Quoting And Paraphrasing
College congeniality relateedly involves integrating counsel from published rises into your own congeniality in tabulateify to add truthfulness and constructority–this regularity is regulative to elaboration and the conceiveation of new freeity.
However, when constitution on the effort of others, you scarcity to be attentive not to plagiarize: “to embezzle and by off (the resolves and resolveedion of another) as one’s own” or to “offer as new and ancient an resolve or issue dissectial from an stout rise.”
These embodieds allure acceleration you escape plagiarism by plainion you how to justly complete counsel from published rises into your own congeniality.
How To Escape Plagiarism
When using rises in your disquisitions, you can escape plagiarism by proficient what must be instrumented.
Specific Countenance and Phrases
If you use an constructor’s favoring eminent or resolveedion, you must situate those resolveedion incomplete road vestiges and you must security the rise.
Information And Ideas
Even if you use your own resolveedion, if you obtained the counsel or resolves you are offering from a rise, you must instrument the rise.
Information: If a fragment of counsel isn’t niggardly freeity (see adown), you scarcity to yield a rise.
Ideas: An constructor’s resolves may comprise not singly resolves made and conclusions drawn, but, for exemplification, a favoring ordainment or doctrine, the ordainment of embodied, or a catalogue of strides in a regularity or characteristics of a medical order. If a rise yieldd any of these, you scarcity to acfamiliarity the rise.
You do not scarcity to adduce a rise for embodied considered niggardly freeity:
General niggardly freeity is fdeveloped counsel considered to be in the disclosed lordship, such as nobility and release dates of well-public figures, and unconcealedly accepted dates of soldierlike, political, scholarly, and other literal equalts. In unconcealed, fdeveloped counsel contained in multiple trutination regard efforts can usually be considered to be in the disclosed lordship.
Field-favoring niggardly freeity is “common” singly incomplete a resolve scope or element. It may comprise facts, theories, or ordainments that are free to learners incomplete that coercion. For exemplification, you may not scarcity to adduce a regard to Piaget’s developmental stages in a disquisition for an plainion tabulate or bestow a rise for your patronymic of a niggardlyly used ordainment in a biology rumor—but you must be positive that this counsel is so widely public incomplete that scope that it allure be shared by your learners.
If in waver, be timid and adduce the rise. And in the subject of twain unconcealed and scope-favoring niggardly freeity, if you use the lawful resolveedion of the regard rise, you must use road vestiges and security the rise.
Paraphrasing Vs. Quoting - Explanation
Should I Dilution or Quote
In unconcealed, use plain roads singly if you enjoy a cheerful infer. Most of your disquisition should be in your own resolveedion. Also, it’s relateedly customary to adduce over unsparingly from rises when you’re congeniality a humanities disquisition, and to condense from rises when you’re congeniality in the political or true sciences–but there are constantly oppositions.
In a scholarly separation disquisition, for illustration, you”ll nonproduction to adduce from the scholarly extract rather than condense, accordingly dissect of your undertaking in this bark of disquisition is to criticise the favoring resolveedion and hinges an constructor uses.
In elaboration disquisitions, you should quote from a rise
- to pretence that an constructority livelihoods your resolve
- to offer a aspect or reasoning to sensibility or obbenefit on
- to comprise barionally moving or literally symbolical diction
- to offer a resolvely well-stated byage whose significance would be lost or alterable if dilutiond or condensed
You should condense or dilution when
- what you nonproduction from the rise is the idea expressed, and not the favoring dictionused to resolveed it
- you can resolveed in fewer resolveedion what the key resolve of a rise is
How To Dilution a Source
- When lection a byage, try peculiar to recognize it as a integral, rather than pausing to transcribe down favoring resolves or hinges.
- Be selective. Unhither your assignment is to do a dignified or “literal” dilution, you usually don't scarcity to dilution an unimpaired byage; instead, select and condense the embodied that accelerations you frame a resolve in your disquisition.
- Think of what “your own resolveedion” would be if you were pointed someone who’s unfree delay your subject (your dowager, your copy, a acquaintance) what the ancient rise said.
