Draft of Introduction and Literature Review Follow the directions below for the completion of the introduction and literature review draft assignment.
Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to begin drafting your academic argumentative research paper. Description: In this assignment, you will first write your literature review; then, you will write your introduction. The following details are requirements of the assignment: Introduction (9-12 well-developed sentences/approximately 350 words): ” The following components must be included in the introduction (in the following order).
Sentence 1: Introduce the general topic
Sentence 2: Pro side (general)
Sentence 3: Con side (general)
Sentence 4: Narrow the scope (1)
Sentence 5: Examples of the narrowed topic
Sentence 6: Narrow the scope (2)
Sentence 7: Specific controversy
Sentence 8: Pro side (specific)
Sentence 9: Con side (specific)
Sentence 10: The thesis Literature Review (800-900 words): For details about the structure of the literature review, you will want to review Literature review preface: This paragraph acts as a guide to what the reader can expect in the literature review. Literature review body: This section includes three to four body paragraphs that discuss the history, terminology, and both sides of the controversy (pro and con).
Literature review conclusion: The conclusion signals that the literature review is ending, but it also acts as a kind of preface for the body of the paper by restating the thesis statement and establishing your argument once again. Demonstrate how to summarize and paraphrase source materials. Demonstrate the avoidance of plagiarism through proper use of APA citations and references for all paraphrased and quoted material. Note: The conclusion is not presented in this example; however, the literature review conclusion is a requirement of the assignment.
Running head: PRISON REFORM 1
PRISON REFORM 2
Research Proposal Assignment
English Composition II
Columbia Southern University
The initial purpose of prisons was to help law breakers to transform and learn on the importance of being law abiding citizens. Incarceration was meant to be some sort of isolation from the society where people found guilty of committing a crime would be taken, thereby promoting the safety of the community while convicted felons were in isolation. Prisoners are taken through a rehabilitation process so they can learn how to rejoin society after extensive programming. There hasn’t been a single time that prison was meant to violate human rights, cause death of inmates, or even turn criminals into more hardened criminals. Over the years, there are a lot of malpractices that have been embraced and applied in the prisons which have compromised the levels of accuracy and justice in the criminal justice system, as well as the effectiveness of incarcerations. It is a fact that these malpractices are currently deep rooted in all prison systems to the point where society fears prisoners being released after serving their sentence, as they feel that these prisoners might not have transformed (Toman, 2019). For a long time, many people and societies have fought for prison reforms and some measures put in place, however they never took effect. It is for this reason that this essay is making a proposition that prison reform is the way out and efforts should be put in place to ensure they work.
Many people have argued that prison reforms would only open loopholes for more lawbreaking to take place while others have claimed that prison reforms would only create a comfortable environment for wrong doers. Hence, many claim that the current state of prisons is the right environment for prisoners as a way of discouraging people to engage in crime as they are aware of the hardships and challenges they will face while in prison (Kreager, & Kruttschnitt, 2018). Many raise questions and issues as whether it is logical or non-logical for a criminal to be granted a good environment in prison while he/she caused pain and grief to innocent people.
Pro side of controversy
It is a fact that prison reforms would bring sanity and some comfort in prisons. It means the amount of cruelty that prisoners are exposed to would be eliminated and the environment made much habitable. However, this would be good for society because prison by itself means no freedom to do whatever one wishes. It means the life of that individual is in some sort of stagnation and that alone is a punishment (Duwe, 2017). Researches have proven, even the hardest criminals require a healthy environment for their mind to transform back to a normal way of thinking and develop a sense of remorse for their actions. Counseling will be required to help those individuals realize their mistake, show how it has significantly affected them, and how to avoid such instances and make better choices in life. It is in a friendly environment that prisoners can be taught how to cohabitate with others and be a productive citizen. (Duwe, 2017). Reforms would also make it possible for prisoners to be admitted back into the society with the skills learned, help them to cope and get by without engaging in future crime.
Tentative thesis statement
Prisons are important as they help offenders to reform and resume to the society better. Prison reforms are important as they would help in improving the transformation process of the convicted.
Duwe, G. (2017). The use and impact of correctional programming for inmates on pre-and post-release outcomes. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
Kreager, D. A., & Kruttschnitt, C. (2018). Inmate society in the era of mass incarceration. Annual review of criminology, 1, 261-283.
