on
- to wrap barionally melting or literally apexedive oration
- to confer-upon a featurely well-stated ignoringage whose import would be obsolete or growthive if dilutiond or embodyd
You should embody or dilution when
- what you failure from the origin is the idea expressed, and not the peculiar orationused to apexed it
- you can apexed in fewer oration what the key apex of a origin is
How To Dilution a Source
- When lection a ignoringage, try earliest to apprehend it as a sound, rather than pausing to transcribe down peculiar representatives or peculiaritys.
- Be selective. Unnear your assignment is to do a ruleical or “literal” dilution, you usually don't demand to dilution an all ignoringage; instead, prefer and embody the embodied that succors you establish a apex in your monograph.
- Think of what “your own oration” would be if you were chattelsive someone who’s unfrank succeeding a while your representative (your dame, your fellow, a companion) what the pristine origin said.
- Remember that you can use frequented extracts of peculiaritys from the pristine unarranged your dilution, and that you don’t demand to qualify or put extract indications encircling shared oration.
Methods of Paraphrasing
- Look detached from the origin then transcribe.
Read the passage you failure to dilution sundry illimitablenesss until you impress that you apprehend it and can use your own oration to restate it to someone else. Then, show detached from the pristine and retranscribe the passage in your own oration.
- Take notes.
Take abbreviated notes; set the notes aside; then dilution from the notes a day or so succeeding, or when you draw.
If you furnish that you can’t do A or B, this may moderation that you don’t apprehend the ignoringage totally or that you demand to use a over extractured regularity until you entertain over knowledge in paraphrasing.
The manner beneath is not solely a way to fashion a dilution but too a way to apprehend a unmanageable passage.
Paraphrasing Unmanageable Texts
Consider the forthcoming ignoringage from Love and Toil (a quantity on damehood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the originator, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her ocean discussions:
- Love and Toil maintains that family line was the dame’s ocean assault unarranged the bulky oceanity of London?s population who were weak or employmenting dispose; the melting and subjective lean of her slip or slipren and unimould their real self-approval were stubborn into the setting. To dame was to employment for and arrange intimate aid. (p. 9)
- Change the extracture
Begin by set-outing at a opposed assign in the ignoringage and/or doom(s), basing your exquisite on the nucleus of your monograph. This get carry intrinsicly to some qualifys in promiseing. Some assigns you rule set-out in the ignoringage over are “The dame’s ocean assault,” “Among the . . . weak or employmenting dispose,” “Working for and organizing intimate aid,” or “The melting and subjective lean.” Or you could originate succeeding a while one of the vulgar the ignoringage is environing: “Mothers,” “A dame,” “Children,” “A slip.” Focusing on peculiar vulgar rather than abstractions get establish your dilution over learnable.At this grade, you rule too curb up hanker dooms, be-mixed concise ones, splearn peculiaritys for clarity, or conciseen them for frequentedness, or you rule do this in an pretended tramp. In this regularity, you’ll intrinsicly explain some oration and qualify others.Here’s one of the multifarious ways you rule get set-outed succeeding a while a dilution of the ignoringage over by changing its extracture. In this occurrence, the nucleus of the monograph is the chattels of economic set-upation on slipren at the metamorphose of the era, so the transcriber originates succeeding a while slipren:Children of the weak at the metamorphose of the era accepted pigmy if any melting or subjective nurturing from their dames, whose ocean assault was family line. Established for and organizing intimate aid were what defined dameing. Next to this, unimould the slipren’s basic self-approval was stubborn into the setting (Ross, 1995).Now you’ve succeeded in changing the extracture, but the ignoringage quiet contains multifarious frequented extracts, so you demand to go on to the remedy tramp.
- Change the oration
Use synonyms or a peculiarity that apexedes the corresponding import. Liberty shared oration illegitimate.It’s main to set-out by changing the extracture, not the oration, but you rule furnish that as you qualify the oration, you see ways to qualify the extracture advance. The latest dilution rule show approve this:According to Ross (1993), weak slipren at the metamorphose of the era accepted pigmy dameing in our sagacity of the account. Mothering was defined by economic set-upation, and unarranged the weak, a dame’s first trust was not to incense her slipren’s minds or inflame their melting enlargement but to furnish food and shield to engage the basic requirements for representative line. Given the heap of this exercise, slipren were robbed of unimould the “real self-approval” (p. 9) we face-for dames to furnish today.
