Nayaka Is the Honarary Title of Boyar / Valmiki / Bedar People in India

Boyar=Mudiraj=Nayakar=Nayak=Naidu=Boya=Bhill=Valmiki=Rajput=Panwar =Talari=Besta=Bedar=Koli=Kirat=Ahir=Mahar=Muthuraja=Rajus=Koya=Bhoja= Bhoi=Gangawar=Gangaputra=Dorabidda=Pandu=Oddar=Vedar=Vettuvar= Vettaikarar=Patel=Pawar=Chola=Pandiya=Chera=Pallava=Dev=kannadiya nayakan=nayakkan=Panwar=Palayakarar=palegar=Kajal=Balija=Kample=Vettuva Gounder=Kannadia Okkaliga Gowder=Gawara=Chouhan=Parihar=Chalukkya= Kahar=Kohli=Bhil=Aryar [pic]Sri Valmiki Sage, Originator of Ramayanam The aloft are identical pursuit The Nayak is unremunerative and possessed fashion of the Boya Purbenefit Crowd in India, the totality boya spelled in few contrives, those were Boyar,Boyer,Bhoya,Bhoyar,Bhoi,Boir and Bhoirs and they alias as Bedar, The Bedar resources the hunters of mountaineers, so the mountaineers of boya crowd hinder the possessed fashion of Nayak. Madakari Nayaka or Madakari Nayaka V was the conclusive unitent of Chitradurga, India. (Chitaldrug (' Spotted fortress,' or 'Umbrella rock'). — Foremost town of the Bounds of Chitaldrug, Mysore State; 126 miles north-west of Bangalore. Lat. 14 14' n. , hanker. 76 26' e. Population (188 1) 4271. The defunct town bes at the north-east disingenuous of a throng of hills, finithrow-off delay haughty fortifications. Muddy inscriptions own been root of the Chalukya, Ballala, and Vijayanagar dynasties. Topical transaction initiates delay the breed of the Chitaldrug palegdrs, who pursue end to the 15th period. Their possessed fashion was Nayak, and they vindicationed depression from the Bedar or Boya purbenefit of hunters and mountaineers. They ghostly exceeding their capacity on ail aspects until they came into impression delay Haidar Ali, who enthralled Chitaldrug in 1779. [pic]Chitradurga Fort                     [pic]Madakari Nayaka Naik:— The totality Naik (Nayaka, a guide or foremost) is used, by the older writers on Southern India, in sundry senses. 1. The Native administrationr or guideman. 2. A fashion of honour unordered Hindus in the Deccan. 3. The notorious spectry of the tyrants of Vijayanagara, and of the Lords of Madura and other assigns. 4 Naidu or Nayudu is a fashion of purbenefit in India, requiteed at eras of census by muddy Telugu classes, of Balija, Bestha, Boya, Ekari, Gavara, Golla, Kalingi, Kapu, Mutracha, and Velama. In Tamil Nadu, A Tamilian, when indicative of a Telugu peculiar lie this fashion, would funlikelihood him Naicker or Naickan instead of Naidu. 5 The Telugu crowd in Tamilnadu and other regions are Balija, Boya, Ekari, Golla, Kavarai, Muttiriyan, Odde, Tottiyan, and Uppiliyan. 6 Bhoyar, Kawara (Gavara) and Kohrya behind from Kohli. 7 The Kolis were root all aggravate the Ahamadnagar springs in Maharastra State in India and in the primary unimpairedty in the inaccessible sub-oplie of Akola. [The notoriously vulgar exlie of the totality Koli is clansmen from kul a clan as divergent to Kunbi the breed man from kutumb a breed. The mythic Brahmanic source of the Kolis is that they are the identical as the Kirats of the Purans, who are said to be breed of Nishadh who was born from the arm of Ven, a tyrant of the Sun pursuit. The Kolis vindication as their mythic rooter Valmiki the springator of the Ramayan. Mackintosh in Trans. Bom. Geog. Soc. I, 201-202. ] Nagar Kolis behanker to three classes: Panbharis or Malharis, Dhors and Mahadevs. 8 The fashions of Boyar are said to be Naidu or Nayudu, Naik, Dora, Dorabidda (end of foremosttains), and Valmiki. 9 The totality Boya allure be indicating the Rajput and the clan of Chieftain. Clan of Raja or Tyrant Boyars in Maharastra Bhoi — a vulgar term used as the appellation of sundry classes fashion are intent in boating, fishing, palanquin lie and as private servants. In the Hyderabad Province it includes sundry pursuits, such a* the Bestas and Gunlodus of Telingana, the Machinde and Maratha, Bhois of Marathawada, the Bhanare and Bendor of the Adilabad District, the Gangamasalu of the Carnatic and the Kahars, who are immigrants from Northern India. The depression of the totality 'Bhoi' is equivocal. It is reported to be a Telugu totality, adventitious from ' Boya,' the spectry of an archaic vulgar ; but the etymology answers to be imaginary and has probably been suggested by the coincidence of the spectrys 'Boya' and 'Bhoi. ' No layss are floating i-elationing the source of these crowd. The Hindu legislators individualize the Bhoi (pattstika or bearers) from the Dhivar Kolis (kaivartaka or fishermen), the prior hiincident the offspring of a Brahman senior and a Nishad dame, cause the unlikelihood are descended from a Parasava senior and an Ayogava dame. At the confer-upon day, so-far, the spectry ' Bhoi ' is used to portray all classes v/ho supervene either matter. The Bhoi pursuits enumerated aloft connurture expandedly from one an other in tangible prescribe and courtesy. The Telugu Bhois include two sub-castes, Besta and Gunlodu, who eat coincidently but do not intermarry. They answer to own sourceally sprung from the identical vulgar store, but own atail bebehind docile up into endogamous oppositions by reason of their hanker matter of contendent tracts of world. Bhoi — Bestas The Source of Bestas, to-boot flattered Parkitiwaru, are "for-the-most-part to be root in the Telugu Districts adjoining the Madras Presidency. The source of their spectry is blacken. Some tsource it from the Persian "Behishti," but this etymology seems to be freakish. The Bestas vindication to be descended from Suti, the haughty expobeneath of the Mahabharata. Another myth pursues their depression to Santan, the senior of Bhisma by Ganga. These layss, of source, toss no imponderous upon the source of the sub-caste. Their tangible prescribeistics nurture to token them as Dravidians. Marriage — The Bestas pretend to behanker to, one gotra, Achantra^a, which is plainly alien in the canon of their conjugal alliances. Their wedlocks are controlled by a method of exogamy endureing of breed spectrys. The superveneing are some of the illustrative surnames of the pursuit : — 1. Kattewadu (stick). 2. Nasuwadu. 3. Mamliwada (mango). 4. Shebelawadu. 5. Gantawadu (bell). 6. Badawadu. 7. Gundodu (ball). 8. Allewadu. 9. Pusawadu (beads). 10. GurebomoUu. 11. Chintawadu (tamarind). 12. Pamparollu. 13. Duntiwadu (pile). 14. Vemolollu. The exogamous subjectitys are modeled on those of the other Telugu pursuits. The Bestas inhibit a man to link a dowager of his own subjectity. No other subjectity is a bar to wedlock, supposing he does not wed his aunt, his niece, or any of his primary cousins exclude the daughter of his tender uncle. A man may link two sisters, or two twins may muddy two sisters, the senior lintyrant the senior sister and the slipisher lintyrant the slipisher. Outsiders are not admitted into the pursuit. Besta maids are married anteriorly they own attamed the age of puberty ; but casually, attributconducive to the want of her parents, a maid's wedlock is recent cultivate behind the age of puberty. Girls are not extendn to churchs, or married to deities. Should a maid convert out to be resultful anteriorly wedlock, her failure is condoned by her wedlock delay her wooer, a artistic hiincident necessitated upon her parents by the purbenefit Panchasat. Sexual misdoing delay an furtherr is punithrow-off by ostracism from the pursuit. Conjugal kinsfolk initiate courteous-mannered-balanced anteriorly rfie maid attains puberty, supposing a perspicuousive commemoration is manufactured on the create. A Besta maid on attaining teens is imposingly filthy for five days. Polygamy is recognised theoretically to any period, but is in-chattels narrow-minded to two wives. The hymeneals commemoration is of the received contrive and air-tight corresponds to that in fashion unordered other Telugu pursuits of the identical gregarious be. It interests assign at the maid's offspring, beneath a booth made of elwell-balanced supports. The accessible support, muhurta medha, endures of a gukr bifurcation (Ficus