Peer Reviews

Respond to at least two posts of your classmates, with at least one cited source each and a minimum of 150 words per response in APA format. Show points on why. I have attached both peer post and the required reading where the information was taken from. 

Required reading:

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Peer Reviews
Just from $13/Page
Order Essay

ATP 4-93, Sustainment Brigade, April 2016, pp. 1-1 to 1-17 (17 pages)

 FM 1-01, Generating Force Support for Operations. Appendix A-1 to A-13. FM 1-01, Generating Force Support for Operations. Appendix A-1 to A-13. 

U.S Transportation Command (TRANSCOM) provides air, land and sea transportation for the Department of Defense.

 

 U.S. Transportation command is a critical aspect in the National Security Starageidy as it facilitates the mobility of all military equipment across all COCOMS (Department of Defense, 2017).  The main missions of TRANSCOM include air, sea land transportation, management of global patient movement, management of DTS, joint sourcing of contracted mobility assets and more.  USTRANSCOM, in short, moves the force and enables the global reach that is critical to the Department of Defense.

Defense Support of Civil Authorities or DSCA is a collaboration of efforts that often include DOD civilians, contractors and all components of the DOD to support local municipalities in incidents such as domestic responsibilities, law enforcement support and other domestic actions (Department of Defense, 2017).  DSCA, while simplistic in concept bridges multiple authorities and involves a complicated command structure involving civilian leadership.  The complicated nature of civilian-military interaction coupled with a non-standard command structure lends DSCS mission to be challenging in nature.

There are several challenges that the U.S. Transportation Command may face when supporting a DSCA mission.  DSCA missions are typically short notice.  TRANSCOM must react quickly to fulfill the mobilization requirements in a timely manner.  Additionally, during reception, staging, onward-movement and integration (RSOI) U.S. Transportation Command’s subordinate elements must be able to rapidly flex to the ever-changing environment that is often present in DSCA missions.  Examples are the moving equipment as the need arises due to the operational environment in a natural disaster or civil disturbance.  Funding for U.S. Transportation Command is also complicated during Defense Support of Civil Authority missions.  Because funding crossed titles of authority (Department of Defense, 2017) it can be difficult to move in the rapid manner.  There are systems such as a Declaration of Emergency that local municipalities can utilize to help expedite funding but it is never as easy as what is viewed as a “tradition” mission.  Lastly, required logistical support is often difficult as well due to the nature of DSCA missions.

While there are challenges faced by TRANSCOM during the RSOI phase of operations in a DSCA mission a well-educated staff aided by a SGM can leverage the required assets to ensure the mission is accomplished.

 
 

References

Department of Defense. (2017). The Defense Transportation System (JP 4-01). https://sgm-a.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/courses/SGM-A_SMC_DL_AY21-22_PH2_MASTER/jp4_01_2%20Sealift

Department of Defense. (2017) Joint Operations (JP 3-0). https://sgm-a.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/courses/SGM-A_SMC_DL_AY21-22_PH2_MASTER/JP%203-0

United States Transport Command Challenges

 

           Reception, Staging, Onward Movement, and Integration (RSOI) is an involved process responsible for interpreting Future Deployment Operations. Most nations could not stabilize and gain effective control over the process. The Military perceives RSOI as transforming the arrivals of individuals and equipment into forces that can effectively realize the operational requirements. This paper outlines the United States Transport Command (USTRANCOM) challenges during RSOI under the Defense Support of Civil Authorities. Furthermore, this paper provides possible solutions to avoiding the challenges. United States Transport Command has faced the challenge in Public Affairs, Securing the Airports, the Effectiveness of the Crew in management of Safety Airlifts, and the stability as far as absorbing the dangers of terrorism.

Contractor Management

            Contractor management is a challenge that affects the RSOI process, and the United States Command needs to be sensitive to the effective implementation of a safety plan. Contractor movement involves integrating and overseeing the personnel and all the equipment associated with the process. The equipment applies to the personals and strictly dispenses the military operations. The movement in the contract involves planning, deployment, or redeployment, in theater management and protection of the force. Transport Command discharges the duty in compliance with the need to work with Defense Security Cooperation Agency and support the Civil Authority (Richelson, 2018). Integrating the three interrelated operational contracts in support of the functions is challenging for Transco.