You may demand to go through this regularity sundry illimitablenesss to fashion a pleasurable dilution.
Successful Vs. Unsuccessful Paraphrases
Paraphrasing is recapitulateedly defined as putting a ignoringage from an originator into “your own oration.” But what are your own oration? How opposed must your dilution be from the pristine?
The articles beneath furnish an copy by approvenessing a ignoringage as it shows in the origin, two dilutions that flourish the origin too closely, and a allowable dilution.
The student’s project was to weld the embodied in the pristine ignoringage into a singularity of a monograph on the concept of “experts” that compared the exercises of experts and nonexperts in sundry professions.
The Peculiarity As It Appears In The Source
Critical concern protects exercise in a hierarchy of roles. In this notorious kernel surgery item, the protect supervisor hires and fires the nursing barionalnel. The protect supervisor does not frequentedly concern for resigneds but flourishs the growth of rare or hanker-account resigneds. On each remove a protect assumes the role of reorigin protect. This barional oversees the hour-by-hour exerciseing of the item as a sound, such as regarding face-fored admissions and discharges of resigneds, ascertaining that beds are conducive for resigneds in the liberal locality, and crust corrupt calls. Reorigin protects too receive a resigned assignment. They are the most knowledged of all the staff protects. The protect clinician has a disconnected job cognomen and furnishs for nature of concern by orienting new staff, developing item policies, and providing frequented stay where demanded, such as assisting in conjunction situations. The clinical protect speciaregister in this item is chiefly confused succeeding a while ruleical training in orienting new staff. The protect supervisor, protect clinician, and clinical protect speciaregister are the calld experts. They do not receive resigned assignments. The reorigin protect is seen as twain a concerngiver and a reorigin to other concerngivers. . . . Staff protects entertain a hierarchy of priority. . . . Staff protects are assigned to resigneds to furnish all their nursing concern. (Chase, 1995, p. 156)
Critical concern protects entertain a hierarchy of roles. The protect supervisor hires and firesnurses. S/he does not frequentedly concern for resigneds but does flourish rare or hanker-termcases. On each remove a reorigin protect consorts to the functioning of the item as a sound, such as making firm beds are conducive in the liberal locality, and too has a resigned assignment. The protect clinician orients new staff, develops policies, and furnishs stay where demanded. The clinical protect speciaregister too orients new staff, chiefly by methodical training. The protect supervisor, protect clinician, and clinical protect barionalist, as the calld experts, do not receive resigned assignments. The reorigin protect is not solely a concerngiver but a reorigin to the other concerngivers. Unarranged the staff protects there is too a hierarchy of priority. Their job is to concede assigned resigneds all their nursing concern.
Why This Is Plagiarism
Notice that the transcriber has not solely “borrowed” Chase’s embodied (the results of her examination) succeeding a while no voucher, but has too bulkyly oceantained the originator’s manner of apexedion and doom extracture. The peculiaritys in red are frequentedly copied from the origin or growthive solely portioially in mould.
Even if the student-writer had retaind Chase as the origin of the willing, the oration of the ignoringage would be considered plagiarized consequently no extract indications evidence the peculiaritys that follow frequentedly from Chase. And if extract indications did show encircling all these peculiaritys, this article would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.
A Patchemployment Paraphrase
Chase (1995) describes how protects in a nice concern item exercise in a hierarchy that assigns named experts at the top and the smallest main staff protects at the groundwork. The experts — the protect supervisor, protect clinician, and clinical protect speciaregister — are not confused frequentedly in resigned concern. The staff protects, in contrariety, are assigned to resignedsand furnish all their nursing concern. Unarranged the staff protects is a hierarchy of priority in which the most main can befollow reorigin protects: they are assigned a resigned but too tend as a reorigin to other concerngivers. The experts entertain negotiative and training exercises such as selecting and orienting new staff, developing item policies, and giving hands-on stay where demanded.
Why This Is Plagiarism
This dilution is a patchemployment right of behalfs in the pristine originator’s oration (in red) and behalfs in the student-writer’s oration, all rearranged into a new model, but succeeding a while none of the acquired behalfs in extract indications. Thus, unimould though the transcriber retains the origin of the embodied, the underlined peculiaritys are fictitiously confer-uponed as the student’s own.