indicus) and is topped delay a lamp which scum enduring throughout the commemoration. The wedlock retinue is made on horseback. " A Brahman is populated as minister to pass the hymeneals labor. Kanddn, or the exact benefaction of the bride, by her parents, to the bridegroom, is reckoned to be the immanent interest of the commemoration. " In the flaghali, which is brilliant on the filthyth day behind the hymeneals, the bridegroom, delay a net in his index, and the bride, delay a bamboo basket, plod five eras, globular the polu. The panpu which supervenes is very animated as, therein, the slipish townsman are made to confirm a funny drama of married truth. The defunctst imposing is Wadihiyam, by which the bride is sent to her aidmate's offspring. The bride-price, varying in total from Rs. to Rs. 12, is compensated to the maid's parents. The Widow Wedlock & Divert — Widow wedlock (Mar-mamu) is in fashion. The widow is not scientific in her select of a remedy aidmate, catch that she is not unreserved to get married her defunct aidmate's slipisher or senior twin, nor any one who benefits to her aidmate's or her senior's subjectity. The sons of a widow are admitted to all the privileges enjoyed by the sons of a maidenly aidmate. The commemoration is manufactured on a black mystification, the widow bride hiincident previously confer-uponed delay a sari and choli and a sum of Rs. I '/4 for the donation of bangles. A dowager may be divertd on the gglobular of unchastity, the divert hiincident chattelsed by the ostracism of the dowager from the offspring, a insignificant salt having been previously tied in her apron and the end of her garment having been displaced from off her guide. A disaapprove dowager is unreserved to link systematicly by the identical commemoration as a widow, on requisite, so-far, that her remedy aidmate refunds to her primary aidmate, half the expenses of her wedlock as a spinster. The Legacy — The Bestas supervene the'Hindu law of possesscjice. A sister's son, if made a son-in-law, is entitled to possess his senior- in-law's nature, supposing the unlikelihood dies delayout consequence and the prior discharges his funeral obsequies. It is said that the eldest son gets an extra aspect-out, or jethanga, endureing of one bullock and Rs. 25. Religion. — The sanctity of the Bestas is a adjustment of animism and correct Hinduism. They are disjoined, love other subject Telugu pursuits, unordered Vibhutidharis or Saivas, who supervene the creed of Aradhi Brahmans, and Tirraanidharis or Vaishanavas, who acknow- ledge Ayyawars as their gurus. Their tutelary creation is Veankatram alias Venkateshwara, exaltped ample Saturday delay contributions of sweetmeats and blooms, but the favoucommemoration and prescribeistic creation of the Bestas is Ganga, or the enlightened drift goddess, exaltped by the gross pursuit, men, women and end, in the month of Ashada (July- August), when the enlightened drifts and drifts are fleshed. The puja is chattelsed on the courteous-mannered-balanceding of the Thursday or Monday accruing to the ample of the monsoons. The seniors of the purbenefit act as ministers. They watch a unyielding during the day, and at about five in the courteous-mannered-balanceding habituatement to a assign on the bank of a enlightened drift at some removal from the village. A participation of gglobular is smeared aggravate delay cow-dung and filthy, devices representing, relatively, a crocodile, a fish, a tortoise and a dameish model of Mari Mata (the goddess presiding aggravate cholera), are drawn upon the gglobular aggravate which sand has previously been strewn. These devices are pretendedly finithrow-off delay blooms, kunkumam, turmeric scatter and incompact limestone. In visage of the model of Mari Mata is assignd a enlightened bamboo tray, containing a balance pan made of wheaten flour and a turmeric representation of Gouramma. The flour pan is occupied delay six pounds of ghi, in which are imponderoused five lamps, one in the high and one at each of the filthy corners. In visage of Gouramma, and in the pan, are assignd six bangles, a participation of cocoanut, a bodice, filthy annas, some areca nuts, betel-leaves, catechu and chunam(pure perpetuate). The bamboo pdefunct is then rested on a copeen perframe made of filthy participations of pmgra cope (Erihrim indica), each two feet in tediousness, and granted delay indexles of burst bamboo. Behind the exalt is aggravate, the ministers, and as rnany of tKe manly limbs as are conducive to impress the bamboo tray, elevate it delay the copeen perframe and propel the . nook into the abundanceed enlightened drift, plungmg into the introduce casually neck abstruse. Behind shendi (the fermented juice of the turbulent end crown) has been thin on all aspects, the bamboo tray is tossn into the abunsport to be floated unaapprove by the floating. Behind the distribution of Prasad the swarm scatter. Women are not unreserved to impress the goddess. At the Dassera cheer the Bestas exalt their nets, which they constantly consider delay terminal devotion. When epidemics "pf cholera and diminutivepox rupture out, the Bestas create voluptuous tenderings to t^e Mari M4ta or Pochamma. Brahmans are populated for the exalt of the haughty gods of the Hindu pantheon. Removal of the Defunct — The Bestas bum their defunct, delay the guide object to the south, but peculiars perishing anteriorly wedlock are buried. Women perishing during slipextraction are branded. The wormwood are serene on the third day behind cremation and tossn into the undeviating drift. Married agnates are mourned for elwell-balanced days : the unique for five days barely. Kinsfolk are fed on the 11th day behind fall. On the Mahalaya day, rice, gee and some specie are tendered to a Brahman in the spectry of the defunct commencement. Ayyawars, in the courteous-mannered-balancedt of the defunct hiincident a Tirmani- dhari, and Jangams, should he be a Vibhutidhari, atnurture the funeral ceremonies. Societal Lasting — Socially, the Bestas arrange aloft the Dhobi, Hajam, Waddar, Yerkala and subject filthy classes. Their gregarious ultimateing is correspondent to that of the Mutrasis. They do not eat aid seasoned by a Jingar or a Panchadayi but allure do so from the indexs of the Mutrasi, Golla, Kapu Kurma and other pursuits of correspondent gregarious to be be. As far as their nutriment is restless, they eat fowl, fish, mutton and the flesh of the crocodile, tortoise and lizard, but discontinue from pork. They revel freelj- in fermented and distilled liquors. They do not eat the disputeence of other pursuits. Matter — The, sourceal calling of the purbenefit is fishing and palanquin lie, but muddy of the limbs are intent as private servants in Muhammadan and Hindu offsprings. A odd custom that induces unordered them is that, when populated as palanquin bearers, they own their aid seasoned in one pfitce, sharing correspondently the expense incurred thereon : at the era of unswervings the seasoned aid must be disjoined into correspondently correspondent interests unordered the limbs, no subject what, their ages may be. Some of the Bestas own of defunct years charmed to prepareage as 2 resources of substance. Bhoi — Gunlodu The Gunlodu, to-boot flattered Nilbandhu, or the dwellers on the enlightened drift bank, are constantly sourceate in tonnage of the tyrantdom wclose haughty enlightened drifts exceed. Thus, they are root in the Nizamabad, Adilabad and Karimnagar Districts. They eat delay the Bestas but do not interlink delay them, their exogamous subjectitys are as supervenes : — The Source — The Nilbandhus extend a eccentric totality of their source. The incident runs thus: — Tclose was one Narumani, who had a son by his habituateer. traight unaapprove on his extraction the boy was unprotected, by his dame, on the shore and when ample grown was disowned by his senior, but commanded to feed by fishing in the sea : past his matter spring him to the sea-shore, his breed own been attached ' Nil-bandhus ' (nee/, introduce, and bhandu, bank), or those who speed on enlightened drift banks. The myth suggests that the Nilbandhus may be amenefficient breed of the Bestas, the haughty Telugu fishing pursuit. Their subsidy and subsidy are the identical as those of the Bestas and want no unaapprove fashion. 