 

            Prevalence of potential threats to the safety and peace of the citizens in the United States calls for attention from the relevant authorities. Armed forces designed the Joint Operations Doctrine to serve the needs of the Citizens as far as the transit of goods, services, and people. The joint operations, founded on war-fighting philosophies and the experience-derived theory. USTRANSCOM’s efforts need to lean on the principle of war and the fundamentals of joint warfare. The doctrine has prescribed functionalism and essentialism of the process in the Doctrine for the Army in the United States. They may associate the joint effort as the solution source with a revolutionary idea for going through the RSOI process. The practical implementation will translate to the shift in the effective rates in the RSOI process.

The capacity of the Joint Forces to work cohesively is a key to an operational environment. The threats are explicit within the limits of the land transport, but both air and sea lifts share the risk involved. Challenges in explanation execution planning, essential planning for the Cargo and related concepts, and protection through operations security accompany interference. In most incidences, the Automatic Planning Tools are. We should commit the United States Transport Command to employ Sealift, including support for communications. The acquisition vessel and the Activation process remain well defined through the mission statements and structure of Command for some of the sensitive activities (Isreal, 2019). The situation or the prevalent fact does not undermine the efforts of the United States Transport Command but highlights some areas where the body has not been yielding the best.

 
 

Proactive Prevention of the Challenge

            Information is the best source of power, and the awareness of the shortcomings enables Transco to be on its toes in assuring safety throughout the RSOI process. The success of the proactive prevention approach to the challenge calls for the improvement of joint operations in Reception, Staging, Onward Movement, and Integration. For example, the Marine Transport, the Sealift transport structure, should exist in a four-process structure. First, the Transco should determine the cargo and sustainment requirements in the transit. The requirements need to exist in the Unit of Measure.

            A preventive approach is the Best Course of action regarding security issues. Initial results may be good, but the process is corrupt, and in most incidences, the flawed process ruins the outcome. Transport Command should keep the Planning and Execution Systems updated. Relevant agencies need to cooperate in developing the infrastructure and supporting the development projects. The projects will yield the best through highlighting the relevance of addressing the support of the host nation during the time of peace. The endeavor should strive for established common words for the RSOI operations (Archambault, 2019). Theatre Level organizations for RSOI should also endure planning for the execution of the RSOI operations. Communication lines should thrive to ensure effective delivery of services. The joint operations are healthy in weighing the potential and predicting the capabilities of the United States Military.

 
 
 

References

Richelson, J. T. (2018). The US intelligence community. Routledge.

Isreal, E. M. (2019). Joint Reception Staging Onward Movement and Integration (JRSOI): The Commanders Role in Integration. US Army Command and General Staff College.

Archambault, M. (2019). Putting the Fight Back in the Staff. Military Review, 99.

Christie, G. A. (1967). Comparative histochemical studies on implantation and placentation. University of Glasgow (United Kingdom).

Joint Chiefs of Staff. (2018). Joint Operations (JP 3-0). Retrieved from

https://www.jcs.mil/Portals/36/Documents/Doctrine/pubs/jp3_20180622

FM

1-01

Generating Force Support for Operations

April 2008

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Headquarters, Department of the Army

This publication is available at
Army Knowledge Online (www.us.army.mil) and
General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine

Digital Library at (www.train.army.mil).

FM 1-01
Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

i

Field Manual
No. 1-01

Headquarters
Department of the Army

Washington, DC, 2 April 2008

Generating Force Support for Operations

  • Contents
  • Page

    PREFACE ……………………………………………………………………………………………….iii
    INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………….v
    Chapter 1 THE ARMY’S GENERATING FORCE……………………………………………………… 1-1

    The Army ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1-1
    Effective Capabilities ……………………………………………………………………………… 1-5

    Chapter 2 THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT ……………………………………………………. 2-1
    Significant Societal Trends ……………………………………………………………………… 2-1
    Operational Variables …………………………………………………………………………….. 2-2
    Threats ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2-5
    Full Spectrum Operations: The Army’s Operational Concept ………………………. 2-5
    Unified Action ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 2-6
    Joint Interdependence ……………………………………………………………………………. 2-7
    ARFORGEN …………………………………………………………………………………………. 2-7