Toman, E. L. (2019). The victim–offender overlap behind bars: Linking prison misconduct and victimization. Justice Quarterly, 36(2), 350-382.
Lesson 2: The Literature Review
Part 1: Getting Started
When we speak of literature in academics, we are speaking of a body of information about a particular topic. Unlike literature that might be associated with canonical novels, short stories, fiction, and poetry, this type of literature is essentially all of the material written about an area of study. When academics want to know something, they ask each other, “What does the literature say?” This question is meant to ask, “What have others said about the topic?” Because all arguments are made after knowing what others have said, the literature review becomes an indispensable part of the research paper.
Similarly, when we say that we are going to “review literature,” we do not mean that we are going to give the source a critical thumbs up or thumbs down or that we are going to rate it as four stars out of five. Instead, we are going to “review” the material in very much the same way as you might review a textbook reading before a quiz. To review literature means that you are going to discuss the literature in a written form in order to both summarize and synthesize that material. In many ways, you are reorganizing that information so that the critical conversation is clearer to the reader.
The literature review materials are divided into two lessons: Lesson 2 and Lesson 3. In this lesson, we will be discussing information you need to know in order to understand the task at hand. In Lesson 3, we will discuss the process of writing the literature review.
What Is a Literature Review?
A literature review (LR) is an academic genre of writing, which should tell you right away that there are particular conventions and considerations to constructing your own. A literature review can be a stand-alone document that is created long before the work in an experiment begins. The idea is that the researcher needs to know what others have done in order to ensure that his or her research is novel, meaning that it does not repeat something that someone else has done. Being novel with one’s research is a necessary feature of any large-scale research project.
For your research project for this course, you are being asked to choose a controversy, understand it, and present it back to the reader with your own argument. In many ways, you will be using the LR in the way that many other academics do: You will be using it as a way to better understand your topic by writing about the topic. However, unlike other academics, you will not be conducting an experiment; instead, you will be constructing an argument and supporting that argument.
So what exactly is an LR? A literature review is an assessment of a body of materials written about a particular topic (in our case, a controversy). In this situation, however, you are not critiquing the arguments, ideas, or positions of others. Instead, you are using the space of the literature review to explain the controversy based upon the materials that you have found. Let’s take a look at some of the parts and pieces of an LR.
The Purpose of the Literature Review
The literature review serves a few purposes, all of which are essential to the writing of a research paper.
· Background information: One of the main purposes of an LR is to establish important background information. This background information helps the reader to understand more about the topic so that he or she can appreciate what is at stake in your argument.
· Detailed presentation of the controversy’s sides: As we have so often discussed, your argument does not come from a vacuum. Instead, your argument is a response (agree, disagree, or agree and disagree simultaneously) to a controversy. Therefore, in order to understand your argument, the reader needs to know what you know about the controversy. Further, each side of the controversy must be laid out so that you can better understand the controversy, but it is important to note that the tone of the LR is not one of exploration; instead, you will need to speak with authority about the controversy.
· Credibility: The idea of authority leads us to another key purpose of the LR: It helps to establish your credibility as someone who knows about the controversy. Odds are that the reader will have only cursory knowledge of the topic, and your LR is essential for their understanding. By establishing an LR, you are demonstrating that you have researched the topic and understand it. You want your reader to trust you, and there is no better way to do this than to demonstrate your skills of research and compilation. Your reader will appreciate it!
The Requirements and Considerations
When you begin your literature review, you want to have a few requirements and considerations in mind:
· Five sources: You should include no less than five sources in your literature review alone. You may use sources from your introduction, but you must introduce at least five new sources in the literature review.
· Summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize: In the body of the LR, you must use the techniques of summary, paraphrasing, and synthesis. Remember that if you use one of these techniques, you still need to cite your sources using APA citation style in order to give proper acknowledgement to your sources.
· Sources must be current: A current source is one that is not older than 10 years. The best sources are those that were written within the last five years. However, if you are building a timeline or presenting the historical contextualization for a topic, then you may use sources that are older than 10 years.
· APA citations: You are required to include APA citations within the text of your submission. In effect, it is impossible to write an LR without including in-text and reference list citations. If you are ever unsure about APA citations, contact your professor, the Success Center, or the CSU Online Library for information or clarification.
· No restriction on source types: You may use a variety of sources (e.g., books, journal articles, websites). You are not restricted on the types of sources you may use, but you should consider the quality and reliability of each source before including it. Keep in mind that websites such as Wikipedia contain user-generated content and should not be used in any academic research paper.