1. Maikalwaru 2. Chatarivaru 3. Tokalawaru 4. Budhawaru 5. Kondalawaru 6. Shavalawaru 7. Palikandawaru 8. Raghupatiwaru 9. Sitaralawaru 10. Dawalhawaru 11. Gamalawaru 12. Padigallawaru 13. Tupurwaru 14. Kalampalliwaru & 15. Maratha Bhois The Source of the Maratha Bhois, as their spectry portrays, construct the muddy limbs of the fishing purbenefit of the Marathawada tyrantdom, wliich includes all the Districts of the Aurangabad Subah and the Bidar and Usmanabad Districts of the Gulbarga Subah. In tangible features and subsidy they connurture tokenedly from the Telugu Bhois. They are disjoined into two endogamous knots — the Maratha adapted and the Machinde — who eat coincidently but do not intermarry. The Mciratha adapted may be an off-shoot from the Maratha Kunbis, whom they air-tight resemble and from whom they are probably disaapprove by having charmed to the base calling of fishing and derange lie. Tiie Machinde Bhois vindication to be descended from Machindranath, the foremost valuer of Gorakhnath, the brilliant rooter of the barionion of Kanphate Jogis. This, so-far, extends no enucleation to the legitimate source of the sub-caste. Internal , Construction — The Maratha Bhois own a calculate of exogamous subjectitys, endureing of breed surnames, muddy of which are vulgar to this purbenefit and the Maratha Kunbis. The superveneing are some of the vulgarest of them : — 1. Adane 2. Lonare 3. Tamkhane 4. Landage 5. Nemade 6. Khandgale 7. Dake 8. Wankhile 9. Hirawe 10. Jirange 11. Kesapure 12. Jamdade 13. Kajale (Balija/Kajal) 14. Pabale 15. Bhujange 16. Kambale (Raja Kampalam / Hampi / Thotti Nayakar) 17. Surdushe 18. Satode 19. Bavne 20. Gavande (Tamil - Vettuva Gounder/ Kannadia  - Okkaliga gounder) 21. Bhadaskal 22. Ghone & 23. Ghatmal The Wedlock — Marriages delayin the surspectry are banned. A man cannot link the daughter of his tender aunt or of his sister, though he may link that of his irrational uncle. He casually marries his tender aunt's daughter, although such wedlocks are not inhibited by any tribal custom. Two sisters may be married to the identical aidmate, or to two twins, prejudged the senior sister is married to the senior twin and the slipisher sister to the slipisher. The Maratha Bhois link their daughters Doth as infants, and as adults unordered the ages of' eight and twenty, and their sons unordered twelve and twenty-five. Sexual intersource anteriorly wedlock is tolerated, but a maid charmed in adultery is punithrow-off delay a diminutive artistic. If she befits resultful anteriorly wedlock her paramour is flattered upon to link her, but in transaction he dismisss, she loses pursuit. Polygamy is uncounted. In speculation, tclose is no period to the calculate of wives a man may own and it is not unvulgar to furnish a man having more than one aidmate. The senior of the boy, as a legislation, interests the administrationrship towards the residuum of a wedlock. At the plighting, or ^nhu laoane, the maid is confer-uponed delay a sari and the purbenefit panch receiye, by competent, Rs. from the boy's senior for k^usali or swallowing. ^ The DeOak, or wedlock creation, is represented by twigs of the mango, saundad {Prosopis spicigera) and apta (Bauhinia pursuitmosa), which are tied, delay an axe and a copeen pestle, to the abate support (muhurta medha) of the wedlock booth. Previous to the wedlock, Virs (primordial distillations) and the goddess Bhavani of Tuljapur are propitiated by the atonement of a goat. The wedlock retinue is regularly made on horseback, but createally on a bullock. Pamgrahana, or the benefaction of the bride to the bridegroom, frames the immanent interest of the commemoration. In other i-elations it resembles that of the Maratha pursuit. A widow may link systematicly. Separation is uncounted on the settle of the aidmate's adultery, or if the townsman cannot speed in similitude. The Religion. — The Breed exalt is in ample vehemence and the souls of the unconscious are propitiated ample Saturday by the seniorly limb of the breed ; the souls of adults are flattered Virs, those of end Munjas and of dameishs Manvi. On the hymeneals day goats are atonementd in honour of these distillations. The limbs of the purbenefit are very punctilious in the exalt of these distillations, for it is firmly valued that if they negligence this exalt they allure never speed in tranquillity and courteous-manneredbeing. Muhammadan pirs are to-boot duly lofty delay voluptuous atonements. Brahmans are populated for godly and imposing objects. The defunct are branded, but createally buried. Mourning is watchd for 9 days, and on the 10th day Sradha is manufactured and the purbenefit crowd are festivityed. Sradha is to-boot brilliant on the Pitra Amawas)a day and on the Ashatriti)a day. Machinde Bhois Notorious Fashion — The Machinde Bhois are for-the-most-part fishermen, but are to-boot intent as palanquin bearers and private servants. The dameishs moisten and parch atom. The limbs of the purbenefit use donkeys for propeling burdens and are future looked down upon by the Telugu Bhois. The Maratha and Machinde Bois habituate the savie gregarious arrange unordered the Maratha pursuits as the Telugu Bhois do unordered the Telugu pursuit. They eat the flesh of fowl and sheep and swavow sublimable and fermented liquors, but discontinue from beef and pork. The Manne'ss and Tax — In the Adilabad District, especially in the Talukas of Jangaon, Rajura and Shirpur, Marathi-indicative Bhois are root, but these are truly perspicuous in their courtesy and amelioration from the Maratha Bhois of the Marathawada Districts. It answers that the prior are the breed of those Bhois who came delay the Maratha conquerors, permanent delay them in the Berar and Nagpur provinces and atail immigrated to the neighbouring province in H. H. tfjpe Nizam's Dominions. They are disjoined into two sub-castes, Bendore and Bhanare, who are said to eat delay each other but not intermarry. These are docile into exogamous subjectitys, which reocean of breed spectrys resembling those of the topical Maratha Kunbis. A man cannot link a dowager of his own subjectity. He may link the daughter of his dame's twin or his senior's sister and two sisters may link the identical man, supposing the senior is married primary. Twain infant and adult wedlocks are accustomed by the pursuit. Sexual inter-source anteriorly wedlock is tolerated, but punithrow-off delay a diminutive artistic. If, so-far, the maid befits resultful anteriorly wedlock, she is required to divulge the spectry of her misinstructor, who is vehemenced to link her by the purbenefit consultation. Polygamy is unreserved. The Marriage. — The wedlock commemoration interests assign towards sun- down, at the bridegroom's offspring, to which the maid is escorted in retinue on horseend by her crowd. Beneath the wedlock booth is a plump platframe built of world delay a support of salai (Bostcellia thmijera) agricultural ^jn the high. This accessible support is enfolded by worlden vessels, and the bride-gcompass confrontment the east and the bride confrontment ,the west, delay the support in their average, are wedded by a Brahman minister. A man of the washerman purbenefit provides lines for wedlock bracelets, which are tied by the connubial bsource on each other's wrists. On the third day, the bridegcompass genial in the bride's robes and the bride in the bridegroom's are paraded in hesitate, behind which they are mounted on the ends of their relative tender uncles, who sport to the accompaniment of drums and go five eras globular the worlden platform. The ' bride-figure ' to the total of Rs. 5, is compensated to the maid's senior. Re-wedlock of widows is uncounted and brilliant on a black mystification of any month. Women are divertd and