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Quoting And Paraphrasing

College letter rehearseedly involves integrating counsel from published founts into your own letter in classificationatizeify to add truth and constructority–this classification is imported to exploration and the genesis of new acquaintance.

However, when erection on the achievement of others, you scarcity to be considerate not to plagiarize: “to purloin and by off (the notions and signification of another) as one’s own” or to “bestow as new and first an notion or result adventitious from an real fount.”

These embodieds conquer aid you forsake plagiarism by training you how to well solidity counsel from published founts into your own letter.

How To Forsake Plagiarism

When using founts in your brochures, you can forsake plagiarism by acute what must be instrumented.

Specific Signification and Phrases

If you use an constructor’s unfair vocable or signification, you must fix those signification amid extract indications and you must confidence the fount.

Information And Ideas

Even if you use your own signification, if you obtained the counsel or notions you are bestowing from a fount, you must instrument the fount.

Information: If a duty of counsel isn’t spiritnear acquaintance (see beneath), you scarcity to stipulate a fount.

Ideas: An constructor’s notions may embody not singly tops made and conclusions drawn, but, for predicament, a unfair plan or plea, the plan of embodied, or a schedule of stalks in a classification or characteristics of a medical stipulation. If a fount stipulated any of these, you scarcity to acacquaintance the fount.

Common Knowledge

You do not scarcity to spectry a fount for embodied considered spiritnear acquaintance:

General spiritnear acquaintance is freal counsel considered to be in the political estate, such as nativity and departure dates of well-unconcealed figures, and politically genuine dates of soldierlike, collective, erudite, and other unadorned equalts. In political, freal counsel contained in multiple plummet regard achievements can usually be considered to be in the political estate.

Field-unfair spiritnear acquaintance is “common” singly amid a feature scene or extraordinaryty. It may embody grounds, theories, or plans that are free to recognizeers amid that government. For predicament, you may not scarcity to spectry a regard to Piaget’s developmental measures in a brochure for an notification classificationatize or confer a fount for your title of a spiritlessly used plan in a biology noise—but you must be believing that this counsel is so widely unconcealed amid that scene that it conquer be shared by your recognizeers.

If in waver, be timid and spectry the fount. And in the predicament of twain political and scene-unfair spiritnear acquaintance, if you use the frequented signification of the regard fount, you must use extract indications and confidence the fount.

Paraphrasing Vs. Quoting - Explanation

Should I Dilate or Quote

In political, use frequented extracts singly if you keep a cheerful discuss. Most of your brochure should be in your own signification. Also, it’s rehearseedly customary to allege past unsparingly from founts when you’re letter a humanities brochure, and to digest from founts when you’re letter in the political or intrinsic sciences–but there are constantly malcontent.

In a erudite resolution brochure, for issue, you”ll exclusion to allege from the erudite passage rather than digest, accordingly multiply of your effort in this husk of brochure is to irritate the unfair signification and depends an constructor uses.

In exploration brochures, you should quote from a fount

  • to semblance that an constructority livelihoods your top
  • to bestow a comcomcomposition or controversy to nicety or explain on
  • to embody in-particular tender or unadornedly indicative talk
  • to bestow a featurely well-stated byage whose appreciation would be past or radical if dilated or digestd

You should digest or dilate when

  • what you exclusion from the fount is the idea expressed, and not the unfair talkused to toped it
  • you can toped in fewer signification what the key top of a fount is

How To Dilate a Source

General Advice

  • When lection a byage, try first to interpret it as a sound, rather than pausing to transcribe down unfair notions or depends.
  • Be broad. Unnear your assignment is to do a pompous or “literal” dilate, you usually don't scarcity to dilate an undiminished byage; instead, select and digest the embodied that aids you frame a top in your brochure.
  • Think of what “your own signification” would be if you were powerful someone who’s unfree delay your topic (your woman, your match, a companion) what the first fount said.
  • Remember that you can use frequented extracts of depends from the first amid your dilate, and that you don’t scarcity to transmute or put extract indications encircling shared talk.

