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Quoting And Paraphrasing

College communication rehearseedly involves integrating counsel from published origins into your own communication in regulate to add accuracy and constructority–this manner is necessary to learning and the evolution of new notice.

However, when architecture on the exertion of others, you scarcity to be timid not to plagiarize: “to embezzle and ignoring off (the proposals and say of another) as one’s own” or to “introduce as new and pristine an proposal or fruit ascititious from an tangible origin.”

These esthetics succeed aid you eschew plagiarism by instruction you how to right complete counsel from published origins into your own communication.

How To Eschew Plagiarism

When using origins in your tractates, you can eschew plagiarism by accomplished what must be munimented.

Specific Say and Phrases

If you use an constructor’s favoring distinguished or say, you must locate those say amid extract tokens and you must reputation the origin.

Information And Ideas

Even if you use your own say, if you obtained the counsel or proposals you are introduceing from a origin, you must muniment the origin.

Information: If a share of counsel isn’t low notice (see beneath), you scarcity to produce a origin.

Ideas: An constructor’s proposals may conceive not merely sharp-ends made and conclusions drawn, but, for exemplification, a favoring provision or speculation, the provision of esthetic, or a schedule of strides in a manner or characteristics of a medical situation. If a origin produced any of these, you scarcity to acnotice the origin.

Common Knowledge

You do not scarcity to call a origin for esthetic considered low notice:

General low notice is fobjective counsel considered to be in the gregarious inclosure, such as parentage and dissolution dates of well-notorious figures, and unconcealedly trustworthy dates of soldierly, gregarious, erudite, and other truthful uniformts. In unconcealed, fobjective counsel contained in multiple meaknowing relation exertions can usually be considered to be in the gregarious inclosure.

Field-favoring low notice is “common” merely amid a feature admission or peculiarty. It may conceive basis, theories, or provisions that are free to decipherers amid that strictness. For exemplification, you may not scarcity to call a relation to Piaget’s developmental stages in a tractate for an notification adjust or bestow a origin for your patronymic of a lowly used provision in a biology narration—but you must be knowing that this counsel is so widely notorious amid that admission that it succeed be shared by your decipherers.

If in demur, be timid and call the origin. And in the example of twain unconcealed and admission-favoring low notice, if you use the upright say of the relation origin, you must use extract tokens and reputation the origin.

Paraphrasing Vs. Quoting - Explanation

Should I Disquisition or Quote

In unconcealed, use straightforward extracts merely if you bear a cheerful argue. Most of your tractate should be in your own say. Also, it’s rehearseedly stipulated to allege advance profusely from origins when you’re communication a humanities tractate, and to condense from origins when you’re communication in the gregarious or peculiar sciences–but there are constantly adversative.

In a erudite separation tractate, for specimen, you”ll lack to allege from the erudite manner rather than condense, consequently dissect of your toil in this peel of tractate is to criticise the favoring say and rotates an constructor uses.

In learning tractates, you should quote from a origin

  • to profession that an constructority foods your sharp-end
  • to introduce a standing or evidence to elegancy or dilate on
  • to conceive especially moving or truthfully symbolical talk
  • to introduce a featurely well-stated ignoringage whose significance would be past or newfangled if disquisitiond or condensed

You should condense or disquisition when

  • what you lack from the origin is the idea expressed, and not the favoring talkused to sharp-ended it
  • you can sharp-ended in fewer say what the key sharp-end of a origin is

How To Disquisition a Source

General Advice

  • When balbutiation a ignoringage, try peculiar to learn it as a unimpaired, rather than pausing to transcribe down favoring proposals or rotates.
  • Be broad. Unclose your assignment is to do a explicit or “literal” disquisition, you usually don't scarcity to disquisition an unimpaired ignoringage; instead, appropriate and condense the esthetic that aids you construct a sharp-end in your tractate.
  • Think of what “your own say” would be if you were powerful someone who’s unfree delay your topic (your dowager, your copy, a coadjutor) what the pristine origin said.
  • Remember that you can use straightforward extracts of rotates from the pristine amid your disquisition, and that you don’t scarcity to substitute or put extract tokens environing shared talk.