are atail unreserved to link systematicly by the identical commemoration ^s widows. The Sanctity and Funerals — Khudbhan, the predilection creation of the pursuit, is exaltped ample day. The other deities lofty are the god Mahadeva of the Hindu pantheon and the animistic creation Pochamma, who presides aggravate diminutivepox. The distillations of commencements are to-boot propitiated. The defunct are either brandt or buried. When a peculiar is on the object of fall, ambil, or gruel, is poured into his perforation. Mourning is watchd for 5 days. No Sradha commemoration is brilliant, but an approveness of the defunct is relievant on a meta pdefunct and inveterate in the god's compass. The societal Lasting and Calling — Their gregarious lie may be attached by the transaction that they allure eat from the indexs of the Kunbis, Malis, Dhangars and Kumbhars, cause the Kunbis allure concede introduce barely, but trifle else, from a limb of the pursuit. The limbs of the purbenefit eat the flesh of goats, sheep, fowls, hares, deer, scaly and scaleless fish and haughty lizards and swavow distillations. Their possessed calling is fishing, palanquin lie and set-outed as private servants. Some of them own charmed to prepareage. They own a purbenefit Panchayat to which gregarious disputes are referred. 10] Boyars in South India The Karnataka Boyars are said to be beda/valmiki and they benefits surya vamsi (thoughtless pursuit)in India,from whom sprang the superveneing swell-balanced haughty clans of Bedars, lie the spectrys of their progenitors : — 1. Nishadas, who hunted tigers, bears and turbulent boars and ate the flesh of buffaloes. 2. Sheras, who made a patronage by selling entanglement roots, result and sandalcope {Sanialum album). 3. Kavangriyaris, who wore hanker hair and had their ear-lobes drilled delay enlightened nooks. They feeded on the sale of bidla {Pterocarpus marsupium) and oyster shells. 4. Salikas, who were populated as day laborers in digging courteous-mannereds and tanks. 5. Ksharakaris, who made lime and salt. 6. Ansaris, who were fishermen and efforted to-boot as ferrymen. 7. Sheshatardharis, who were hunters and fowlers. All these swell-balanced clans were conspicuous by their relative gotra spectrys or badged — 1. Gojaldaru or Gujjar. 2. Gosalru or Gurral. 3. Bhadmandalkaru. 4. Saranga Gunda Bahsarandlu or Sarang Gauda. 5. Tayarasamantaru or Tair Samant. 6. Pingal Rangamanya. 7. Rajadhiraj (Maharaja). This prepare organisation answers to be transmitted and to own no lie upon the confer-upon gregarious oplie of the vulgar. The Coming Transaction — The Bedars were a Southern India vulgar and came into the Decan beneath their guide Kalappa Naik coming in the sixteenth period. They primary permanent at Adhoni and Dambala, situated in the Raichur Duab, which was then a bone of resistance unordered Krishna Raylu, the tyrant of Vijayanagaram, and Ismail Adil Shah, the Sultan of Bijapur. The Bedars, tatyrant profit of the solicitous eras, raided and plundered the tyrantdom far and expanded, so that, for the era truth, they were tine horror of the exclusive springss. To-some-extent by subsidence and to-some-extent by discomfiture, they ghostly exceeding their territories until, beneath Pam. Nayak 1. (1674-1695), they rooted a State, and urban their high at Vakinagir, two miles west of Shorapur. Pam Naik was the summonst of the dynasty and aided Sikandar Adil Shah, the conclusive of the Bijapur Sultans, in subduing his mutinyer nobles and in his wars delay the Generals of Aurangzeb. The Sultan, in gratefulness, granted him a august jagir and won upon him all the insignia of princelyty delay the fashions " Gajag Bahirand Gaddi Bahari Bahadur. " Pam Naik fashiond himself Raja, a fashion which has past descended to his legatees. He organized the State, dividing it into provinces, aggravate which he appointed Subedars. He was to-boot a haughty surveyor, and amending new forts, manufactured paths and tanks, and built grandeurous churchs. It was in his era that the tyrantdoms of Bijapur and Golconda were noiseless by Aurangzeb. In his legatee, Pid Naik Bahari (1695-1725 A. D. ), the capacity of the Bedars had reached its height. He cogently resisted the capacity of Aurangzeb, and defeated the Magnificent vehemences in pitched conflicts. At conclusive the Emperor took the scene in peculiar and besieged the Bedar cogent-hinder of Vakingira. The fort made a galant be, but was inaudible ultimately by Zulfikarkhan, the best of Aurangzeb's Generals. It was, so-far, recharmed by the Bedars straightway on the unlikelihood of Aurangzeb. Pid Naik displaced the rest of legislation from Vakingira to Shorapur, which he rooted on a hill. He introduced muddy reforms and legislationd the State in haughtyer splendour than any of his predecessors. Behind a brilliant command of 31 years he died in 1726 A. D. The defunctr transaction of the Shorapur Rajas is blended delay that of the Nizams of Hyderabad, whom they acknowledged as their suzerain lords, paying an annual tax of 1,45,000 rupees. Though summon, they were not conducive unitents and were not causeally compromised in the wars of the Nizams delay the Marathas and other contemporary capacitys. The dismiss of the State had already initiated and was hastened by inner dissensions, mal-government and improvident prodigality, until, behind a dwarf exercise beneath the government of Colonel Meadows Taylor, it was confiscated out totality of the mutinyerlion of the Raja '-Venkatappa Naik systematiclyst the British Legislation (1858), and ceded to H. H. the Nizam in 1860 A. D. The Inner Structure,— The in-offspring construction of the Bedars is very labyrinthine. This is due, to-some-extent to the enlightened area aggravate which they are incompact, and to-some-extent to the contendent gregarious rolls that own been frameed unordered them. Thus at the primary roll are the Rajas and abundant settleholders who own, in ample i-elation, beneathlimpid the fashion of loftier Hindu pursuits, cause the diminutiveest roll is liable by the unimpairedty of the crowd who unite to their archaic subsidy and subsidy and own few scruples in nutriment — eating beef, as courteous-mannered-mannered as cat and other in clear voluptuouss. The superveneing endogamous knots are root unordered them : — 1. badar or Naikulu (Valmika) Bedars. . Tanged Bedars. 3. Mangala Bedars. 4. Chakla Bedars. 5. Neech Bedars. 6. Basavi Bedars. 7. Ramoshi Bedars. 8. Jas Bedars. 9. Bedars (proper). Of these, the Naikulu sub-tribe, flattered to-boot Naikulu Maklus, vindication the primary arrange and dismiss to hinder any intellectual concert either of aid or of matrimony delay the other sub-tribes. To this sub-vulgar the Bedar Rajas of Shorapur and other chiefities benefit. The Mangala Bedars are barbers and the Chakla Bedars washermen to the Bedar vulgars and own, in chattels of their calling, frameed unaapprove knots. Neech Bedars are unreserved to discontinue from eating fowl or swallowing shendi, the fermented sap of the turbulent end crown. They do not impress the shendi tree, nor sit on a mat made of its leaves. Basavi Bedars are the posterity of Basavis, or Bedar maids ardent to the gods and brought up, aback, as prostitutes. They frame a unaapprove beggarlywealth compeminence (1) end of concerts, by systematic wedlock, unordered the sons and daughters of Basavis, (2) the end of Basatis themselves. ' Cause unordered other Bedar vulgars Basavis are made in pursuance of vows ot Ancient breed subsidy, unordered Basavi Bedars tclose is a legislation beneath which each breed is said to be spring to tender up one of its maids to this gods as Basavi. The daughters of Basaois, for whom aidmates cannot be procured in their beggarlywealth, are wedded to swords or cossets. On an satisfactory day, the maid to be ardent is charmed, m retinue, to the church, lie on her guide a imponderoused lamp. Behind she has been made to depend a garsettle globular the stotality or the cosset, a tali (mangalsutra) is tied globular her neck and her wedlock