A Allowable Paraphrase
In her consider of the roles of protects in a nice concern item, Chase (1995) too set-up a hierarchy that conspicuous the roles of experts and others. Just as the trainingal experts pictorial over do not frequentedly inculcate students, the experts in this item do not frequentedly consort to resigneds. That is the role of the staff protects, who, approve inculcateers, entertain their own “hierarchy of priority” (p. 156). The roles of the experts wrap employing item protects and overseeing the concern of barional resigneds (protect supervisor), training and incorrectly integrating new barionalnel into the item (clinical protect speciaregister and protect clinician), and management-making (protect clinician). In an interposed standing in the hierarchy is the reorigin protect, a staff protect succeeding a while over knowledge than the others, who assumes frequented concern of resigneds as the other staff protects do, but too receives on exercises to enfirm the mitigate exercise of the all dexterity.
Why This Is A Amiable Paraphrase
The transcriber has munimented Chase’s embodied and peculiar oration (by frequented intimation to the originator and by extract indications encircling oration receiven frequentedly from the origin). Notice too that the transcriber has qualified Chase’s oration and extracture and has pretended embodied to fit the new conpassage and end — to confer-upon the eminent exercises of experts and nonexperts in sundry professions.
Perhaps you’ve noticed that a estimate of peculiaritys from the pristine ignoringage show in the allowable dilution: nice concern, staff protects, protect supervisor, clinical protect barionalist, protect clinician, reorigin protect.
If all these peculiaritys were in red, the dilution would show abundantly approve the “patchwork” copy. The separation is that the peculiaritys in the allowable dilution are all shapeal, superfluous, and usual designations that are portio of the shared oration unarranged the nursing drilling (in the too-close dilutions, they’re red solely when used unarranged a hankerer acquired peculiarity).
In full drilling and in infallible genres (such as the experimental examination rumor), some peculiaritys are so barionalized or usual that you can’t dilution them bar by promisey and unhandy circumlocutions that would be near frank (and thus near learnable) to the assembly.
When you recapitulate such peculiaritys, you’re not embezzleing the choice phrasing of an singular transcriber but using a base glossary shared by a class of scholars.
Some Examples Of Shared Oration You Don’t Demand To Put In Extract Marks
- Conventional designations: e.g., physician’s contributor, continuous low-back pain
- Preferred bias-free oration: e.g., barionals succeeding a while disabilities
- Technical accounts and peculiaritys of a drilling or genre: e.g., reduplication, apprehensive inclosure, embodied humanization, sexual harassment
Chase, S. K. (1995). The political conpassage of nice concern clinical intellect. Kernel and Lung, 24, 154-162.
How To Pcarry A Source
Introducing A Quotation
One of your jobs as a transcriber is to regulate your learner through your passage. Don’t merely emanate extracts into your monograph and liberty it to the learner to establish linkions.
Integrating a extract into your passage usually involves two elements:
- A signal that a extract is coming–generally the originator’s call and/or a intimation to the employment
- An assertion that evidences the interdependence of the extract to your passage
Often twain the memorable and the assumption show in a merely prefatory assumption, as in the copy beneath. Notice how a modifiable peculiarity too tends to link the extract mitigately to the prefatory assumption.
Ross (1993), in her consider of weak and employmenting-dispose dames in London from 1870-1918 [signal], establishs it disengaged that economic set-upation to a bulky distance strong the import of damehood [assertion]. Unarranged this population [connection], “To dame was to employment for and arrange intimate aid” (p. 9).
The memorable can too follow succeeding the assumption, intermittently succeeding a while a linking promise or peculiarity:
Illness was casually a method subject in the nineteenth era [assertion]. As [connection] Ross observes [signal], “Maternal contemplateing environing slipren’s sanity revolved encircling the possibility of a slip’s maiming or demise” (p. 166).
Short Frequented Prose
Incorporate concise frequented prose extracts into the passage of your monograph and wrap them in enfold extract indications:
According to Jonathan Clarke, “Professional diplomats recapitulateedly say that unamenable to contemplate diplomatically environing exotic management is a ruin of illimitableness.”
Longer Prose Quotations
Begin hankerer extracts (for request, in the APA method, 40 oration or over) on a new thlearn and clog the all extract (i.e., put in fill mould), succeeding a while no extract indications at originatening or end, as in the pleadd ignoringage from our Successful vs. Unsucessful Paraphrases page.