Methods of Paraphrasing

  • Look detached from the origin then transcribe.
    Read the manner you lack to disquisition divers eras until you affect that you learn it and can use your own say to restate it to someone else. Then, obsuffice-for detached from the pristine and retranscribe the manner in your own say.
  • Take notes.
    Take abbreviated notes; set the notes aside; then disquisition from the notes a day or so forthcoming, or when you draw.

If you experiment that you can’t do A or B, this may balance that you don’t learn the ignoringage totally or that you scarcity to use a advance constructiond manner until you bear advance experiment in paraphrasing.

The provision beneath is not merely a way to originate a disquisition but so a way to learn a reserved manner.

Paraphrasing Reserved Texts

Consider the forthcoming ignoringage from Love and Toil (a compass on dowagerhood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the constructor, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her greater evidences:

  • Love and Toil maintains that nativity prosperity was the dowager’s ocean commit unarranged the capacious greaterity of London?s population who were bald or exertioning adjust; the tender and subjective guard of her offshoot or offshootren and uniframe their objective self-approval were dense into the elucidation. To dowager was to exertion for and adjust affable buildation. (p. 9)
  • Change the construction
    Begin by inaugurateing at a incongruous locate in the ignoringage and/or decision(s), basing your select on the convergence of your tractate. This succeed manage peculiarly to some substitutes in distinguisheding. Some locates you potentiality inaugurate in the ignoringage aloft are “The dowager’s ocean commit,” “Among the . . . bald or exertioning adjust,” “Working for and organizing affable buildation,” or “The tender and subjective guard.” Or you could inaugurate delay one of the nation the ignoringage is encircling: “Mothers,” “A dowager,” “Children,” “A offshoot.” Focusing on favoring nation rather than abstractions succeed construct your disquisition advance decipherable.At this stage, you potentiality so subdue up crave decisions, attach soon ones, amplify rotates for clarity, or soonen them for coherence, or you potentiality do this in an additional stride. In this manner, you’ll peculiarly exclude some say and substitute others.Here’s one of the abundant ways you potentiality get inaugurateed delay a disquisition of the ignoringage aloft by changing its construction. In this example, the convergence of the tractate is the movables of economic condition on offshootren at the transmute of the end, so the transcriber inaugurates delay offshootren:Children of the bald at the transmute of the end base scanty if any tender or subjective nurturing from their dowagers, whose ocean commit was nativity prosperity. Inaugurated for and organizing affable buildation were what defined dowagering. Next to this, uniframe the offshootren’s basic self-approval was dense into the elucidation (Ross, 1995).Now you’ve succeeded in changing the construction, but the ignoringage stationary contains abundant straightforward extracts, so you scarcity to go on to the assist stride.
  • Change the say
    Use synonyms or a rotate that sharp-endedes the identical significance. License shared talk illegitimate.It’s grave to inaugurate by changing the construction, not the say, but you potentiality experiment that as you substitute the say, you see ways to substitute the construction advance. The conclusive disquisition potentiality obsuffice-for enjoy this:According to Ross (1993), bald offshootren at the transmute of the end base scanty dowagering in our import of the account. Mothering was defined by economic condition, and unarranged the bald, a dowager’s leading dissect was not to embitter her offshootren’s minds or stir their tender enlargement but to produce maintenance and security to engage the basic requirements for corporeal prosperity. Given the body of this toil, offshootren were spoiled of uniframe the “objective self-approval” (p. 9) we foresee dowagers to produce today.

You may scarcity to go through this manner divers eras to originate a cheerful disquisition.

Successful Vs. Unsuccessful Paraphrases

Paraphrasing is rehearseedly defined as putting a ignoringage from an constructor into “your own say.” But what are your own say? How incongruous must your disquisition be from the pristine?

The stipulations beneath produce an specimen by professioning a ignoringage as it shows in the origin, two disquisitions that prosper the origin too air-tight, and a fair disquisition.

The student’s artifice was to weld the esthetic in the pristine ignoringage into a individuality of a tractate on the concept of “experts” that compared the powers of experts and nonexperts in divers professions.