Methods of Paraphrasing

  • Look unconnected from the fount then transcribe.
    Read the passage you exclusion to dilate divers terms until you feel that you interpret it and can use your own signification to restate it to someone else. Then, contemplate unconnected from the first and retranscribe the passage in your own signification.
  • Take notes.
    Take abbreviated notes; set the notes aside; then dilate from the notes a day or so later, or when you draw.

If you discover that you can’t do A or B, this may medium that you don’t interpret the byage perfectly or that you scarcity to use a past edificed classification until you keep past experiment in paraphrasing.

The plan beneath is not singly a way to cause a dilate but as-well a way to interpret a implicated passage.

Paraphrasing Implicated Texts

Consider the forthcoming byage from Love and Toil (a bulk on womanhood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the constructor, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her superior controversys:

  • Love and Toil maintains that nobility prosperity was the woman’s ocean carry floating the extensive superiority of London?s population who were moneynear or achievementing classificationatize; the tender and metasubstantial fruit-for of her cadet or progeny and equal their real self-approval were stubborn into the elucidation. To woman was to achievement for and arrange free stay. (p. 9)
  • Change the edifice
    Begin by initiateing at a opposed fix in the byage and/or belief(s), basing your cherished on the nucleus of your brochure. This conquer transfer intrinsicly to some transmutes in vocableing. Some fixs you jurisdiction initiate in the byage overhead are “The woman’s ocean carry,” “Among the . . . moneynear or achievementing classificationatize,” “Working for and organizing free stay,” or “The tender and metasubstantial fruit-for.” Or you could prepare delay one of the populace the byage is encircling: “Mothers,” “A woman,” “Children,” “A cadet.” Focusing on unfair populace rather than abstractions conquer frame your dilate past recognizeable.At this measure, you jurisdiction as-well rend up covet beliefs, conjoin narrow ones, notorious depends for clarity, or narrowen them for frequentedness, or you jurisdiction do this in an affixed stalk. In this classification, you’ll intrinsicly enucleate some signification and transmute others.Here’s one of the manifold ways you jurisdiction get initiateed delay a dilate of the byage overhead by changing its edifice. In this predicament, the nucleus of the brochure is the chattels of economic groundation on progeny at the spin of the eldership, so the transcriber prepares delay progeny:Children of the moneynear at the spin of the eldership dishonorable illiberal if any tender or metasubstantial nurturing from their womans, whose ocean carry was nobility prosperity. Afloat for and organizing free stay were what defined womaning. Next to this, equal the progeny’s basic self-approval was stubborn into the elucidation (Ross, 1995).Now you’ve succeeded in changing the edifice, but the byage calm?} contains manifold frequented extracts, so you scarcity to go on to the cooperate stalk.
  • Change the signification
    Use synonyms or a depend that topedes the corresponding appreciation. Permission shared talk illegal.It’s leading to initiate by changing the edifice, not the signification, but you jurisdiction discover that as you transmute the signification, you see ways to transmute the edifice further. The last dilate jurisdiction contemplate affect this:According to Ross (1993), moneynear progeny at the spin of the eldership dishonorable illiberal womaning in our appreciation of the term. Mothering was defined by economic groundation, and floating the moneyless, a woman’s first service was not to kindle her progeny’s minds or fan their tender augmentation but to stipulate patronage and refuge to as the basic requirements for substantial prosperity. Given the bulk of this effort, progeny were spoiled of equal the “real self-approval” (p. 9) we forebode womans to stipulate today.

You may scarcity to go through this classification divers terms to cause a sportive dilate.

Successful Vs. Unsuccessful Paraphrases

Paraphrasing is rehearseedly defined as putting a byage from an constructor into “your own signification.” But what are your own signification? How opposed must your dilate be from the first?

The chapters beneath stipulate an issue by semblanceing a byage as it answers in the fount, two dilates that ensue the fount too air-tight, and a licit dilate.

The student’s guile was to bond the embodied in the first byage into a idiosyncraticity of a brochure on the concept of “experts” that compared the exercises of experts and nonexperts in divers professions.

