Quoting And Paraphrasing
College answerableness frequently involves integrating instruction from published springs into your own answerableness in dispose to add credibility and parentity–this rule is adventitious to inquiry and the mouldation of new apprehension.
However, when construction on the fruit of others, you scarcity to be mindful not to plagiarize: “to embezzle and ignoring off (the fancys and opinion of another) as one’s own” or to “introduce as new and primary an fancy or fruit superficial from an real spring.”
These symbolicals conciliate aid you fly plagiarism by training you how to properly conglutinate instruction from published springs into your own answerableness.
How To Fly Plagiarism
When using springs in your tracts, you can fly plagiarism by skillful what must be instrumented.
Specific Opinion and Phrases
If you use an parent’s end saverse or opinion, you must situate those opinion unarranged extract symptoms and you must eulogize the spring.
Information And Ideas
Even if you use your own opinion, if you obtained the instruction or fancys you are introduceing from a spring, you must instrument the spring.
Information: If a interest of instruction isn’t vulgar apprehension (see adown), you scarcity to collect a spring.
Ideas: An parent’s fancys may apprehend not barely ends made and conclusions drawn, but, for occurrence, a end arrangement or doctrine, the way of symbolical, or a schedule of trudges in a rule or characteristics of a medical circumstances. If a spring collectd any of these, you scarcity to acapprehension the spring.
You do not scarcity to mention a spring for symbolical considered vulgar apprehension:
General vulgar apprehension is fdeveloped instruction considered to be in the political lordship, such as parentage and decease dates of well-known figures, and unconcealedly current dates of soldierly, gregarious, scholarly, and other unvarnished equalts. In unconcealed, fdeveloped instruction contained in multiple meainfallible regard fruits can usually be considered to be in the political lordship.
Field-end vulgar apprehension is “common” barely unarranged a end scope or component. It may apprehend grounds, theories, or arrangements that are affable to learners unarranged that punishment. For occurrence, you may not scarcity to mention a regard to Piaget’s developmental ranks in a tract for an education dispose or introduce a spring for your patronymic of a vulgarly used arrangement in a biology reverberation—but you must be infallible that this instruction is so widely known unarranged that scope that it conciliate be shared by your learners.
If in hesitate, be cowardly and mention the spring. And in the occurrence of twain unconcealed and scope-end vulgar apprehension, if you use the straight opinion of the regard spring, you must use extract symptoms and eulogize the spring.
Paraphrasing Vs. Quoting - Explanation
Should I Annotation or Quote
In unconcealed, use frequented extracts barely if you own a good-tempered-tempered conclude. Most of your tract should be in your own opinion. Also, it’s frequently prevalent to rehearse past scattered-abroad from springs when you’re answerableness a humanities tract, and to conglutinate from springs when you’re answerableness in the political or regular sciences–but there are constantly excludeions.
In a scholarly decomposture tract, for illustration, you”ll lack to rehearse from the scholarly passage rather than conglutinate, consequently dissect of your issue in this husk of tract is to awaken the end opinion and changes an parent uses.
In inquiry tracts, you should quote from a spring
- to pomp that an parentity maintenances your end
- to introduce a posture or dispute to elegancy or criticise on
- to apprehend extraordinaryly affecting or unvarnishedly favoringrant dialect
- to introduce a endly well-stated ignoringage whose purport would be lost or speedive if annotationd or conglutinated
You should conglutinate or annotation when
- what you lack from the spring is the idea expressed, and not the end dialectused to favoring it
- you can favoring in fewer opinion what the key end of a spring is
How To Annotation a Source
- When balbutiation a ignoringage, try chief to discern it as a perfect, rather than pausing to transcribe down end fancys or changes.
- Be selective. Unclose your assignment is to do a complete or “literal” annotation, you usually don't scarcity to annotation an all ignoringage; instead, pick-out and conglutinate the symbolical that aids you issue a end in your tract.
- Think of what “your own opinion” would be if you were issueive someone who’s unaffable behind a while your theme (your dame, your brother, a messmate) what the primary spring said.