    Chapter 3 EMPLOYING THE GENERATING FORCE ………………………………………………. 3-1
    Categories of Support ……………………………………………………………………………. 3-1
    Organization of Generating Force Capabilities ………………………………………….. 3-1
    Supporting the Joint Campaign ……………………………………………………………….. 3-2
    Planning Support for Operations ……………………………………………………………… 3-7
    Providing Capabilities …………………………………………………………………………….. 3-8
    Accessing Capabilities …………………………………………………………………………… 3-9

    Chapter 4 ADAPTING TO THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT …………………………….. 4-1
    Understanding the Operational Environment …………………………………………….. 4-1
    Support to Rapid Adaptation …………………………………………………………………… 4-8
    Generating Capabilities for Operations …………………………………………………… 4-11

    Chapter 5 ENABLING STRATEGIC REACH …………………………………………………………… 5-1
    Support to Force Projection…………………………………………………………………….. 5-1
    Sustaining Deployed Forces …………………………………………………………………… 5-4
    Building and Sustaining Operational Networks ………………………………………… 5-10

    Contents

    ii FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    Chapter 6 DEVELO

  • PIN
  • G MULTINATIONAL PARTNER CAPABILITY AND CAPACITY 6-1
    Stability Operations ………………………………………………………………………………… 6-1
    Support for Security Force Assistance ……………………………………………………… 6-2
    Support for Infrastructure Development……………………………………………………..6-6

    Appendix ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR CAPABILITIES FOR OPERATIONAL
    SUPPORT……………………………………………………………………………………………. A-1

    GLOSSARY ………………………………………………………………………………

  • Glossary
  • -1
    REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………….

  • References
  • -1
    INDEX ……………………………………………………………………………………………

  • Index
  • -1

    Figures

    Figure 1-1. Title 10 functions ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1-2
    Figure 1-2. Representative list of Army generating force organizations………………………….. 1-3
    Figure 6-1. Representative force integration capabilities ……………………………………………… 6-5

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 iii

  • Preface
  • This manual defines the Army’s generating force and establishes as doctrine the employment of its capabilities
    in support of ongoing joint and multinational operations and deployed forces. It describes how operating forces
    can access and employ generating force capabilities in support of ongoing operations. It incorporates lessons
    learned from recent and ongoing operations, including Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, the
    War on Terrorism, the response to Hurricane Katrina, and others. This information allows operational Army
    forces to understand generating force capabilities and employ these capabilities successfully in support of
    ongoing operations. It enables generating force organizations to ready these capabilities. This manual describes
    how the joint force can access and employ generating force capabilities in support of

    operations.

    The generating force consists of Army organizations whose primary mission is to generate and sustain the
    operational Army. The United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), for example, is part
    of the generating force. Activities the generating force conducts in support of readiness, Army force generation
    (ARFORGEN), and the routine performance of functions specified and implied in Title 10 and other applicable
    legislation are addressed in Army regulations and Department of the Army pamphlets and are not addressed
    here. As a consequence of its performance of functions specified and implied by law, the generating force also
    possesses operationally useful capabilities for employment by or in direct support of joint force commanders.
    This manual’s introduction elaborates the manual’s purpose and explains the necessity of employing generating
    force capabilities in the conduct of operations. It introduces the three principal categories of generating force
    support to ongoing operations: adapting to the operational environment, enabling strategic reach, and
    developing multinational partner capability and capacity.

    • Chapter 1 defines the generating force and its relationship to the operational Army and the joint
    force. It describes the three categories of capabilities.

    • Chapter 2 describes the operational environment and the role of landpower within it. It briefly
    describes where the generating force fits within the operational environment.

    • Chapter 3 describes the employment of the generating force for ongoing operations. This
    includes how operating forces access generating force capabilities and the employment of those
    capabilities in a joint campaign.

    • Chapter 4 describes how the generating force enables adaptation to the operational environment.
    It describes how generating force capabilities contribute to attaining situational understanding
    and adapting Army operational capabilities to a specific context.

    • Chapter 5 describes how the generating force enables strategic reach. It describes the generating
    force’s role in projecting power and sustaining it once deployed. It describes the generating
    force’s role in developing and maintaining the network that connects Soldiers, policy makers,
    and support personnel. It concludes by describing the generating force’s role in supporting
    reconstruction.