· Level headings are highly advised: Use APA level headings to help you organize your materials and to present them in an easy-to-understand way. For more information on these headings and how to present them correctly, please see page 15 of the
Check for Understanding
1. True/False: “Literature” is only a novel or a short story that is famous.
2. True/False: When you review literature, you give it a positive or negative rating.
3. True/False: You want to avoid presenting your argument in the literature review.
4. True/False: If you include source material (which is a requirement), then you must also include in-text and reference list citations in APA style.
1. “Literature” in the academic sense of the word refers to a body of information about a particular topic.
2. To review literature means that you are going to discuss the literature in a written form in order to both summarize and synthesize that material.
3. A literature review is an assessment of a body of materials written about a particular topic (in our case, a controversy).
4. The purposes of the literature review are to provide vital background information to the reader, to detail the sides of a controversy, and to establish your credibility as a writer.
5. The requirements of the assignment state that you must (1) include five sources; (2) summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize; (3) use current sources; and (4) include APA in-text and reference list citations.
Considerations that you should keep in mind are (1) there are no restrictions on source type, and (2) level headings are strongly suggested.
1. False: “Literature” in the academic sense of the word refers to a body of information about a particular topic.
2. False: To review literature means that you are going to discuss the literature in a written form in order to both summarize and synthesize that material.
3. True: You only present the arguments, ideas, and positions of others in the LR.
4. True: Any time you use the work of others, you must cite that work.
Unit IV Color Key:
Blue: APA document formatting
Red: Example common mistakes in APA style
Brown: Paragraph number and label
Green: Sentence-level number and explanation
Running head: SAFETY FIRST 1
Safety First: Open Carry Firearms on Higher Education Campuses in Arizona
Columbia Southern University
APA header: Note that the title is in capital letters and prefaced by the words “Running head.” The page number is also included.
Full title of the paper with the major words beginning with a capital letter
The student’s first and last name
Name of the institution, which will always be “Columbia Southern University”
SAFETY FIRST 2
Safety First: Open Carry Firearms on Higher Education Campuses in Arizona
Much has been made in the past few years about gun restrictions in the U.S. Proponents
of gun regulation are in a constant state of lobbying for state and federal bills that restrict access
to firearms, whether that takes the form of more extensive background checks on potential gun
owners or longer waiting periods before guns may be sold to individuals. On the other side,
National Rifle Association (NRA) and other like-minded individuals advocate for looser
restrictions on the sale and carrying of firearms. For these supporters of pro-gun legislation,
owning and carrying guns is a fundamental right—even a civil right. While this national debate
continues to loom over the hot topic of guns, there are breaking news stories, especially within
the last few months, that bring this fundamental debate to the threshold of our nations colleges,
high schools, even elementary schools. Seung-Hui Cho’s massacre at Virginia Tech (April 16,
2007) is perhaps one of the more infamous school shootings, but there are others that are perhaps
more difficult to remember, like the deaths of 27 killed at Sandy Hook Elementary School in
Newton, Connecticut (December 14, 2012) (CNN, 2015). Shootings like these in educational
settings have drawn attention from both anti-gun proponents and pro-gun lobbyists, and the State
of Arizona is no exception to this firestorm. The Arizona State legislature has proposed SB 1474,
a gun bill that will allow students and faculty to carry guns on the campus grounds of its three
state-funded universities. Supporters of the bill claim that Arizona is an open carry state, and
those rights should not be restricted simply because the carrier crosses the border of a college
campus. Those against the bill assert that guns have no place in education and that those who
support the bill are only after their own election-year agendas. While the Second Amendment
should be upheld, the educational learning environment should be protected;
Full title presented again at the top of the page
Para 1: Introduction
Sentence 1 (S1): Amanda introduces the main topic (gun control) in a generalized manner; this sentence also introduces the con side of the controversy
S2 &3: Follows S1 by introducing the position of the pro side; again, Amanda is general, focusing on the larger controversy
S4: Amanda begins to narrow the scope of the project by pointing towards a specific debate within the larger controversy of gun control: gun control in educational settings.
S5: Specific examples from the news. Note that these are examples of school shootings with which most people are familiar. This grounds the project to what is at stake in making arguments about this topic.
S6: Amanda again narrows the scope of the project by moving from gun control in educational settings to this debate as it takes place in a specific location: Arizona.