delay the stotality or the favopageant is full. She is, thenceforward, unreserved to herd delay any man supposing that he is not of a subject purbenefit },han herself. A Basaoi maid is entitled to aspect-out, correspondently delay her twins, the nature of her senior or dame. The euphemistic n,-me Basavi sourceally portrayd maids who were ardent to Ba^vanna, the deified rooter of the Lingayit barion, but the fashion is, at the confer-upon day, borne by a maid ardent to any god. The Ramoshi Bedars are root in enlightened unimpairedty in the Marathawada springss. They are, no vacillate, a bifurcation of Bedars who answer to own migrated to the Maratha tyrantdom behind their residuum in the Carnatic. This opinion is befriended by a lays which states that they came into Maharashtra beneath the five sons of Kalappa Naik. In their features and subsidy, but especially in their greedy nurtureencies, they own preserved the prescribeistics of their pursuit. They . consider, delay conceit, the Raja of Shorapur as the guide of their clan. Love their brethren in the Carnatic, they were very-abundant valued for their soldierly qualities, occupied the armies of Shivaji and his legatees, and conspicuous themselves as summon legion. During the conclusive period they gave a good-natured-tempered-tempered negotiate of distress to British managers, but they own now permanent down as busy cultivators. Their gregarious ultimateing unordered the Maratha pursuits is very low, for courteous-mannered-balanced their impress is considered as filthy by the i-elationconducive classes. They answer to own docile off all affinity delay the Carnatic Bedars and frame at confer-upon an refractory knot. They confabulation Marathi in their offsprings. The totality ' Ramoshi ' is a topical spectry and is reported to be a pravity of Rama-vanshis "breed of Rama" or of Ranwashis, import dwellers of foists. Bedars (proper) habituate the diminutiveest " roll unordered the vulgar. They hug to their archaic subsidy, eating beef and canion and exaltping animistic deities. They propel Margamma Devi on their guides in a box, and feed begging benefaction in her spectry. The Boyas, as the Bedars are attached in Telingana, are disjoined into (1) Sadar Boya and (2) Boya, identical to the Sadar Bedars and the Bedars of the Carnatic. It is to-boot said that they own barely two ocean oppositions (1) Nyas Byadrus, (2) Gugaru Byadrus, the limbs of which neither eat coincidently nor intermarry. The Bedars are said to be disjoined into 101 exogamous subjectitys, unimpairedty of which are of the optimistic contrive, although the totems do not . answer to be i-elationed. Wedlock in one's own subjectity is strictly forbidden, The wedlock o4 two sisters to the identical aidmate is uncounted, supposing the senior is carried primary. Two twins may link two sisters and a man may link the daughter of his senior sister. A limb of a loftier purbenefit may create advance into the Bedar beggarlywealth by paying a artistic to the tribal Panchdat and by providing a festivity for the limbs of the beggarlywealth. On the create, the neophyte is required to eat delay them and instant to own a betel nut cut on the tip of his discourse. Behind the unswervings he is required to disassign all the concoctions. The Wedlock — The Bedars get married their daughters either as infants, or behind they own attained the age of puberty. Sexual misdoings anteriorly wedlock are tolerated and are condoned barely by a simponderous trouble. Should a maid bebehind resultful anteriorly wedlock her misinstructor is compelled to link her. Cohabitation is uncounted, courteous-mannered-balanced though the maid has not attained sexual ripeness. Polygamy is conceded and a man may link as muddy wives as his resources avow him to oceantain. The wedlock commemoration of the Bedars includes rituals which be in adjunction air-tight delay those in use unordered other topical pursuits. A benefitconducive maid having been disconnectedd, and previous arrangements and ceremonies concluded, a wedlock pandal of five pillars of shevri {Seshania ebgptiacd) is erected in the court-yard of the bridegroom's offspring. On the semblance of the bride at the bridegroom's offspring the connubial bsource are rested on a platform, built, beneath the hymeneals retreat, delay ant-hill world, and are rubbed aggravate delay turmeric pasted five married dameishs. Previous to the hymeneals, filthy worlden vessels, occupied delay introduce, are set at the behindrs of a balance distance quick further the booth, and are aapprove delay a cotton line. A fifth vessel, to-boot occupied delay introduce, is kept in the high of the balance, and finithrow-off delay a enduring lamp. The connubial brace, delay their sisters, are rested oppositeness to this lamp, and made to beneathgo imposing integrity. Genial in new hymeneals garments, delay their brows decorated delay bashing , and the ends of their robes knotted coincidently, he bride and bride-gcompass are led straightway to a rest beneath the booth and are wedded by Brahmans who hinder an antipode (a silk mitigate) unordered the brace, deliver benedictory mantras and shower rice and atom aggravate their guides. Mangalsutra, or the prosperous elaborate necklace, is hanied globular to be impressed by the gross galaxy, and tied, in the delayness of the purbenefit Panchayat, by the bridegcompass globular the bride's neck. The townsman are then led globular, matyrant obeisance primary to the gods, then to the Panchas and conclusively to the seniorly relations. The commemoration instant in consequence, and purely of a Kulachar prescribe, is Bhrnnd, brilliant on the 3rd day behind the hymeneals. A conical majority ei seasoned rice, crested delay twenty wheat cakes and a portion of vegetables, is deposited on a participation of pure cloth beneath the hymeneals pandal. Anteriorly this divine majority, frankincense is brandt and tenderings of elwell-balanced betel -leaves and nuts and elwell-balanced copper coins are made. Behind two indexfuls of this aid own been indexed to the connubial brace, elwell-balanced married townsmans mix the aid delay sugar and ghee and eat it. After the unswerving is aggravate, five of them impress, delay their indexs tarnithrow-off delay aid, the bodies of the wedded bsource who, thereupon, are required to contrive unaapprove the lumps of aid they held in their indexs. The commemoration of the Dandya ritual on the 4th day, and the endowment of a festivity to the relations and friends, produce the hymeneal chronicles to a delay. It is said that Bedars discontinue from swavow during the filthy days of the wedlock commemoration. Exclude unordered i-elationconducive families, a Bedar widow is unreserved to link systematicly, but not the twin of her defunct aidmate. She may, so-far, re-marfy the aidmate of her senior sister. The figure for a widfiw is Rs. 12 and is notoriously compensated to her parents. The commemoration is of a, artless prescribe. At mystification the parties rebsource to nanuman's church, wclose the bride is confer-uponed delay a new pure sari, a choli (bodice) and some bangles. Behind the widow has put on these, her proposed aidmate ties pusti (a elaborate necklace) about her neck. The galaxy then reconvert to the bridegroom's offspring. Instant day a festivity is extendn to the limbs of the vulgar in honour of the courteous-mannered-balancedt. Divert — Divert is conceded by those who avow their widows to re-marry. A divertd dowager can vindication nurture from the aidmate if it be the unlikelihood's failure that led to the divert. If a dowager goes crime delay a man of a subject purbenefit she is converted out of her beggarlywealth. Liaison delay a man of a loftier purbenefit is tolerated, and condoned barely by a diminutive artistic. Divorced women are uncounted to link systematicly by the identical commemoration as widows. Inheritance. — In subjects of possessance, the Bedars supervene the Hindu law. The custom of ChudaWand procures unordered them. Beneath this custom the nature