The Thoroughfare As It Appears In The Source

Critical solicitude fosters exercise in a hierarchy of roles. In this notorious center surgery idiosyncratic, the foster overseer hires and fires the nursing idiosyncraticnel. The foster overseer does not frequentedly solicitude for resigneds but ensues the journey of remarkable or covet-term resigneds. On each transfer a foster assumes the role of refount foster. This idiosyncratic oversees the hour-by-hour exerciseing of the idiosyncratic as a sound, such as regarding forebodeed admissions and discharges of resigneds, ascertaining that beds are conducive for resigneds in the open size, and covering morbid calls. Refount fosters as-well siege a resigned assignment. They are the most experimentd of all the staff fosters. The foster clinician has a unconnected job title and stipulates for condition of solicitude by orienting new staff, developing idiosyncratic policies, and providing frequented livelihood where scarcityed, such as aider in exigency situations. The clinical foster speciaschedule in this idiosyncratic is mainly implicated delay pompous training in orienting new staff. The foster overseer, foster clinician, and clinical foster speciaschedule are the rooted experts. They do not siege resigned assignments. The refount foster is seen as twain a solicitudegiver and a refount to other solicitudegivers. . . . Staff fosters keep a hierarchy of superiority. . . . Staff fosters are assigned to resigneds to stipulate all their nursing solicitude. (Chase, 1995, p. 156)

Word-for-vocable Plagiarism

Critical solicitude fosters keep a hierarchy of roles. The foster overseer hires and firesnurses. S/he does not frequentedly solicitude for resigneds but does ensue remarkable or covet-termcases. On each transfer a refount foster involves to the functioning of the idiosyncratic as a sound, such as making believing beds are conducive in the open size, and as-well has a resigned assignment. The foster clinician orients new staff, develops policies, and stipulates livelihood where scarcityed. The clinical foster speciaschedule as-well orients new staff, mainly by pompous training. The foster overseer, foster clinician, and clinical foster extraordinaryist, as the rooted experts, do not siege resigned assignments. The refount foster is not singly a solicitudegiver but a refount to the other solicitudegivers. Amid the staff fosters there is as-well a hierarchy of superiority. Their job is to confer assigned resigneds all their nursing solicitude.

Why This Is Plagiarism

Notice that the transcriber has not singly “borrowed” Chase’s embodied (the results of her exploration) delay no reception, but has as-well extensively oceantained the constructor’s plan of topedion and belief edifice. The depends in red are frequentedly copied from the fount or radical singly slightly in arrange.

Even if the student-writer had claimd Chase as the fount of the resigned, the talk of the byage would be considered plagiarized accordingly no extract indications specify the depends that conclude frequentedly from Chase. And if extract indications did answer encircling all these depends, this chapter would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.

A Patchachievement Paraphrase

Chase (1995) describes how fosters in a nice solicitude idiosyncratic exercise in a hierarchy that fixs rooted experts at the top and the lowest superior staff fosters at the depth. The experts — the foster overseer, foster clinician, and clinical foster speciaschedule — are not implicated frequentedly in resigned solicitude. The staff fosters, in opposition, are assigned to resignedsand stipulate all their nursing solicitude. Amid the staff fosters is a hierarchy of superiority in which the most superior can beconclude refount fosters: they are assigned a resigned but as-well fruit-for as a refount to other solicitudegivers. The experts keep professional and training efforts such as selecting and orienting new staff, developing idiosyncratic policies, and giving hands-on livelihood where scarcityed.

Why This Is Plagiarism

This dilate is a patchachievement composed of dutys in the first constructor’s talk (in red) and dutys in the student-writer’s signification, all rearranged into a new mould, but delay none of the external dutys in extract indications. Thus, equal though the transcriber claims the fount of the embodied, the underlined depends are untruly bestowed as the student’s own.

A Licit Paraphrase

In her examine of the roles of fosters in a nice solicitude idiosyncratic, Chase (1995) as-well ground a hierarchy that indicationed the roles of experts and others. Just as the notificational experts feeling overhead do not frequentedly counsel students, the experts in this idiosyncratic do not frequentedly involve to resigneds. That is the role of the staff fosters, who, affect counselers, keep their own “hierarchy of superiority” (p. 156). The roles of the experts embody employing idiosyncratic fosters and overseeing the solicitude of extraordinary resigneds (foster overseer), training and inadequately integrating new idiosyncraticnel into the idiosyncratic (clinical foster speciaschedule and foster clinician), and classification-making (foster clinician). In an moderate comcomcomposition in the hierarchy is the refount foster, a staff foster delay past experiment than the others, who assumes frequented solicitude of resigneds as the other staff fosters do, but as-well sieges on efforts to enbelieving the ease production of the undiminished address.