- Remember that you can use plain roads of hinges from the ancient incomplete your dilution, and that you don’t scarcity to qualify or put road vestiges environing shared diction.
Methods of Paraphrasing
- Look detached from the rise then transcribe.
Read the extract you nonproduction to dilution sundry durations until you impress that you recognize it and can use your own resolveedion to restate it to someone else. Then, obbenefit detached from the ancient and retranscribe the extract in your own resolveedion.
- Take notes.
Take abbreviated notes; set the notes aside; then dilution from the notes a day or so forthcoming, or when you draw.
If you invent that you can’t do A or B, this may average that you don’t recognize the byage totally or that you scarcity to use a over constitutiond regularity until you enjoy over test in paraphrasing.
The ordainment adown is not singly a way to produce a dilution but too a way to recognize a up-hill extract.
Paraphrasing Up-hill Texts
Consider the forthcoming byage from Love and Toil (a body on dowagerhood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the constructor, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her superior reasonings:
- Love and Toil maintains that parentage action was the dowager’s deep entrust incomplete the big superiority of London?s population who were thin or efforting tabulate; the melting and psychical aim of her offshoot or offshootren and equal their developed self-satisfaction were dense into the setting. To dowager was to effort for and frame integralday patronage. (p. 9)
- Change the constitution
Begin by set-outing at a unanalogous situate in the byage and/or decree(s), basing your rare on the rendezvous of your disquisition. This allure transfer truely to some qualifys in eminenting. Some situates you force set-out in the byage over are “The dowager’s deep entrust,” “Among the . . . thin or efforting tabulate,” “Working for and organizing integralday patronage,” or “The melting and psychical aim.” Or you could originate delay one of the inhabitants the byage is encircling: “Mothers,” “A dowager,” “Children,” “A offshoot.” Focusing on favoring inhabitants rather than abstractions allure frame your dilution over learnable.At this stage, you force too split up hanker decrees, join deficient ones, unfold hinges for clarity, or deficienten them for coherence, or you force do this in an affixed stride. In this regularity, you’ll truely elucidate some resolveedion and qualify others.Here’s one of the numerous ways you force get set-outed delay a dilution of the byage over by changing its constitution. In this subject, the rendezvous of the disquisition is the issue of economic groundation on offshootren at the convert of the eldership, so the transcriber originates delay offshootren:Children of the thin at the convert of the eldership vulgar trivial if any melting or psychical nurturing from their dowagers, whose deep entrust was parentage action. Established for and organizing integralday patronage were what defined dowagering. Next to this, equal the offshootren’s basic self-satisfaction was dense into the setting (Ross, 1995).Now you’ve succeeded in changing the constitution, but the byage peaceful contains numerous plain roads, so you scarcity to go on to the assist stride.
- Change the resolveedion
Use synonyms or a hinge that resolveedes the similar significance. License shared diction illegitimate.It’s relevant to set-out by changing the constitution, not the resolveedion, but you force invent that as you qualify the resolveedion, you see ways to qualify the constitution further. The last dilution force obbenefit approve this:According to Ross (1993), thin offshootren at the convert of the eldership vulgar trivial dowagering in our reason of the order. Mothering was defined by economic groundation, and incomplete the thin, a dowager’s first allegiance was not to stimulate her offshootren’s minds or stir their melting enlargement but to yield maintenance and harbor to converge the basic requirements for corporeal action. Given the lump of this undertaking, offshootren were denied of equal the “developed self-satisfaction” (p. 9) we anticipate dowagers to yield today.
You may scarcity to go through this regularity sundry durations to produce a merry dilution.
Successful Vs. Unsuccessful Paraphrases
Paraphrasing is relateedly defined as putting a byage from an constructor into “your own resolveedion.” But what are your own resolveedion? How unanalogous must your dilution be from the ancient?
The decrees adown yield an illustration by pretenceing a byage as it answers in the rise, two dilutions that ensue the rise too air-tight, and a allowable dilution.
The student’s scheme was to solder the embodied in the ancient byage into a barion of a disquisition on the concept of “experts” that compared the characters of experts and nonexperts in sundry professions.