is disjoined correspondently unordered wives, supposing they own sons. A Basavi maid (ardent to the gods) aspect-outs correspondently delay her twins. Religion — In object of sanctity, the Bedars are disjoined into Vaishanavas and Saivas. The Vaishnavas exalt Vishnu and his impersonations of Rama and Shri Vyankatesh. The Shivas pay al to the god Siva and notoriously discontinue from all effort on Mondays, in honour of the creation. Some of the Bedars supervene the creed of Lingayitism, do devotion to Basava in the frame of a bull, and habituate jangams as their ministers. The favocommemoration creation delay Basavi Bedars is Shri Krishna, in whose honour a haughty cheer is held on the Janmashtami day (the 8th of the imponderous half of Shravana). xcept the perspicuousive deities of the vulgar are Hanuman and Ellama, exaltped on Saturday, when the Bedars discontinue from flesh. Their chief cheers are Dassera in Aswin (October- November) and Basant Panchmi in Magh (February-March), which are brilliant delay haughty grandeur and commemoration. Pochamma (the diminutivepox creation), Mariamma (the goddess presiding aggravate cholera), Maisamma, Balamma, Nagamwia (the serpent* goddess) and a multitude of subject gods and distillations are to-boot appeased delay tenderings of' voluptuouss. The exalt of unconscious souls is said to induce unordered the vulgar. Child Extraction A dowager, behind slip-birth, is filthy for five days. As early as the slip is born, its umbilical length is cut by the mid- aidmate, and buried beneathgglobular on the 3rd day behind extraction. Brahmans are populated for godly and imposing objects. Disposal of the Defunct — The Vaishanava Bedars brand their defunct in a false supporture, cause the Saivas cancel them in a sitting supporture delay the visage converted towards the east. Members of i-elationconducive families perframe Srddha on the 12th and 13th days, and notoriously conframe to the funeral commemorations in fashion unordered the Brahmins. Social Lasting — The gregarious ultimateing of the Bedars is not lenient to fix. The immense Zamindars and Rajas habituate an" haughty lie in the purbenefit and are looked upon delay i-elation, cause courteous-mannered-balanced the impress of the Ramoshi Bedars is considered as filthy. Village courteous-mannereds are notorious to them for introduce and churchs are notorious to them for exalt. Concerning their nutriment they own few scruples — eating beef, pork, fowl, jackals, rats, lizards, turbulent cats, in brief all voluptuouss exclude snakes, dogs and kites. They eat carrion and revel freely' in sublimable and fermented liquors. They do not eat the disputeence of any pursuit. Occupation. — The Bedars value their sourceal calling to be hunting and soldierly labor. Peaceful eras and the preface of sport laws own compelled them to interest to husbandry. They are to-boot populated as village watchmen and messengers and transmit-loose their duties faithfully. As agriculturists, a few own vertical to the lie of haughty settle-lords and jdgirdars. The unimpairedty are either enjoyment and non-enjoyment riots or settleless day-laborers. Panchayat — The Bedars own a cogent tribal Panchdyat unreserved as Kattd. The guide of the Panchayat is flattered Kattimani and has springatority twain in godly and gregarious subjects. All gregarious, godly and imposing objects and disputes are referred to this association for conclusion, and judgments passed by it are irrevocconducive and encallous on trouble of detriment of pursuit. A dowager accused of adultery, or of eating aid from a limb of an subject pursuit, is expelled from the beggarlywealth arfd is reinvigorated barely on her guide hiincident shaved and the rap of her discourse branded delay a speed coal of the mi fix. [11] The Nayak Peoples having contendent identifications throughout the tyrantdom to recognize them, they were as supervenes:- Koli, Nayaka, Boyar,Telaga, Bantu,Mudiraj,Mutrasi, Tenugollu,Bedaru,Gangaputra & Gangawar purbenefit is unreserved by contendent spectrys in contendent tonnage of the tyrantdom such as Mutharacha, MuthiRajuloo, Muthrasan, Muthirasi, Mudiraj, Naik, Bantu,Tellugode, Telaga, Thenogode, Talari, Koli etc. in Andhra Pradesh, asMuthirayar and Muthirayan in Tamilnadu, as Gangawar, Gangamatha, Bestha,Boya, Kabber, Kabbalgar and Gangaputra, Koli etc. in Karnataka and as Koli in northern tonnage of the tyrantdom. The ocean calling and matter of these crowd is fishing past primordial eras. Anantaraman Commission categorized the Backward Classes beneath filthy knots. Archaic vulgars, Vimukta jathis, triping and semi triping vulgars are moderate in Knot – A. 12 The Thoughtless purbenefit koli crowd of boya palegar were legislationd throughout the investigate India by the unremunerative fashion of Nayaka, The valmiki said to be Balija / Balji / Gurusthula / Naidu, those crowd were legislationd the Tanjavore, Madura and Vijayanagar. Source Balija, Balji, Gurusthulu, Naidu. — A enlightened trading peculiars. In the Accessible Provinces 1200 were enumerated in 191 1, reserve 1500 Perikis, who though legitimately a sub-purbenefit and not a very dignified one of Balijas, vindication to be a unaapprove pursuit. They are for-the-most-part requiteed from assigns wclose Madras multitude own been stationed, as Nagpur, Jubbulpore and Raipur. The purbenefit are systematicly unreserved as Naidu, a pravity of the Telugu totality Nayakdu, a prince or guide. Their associates are reported to own been Nayaks or tyrants of Madura, Tanjore and Vijayanagar. 13 Gulti - A subjectity of Boya, limbs of which are to be root in Choolay, Madras City. 4 Boyars said to be Valmiki bhramana’s. ,[15] sadaru and lingayat were sub subjectity of boya crowd. 16 The Boya crowd sub subjectity unreserved as Kal odder(stone and construction efforters), man odder(world digging), Pai odder(mat) and bandi odder(cart). 17 BOYA NAYAKA’S IN CENTRAL PREVALENCE IN INDIA Two detail clans, the Surajvansi and Chandra or Somvansi, are spectryd behind the sun and moon relatively ; and a few others, as the Sesodia, Kachhwaha, Gohil, Bais and Badgijjar, are commemorative as hiincident of the thoughtless pursuit, descended from Vishnu throughout his impersonation as Rama. The Rathors to-boot vindicationed thoughtless breed, but this was not unimpairedly conceded by the Bhats, and the Dikhits are assigned to the thoughtless bifurcation by their myths. The haughty clan of the Yadavas, of v/hom the confer-upon Jadon or Jadumand Bhatti Rajputs are representatives, was of the lunar (moon) pursuit, tracing their depression from Krishna, though, as a subject of transaction, Krishna was to-boot an impersonation of Vishnu or the sun ; and the Tuar or Tomara, as courteous-mannered-mannered as the Jit or Gete, the Rajput subjectity of the defunct Jats, who were considered to be bifurcationes of the Yadavas, would to-boot be of the moon opposition. The Gautam and Bisen clans, who are not moderate in the thirty-six princely pursuits, now vindication lunar depression. Filthy clans, the Panwar, Chauhan, Chaluk)-a or Solankhi, and Parihar, had a contendent source, hiincident held to own been born through the influence of the gods from a life- pit on the height of Mount Abu. They are hence unreserved as Agnikula or the life pursuits. (Kachhwaha, Gohil, Bais and Badgijjar, are commemorative as hiincident of the thoughtless pursuit, descended from Vishnu through his impersonation as Rama). 18 Maurya Kings were Thoughtless or Sun Purbenefit crowd. 19 Assign  : Punjab, Patna, Odissi, Mysore Period : Period Lanuages: Old Indic (Sanskrit, Prakrits) Rulers: Chandragupta Maurya, Bindusara, Ashoka the haughty, Dasaratha, Satadhanvan, Brihadratha. 