    • Chapter 6 discusses how the generating force supports the development of multinational partner
    capability and capacity through participation in security and reconstruction.

    • The appendix lists the principal generating force organizations and their capabilities for
    supporting operations.

    This manual applies to Army headquarters at the brigade echelon and above. It is of primary interest to the
    commanders and staffs of theater armies, corps, and divisions and the leaders of Army commands, direct
    reporting units, and Headquarters, Department of the Army. It applies to all Army leaders, especially planners,
    trainers, educators, force designers, materiel developers, and doctrine developers.

    This manual applies to the Active Army, the Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States,
    and the United States Army Reserve unless otherwise stated.

    Preface

    iv FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    TRADOC is the proponent for this manual. The U.S. Army Capabilities Integration Center (ARCIC) is the
    preparing agency. Send written comments and recommendations on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to
    Publications and Blank Forms) to Director, Army Capabilities Integration Center (Forward), Room 1200, 2530
    Crystal Drive, Arlington, Virginia 22202. Send electronic comments to arcic.army.mil/fm101form.asp.

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 v

  • Introduction
  • The Army’s primary mission is to provide capabilities for the conduct of prompt and sustained combat
    incident to operations on land. The Army most effectively executes a particular mission when it draws on
    the collective capability of the entire force. The Army provides its capabilities from two functionally
    discrete but organizationally integrated entities known as the operational Army and the generating force.
    Most of the Army’s operational capability resides in the modular units and headquarters of the operational
    Army, which the generating force generates and sustains. Besides generating and sustaining the operational
    Army, the generating force can provide operational capabilities for employment by or in support of joint
    force commanders.

    Today’s operational environment is complex, interconnected, and dynamic. It calls for the use of specific
    operational capabilities intrinsic to the generating force’s performance of functions specified and implied
    by law. This environment comprises the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the
    employment of capabilities and bear on the commander’s decisions. It includes physical areas and factors
    and the information domain. It also includes the adversary, friendly, and neutral systems relevant to a
    specific joint operation. Many U.S. enemies and adversaries are highly adaptive, often combining their
    ability to adapt with asymmetric tactics and capabilities. This operational environment demands
    increasingly sophisticated capabilities for rapid analysis of and rapid adaptation to the operational area, or
    for tailoring the operational force for a specific context.

    Additionally, defeating adaptive enemies requires the establishment or restoration of stable states and
    effective institutions, especially security forces. The generating force’s ability to develop and sustain potent
    landpower capabilities supports security forces and governmental institutions. It also contributes to
    developing, maintaining, and managing infrastructure. Moreover, the modern information environment and
    improved transportation capabilities allow the effective application of capabilities from outside a
    combatant commander’s area of responsibility. Over the course of the War on Terrorism, generating force
    organizations have improvised and provided many capabilities in this vein.

    This manual institutionalizes the generating force role in providing capabilities to operating forces.
    Generating force support to ongoing operations falls into three broad categories:

    • Adapting to the operational environment is the ability to adapt U.S. capabilities, or generate new
    ones, to meet the requirements of a rapidly and constantly evolving operational environment.

    • Enabling strategic reach is the contribution of the generating force to increasing the distance
    and duration over which the nation can project power.

    • Developing multinational partner capability and capacity is the generating force’s support of
    stability operations by providing capabilities to assist security forces and conduct reconstruction.

    Operating force commanders and planners use these three categories to guide their employment of
    generating force capabilities. Generating force leaders use these categories to guide in developing
    capabilities for operational employment.

    This manual describes the major, existing capabilities of the generating force to support ongoing
    operations. Generating force leaders further consider the inherent operational capabilities of their
    organizations and adapt those capabilities in support of joint force commanders. This manual does not
    provide an exhaustive list of operationally relevant generating force capabilities.

    As with any military mission, the formal processes by which capabilities are allocated, and the formal
    relationships under which they operate, are less important than the participants’ understanding of the
    shared mission and their will to accomplish it. The operational Army and the generating force must remain
    mutually aware of the Army’s collective capabilities and operational needs. They must work together to
    provide optimum capabilities to joint force commanders.