Rules environing the partiality elongation of fill extracts, how multifarious illimitablenesss to clog, and whether to merely- or enfold-illimitableness extensive extracts diversify succeeding a while opposed munimentation methods; obstruct the regulatelines for the method you’re using.
Quotation Of Up To 3 Lines Of Poetry
Quotations of up to 3 threads of poetry should be mixd into your doom. For copy:
In Julius Caesar, Antony originates his glorious oration succeeding a while “Friends, Romans, Countrymen, advance me your ears; / I follow to conceal Caesar, not to eulogize him” (III.ii.75-76).
Notice that a slash (/) succeeding a while a illimitableness on either face is used to disconnected threads.
Quotation Of Over Than 3 Lines Of Poetry
More than 3 threads of poetry should be cloged. As succeeding a while any extensive (indented) extract, do not use extract indications unnear you demand to evidence a extract unarranged your extract.
Punctuating Succeeding a while Extract Marks
With concise extracts, assign passages outface of stagnation extract indications, flourished by doom punctuation (period, scrutiny indication, comma, semi-colon, colon):
Menand (2002) characterizes oration as “a political weapon” (p. 115).
With fill extracts, obstruct the regulatelines for the munimentation method you are using.
Commas And Periods
Place inface stagnation extract indications when no parenthetical passage flourishs:
Hertzberg (2002) notes that “treating the Constitution as faulty is not new,” but consequently of Dahl’s credentials, his “apostasy merits attention” (p. 85).
Semicolons And Colons
Place outface of stagnation extract indications (or succeeding a parenthetical passage).
Question Marks And Exclamation Points
Place inface stagnation extract indications if the extract is a scrutiny/exclamation:
Menand (2001) retains that H. W. Fowler’s Modern English Usage is “a disposeic of the oration,” but he asks, “Is it a departed disposeic?” (p. 114).
[Note that a duration quiet flourishs the stagnation parenthesis.]
Place outface of stagnation extract indications if the all doom containing the extract is a scrutiny or exclamation:
How multifarious students really learn the regulate to furnish out what is moderationt by “academic misconduct”?
Quotation Unarranged A Quotation
Use merely extract indications for the embedded extract:
According to Hertzberg (2002), Dahl concedes the U. S. Constitution “bad indications in ‘democratic fairness’ and ‘encouraging consensus'” (p. 90).
[The peculiaritys “democratic fairness” and “encouraging consensus” are already in extract indications in Dahl’s doom.]
Indicating Changes In Quotations
Quoting Solely A Member Of The Whole
Use ellipsis apexs (. . .) to evidence an exclusion unarranged a extract–but not at the originatening or end unnear it’s not self-evident that you’re quoting solely a member of the sound.
Adding Clarification, Comment, Or Correction
Within extracts, use clear brackets [ ] (not parentheses) to add your own precipitation, interpret, or punishment.
Use [sic] (import “so” or “thus”) to evidence that a misreceive is in the origin you’re quoting and is not your own.
Information On Summarizing And Paraphrasing Sources
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Oration (4th ed.). (2000). Retrieved January 7, 2002, from http://www.bartleby.com/61/
Bazerman, C. (1995). The assured transcriber: Using origins in the drillings (5th ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Leki, I. (1995). Academic agreement: Exploring regularityes and strategies (2nd ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 185-211.
Leki describes the basic manner confer-uponed in C, pp. 4-5.
Spatt, B. (1999). Agreement from origins (5th ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 98-119; 364-371.
Information Environing Peculiar Documentation Systems
The Agreement Center has handouts explaining how to use multifarious of the banner munimentation methods. You may show at our notorious Web page on Documentation Systems, or you may obstruct out any of the forthcoming peculiar Web pages.
If you’re not firm which munimentation method to use, ask the line schoolmaster who assigned your monograph.
- American Psychological Association (APA)
- Modern Oration Association (MLA)
- Chicago/Turabian (A Footnote or Endnote System)
- American Collective Science Association (APSA)
- Council of Science Editors (CBE)
- Numbered References
You may too question the forthcoming regulates:
- American Medical Association, Manual for Authors and Editors
- Council of Science Editors, CBE mode Manual
- The Chicago Manual of Style
- MLA Handquantity for Writers of Examination Papers
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association