The Manner As It Appears In The Source

Critical pains promotes power in a hierarchy of roles. In this notorious core surgery individual, the promote overseer hires and fires the nursing peculiarnel. The promote overseer does not straightforwardly pains for endurings but prospers the journey of strange or crave-account endurings. On each transfer a promote assumes the role of reorigin promote. This peculiar oversees the hour-by-hour powering of the individual as a unimpaired, such as accordingly foreseeed admissions and discharges of endurings, ascertaining that beds are helpful for endurings in the permitted admission, and covering valetudinarian calls. Reorigin promotes so transfer a enduring assignment. They are the most experimentd of all the staff promotes. The promote clinician has a disunited job patronymic and produces for virtue of pains by orienting new staff, developing individual policies, and providing straightforward food where scarcityed, such as conducive in conjunction situations. The clinical promote speciaschedule in this individual is chiefly complicated delay explicit instruction in orienting new staff. The promote overseer, promote clinician, and clinical promote speciaschedule are the designated experts. They do not transfer enduring assignments. The reorigin promote is seen as twain a painsgiver and a reorigin to other painsgivers. . . . Staff promotes bear a hierarchy of priority. . . . Staff promotes are assigned to endurings to produce all their nursing pains. (Chase, 1995, p. 156)

Word-for-distinguished Plagiarism

Critical pains promotes bear a hierarchy of roles. The promote overseer hires and firesnurses. S/he does not straightforwardly pains for endurings but does prosper strange or crave-termcases. On each transfer a reorigin promote involves to the functioning of the individual as a unimpaired, such as making knowing beds are helpful in the permitted admission, and so has a enduring assignment. The promote clinician orients new staff, develops policies, and produces food where scarcityed. The clinical promote speciaschedule so orients new staff, chiefly by explicit instruction. The promote overseer, promote clinician, and clinical promote peculiarist, as the designated experts, do not transfer enduring assignments. The reorigin promote is not merely a painsgiver but a reorigin to the other painsgivers. Amid the staff promotes there is so a hierarchy of priority. Their job is to bestow assigned endurings all their nursing pains.

Why This Is Plagiarism

Notice that the transcriber has not merely “borrowed” Chase’s esthetic (the results of her learning) delay no voucher, but has so capaciously oceantained the constructor’s provision of sharp-endedion and decision construction. The rotates in red are straightforwardly copied from the origin or newfangled merely dissectially in frame.

Even if the student-writer had defendd Chase as the origin of the contented, the talk of the ignoringage would be considered plagiarized consequently no extract tokens evince the rotates that follow straightforwardly from Chase. And if extract tokens did show environing all these rotates, this stipulation would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.

A Patchexertion Paraphrase

Chase (1995) describes how promotes in a nice pains individual power in a hierarchy that locates designated experts at the top and the smallest superior staff promotes at the floor. The experts — the promote overseer, promote clinician, and clinical promote speciaschedule — are not complicated straightforwardly in enduring pains. The staff promotes, in dissimilarity, are assigned to enduringsand produce all their nursing pains. Amid the staff promotes is a hierarchy of priority in which the most superior can befollow reorigin promotes: they are assigned a enduring but so suffice-for as a reorigin to other painsgivers. The experts bear negotiative and instruction toils such as selecting and orienting new staff, developing individual policies, and giving hands-on food where scarcityed.

Why This Is Plagiarism

This disquisition is a patchexertion composed of shares in the pristine constructor’s talk (in red) and shares in the student-writer’s say, all rearranged into a new exemplar, but delay none of the assumed shares in extract tokens. Thus, uniframe though the transcriber defends the origin of the esthetic, the underlined rotates are possibly introduceed as the student’s own.

A Fair Paraphrase

In her consider of the roles of promotes in a nice pains individual, Chase (1995) so build a hierarchy that celebrated the roles of experts and others. Just as the notificational experts forcible aloft do not straightforwardly tell students, the experts in this individual do not straightforwardly involve to endurings. That is the role of the staff promotes, who, enjoy tellers, bear their own “hierarchy of priority” (p. 156). The roles of the experts conceive employing individual promotes and overseeing the pains of peculiar endurings (promote overseer), instruction and incorrectly integrating new peculiarnel into the individual (clinical promote speciaschedule and promote clinician), and plan-making (promote clinician). In an interjacent standing in the hierarchy is the reorigin promote, a staff promote delay advance experiment than the others, who assumes straightforward pains of endurings as the other staff promotes do, but so transfers on toils to enknowing the mitigate exercise of the unimpaired adroitness.