    This page intentionally left blank.

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 1-1

    Chapter 1

    The Army’s Generating Force

    The Army is divided into two functionally discrete but organizationally integrated
    entities. These are known as the operational Army and the generating force. The
    operational Army consists primarily of units whose primary purpose is to conduct or
    support full spectrum operations. The generating force is that part of the Army whose
    primary purpose is generating and sustaining operational Army units by performing
    functions specified and implied by law. As a consequence of performing those
    functions, the generating force also has capabilities that are useful in supporting
    operations in the current operational environment. This chapter defines and describes
    the Army’s generating force and its relationship to the operational Army.

    THE ARMY
    1-1. The Army derives its existence and mission from the Constitution of the United States and from
    legislation, principally Title 10 of the U.S. Code. FM 1 thoroughly describes the origins, organization, and
    mission of the Army. In brief, according to the U.S. Code, the Army’s primary mission is to provide
    capabilities to conduct prompt and sustained combat incident to operations on land. The Army is
    responsible for the preparation of land forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war, except as
    otherwise assigned. In accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, it is also responsible for the
    expansion of the peacetime components of the Army to meet the needs of war.

    1-2. The Army calls these capabilities landpower. Landpower is the ability—by threat, force, or
    occupation—to promptly gain, sustain, and exploit control over land, resources, and people (FM 3-0).

    1-3. To provide landpower capabilities, the Army has two functionally discrete but organizationally
    integrated entities known as the operational Army and the generating force. The operational Army provides
    the bulk of Army capabilities to the joint force for the conduct of full spectrum operations. The generating
    force generates and sustains the operational Army and also provides some specific landpower capabilities
    to the joint force.

    1-4. An Army organization’s primary purpose distinguishes it as part of the operational Army or the
    generating force. Regardless of their purpose or assignment of resources, Army organizations provide the
    capabilities that meet the operational need.

    THE OPERATIONAL ARMY
    1-5. The operational Army consists primarily of the Army Modular Force, which is trained and organized
    to fight as part of the joint force. Modular organizations can be quickly assembled into strategically
    responsive force packages able to move rapidly wherever needed. They can quickly and seamlessly
    transition among types of operations. Modular organizations provide the bulk of forces needed for
    sustained land operations. In addition to conventional forces, the Army continues to provide the majority of
    special operations force capabilities in support of the U.S. Special Operations Command’s global mission.

    1-6. By law, operational Army units are typically assigned to combatant commanders. The Army
    normally executes its responsibilities to organize, train, and equip operational Army units through Army
    Service component commands (ASCCs).

    1-7. This manual makes frequent reference to operating forces, defined as those forces whose primary
    missions are to participate in combat and the integral supporting elements thereof (JP 1-02). In this manual,

    Chapter 1

    1-2 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    the term operating forces broadly connotes joint capabilities employed in the conduct of full spectrum
    operations. The generating force supports operating forces from all services in the conduct of joint
    operations.

    THE GENERATING FORCE
    1-8. The primary mission of the generating force is to generate and sustain operational Army capabilities.
    This mission and the generating force’s capabilities to execute it are more fully described in the Army War
    College publication, How the Army Runs: A Senior Leader Reference Handbook. The generating force also
    possesses operationally useful capabilities. However, the Army does not organize the generating force into
    standing organizations with a primary focus on specific operations. Rather, when generating force
    capabilities perform specific functions or missions in support of and at the direction of joint force
    commanders, it is for a limited period of time. Upon completion of the mission, the elements and assets of
    those generating force capabilities revert to their original function.

    1-9. All elements of the Army, whether generating force or operational Army, perform functions
    specified by law (figure 1-1). The practical distinction is that the execution of these functions and others
    implied by law constitutes the primary purpose of generating force organizations. Title 10 is not the only
    statute that governs the generating force, nor is the list of functions in figure 1-1 exhaustive.

    Figure 1-1. Title 10 functions

    1-10. The current security environment has led to the emergence of certain operational missions requiring
    employment of generating force capabilities. Missions suitable for generating force capabilities include—

    The development of multinational partners’ security forces.
    The repair, development, and management of infrastructure in support of stability operations.
    The adaptation of operating forces across the domains of doctrine, organization, training,

    materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF).