- Remember that you can use frequented extracts of changes from the primary unarranged your annotation, and that you don’t scarcity to alter or put extract symptoms environing shared dialect.
Methods of Paraphrasing
- Look afar from the spring then transcribe.
Read the passage you lack to annotation contrariant spans until you reach that you discern it and can use your own opinion to restate it to someone else. Then, seem afar from the primary and retranscribe the passage in your own opinion.
- Take notes.
Take abbreviated notes; set the notes aside; then annotation from the notes a day or so later, or when you exhaust.
If you furnish that you can’t do A or B, this may balance that you don’t discern the ignoringage perfectly or that you scarcity to use a past extractured rule until you own past knowledge in paraphrasing.
The arrangement adown is not barely a way to engender a annotation but to-boot a way to discern a reserved passage.
Paraphrasing Reserved Texts
Consider the behindcited ignoringage from Love and Toil (a capacity on damehood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the parent, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her superior disputes:
- Love and Toil maintains that parentage way was the dame’s ocean plain unarranged the capacious superiority of London?s population who were scanty or fruiting dispose; the tender and subjective consort of her offshoot or offshootren and equal their developed self-approval were hardened into the elucidation. To dame was to fruit for and constitute free stay. (p. 9)
- Change the extracture
Begin by set-outing at a contrariant situate in the ignoringage and/or decision(s), basing your dainty on the rendezvous of your tract. This conciliate transfer regularly to some alters in salineing. Some situates you influence set-out in the ignoringage overhead are “The dame’s ocean plain,” “Among the . . . scanty or fruiting dispose,” “Working for and organizing free stay,” or “The tender and subjective consort.” Or you could originate behind a while one of the tribe the ignoringage is environing: “Mothers,” “A dame,” “Children,” “A offshoot.” Focusing on end tribe rather than abstractions conciliate issue your annotation past learnable.At this rank, you influence to-boot subdue up hanker decisions, join inadequate ones, extend changes for clarity, or inadequateen them for condensation, or you influence do this in an ascititious trudge. In this rule, you’ll regularly segregate some opinion and alter others.Here’s one of the divers ways you influence get set-outed behind a while a annotation of the ignoringage overhead by changing its extracture. In this occurrence, the rendezvous of the tract is the issue of economic foothold on offshootren at the round of the era, so the transcriber originates behind a while offshootren:Children of the scanty at the round of the era niggardly scanty if any tender or subjective nurturing from their dames, whose ocean plain was parentage way. Afloat for and organizing free stay were what defined dameing. Next to this, equal the offshootren’s basic self-approval was hardened into the elucidation (Ross, 1995).Now you’ve succeeded in changing the extracture, but the ignoringage tranquil contains divers frequented extracts, so you scarcity to go on to the remedy trudge.
- Change the opinion
Use synonyms or a change that favoringes the selfselfsame purport. Concession shared dialect unchanged.It’s essential to set-out by changing the extracture, not the opinion, but you influence furnish that as you alter the opinion, you see ways to alter the extracture raise. The terminal annotation influence seem approve this:According to Ross (1993), scanty offshootren at the round of the era niggardly scanty dameing in our discernment of the term. Mothering was defined by economic foothold, and unarranged the scanty, a dame’s highest service was not to kindle her offshootren’s minds or raise their tender augmentation but to collect aid and refuge to as the basic requirements for tangible way. Given the bulk of this issue, offshootren were destitute of equal the “developed self-approval” (p. 9) we rely-on dames to collect today.
You may scarcity to go through this rule contrariant spans to engender a grateful annotation.
Successful Vs. Unsuccessful Paraphrases
Paraphrasing is frequently defined as putting a ignoringage from an parent into “your own opinion.” But what are your own opinion? How contrariant must your annotation be from the primary?
The paragraphs adown collect an illustration by pomping a ignoringage as it answers in the spring, two annotations that thrive the spring too air-tight, and a fairly-deduced annotation.
The student’s pur-pose was to conglutinate the symbolical in the primary ignoringage into a minority of a tract on the concept of “experts” that compared the characters of experts and nonexperts in contrariant professions.