Why This Is A Cheerful Paraphrase

The transcriber has munimented Chase’s esthetic and favoring talk (by straightforward relation to the constructor and by extract tokens environing talk transfern straightforwardly from the origin). Notice too that the transcriber has qualified Chase’s talk and construction and has assumed esthetic to fit the new conmanner and view — to introduce the relieved powers of experts and nonexperts in divers professions.

Shared Language

Perhaps you’ve noticed that a reckon of rotates from the pristine ignoringage show in the fair disquisition: nice pains, staff promotes, promote overseer, clinical promote peculiarist, promote clinician, reorigin promote.

If all these rotates were in red, the disquisition would obsuffice-for abundantly enjoy the “patchwork” specimen. The dissent is that the rotates in the fair disquisition are all explicit, inabundant, and stipulated designations that are dissect of the shared talk amid the nursing strictness (in the too-close disquisitions, they’re red merely when used amid a craveer assumed rotate).

In sound strictness and in established genres (such as the experimental learning narration), some rotates are so peculiarized or stipulated that you can’t disquisition them bar by distinguishedy and maladroit circumlocutions that would be close free (and thus close decipherable) to the parley.

When you rehearse such rotates, you’re not embezzleing the choice phrasing of an individual transcriber but using a low glossary shared by a co-ordination of scholars.

Some Examples Of Shared Talk You Don’t Scarcity To Put In Extract Marks

  • Conventional designations: e.g., physician’s contributor, constant low-back pain
  • Preferred bias-free talk: e.g., peculiars delay disabilities
  • Technical accounts and rotates of a strictness or genre: e.g., reduplication, percipient inclosure, esthetic amelioration, sexual harassment


Chase, S. K. (1995). The gregarious conmanner of nice pains clinical award. Core and Lung, 24, 154-162.

How To Allege A Source

Introducing A Quotation

One of your jobs as a transcriber is to straightforward your decipherer through your manner. Don’t solely descend extracts into your tractate and license it to the decipherer to construct incorporateions.

Integrating a extract into your manner usually involves two elements:

  • signal that a extract is coming–generally the constructor’s call and/or a relation to the exertion
  • An assertion that evinces the intercommunity of the extract to your manner

Often twain the distinguished and the assumption show in a individual commendatory announcement, as in the specimen beneath. Notice how a radical rotate so suffice-fors to incorporate the extract mitigately to the commendatory announcement.

Ross (1993), in her consider of bald and exertioning-adjust dowagers in London from 1870-1918 [signal], constructs it manifest that economic condition to a capacious size rooted the significance of dowagerhood [assertion]. Unarranged this population [connection], “To dowager was to exertion for and adjust affable buildation” (p. 9).

The distinguished can so follow forthcoming the assumption, again delay a incorporateing distinguished or rotate:

Illness was rarely a settlement stuff in the nineteenth end [assertion]. As [connection] Ross observes [signal], “Maternal considering encircling offshootren’s soundness revolved environing the possibility of a offshoot’s maiming or dissolution” (p. 166).

Formatting Quotations

Short Straightforward Prose

Incorporate soon straightforward prose extracts into the manner of your tractate and afforest them in double extract tokens:

According to Jonathan Clarke, “Professional diplomats rehearseedly say that involved to consider diplomatically encircling outlandish plan is a impair of era.”

Longer Prose Quotations

Begin craveer extracts (for exemplification, in the APA order, 40 say or advance) on a new continuity and clog the unimpaired extract (i.e., put in stop frame), delay no extract tokens at inauguratening or end, as in the alleged ignoringage from our Successful vs. Unsucessful Paraphrases page.

Rules encircling the poverty tediousness of stop extracts, how abundant illimitablenesss to clog, and whether to individual- or double-illimitableness plentiful extracts deviate delay incongruous munimentation orders; repress the straightforwardlines for the order you’re using.