Why This Is A Cheerful Paraphrase

The transcriber has instrumented Chase’s embodied and unfair talk (by frequented regard to the constructor and by extract indications encircling talk siegen frequentedly from the fount). Notice too that the transcriber has qualified Chase’s talk and edifice and has pretended embodied to fit the new conpassage and intention — to bestow the relieved exercises of experts and nonexperts in divers professions.

Shared Language

Perhaps you’ve noticed that a calculate of depends from the first byage answer in the licit dilate: nice solicitude, staff fosters, foster overseer, clinical foster extraordinaryist, foster clinician, refount foster.

If all these depends were in red, the dilate would contemplate plenteous affect the “patchwork” issue. The separation is that the depends in the licit dilate are all bisecticular, parsimonious, and customary designations that are multiply of the shared talk amid the nursing government (in the too-close dilates, they’re red singly when used amid a coveter external depend).

In total government and in fixed genres (such as the tentative exploration noise), some depends are so extraordinaryized or customary that you can’t dilate them save by vocabley and boorish circumlocutions that would be near free (and thus near recognizeable) to the conference.

When you rehearse such depends, you’re not purloining the matchless phrasing of an idiosyncratic transcriber but using a spiritnear glossary shared by a nationality of scholars.

Some Examples Of Shared Talk You Don’t Scarcity To Put In Extract Marks

  • Conventional designations: e.g., physician’s aider, continuous low-back pain
  • Preferred bias-free talk: e.g., idiosyncratics delay disabilities
  • Technical conditions and depends of a government or genre: e.g., reduplication, cognitive estate, embodied amelioration, sexual harassment


Chase, S. K. (1995). The political conpassage of nice solicitude clinical belief. Center and Lung, 24, 154-162.

How To Allege A Source

Introducing A Quotation

One of your jobs as a transcriber is to superintend your recognizeer through your passage. Don’t barely descend extracts into your brochure and permission it to the recognizeer to frame integrateions.

Integrating a extract into your passage usually involves two elements:

  • signal that a extract is coming–generally the constructor’s spectry and/or a regard to the achievement
  • An assertion that specifys the kindred of the extract to your passage

Often twain the notable and the assumption answer in a one preparatory declaration, as in the issue beneath. Notice how a alterable depend as-well fruit-fors to integrate the extract easely to the preparatory declaration.

Ross (1993), in her examine of moneynear and achievementing-systematize womans in London from 1870-1918 [signal], frames it absolved that economic groundation to a extensive size rooted the appreciation of womanhood [assertion]. Floating this population [connection], “To woman was to achievement for and arrange free stay” (p. 9).

The notable can as-well conclude behind the assumption, again delay a integrateing vocable or depend:

Illness was sometimes a regulation subject in the nineteenth eldership [assertion]. As [connection] Ross observes [signal], “Maternal judgeing encircling progeny’s vigor revolved encircling the possibility of a cadet’s maiming or departure” (p. 166).

Formatting Quotations

Short Frequented Prose

Incorporate narrow frequented prose extracts into the passage of your brochure and afforest them in wrap extract indications:

According to Jonathan Clarke, “Professional diplomats rehearseedly say that unmanageable to judge diplomatically encircling strange classification is a squander of term.”

Longer Prose Quotations

Begin coveter extracts (for predicament, in the APA classification, 40 signification or past) on a new plan and corrugate the undiminished extract (i.e., put in fill arrange), delay no extract indications at preparening or end, as in the alleged byage from our Successful vs. Unsucessful Paraphrases page.

Rules encircling the narrowness diffusiveness of fill extracts, how manifold measures to corrugate, and whether to one- or wrap-meaunmistakable exuberant extracts deviate delay opposed instrumentation classifications; cohibit the superintendlines for the classification you’re using.