    The generating force often can perform these types of missions with greater effectiveness and efficiency
    than ad hoc operational Army organizations. Put another way, the generating force can perform its Title 10
    functions either in generating and sustaining the operational Army or for supporting ongoing operations.
    However, in each case the generating force provides its capabilities under a different set of conditions. This
    manual describes the subsets of generating force capabilities to support ongoing operations.

    1-11. The generating force includes Army commands and direct reporting units. Figure 1-2 lists
    representative organizations from the generating force. Unlike operational Army units, which are usually
    assigned to combatant commanders, organizations within the generating force typically are assigned to the
    Department of the Army and report to the Secretary of the Army.

    The Army’s Generating Force

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 1-3

    Figure 1-2. Representative list of Army generating force organizations

    1-12. Oversight of generating forces’ training and readiness, especially to perform operational tasks, is the
    direct responsibility of Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA). The Army G-3/5/7 is the HQDA
    element with primary responsibility for the oversight of generating force capabilities to support operations.

    1-13. The generating force lacks a standing reserve of uncommitted resources for specific operational
    support. As previously stated, the generating force’s primary mission—generating and sustaining the
    operational Army—determines its overall capabilities and capacity. Diverting generating force elements to
    participate in ongoing operations risks impairing the generating force’s capability to perform its primary
    mission. Generating force leaders mitigate that risk by mobilizing additional resources to backfill resources
    diverted to ongoing operations, but this takes time. For that reason, Army senior leadership carefully
    considers the effects of diverting generating force resources for employment in ongoing operations.

    CATEGORIES OF SUPPORT FOR OPERATIONS
    1-14. Generating force support for full spectrum operations falls into three broad categories:

    Adapting to the operational environment.
    Enabling strategic reach.
    Developing multinational partner capability and capacity.

    These categories describe the application of existing capabilities in today’s operational environment.

    1-15. Operational planners refer to these categories when considering, requesting, and employing
    generating force capabilities for operational support. Generating force leaders use them as organizational
    guidelines to prepare their forces to support operations.

    ADAPTING TO THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
    1-16. Adapting to the operational environment has two parts. The first is the ability to make necessary
    changes to existing capabilities. The second is the ability to generate new capabilities. Operational
    requirements change rapidly; therefore, capabilities must adapt rapidly.

    1-17. The operational environment is a composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that
    affect the employment of capabilities and bear on decisions of the commander (see chapter 2). It includes
    physical areas, the information environment, and the adversary, friendly, and neutral systems relevant to an
    operation. The variables of the operational environment compose an interactively complex system of
    systems. A change in any part of the system, such as the infrastructure; popular beliefs and perceptions; or
    enemy tactics, techniques, and procedures changes the overall dynamic.

    1-18. The generating force provides its robust analytical capabilities to operating forces, enabling them to
    understand and respond to the operational environment. These capabilities include assessing physical
    terrain and trends in land warfare and general capabilities for operations research and systems analysis. The

    Chapter 1

    1-4 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    resulting shared understanding informs ongoing efforts to adapt and continue generating required
    capabilities.

    1-19. Operating forces are aware of and work within an environment influenced by the efforts of
    interagency, multinational, and nongovernmental partners. In civil support operations, military forces
    support non-Department of Defense (DOD) agencies. Generating force capabilities help operating forces
    integrate joint, interagency, and multinational partnerships to achieve mission objectives.

    1-20. The generating force enables adaptation to the operational environment by remaining responsive to
    current operations and anticipating future needs. It tailors preparations to the specific environment in which
    Army forces will operate. This adaptation is anticipatory rather than reactive. It focuses on the entire
    operational environment, not just the enemy. Additionally, operating forces and the generating force work
    together to adapt to the operational environment. By understanding the operational environment’s
    dynamics before and more thoroughly than adversaries, U.S. forces gain and maintain an advantage. Army
    forces must be able to react rapidly and effectively to changes in adversary, friendly, and neutral systems.

    ENABLING STRATEGIC REACH
    1-21. Strategic reach is the distance and duration across which the nation can project power (see FM 3-0).
    Strategic reach refers to the capability to operate against complex, adaptive threats operating anywhere in
    the world. Strategic reach is multifaceted, encompassing joint military capabilities (air, land, maritime,
    space, and special operations) and other instruments of national power. The generating force enables
    strategic reach by supporting force projection, sustaining operating forces, and building and sustaining
    operational networks.