S7: In this sentence, the writer introduces the specific topic of the project: the controversy around
S8 & 9: Following the same order from above (con first, then pro), Amanda presents the sides of the controversy by introducing each specific position.
S10: Amanda presents her thesis statement. She responds to the controversy by crafting a thesis statement that simultaneously agrees and disagrees.
SAFETY FIRST 3
therefore, SB 1474 is a detrimental and dangerous bill that has the potential to change the
university campus culture in Arizona state universities.
The Literature Review
In order to better understanding the origins of SB1474 and the controversy that surrounds
it, the history of gun violence in school settings must be taken into account; therefore, a brief
look at some of the events of the past few decades is presented. Further, this review will examine
in greater detail the positions of the two sides of the controversy, beginning with the pro-SB1474
side, which is in favor of allowing open carry on all Arizona state-funded campuses. Then the
position of those against SB1474 will be presented; again, this con side is arguing for Arizona
campuses to remain as they are now: a place without firearms.
A Brief Look at Gun Violence in Schools
The topic of gun control in educational environments exploded in 1999 when Eric Harris
and Dylan Klebold walked into a virtually unknown high school in Littleton, CO, and killed
twelve students and one teacher (Gibbs and Roche, 1999). Questions of how such events could
occur and concerns about the violence of which teens and young adults are capable became the
concern of pressured administrators and horrified parents in big cities and small towns alike. A
string of school gun-centered violence followed over the next few years. Perhaps most striking
though was the way in which this one incident changed the culture of America: clear backpacks,
more metal detectors, and (of course) fear. Cloud (1999) points out some of the extreme, “zero
tolerance” actions taken by schools shortly following the Columbine shootings:
A seven-year-old boy in Cahokia, Ill., is suspended for having a nail clipper at school. A
10th-grader at Surry County High School in Virginia is booted for having blue-dyed hair.
Shortened version of the title in the header and the page number on each page
Para 2: Preface of the Literature Review
Para 3: Brief History
First-level heading: All major sections of the paper will be first-level, including The Literature Review, Body, and Conclusion. You may choose to mark the Introduction, but it is typically not done because the title of the paper stands for the heading level. Note that the title is centered and bold with sentence-case capitalization.
Note how Amanda prefaces the LR by giving the reader an idea of what will be included. You might also note that the paragraph is written in passive voice so that she can avoid using personal pronouns such as “I.”
This is a second-level heading. It is left-hand justified and bold. All major words are capitalized. This tells the reader that this next section is a division of the first-level heading that is directly above.
This citation is in APA. It shows the authors and year of publication. This sentence is a paraphrase of Gibbs and Roche. The reader can look at the references page to find the original document.
Amanda has made a mistake: Only the ampersand (&) should be used in a parenthetical citation.
Here is another way to include a parenthetical citation. Amanda has incorporated the author’s name into the sentence. Note that the year of publication is presented after the author, but there is no citation at the end of the sentence because the information is already presented at the beginning.
This quotation is called a “block.” If a quotation is over 40 words long, then you must “block” it by removing the quotation marks and indenting the entire quotation 1/2” from the left-hand margin. If this quotation would have been from a print text, then the page number would have been included at the end of the sentence, but it was an electronic source.
SAFETY FIRST 4
A Minnesota high school nixes a yearbook photo of an Army enlistee in the senior class
because it shows her sitting atop a cannon outside a Veterans of Foreign Wars post.
Far from the exception, these actions considered these many years later seem unreasonable, even
in a post-9/11 world filled with uncertainty.
The Argument for Open Carry Everywhere in Arizona
However, in Arizona, the newly proposed SB 1474 would not seek to disarm students; on
the contrary, the bill would allow students the right to concealed carry on state-funded university
campuses. Proponents of the bill assert that such a measure is long over due. According to an
NRA poster that were taped to message boards all over The University of Arizona campus,
“[s]elf-defense is one of the most fundamental rights of every human being.” Further, the poster
states that the NRA has worked diligently over the past 25 years to expand the right of open
carry: the NRA has been “working for passage of fair Right-to-Carry laws, expansion of carry
reciprocity between the states and the elimination of many ‘no-carry’ zones that only affect the
law-abiding.” For the NRA, one of the major private-public backers of the SB 1474, the
restriction of concealed carry on college campuses is an infringement on these basic rights. The
flyer goes on to state the following:
Those who oppose campus carry [of firearms] argue that educational institutions should
be treated differently, based on emotional claims that places of higher learning are
somehow exempt from real-world violence. But the truth is, despite current prohibitions
on legally carrying on campuses, crimes already occur on campus, and the right to self-
defense from those violent acts should be respected. (NRA, 2012)
The NRA is correct. In fact, given the number of school-related shootings in the past few months
alone, it would seem that a student’s chances of being shot on campus seem greater than if that
Para 4: Pro side
There are three second-level headings in the LR. Headings help you and the reader to see the organization of your paper.