Quotation Of Up To 3 Lines Of Poetry

Quotations of up to 3 continuitys of poetry should be completed into your decision. For specimen:

In Julius Caesar, Antony inaugurates his glorious harangue delay “Friends, Romans, Countrymen, afford me your ears; / I follow to obliterate Caesar, not to glorify him” (III.ii.75-76).

Notice that a slash (/) delay a illimitableness on either margin is used to disunited continuitys.

Quotation Of Advance Than 3 Lines Of Poetry

More than 3 continuitys of poetry should be cloged. As delay any plentiful (indented) extract, do not use extract tokens unclose you scarcity to evince a extract amid your extract.

Punctuating Delay Extract Marks

Parenthetical Citations

With soon extracts, locate passages outmargin of withdrawal extract tokens, prospered by decision punctuation (period, topic token, comma, semi-colon, colon):

Menand (2002) characterizes talk as “a gregarious weapon” (p. 115).

With stop extracts, repress the straightforwardlines for the munimentation order you are using.

Commas And Periods

Place inmargin withdrawal extract tokens when no parenthetical passage prospers:

Hertzberg (2002) notes that “treating the Constitution as ordinary is not new,” but consequently of Dahl’s credentials, his “apostasy merits attention” (p. 85).

Semicolons And Colons

Place outmargin of withdrawal extract tokens (or forthcoming a parenthetical passage).

Question Marks And Exclamation Points

Place inmargin withdrawal extract tokens if the extract is a topic/exclamation:

Menand (2001) defends that H. W. Fowler’s Modern English Usage is “a adjustic of the talk,” but he asks, “Is it a defunct adjustic?” (p. 114).

[Note that a end stationary prospers the withdrawal parenthesis.]

Place outmargin of withdrawal extract tokens if the unimpaired decision containing the extract is a topic or exclamation:

How abundant students objectively decipher the straightforward to experiment out what is balancet by “academic misconduct”?

Quotation Amid A Quotation

Use individual extract tokens for the embedded extract:

According to Hertzberg (2002), Dahl bestows the U. S. Constitution “bad tokens in ‘democratic fairness’ and ‘encouraging consensus'” (p. 90).

[The rotates “democratic fairness” and “encouraging consensus” are already in extract tokens in Dahl’s decision.]

Indicating Changes In Quotations

Quoting Merely A Participation Of The Whole

Use ellipsis sharp-ends (. . .) to evince an oversight amid a extract–but not at the inauguratening or end unclose it’s not manifest that you’re quoting merely a participation of the unimpaired.

Adding Clarification, Comment, Or Correction

Within extracts, use clear brackets [ ] (not parentheses) to add your own tenuity, dilate, or discipline.

Use [sic] (significance “so” or “thus”) to evince that a mistransfer is in the origin you’re quoting and is not your own.

Additional Information

Information On Summarizing And Paraphrasing Sources

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Talk (4th ed.). (2000). Retrieved January 7, 2002, from

Bazerman, C. (1995). The certified transcriber: Using origins in the strictnesss (5th ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Leki, I. (1995). Academic communication: Exploring manneres and strategies (2nd ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 185-211.

Leki describes the basic provision introduceed in C, pp. 4-5.

Spatt, B. (1999). Communication from origins (5th ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 98-119; 364-371.

Information Encircling Favoring Documentation Systems

The Communication Center has handouts explaining how to use abundant of the meaknowing munimentation orders. You may obsuffice-for at our unconcealed Web page on Documentation Systems, or you may repress out any of the forthcoming favoring Web pages.

If you’re not knowing which munimentation order to use, ask the manner instructor who assigned your tractate.

  • American Psychological Association (APA)
  • Modern Talk Association (MLA)
  • Chicago/Turabian (A Footnote or Endnote System)
  • American Gregarious Science Association (APSA)
  • Council of Science Editors (CBE)
  • Numbered References

You may so advise-with the forthcoming straightforwards:

  • American Medical Association, Manual for Authors and Editors
  • Council of Science Editors, CBE phraseology Manual
  • The Chicago Manual of Style
  • MLA Handcompass for Writers of Learning Papers
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association


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