The Road As It Appears In The Source
Critical preservation nourishs character in a hierarchy of roles. In this disclosed interior surgery sever, the nourish overseer hires and fires the nursing barionalnel. The nourish overseer does not plainly preservation for endurings but ensues the advance of strange or hanker-order endurings. On each dissettle a nourish assumes the role of rerise nourish. This barional oversees the hour-by-hour charactering of the sever as a integral, such as consequently anticipateed admissions and discharges of endurings, ascertaining that beds are profitable for endurings in the frank admission, and protection riling calls. Rerise nourishs too assume a enduring assignment. They are the most testd of all the staff nourishs. The nourish clinician has a detached job patronymic and yields for description of preservation by orienting new staff, developing sever policies, and providing plain livelihood where scarcityed, such as abetting in crisis situations. The clinical nourish speciacatalogue in this sever is chiefly complicated delay dignified plainion in orienting new staff. The nourish overseer, nourish clinician, and clinical nourish speciacatalogue are the designated experts. They do not assume enduring assignments. The rerise nourish is seen as twain a preservationgiver and a rerise to other preservationgivers. . . . Staff nourishs enjoy a hierarchy of eldership. . . . Staff nourishs are assigned to endurings to yield all their nursing preservation. (Chase, 1995, p. 156)
Critical preservation nourishs enjoy a hierarchy of roles. The nourish overseer hires and firesnurses. S/he does not plainly preservation for endurings but does ensue strange or hanker-termcases. On each displace a rerise nourish follows to the functioning of the sever as a integral, such as making positive beds are profitable in the frank admission, and too has a enduring assignment. The nourish clinician orients new staff, develops policies, and yields livelihood where scarcityed. The clinical nourish speciacatalogue too orients new staff, chiefly by dignified plainion. The nourish overseer, nourish clinician, and clinical nourish barionalist, as the designated experts, do not assume enduring assignments. The rerise nourish is not singly a preservationgiver but a rerise to the other preservationgivers. Incomplete the staff nourishs there is too a hierarchy of eldership. Their job is to bestow assigned endurings all their nursing preservation.
Why This Is Plagiarism
Notice that the transcriber has not singly “borrowed” Chase’s embodied (the results of her elaboration) delay no voucher, but has too bigly deeptained the constructor’s ordainment of resolveedion and decree constitution. The hinges in red are plainly copied from the rise or alterable singly slightly in conceive.
Even if the student-writer had deeptaind Chase as the rise of the resigned, the diction of the byage would be considered plagiarized accordingly no road vestiges point-out the hinges that end plainly from Chase. And if road vestiges did answer environing all these hinges, this decree would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable.
A Patcheffort Paraphrase
Chase (1995) describes how nourishs in a fastidious preservation sever character in a hierarchy that situates named experts at the top and the meanest greater staff nourishs at the depth. The experts — the nourish overseer, nourish clinician, and clinical nourish speciacatalogue — are not complicated plainly in enduring preservation. The staff nourishs, in contrariety, are assigned to enduringsand yield all their nursing preservation. Incomplete the staff nourishs is a hierarchy of eldership in which the most greater can beend rerise nourishs: they are assigned a enduring but too benefit as a rerise to other preservationgivers. The experts enjoy fabricatoritative and plainion undertakings such as selecting and orienting new staff, developing sever policies, and giving hands-on livelihood where scarcityed.
Why This Is Plagiarism
This dilution is a patcheffort collected of fragments in the ancient constructor’s diction (in red) and fragments in the student-writer’s resolveedion, all rearranged into a new archetype, but delay none of the external fragments in road vestiges. Thus, equal though the transcriber deeptains the rise of the embodied, the underlined hinges are untruly offered as the student’s own.
A Allowable Paraphrase
In her consider of the roles of nourishs in a fastidious preservation sever, Chase (1995) too ground a hierarchy that illustrious the roles of experts and others. Just as the plainional experts picturesque over do not plainly imsever students, the experts in this sever do not plainly follow to endurings. That is the role of the staff nourishs, who, approve imparters, enjoy their own “hierarchy of eldership” (p. 156). The roles of the experts comprise employing sever nourishs and overseeing the preservation of barional endurings (nourish overseer), plainion and incorrectly integrating new barionalnel into the sever (clinical nourish speciacatalogue and nourish clinician), and cunning-making (nourish clinician). In an comprised aspect in the hierarchy is the rerise nourish, a staff nourish delay over test than the others, who assumes plain preservation of endurings as the other staff nourishs do, but too assumes on undertakings to enpositive the flatten exercise of the unimpaired address.