Amanda presents a closer look at the pro side before the con side. Note that she is not engaging with the arguments, only presenting them as fairly as she can. The LR is about the arguments of others. Amanda knows she will be able to make her own arguments in the Body of the paper.
SAFETY FIRST 5
same student were walking the streets of the community. From larger cities to small towns, it
seems that the size of the community does not matter: the violence of a shooting can occur
However, even with this fact floating in the backs of students’ minds, students
still attend classes and while it would seem obvious that lawmakers on both sides want student
safety, they just see the means to that safety from different sides of the same coin.
The Case for Campuses as Unique
Eugene Sander (2012), the Interim President of the University of Arizona, released the
following statement about SB 1474: “I have been a gun owner for all my adult life, and am fully
supportive of the right to own a gun. However, having faculty, staff or students bringing
weapons into classrooms and other campus activities will do nothing to make our campus safer.”
While Sander does not go into detail about what this newly proposed bill does have to do with,
he makes his case on the basis that 50,000 students, staff, and faculty attend the campus daily,
along with over 20,000 visitors annually. For Sander (2015), the educational environment is a
“unique atmosphere that is dependent on open and vigorous debate. Introducing guns into
classrooms would dramatically and negatively impact the ability to engage in constructive
dialogue.” In other words, even if the NRA does not believe that the university is a unique
atmosphere, as Sander and others do, then there is still a possibility that introducing the right to
carry concealed weapons on campus might lead to a change to the very culture of the university.
While Arizona lawmakers continue to debate the merits of SB1474, the public debate
grows, as this issue concerns both public safety and citizens’ rights. Because the three state
universities in Arizona are publically funded, the debate about allowing open carry is very much
a concern held by the communities in which these universities reside. Those who are in favor of
the change to an open carry status on university campuses wish (a) for the open carry laws of the
Para 5: Con side
This citation is correct. Amanda did not have to include the
author’s first name, but it is fine to do so the first time that
the author’s name is mentioned.
an author is
the year of
has made a
year of the
is 2012. Be
this in your
Para 6: LR
creates a topic
the concern of
the two main
the pro side,
SAFETY FIRST 6
State of Arizona to be extended to all areas, which includes all publically funding institutions,
such as the universities, and (b) for the open carry of firearms to act as a deterrent to gun-related
violence on college campuses. For those who are against the passing of SB1474, many of whom
occupy the space of the university as professors, students, or administrators, the question of
allowing the open carry of firearms is no actual question at all: there is simply no need to involve
weapons in a space that is meant for open dialogue and debate. In as much as the Second
Amendment should be observed and upheld in the fashion adopted by the State of Arizona in the
form of open carry, the university setting is unique in that concerns about open and free
expression should be at the forefront—essentially making this bill a potentially dangerous one
that should be reconsidered or withdrawn completely.
the con side,
those who are
Note that the
the original at
the end of the
SAFETY FIRST 7
CNN Library. (2015, October 19). 28 deadliest mass shootings in U.S. history fast facts. CNN.
Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2013/09/16/us/20-deadliest-mass-shootings-in-u-s-
Cloud, J. (1999). The Columbine effect. Time. Retrieved from http://content.time.com/time/
Gibbs, N. & Roche, T. (1999). The Columbine tapes. Time. Retrieved from
National Rifle Association. (2012). Arizona self-Defense on campus [Flyer]. NRA: Author.
Sander, Eugene. (2012, March 20). UA President opposes campus guns bill. KGUN-TV.
Retrieved from http://www.kgun9.com
An APA list of references should be
labeled “References,” NOT “Works
Cited” or “Bibliography.”
first; then the
(if present) is
(&) is used
with a capital
“D” should not
Titles in APA are presented in sentence-case
capitalization, meaning that only the first
word or any proper noun should begin with a
full name of