The Avenue As It Appears In The Source
Critical pains promotes character in a hierarchy of roles. In this disclosed character surgery portio, the promote superintendent hires and fires the nursing identicalnel. The promote superintendent does not frequentedly pains for endurings but thrives the speed of unwonted or hanker-term endurings. On each alter a promote assumes the role of respring promote. This identical oversees the hour-by-hour charactering of the portio as a perfect, such as regarding rely-oned admissions and discharges of endurings, ascertaining that beds are suited for endurings in the unconditional capability, and covering riling calls. Respring promotes to-boot grasp a enduring assignment. They are the most knowledged of all the staff promotes. The promote clinician has a detached job patronymic and collects for capacity of pains by orienting new staff, developing portio policies, and providing frequented maintenance where scarcityed, such as aiding in casualty situations. The clinical promote speciaschedule in this portio is for-the-most-portio confused behind a while complete training in orienting new staff. The promote superintendent, promote clinician, and clinical promote speciaschedule are the denominated experts. They do not grasp enduring assignments. The respring promote is seen as twain a painsgiver and a respring to other painsgivers. . . . Staff promotes own a hierarchy of eldership. . . . Staff promotes are assigned to endurings to collect all their nursing pains. (Chase, 1995, p. 156)
Critical pains promotes own a hierarchy of roles. The promote superintendent hires and firesnurses. S/he does not frequentedly pains for endurings but does thrive unwonted or hanker-termcases. On each alter a respring promote consorts to the functioning of the portio as a perfect, such as making infallible beds are suited in the unconditional capability, and to-boot has a enduring assignment. The promote clinician orients new staff, develops policies, and collects maintenance where scarcityed. The clinical promote speciaschedule to-boot orients new staff, for-the-most-part by complete training. The promote superintendent, promote clinician, and clinical promote extraordinaryist, as the denominated experts, do not grasp enduring assignments. The respring promote is not barely a painsgiver but a respring to the other painsgivers. Unarranged the staff promotes there is to-boot a hierarchy of eldership. Their job is to introduce assigned endurings all their nursing pains.
Why This Is Plagiarism
Notice that the transcriber has not barely “borrowed” Chase’s symbolical (the results of her inquiry) behind a while no voucher, but has to-boot capaciously oceantained the parent’s arrangement of favoringion and decision extracture. The changes in red are frequentedly copied from the spring or speedive barely slightly in mould.
Even if the student-writer had avowd Chase as the spring of the gratified, the dialect of the ignoringage would be considered plagiarized consequently no extract symptoms specify the changes that behind frequentedly from Chase. And if extract symptoms did answer environing all these changes, this paragraph would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.
A Patchfruit Paraphrase
Chase (1995) describes how promotes in a nice pains portio character in a hierarchy that situates denominated experts at the top and the lowest superior staff promotes at the groundwork. The experts — the promote superintendent, promote clinician, and clinical promote speciaschedule — are not confused frequentedly in enduring pains. The staff promotes, in opposition, are assigned to enduringsand collect all their nursing pains. Unarranged the staff promotes is a hierarchy of eldership in which the most superior can bebehind respring promotes: they are assigned a enduring but to-boot subsubserve as a respring to other painsgivers. The experts own causeitative and training issues such as selecting and orienting new staff, developing portio policies, and giving hands-on maintenance where scarcityed.
Why This Is Plagiarism
This annotation is a patchfruit lashed of interests in the primary parent’s dialect (in red) and interests in the student-writer’s opinion, all rearranged into a new precedent, but behind a while none of the ascititious interests in extract symptoms. Thus, equal though the transcriber avows the spring of the symbolical, the underlined changes are possibly introduceed as the student’s own.
A Fairly-deduced Paraphrase
In her con-over of the roles of promotes in a nice pains portio, Chase (1995) to-boot build a hierarchy that symptomed the roles of experts and others. Just as the educational experts feeling overhead do not frequentedly trodden students, the experts in this portio do not frequentedly consort to endurings. That is the role of the staff promotes, who, approve troddeners, own their own “hierarchy of eldership” (p. 156). The roles of the experts apprehend employing portio promotes and overseeing the pains of extraordinary endurings (promote superintendent), training and otherwise integrating new identicalnel into the portio (clinical promote speciaschedule and promote clinician), and device-making (promote clinician). In an middle posture in the hierarchy is the respring promote, a staff promote behind a while past knowledge than the others, who assumes frequented pains of endurings as the other staff promotes do, but to-boot grasps on issues to eninfallible the level exercise of the all dexterity.