    1-22. Supporting force projection is not a new mission for the generating force. However, an increasingly
    interconnected global environment now allows forces to be projected directly into operations. The time and
    resources committed to the deployment process must be minimized. For these reasons, the generating force
    integrates its support of force projection closely with operational plans and ongoing operations. Moreover,
    protracted conflict increases the likelihood of redeployment.

    1-23. Sustainment includes the logistic, personnel services, and health service support required to maintain
    and prolong operations until successful mission accomplishment. Sustainment impacts strategic reach more
    than any other factor. Generating force sustainment support allows the generation, projection, and
    employment of personnel, materiel, and equipment in support of the campaign plan or operation.
    Historically, the generating force has sustained operating forces indirectly, with operational Army
    sustainment organizations as an intermediary. Today, the generating force provides its sustainment
    capabilities directly to operating forces.

    1-24. The Global Information Grid (GIG), of which the Army’s LandWarNet is a part, enables operating
    forces to have access to information and personnel anywhere in the world. Through the GIG’s worldwide
    communications systems, any element of a deployed force can communicate with another. The generating
    force plays the key role in developing, protecting, and maintaining that network. The generating force
    ensures that the right information reaches the right person at the right time.

    DEVELOPING MULTINATIONAL PARTNER CAPABILITY AND CAPACITY
    1-25. The generating force supports the development of multinational partner capability and capacity,
    primarily through the application of force management, acquisition, and sustainment capabilities. It
    supports the provision of essential services and economic and infrastructure development. Force
    management includes force development and force integration.

    1-26. In the long run, efforts to improve multinational partner capability and capacity eventually reduce the
    demands for U.S. forces and resources. However, this requires a significant initial investment of manpower
    and resources. In the short run, the attainment of U.S. objectives in a given conflict may depend on the
    successful development of host-nation forces more than on any other factor. Generating force capabilities
    support the provision of essential services and economic and infrastructure development. The generating

    The Army’s Generating Force

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 1-5

    force also facilitates operating forces’ access to other capabilities for these tasks, especially those relating
    to economic development and governance.

    1-27. These generating force capabilities extend beyond the development of partner armies. With
    appropriate enabling legislation, Army generating force capabilities can be employed to support the large
    scale assistance of security forces and administrative organizations.

    EFFECTIVE CAPABILITIES
    1-28. The primary mission of generating force organizations is the long-term generation and sustainment
    of operational Army capabilities. While the generating force retains that mission, it now embraces
    participation in ongoing operations when required. Similarly, operating force planners now take full
    advantage of generating force capabilities. Those capabilities are assembled, exercised, and employed on a
    regular basis to ensure they effectively support operations when required.

    1-29. As with any military capability, the formal designations of organizations and capabilities as
    operational Army or generating force are less important than the Soldiers’ understanding of the shared
    mission and their will to accomplish it. All participants in the process of developing, maintaining, and
    allocating Army capabilities for operations, whether they are part of the operational Army or generating
    force, understand that Army capabilities are most effective when they integrate the whole of the Army’s
    capabilities.

    This page intentionally left blank.

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 2-1

    Chapter 2

    The Operational Environment

    This chapter describes aspects of the operational environment and their implications
    for the Army’s generating force. The operational environment is the composite of the
    conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of capabilities
    and bear on the decisions of the commander. It encompasses physical areas and
    factors of the air, land, maritime, and space domains. It also includes the information
    environment and the threat. Included within these are the adversary, friendly, and
    neutral systems that are relevant to a specific joint operation. Friendly systems
    pertinent to the generating force include Army warfighting capabilities and Army
    force generation (ARFORGEN).

    SIGNIFICANT SOCIETAL TRENDS
    2-1. Significant societal trends influencing today’s operational environment are—

    Global accessibility.
    Increasing complexity.
    Rapid evolution.

    These trends and their implications for the generating force are described in the following paragraphs.