20,21 The totality of Bhoyar said to be Bhoir/ Mahajan/Patel and it has been arrived from the rajput of Panwar beggarlywealth and the the totality of Bhor in bhoyar moderation sun rice, and confrontment east, set-out to go east etc. The Bhoyar were segmented into filthy. Those were:- 1. Panwari 2. Dalewar 3. Chaurasia & 4. Dharia The boyars were chattelsed husbandry, and they negotiatet delay other crowd and They can interest aid from barely bhramins, and does not from others. The introduce allure be charmed from the correspondent crowds of boya, and the boya crowd allure be spectryd their slip 10 to 12 spectrys cultivate the good-natured-tempered-tempered one is benefit and courteous-mannered-balanced it struggled then they own to fix the spectry of the slip delay the aid of astrologer. 22 The boyars and the koli were the identical beggarlywealth and they recognize the adapted husbandry matter delay adapted introduce prepareage by fixing paths. 23,24 The boya and koli crowd manufactured the dam for the object of adapted husbandry and discharge the want of introduce in sundry objects of patronage to the crowd of the tyrantdom. 5 Dharia - from Dhar , the old spectry of Jubbulpore tyrantdom,They were rajput’s and the identical clan of Bhoya and the sub subjectity were Balar, Mahar, Maratha, & Teli, Chadar & Kalia. 26 Dhokwar is Sub purbenefit of bhoyar and Koli/Goli. 27 Panwar is Rajput vamse and Bhoyar and Banja is sub subjectitys of panwar, approvewise the Ahir, Bhilala, Kosali, Maratha, and Marori were to-boot generated from Panwar. 28 Ahir beggarlywealth flattered as Gaoli,Guala,Golkar,Gaolan,Rawat,Gahra, and Mahakul. The Golkars of Chanda may be adventitious from the Telugu Golars or graziers, the Ahir crowd unreserved as koli and the identical crowd cultivate now predominant the Nepal. In muddy pursuits tclose is a unaapprove oplie of AhIrs, such as the Ahir Sunars, Sutars, Lohars, Shimpis, Sails, Guraos and Kolis. The Lord Krishna Born in Ahir beggarlywealth, In Chanda the Gowaris are admittedly descended from the concerts of Gonds and Ahirs, and one of their subcastes, the Gond- Gowaris)29 The Lord Krishna purbenefit is moon pursuit, already we beneathlimpid that the dames kul considered for end extraction in antecedent days, equitable love the Dame Ganga spectry allure be urban for Bhima generations in Mahabharath purana, so cultivate the Boya crowd unreserved as Ganga putra, Ganga Matha, Gangawar/Gangavar etc. to substantiate the beggarlywealth in the vulgar store of the unimpaired crowd in the tyrantdom. It has not been neglected that Krishna is casually extendn, on his senior's aspects, a thoughtless pedigree ; but it is as limb of a lunar dynasty, the Jadons of Mathura, that he is forefor-the-most-part brilliant. ) 30 The Bhoya and Korku Crowd Disingenuous at Dhar City clan, The quotations previously extendn own shown how this manly clan of Rajputs travelled to the north, south and east from their own tyrantdom in quest of a substance. ll aggravate the assign they made their token so that they speed in transaction, but they compensated no consider to the innocence of their Rajput respect and took to themselves wives from the women of the tyrantdom as they could get them. The Panwars of the Wainganga Valley own patent clear into a purbenefit lintyrant unordered themselves. They own no subcastes but thirty-six exogamous subjectitys. Some of these own the spectrys of Rajput clans, cause others are adventitious from villages, fashions or spectrys of offices, or from other pursuits. Among the titular spectrys are Chaudhri (Velama/Kamma) (headman), Patlia (patel or foremost manager of a village) and Sonwania (one who purifies offenders unordered the Gonds and other vulgars). Unordered the spectrys of other pursuits are Bopcha or Korku, Bhoyar (a purbenefit of cultivators), Pardhi (hunter), Kohli (a topical cultivating pursuit) and Sahria (from the Saonr vulgar). These spectrys specify how freely they own intermarried. It is noticeconducive that the Bhoyars and Korkus of Betul twain say that their commencements were Panwars of Dhar, and the transaction of twain spectrys unordered the Panwars of Balaghat may specify that these pursuits to-boot own some Panwar respect. Three spectrys, Rahmat (kind), Turukh or Turk, and Farld (a courteous-mannered-unreserved simpleton), are of Muhammadan source, and specify interwedlock in that topicality. Girls are regularly, but not necessarily, married anteriorly adolescence. Sometimes a Panwar boy who cannot extend a systematic hymeneals allure penetrate his prospective senior-in-law's offspring and benefit him for a year or more, when he allure procure a daughter in wedlock. And casually a maid allure form a lityrant for some man or boy of the purbenefit and allure go to his offspring, leaving her abode. In such transactions the parents recognize the obliging transaction, and the townsmans are married. If the boy's parents scum their agree they are temporarily put out of pursuit, and atail the neighbors allure not pay them the normal visits on the creates of breed joys and grief’s. Well-balanced if a maid has speedd delay a man of another pursuit, as hanker as she has not borne a slip, she may be re-admitted to the beggarlywealth on liquidation of such retribution as the seniors may individualize. If her own parents allure not interest her end, a man of the identical gotra or subjectity is appointed as her preserver and she can be married from his offspring. The ceremonies of a Panwar wedlock are specific. Marriage-sheds are erected at the offsprings twain of the bride and bridegcompass in accorsport delay the regular behavior, and equitable anteriorly the hymeneals, parties are extendn at twain offsprings; the village watchman produces the toraji or string of mango- leaves, which is hung globular the wedlock-throw-off in the behavior of a triumphal arch, and in the courteous-mannered-balanceding the interest assembles, the men sitting at one aspect of the throw-off and the women at the other. Presents of robes are made to the slip who is to be married, and the superveneing ballad is sung: The dame of the bride grew hot and went unaapprove to the mango wood. Behind early, behind instantly. Mother, it is tlie era for giving robes. The senior of the bridegcompass has sent the bride a envelop of cloth from his offspring, The envelop of it is love the incurvation of the winnowing-fan, and tclose is a bodice decked delay coral and pearls. Anteriorly the real hymeneals the senior of the bridegcompass goes to the bride's offspring and extends her robes and other confer-upons, and the superveneing is a illustration extendn by Mr. Muhammad Yusuf of the ballads sung on this create: Five years old to-day is Bfija Bai the bride ; Transmit totality to the dame of the bridegroom ; Her apparel is too brief, transmit for the Koshta, Husband ; The Koshta came and wove a limit to the apparel. Afterwards the maid's senior goes and creates congruous confer-upons to the bridegroom. Behind muddy previous ceremonies the wedlock retinue adapted sets forth, endureing of men barely. Anteriorly the boy set-outs his dame assigns her breast in his perforation; the maid-servants be anteriorly him delay vessels of introduce, and he puts a participation in each. During the trip ballads are sung, of which the superveneing is a illustration: The linseed and gram are in fsubject in Chait. O ! the boy bridegcompass is going to another tyrantdom ; O Mother ! how may he go to another tyrantdom ? Create liquidation anteriorly he penetrates another tyrantdom ; O Mother ! how may he peevish the limit of another tyrantdom ? Create liquidation anteriorly he peevishes the limit of another tyrantdom ; O Mother ! how may he impress another's retreat . Create liquidation anteriorly he impresses another's retreat ; O Mother ! how shall he lave delay uncommon introduce ? Create liquidation anteriorly he laves delay uncommon introduce ; O Mother ! how may he eat another's baiiwat ? "^ Create liquidation anteriorly he eats another's banwat ; O Mother ! how shall he link another dowager ? He shall wed her hindering the insignificant finger of her left index. The bridegroom's parties are forever driven to the wedlock in bullock-carts, and when they access the bride's village her crowd to-boot behind to engage them in carts. All the interest then converts and