Why This Is A Good-tempered Paraphrase
The transcriber has instrumented Chase’s symbolical and end dialect (by frequented regard to the parent and by extract symptoms environing dialect graspn frequentedly from the spring). Notice too that the transcriber has qualified Chase’s dialect and extracture and has ascititious symbolical to fit the new conpassage and end — to introduce the leading characters of experts and nonexperts in contrariant professions.
Perhaps you’ve noticed that a compute of changes from the primary ignoringage answer in the fairly-deduced annotation: nice pains, staff promotes, promote superintendent, clinical promote extraordinaryist, promote clinician, respring promote.
If all these changes were in red, the annotation would seem fur approve the “patchwork” illustration. The dissimilitude is that the changes in the fairly-deduced annotation are all arrangeal, lean, and prevalent designations that are dissect of the shared dialect unarranged the nursing punishment (in the too-close annotations, they’re red barely when used unarranged a hankerer ascititious change).
In integral punishment and in positive genres (such as the experimental inquiry reverberation), some changes are so extraordinaryized or prevalent that you can’t annotation them exclude by saliney and clownish circumlocutions that would be close affable (and thus close learnable) to the reception.
When you rehearse such changes, you’re not embezzleing the singular phrasing of an identical transcriber but using a vulgar lexicon shared by a association of scholars.
Some Examples Of Shared Dialect You Don’t Scarcity To Put In Extract Marks
- Conventional designations: e.g., physician’s helper, constant low-back pain
- Preferred bias-free dialect: e.g., identicals behind a while disabilities
- Technical conditions and changes of a punishment or genre: e.g., reduplication, percipient lordship, symbolical culture, sexual harassment
Chase, S. K. (1995). The political conpassage of nice pains clinical discernment. Character and Lung, 24, 154-162.
How To Rehearse A Source
Introducing A Quotation
One of your jobs as a transcriber is to regulate your learner through your passage. Don’t solely ooze extracts into your tract and concession it to the learner to issue combineions.
Integrating a extract into your passage usually involves two elements:
- A signal that a extract is coming–generally the parent’s designate and/or a regard to the fruit
- An assertion that specifys the alliance of the extract to your passage
Often twain the saverse and the assumption answer in a uncompounded initiatory proposition, as in the illustration adown. Notice how a newfangled change to-boot subserves to combine the extract levelly to the initiatory proposition.
Ross (1993), in her con-over of scanty and fruiting-dispose dames in London from 1870-1918 [signal], issues it evident that economic foothold to a capacious quantity strong the purport of damehood [assertion]. Unarranged this population [connection], “To dame was to fruit for and constitute free stay” (p. 9).
The saverse can to-boot behind behind the assumption, repeatedly behind a while a combineing saverse or change:
Illness was casually a settlement subject in the nineteenth era [assertion]. As [connection] Ross observes [signal], “Maternal believeing environing offshootren’s vigor revolved environing the possibility of a offshoot’s maiming or decease” (p. 166).
Short Frequented Prose
Incorporate inadequate frequented prose extracts into the passage of your tract and include them in inclose extract symptoms:
According to Jonathan Clarke, “Professional diplomats frequently say that unamenable to believe diplomatically environing irrelevant device is a delayer of span.”
Longer Prose Quotations
Begin hankerer extracts (for occurrence, in the APA scheme, 40 opinion or past) on a new verse and roughen the all extract (i.e., put in stop mould), behind a while no extract symptoms at originatening or end, as in the rehearsed ignoringage from our Successful vs. Unsucessful Paraphrases page.
Rules environing the insufficiency diffusiveness of stop extracts, how divers intervals to roughen, and whether to uncompounded- or inclose-interval deferred extracts diversify behind a while contrariant instrumentation schemes; control the regulatelines for the scheme you’re using.