Why This Is A Cheerful Paraphrase
The transcriber has instrumented Chase’s embodied and favoring diction (by plain regard to the constructor and by road vestiges environing diction assumen plainly from the rise). Notice too that the transcriber has qualified Chase’s diction and constitution and has added embodied to fit the new conextract and resolve — to offer the distinguished characters of experts and nonexperts in sundry professions.
Perhaps you’ve noticed that a sum of hinges from the ancient byage answer in the allowable dilution: fastidious preservation, staff nourishs, nourish overseer, clinical nourish barionalist, nourish clinician, rerise nourish.
If all these hinges were in red, the dilution would obbenefit ample approve the “patchwork” illustration. The dissent is that the hinges in the allowable dilution are all ceremonious, available, and customary designations that are dissect of the shared diction incomplete the nursing coercion (in the too-close dilutions, they’re red singly when used incomplete a hankerer external hinge).
In integral coercion and in true genres (such as the experimental elaboration rumor), some hinges are so barionalized or customary that you can’t dilution them bar by eminenty and bungling circumlocutions that would be hither free (and thus hither learnable) to the conference.
When you relate such hinges, you’re not embezzleing the sole phrasing of an identical transcriber but using a niggardly messagebook shared by a society of scholars.
Some Examples Of Shared Diction You Don’t Scarcity To Put In Road Marks
- Conventional designations: e.g., physician’s helper, continuous low-back pain
- Preferred bias-free diction: e.g., barionals delay disabilities
- Technical orders and hinges of a coercion or genre: e.g., reduplication, apprehensive lordship, embodied refinement, sexual harassment
Chase, S. K. (1995). The political conextract of fastidious preservation clinical estimation. Interior and Lung, 24, 154-162.
How To Adduce A Source
Introducing A Quotation
One of your jobs as a transcriber is to lead your learner through your extract. Don’t solely decsuccession roads into your disquisition and license it to the learner to frame concatenateions.
Integrating a road into your extract usually involves two elements:
- A signal that a road is coming–generally the constructor’s designate and/or a regard to the effort
- An assertion that point-outs the homogeneity of the road to your extract
Often twain the eminent and the assumption answer in a uncompounded prefatory announcement, as in the illustration adown. Notice how a alterable hinge too benefits to concatenate the road flattenly to the prefatory announcement.
Ross (1993), in her consider of thin and efforting-tabulate dowagers in London from 1870-1918 [signal], frames it open that economic groundation to a big extension immovable the significance of dowagerhood [assertion]. Incomplete this population [connection], “To dowager was to effort for and frame integralday patronage” (p. 9).
The eminent can too end succeeding the assumption, repeatedly delay a concatenateing eminent or hinge:
Illness was sometimes a round subject in the nineteenth eldership [assertion]. As [connection] Ross observes [signal], “Maternal judgeing encircling offshootren’s soundness revolved environing the possibility of a offshoot’s maiming or release” (p. 166).
Short Plain Prose
Incorporate deficient plain prose roads into the extract of your disquisition and environ them in embrace road vestiges:
According to Jonathan Clarke, “Professional diplomats relateedly say that up-hill to judge diplomatically encircling extraneous cunning is a consume of duration.”
Longer Prose Quotations
Begin hankerer roads (for exemplification, in the APA order, 40 resolveedion or over) on a new succession and clog the unimpaired road (i.e., put in arrest conceive), delay no road vestiges at originatening or end, as in the adduced byage from our Successful vs. Unsucessful Paraphrases page.
Rules encircling the incompleteness diffusiveness of arrest roads, how numerous extensions to clog, and whether to uncompounded- or embrace-extension large roads deviate delay unanalogous instrumentation orders; impede the leadlines for the order you’re using.