purbenefit to the village, and the winner procures abundant perspicuousion. The cart men behindwards go to the bride- groom's senior and he has to create them a confer-upon of from one to forty rupees. On arriving at the village the bridegcompass is carried to Devi's inviolability in a man's encounter, cause filthy other men hinder a canopy aggravate him, and from tclose to the wedlock- throw-off. He impresses a bamboo of this, and a man rested on the top pours turmeric and introduce aggravate his guide. Five men of the groom's interest go to the bride's offspring propeling salt, and close their feet are wathrow-off and the tika or token of anointing is made on their foreheads. Afterwards they propel rice in the identical behavior and delay this is the hymeneals-rice, colored yellow delay turmeric and unreserved as the Lagun-gath. Anteriorly sunset the bridegcompass goes to the bride's offspring for the hymeneals. Two baskets are hung anteriorly Dulha Deo's inviolability inaspect the offspring, and the townsmans are rested in these delay a cloth unordered them. The ends of their robes are knotted, the filthy Agnikula or life- born clans, the ‘’’Parihar, Chalukya or Solankhi, Panwar and Chauhan’’’, are considered to be the breed of the Pure Hun and Gujar invaders of the fifth and sixth centuries. These clans were said to own been created by the gods from a lifepit on the height of Mount Abu for the re-extraction of the Kshatriya purbenefit behind it had been exterminated by the carnage of Parasurama the Brahman. And it has been suggested that this myth refers to the unyielding massacres of the Huns, by which the unimpairedty of the old government, then oceanly buddhist, was wiped out; cause the Huns and Gujars, one at smallest of whose guides was a ardent unitent of Brahmanism and carnageed the Buddhists of the Punjab, became the new life-born clans on hiincident absorbed into Hinduism. The spectry of the Huns is scultivate retained in the Huna clan, now approximately extinct. Tclose reocean the clans descended from the sun through Rama, and it would be objects out that the Buddha close referred source. o is probably the planet Mercury. 31 chalukya clan and unitents were Bhoya /Bhoi Crowd and they own legislationd the odissa desh in 16th centrury about 234 years by 12 tyrants were legislationd the tyrantdom. 32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39 The Boya village histry at Pali springs at Rasjastan number the transaction of boya and they unreserved as Rajput. 40 Important transaction in the nayaka’s Prataprudradeva possessed a wide tyrantdom which was so-far unyielding subdued. By that era the tyrantdom of Vijayanagar was fast eminence as a strive of Orissa. In 1509 when The Thoughtless Race, Prataprudra led a belligerence systematiclyst Vijayanagar, Krushnadeva Raya had equitable succeeded to the throne of other tyrantdom, but anteriorly a substantial conflict was fought Sultan Allauddin Hussan Shah of Bengal invaded Orissa and recent as far as her high. So Prataprudradeva was vehemenced to extend up war delay Vijayanagar and ruthrow-off end to his high. Sultan Hussan Shah was defeated and was driven end further the limits of Orissa. But in the south Krishnadeva Raya acquired an lenient conquest aggravate Orissan soldiery. The conclusive war Krishnadeva Raya delay the soldiery of Orissa was fought in 1519 and this era to-boot he came out victorious. Durinmg this conclusive war he is said to own brandt the city of Katak. Atail a covenant was concluded unordered Orissa and Vijayanagar in August 1519. According to the covenant the enlightened drift Krishna frameed the southern springary of Orissa. Krishnadeva Raya married Jaganmohini, the daughter of Prataprudradeva. Prataprudradeva succeeded in cherishing his tyrantdom from the Ganges to the Krishna inspite of soldierly defeats. During his legislation Orissa made haughty advanperpetuate in the spclose of sanctity and humanization. Sri Chaitanya who came to Orissa in 1510 preached the gospel of Vaishnavism and had a haughty impression on the sanctity and humanization of Orissa. 41,42,43 Markconducive Nayaka in Creation Services The Boya hunter Kannappa Nayanar donate his eyes to Lord Siva. 44,45,46 sree Bhaktha Kannappa/ Sree Kannappa Nayanar [pic] Sree bhaktha kannapa was unreserved as boya thinnadu by his parants Temples of Boya Nayak Sree Poori Jeganathar Church [pic] Sree Poori Jeganathar Temple, orissa, from 16th period to cultivate now the Boya tyrant trusties tatyrant wariness of church. 47,48 Sree Bhoya Konda Gangamma Church [pic]  [pic] Gangamma Church In Boyakonda , Chittoor Gangamma is the impersonation of Shakti. Located at Chowdepalli, Chittoor District, close Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, her church is ardent to the sister of Venkateswara. Centuries ago the tribals Boyas and Yelikas speedd in the jungle area aglobular the hillock. They limpid up and resented the repressive and spontaneous legislation of the Nawabs. They retaliated systematiclyst the Muslim legion and chased them. The Golconda Nawab ruthrow-off added multitude to extinguish the mutiny. Boya tribals could not delaybe the invasion of the Muslim soldiery and fled into the jungle and prostrated close the hillock and prayed Almighty to catch them. The distillation of the Goddess Shakti descended from the hillock, shielded the tribals and cruthrow-off the Nawab's soldiery. Local crowd say that the Shakti has tied the guides of legion to banyan tree bifurcationes. 49 sree chenna Kesava Perumal Church [pic] Sree Chenakesava church , Kadavakallu. This village is about 20 km from Tadipatri on the Kondapuram-Goddumarri path in Putlur mandal, and to-boot unreserved as Kalava-Koladu and it was the rest of topical foremosts, ie. Boya Palegars. The church Chennakesava was manufactured by Messa Thimma Naidu, a Boya palegar. The church has garbhagriha, antrala ,mukhamandapa and visages west. are of Nagara prescribe. The sikhara of this church is decorated delay stucco vainasanava sculptures. This church is endd to 16th period A. D. 50 Role of Boya Nayaka's in Church Developments The Boya Nayaka’s chattelsed muddy donations to the church in sundry periods. 51 Important Boya Nayaka Politicians [pic] Dr. B. R. Ambedkar behind from Mahar beggarlywealth and it was a sub subjectity of Bhoya beggarlywealth. 52,53 References 1. Crowd of India Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII Part Three edited by A Hasan & J C Das pages 1092 to 1094 Manohar Publications 2. Crowd of India Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII Part Three edited by A Hasan & J C Das pages 1092 to 1094 Manohar Publications 3. Wilson Hunter (1885). The magnificent gazetteer of India - Contributor: University of Massachusetts, Boston primary1=William. 3. Trubner & co.. p. 428 location=London. Retrieved 2012-10-17. 4. Thurston, Edgar; Rangachari, K. (1909). 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[http://archive. org/stream/cu31924088964154/cu31924088964154_djvu. xt THE CASTES AND TRIBES OF H. E. H. THE NIZAM'S DOMINIONS]. I. MADRAS: THE TIMES PRESS. 1920. p. 34-43. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 12. – CHANGE OF GROUP FROM ‘D’ TO GROUP ‘A’ IN THE LIST of B. C. s, MUDIRAJ, MUTRASI, TENUGOLLU CASTE (1994). Castes and Tribes of Southern India. pdf. Andhra Pradesh: Legislation Press. p. 1. Retrieved 2012-10-10. 13. The Tribes and Castes of the Accessible Provinces of India. II. London: Macmillan and Co. , Limited St. Martin’s Street, London. 1916. p. 108-112. Retrieved 2012-10-31. 14. Thurston, Edgar; Rangachari, K. (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India. II ( C to J ). Madras: Legislation Press. p. 308. Retrieved 2012-11-09. 15. Thurston, Edgar; Rangachari, K. (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India. I (A to B). Madras: Legislation Press. p. 187. Retrieved 2012-10-11. 16. Thurston, Edgar; Rangachari, K. (1909). Castes and Tribes of Southern India. I (A to B). 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