Quotation Of Up To 3 Lines Of Poetry
Quotations of up to 3 verses of poetry should be conglutinated into your decision. For illustration:
In Julius Caesar, Antony originates his renowned oration behind a while “Friends, Romans, Countrymen, present me your ears; / I behind to inter Caesar, not to eulogize him” (III.ii.75-76).
Notice that a slash (/) behind a while a interval on either border is used to detached verses.
Quotation Of Past Than 3 Lines Of Poetry
More than 3 verses of poetry should be roughened. As behind a while any deferred (indented) extract, do not use extract symptoms unclose you scarcity to specify a extract unarranged your extract.
Punctuating Behind a while Extract Marks
With inadequate extracts, situate passages outborder of noncommunication extract symptoms, thriveed by decision punctuation (period, interrogation symptom, comma, semi-colon, colon):
Menand (2002) characterizes dialect as “a political weapon” (p. 115).
With stop extracts, control the regulatelines for the instrumentation scheme you are using.
Commas And Periods
Place inborder noncommunication extract symptoms when no parenthetical passage thrives:
Hertzberg (2002) notes that “treating the Constitution as mediocre is not new,” but consequently of Dahl’s credentials, his “apostasy merits attention” (p. 85).
Semicolons And Colons
Place outborder of noncommunication extract symptoms (or behind a parenthetical passage).
Question Marks And Exclamation Points
Place inborder noncommunication extract symptoms if the extract is a interrogation/exclamation:
Menand (2001) avows that H. W. Fowler’s Modern English Usage is “a disposeic of the dialect,” but he asks, “Is it a heavy disposeic?” (p. 114).
[Note that a duration tranquil thrives the noncommunication parenthesis.]
Place outborder of noncommunication extract symptoms if the all decision containing the extract is a interrogation or exclamation:
How divers students developedly learn the regulate to furnish out what is balancet by “academic misconduct”?
Quotation Unarranged A Quotation
Use uncompounded extract symptoms for the embedded extract:
According to Hertzberg (2002), Dahl introduces the U. S. Constitution “bad symptoms in ‘democratic fairness’ and ‘encouraging consensus'” (p. 90).
[The changes “democratic fairness” and “encouraging consensus” are already in extract symptoms in Dahl’s decision.]
Indicating Changes In Quotations
Quoting Barely A Party Of The Whole
Use ellipsis ends (. . .) to specify an oversight unarranged a extract–but not at the originatening or end unclose it’s not explicit that you’re quoting barely a party of the perfect.
Adding Clarification, Comment, Or Correction
Within extracts, use clear brackets [ ] (not parentheses) to add your own percolation, criticise, or punishment.
Use [sic] (purport “so” or “thus”) to specify that a misgrasp is in the spring you’re quoting and is not your own.
Information On Summarizing And Paraphrasing Sources
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Dialect (4th ed.). (2000). Retrieved January 7, 2002, from http://www.bartleby.com/61/
Bazerman, C. (1995). The assured transcriber: Using springs in the punishments (5th ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Leki, I. (1995). Academic answerableness: Exploring rulees and strategies (2nd ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 185-211.
Leki describes the basic arrangement introduceed in C, pp. 4-5.
Spatt, B. (1999). Answerableness from springs (5th ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 98-119; 364-371.
Information Environing End Documentation Systems
The Answerableness Center has handouts explaining how to use divers of the meainfallible instrumentation schemes. You may seem at our unconcealed Web page on Documentation Systems, or you may control out any of the behindcited end Web pages.
If you’re not infallible which instrumentation scheme to use, ask the way schoolmaster who assigned your tract.
- American Psychological Association (APA)
- Modern Dialect Association (MLA)
- Chicago/Turabian (A Footnote or Endnote System)
- American Gregarious Science Association (APSA)
- Council of Science Editors (CBE)
- Numbered References
You may to-boot ask-advice-of the behindcited regulates:
- American Medical Association, Manual for Authors and Editors
- Council of Science Editors, CBE phraseology Manual
- The Chicago Manual of Style
- MLA Handcapacity for Writers of Inquiry Papers
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association