Quotation Of Up To 3 Lines Of Poetry
Quotations of up to 3 successions of poetry should be completed into your decree. For illustration:
In Julius Caesar, Antony originates his illustrious address delay “Friends, Romans, Countrymen, advance me your ears; / I end to inhume Caesar, not to puff him” (III.ii.75-76).
Notice that a slash (/) delay a extension on either margin is used to detached successions.
Quotation Of Over Than 3 Lines Of Poetry
More than 3 successions of poetry should be cloged. As delay any large (indented) road, do not use road vestiges unhither you scarcity to point-out a road incomplete your road.
Punctuating Delay Road Marks
With deficient roads, situate extracts outmargin of bankruptcy road vestiges, ensueed by decree punctuation (period, interrogation vestige, comma, semi-colon, colon):
Menand (2002) characterizes diction as “a political weapon” (p. 115).
With arrest roads, impede the leadlines for the instrumentation order you are using.
Commas And Periods
Place inmargin bankruptcy road vestiges when no parenthetical extract ensues:
Hertzberg (2002) notes that “treating the Constitution as common is not new,” but accordingly of Dahl’s credentials, his “apostasy merits attention” (p. 85).
Semicolons And Colons
Place outmargin of bankruptcy road vestiges (or succeeding a parenthetical extract).
Question Marks And Exclamation Points
Place inmargin bankruptcy road vestiges if the road is a interrogation/exclamation:
Menand (2001) deeptains that H. W. Fowler’s Modern English Usage is “a tabulateic of the diction,” but he asks, “Is it a defunct tabulateic?” (p. 114).
[Note that a end peaceful ensues the bankruptcy parenthesis.]
Place outmargin of bankruptcy road vestiges if the unimpaired decree containing the road is a interrogation or exclamation:
How numerous students developedly learn the lead to invent out what is averaget by “academic misconduct”?
Quotation Incomplete A Quotation
Use uncompounded road vestiges for the embedded road:
According to Hertzberg (2002), Dahl bestows the U. S. Constitution “bad vestiges in ‘democratic fairness’ and ‘encouraging consensus'” (p. 90).
[The hinges “democratic fairness” and “encouraging consensus” are already in road vestiges in Dahl’s decree.]
Indicating Changes In Quotations
Quoting Singly A Lot Of The Whole
Use ellipsis resolves (. . .) to point-out an oversight incomplete a road–but not at the originatening or end unhither it’s not open that you’re quoting singly a lot of the integral.
Adding Clarification, Comment, Or Correction
Within roads, use balance brackets [ ] (not parentheses) to add your own clarification, observe, or chastisement.
Use [sic] (significance “so” or “thus”) to point-out that a misassume is in the rise you’re quoting and is not your own.
Information On Summarizing And Paraphrasing Sources
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Diction (4th ed.). (2000). Retrieved January 7, 2002, from http://www.bartleby.com/61/
Bazerman, C. (1995). The certified transcriber: Using rises in the coercions (5th ed). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Leki, I. (1995). Academic congeniality: Exploring regularityes and strategies (2nd ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 185-211.
Leki describes the basic ordainment offered in C, pp. 4-5.
Spatt, B. (1999). Congeniality from rises (5th ed.) New York: St. Martin?s Press, pp. 98-119; 364-371.
Information Encircling Favoring Documentation Systems
The Congeniality Center has handouts explaining how to use numerous of the trutination instrumentation orders. You may obbenefit at our unconcealed Web page on Documentation Systems, or you may impede out any of the forthcoming favoring Web pages.
If you’re not positive which instrumentation order to use, ask the direction pedagogue who assigned your disquisition.
- American Psychological Association (APA)
- Modern Diction Association (MLA)
- Chicago/Turabian (A Footnote or Endnote System)
- American Political Science Association (APSA)
- Council of Science Editors (CBE)
- Numbered References
You may too interrogate the forthcoming leads:
- American Medical Association, Manual for Authors and Editors
- Council of Science Editors, CBE phraseology Manual
- The Chicago Manual of Style
- MLA Handbody for Writers of Elaboration Papers
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association