Quotation Of Up To 3 Lines Of Poetry

Quotations of up to 3 plans of poetry should be solidityd into your belief. For issue:

In Julius Caesar, Antony prepares his glorious displan delay “Friends, Romans, Countrymen, advance me your ears; / I conclude to conceal Caesar, not to laud him” (III.ii.75-76).

Notice that a slash (/) delay a meaunmistakable on either behalf is used to unconnected plans.

Quotation Of Past Than 3 Lines Of Poetry

More than 3 plans of poetry should be corrugateed. As delay any exuberant (indented) extract, do not use extract indications unnear you scarcity to specify a extract amid your extract.

Punctuating Delay Extract Marks

Parenthetical Citations

With narrow extracts, fix passages outbehalf of noncommunication extract indications, ensueed by belief punctuation (period, investigation indication, comma, semi-colon, colon):

Menand (2002) characterizes talk as “a political weapon” (p. 115).

With fill extracts, cohibit the superintendlines for the instrumentation classification you are using.

Commas And Periods

Place inbehalf noncommunication extract indications when no parenthetical passage ensues:

Hertzberg (2002) notes that “treating the Constitution as rude is not new,” but accordingly of Dahl’s credentials, his “apostasy merits attention” (p. 85).

Semicolons And Colons

Place outbehalf of noncommunication extract indications (or behind a parenthetical passage).

Question Marks And Exclamation Points

Place inbehalf noncommunication extract indications if the extract is a investigation/exclamation:

Menand (2001) claims that H. W. Fowler’s Modern English Usage is “a classificationatizeic of the talk,” but he asks, “Is it a defunct classificationatizeic?” (p. 114).

[Note that a epoch calm?} ensues the noncommunication parenthesis.]

Place outbehalf of noncommunication extract indications if the undiminished belief containing the extract is a investigation or exclamation:

How manifold students really recognize the superintend to discover out what is mediumt by “academic misconduct”?

Quotation Amid A Quotation

Use one extract indications for the embedded extract:

According to Hertzberg (2002), Dahl confers the U. S. Constitution “bad indications in ‘democratic fairness’ and ‘encouraging consensus'” (p. 90).

[The depends “democratic fairness” and “encouraging consensus” are already in extract indications in Dahl’s belief.]

Indicating Changes In Quotations

Quoting Singly A Member Of The Whole

Use ellipsis tops (. . .) to specify an exclusion amid a extract–but not at the preparening or end unnear it’s not manifest that you’re quoting singly a member of the sound.

Adding Clarification, Comment, Or Correction

Within extracts, use balance brackets [ ] (not parentheses) to add your own tenuity, explain, or emendation.

Use [sic] (appreciation “so” or “thus”) to specify that a missiege is in the fount you’re quoting and is not your own.

Additional Information

Information On Summarizing And Paraphrasing Sources

American Heritage Dictionary of the English Talk (4th ed.). (2000). Retrieved January 7, 2002, from

Bazerman, C. (1995). The apprised transcriber: Using founts in the governments (5th ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Leki, I. (1995). Academic letter: Exploring classificationes and strategies (2nd ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 185-211.

Leki describes the basic plan bestowed in C, pp. 4-5.

Spatt, B. (1999). Letter from founts (5th ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 98-119; 364-371.

Information Encircling Unfair Documentation Systems

The Letter Center has handouts explaining how to use manifold of the plummet instrumentation classifications. You may contemplate at our political Web page on Documentation Systems, or you may cohibit out any of the forthcoming unfair Web pages.

If you’re not believing which instrumentation classification to use, ask the plan educator who assigned your brochure.

  • American Psychological Association (APA)
  • Modern Talk Association (MLA)
  • Chicago/Turabian (A Footnote or Endnote System)
  • American Collective Science Association (APSA)
  • Council of Science Editors (CBE)
  • Numbered References

You may as-well regard the forthcoming superintends:

  • American Medical Association, Manual for Authors and Editors
  • Council of Science Editors, CBE phraseology Manual
  • The Chicago Manual of Style
  • MLA Handbulk for Writers of Exploration Papers
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association


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