    GLOBAL ACCESSIBILITY
    2-2. The combination of modern technological and transportation networks has rendered much of the
    world easily accessible, either electronically or physically. Information technology has created a truly
    worldwide information environment. The information environment enables the instantaneous transmission
    of information. It allows users to control dispersed operations, share information, and shape the perceptions
    of a global audience. Additionally, geographic distances are much less limiting today. This continually
    expanding interconnectedness works both ways. On one hand, it enables direct application of generating
    force capabilities in support of operations. However, it also expands enemies’ reach to include the United
    States homeland and those of allies and friends.

    INCREASING COMPLEXITY
    2-3. The increasing interconnectedness of the operational environment multiplies the number and
    complexity of potential interactions. U.S. forces confront an international security environment with weak
    and failing states, the emergence and diffusion of power to nonstate actors, and the complications attendant
    to the war on terrorism. Moreover, the increasing prevalence of combat in urban areas and other complex
    terrain requires a variety and depth of analytical capability. This requirement challenges the organic
    capability and capacity of operating forces, requiring the mobilization of diverse and sophisticated
    analytical capabilities. Complex challenges often require the coordinated efforts of a number of
    interagency, multinational, or nongovernmental partners with diverse goals. This adds to the overall
    complexity of the operational environment.

    RAPID EVOLUTION
    2-4. The pace of change continues to accelerate in all domains of human activity. The development of
    revolutionary technologies with broad military applicability is continually improving precision, detection,

    Chapter 2

    2-2 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    range, lethality, navigation, situational awareness, and other aspects of system and organizational
    performance. Some new technologies become obsolete and are replaced in a matter of months. Rapid
    change is occurring not only in technology but also in political and social structures. Even the physical
    terrain is changing. For example, in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the topography of New Orleans
    and surrounding areas was altered radically. Similarly, the destructive effects of modern weapons can
    render urban terrain almost unrecognizable. Moreover, asymmetric and adaptive U.S. adversaries quickly
    attempt to develop capabilities to exploit perceived gaps in U.S. capabilities across the instruments of
    national power. These adversaries substitute speed of adaptation for breadth and depth of capability. This
    rapid evolution of the operational environment reinforces its complexity and places a premium on the
    ability to adapt. Thus, rapid adaptation becomes an important aspect of military power.

    PRINCIPAL IMPLICATION OF SIGNIFICANT SOCIETAL TRENDS
    2-5. The principal implication of these societal trends—global access, increasing complexity, and rapid
    evolution—is that operating forces must draw on generating force capabilities in order to understand the
    nonmilitary (political, economic, social, information, and infrastructure) variables of an operational
    environment. Operating force commanders and staff must keep pace with a complex and dynamic
    operational environment, so they require responsive and authoritative analyses of its widely varying
    nonmilitary aspects. Generating force knowledge centers, such as the U.S. Military Academy, the Foreign
    Military Studies Office, other elements of the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC)
    Intelligence Support Activity, and the Army War College, complement operating force capabilities. The
    generating force mobilizes analytical support through its connections with academia and other analytical
    institutions. Other generating force organizations, such as the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, leverage
    their technical expertise and close working relationships with non-Department of Defense (DOD)
    organizations to facilitate understanding. Operating force commanders and staffs integrate these analyses
    into their understanding of the operational environment.

    OPERATIONAL VARIABLES
    2-6. Analysis of the operational environment considers the following variables: political, military,
    economic, social, information, and infrastructure. The additional variables of physical environment and
    time give breadth and depth to the analysis and incorporate the nature of land operations. Each operational
    environment comprises an interactively complex system of systems, in which changes to any one variable
    may cause cascading changes to other variables and their relationship to one another. Understanding a
    conflict’s military system requires understanding the other related systems and variables.

    POLITICAL
    2-7. Because of the complexity of relationships between formal and informal political actors, operating
    forces may lack sufficient knowledge to understand the political dynamics affecting a given operation. This
    lack of knowledge is likely to exist when conflict breaks out unexpectedly or during rapidly changing
    conditions in a crisis.

    2-8. Generating force organizations provide analyses of political institutions, actors, issues, and dynamics
    at the local, regional, and national level in the operational area. The range of such analyses can run from
    the entire operational area to a single urban area or region within it. These analyses address not only formal
    and tangible factors but also the underlying social and cultural attitudes that confer or deny legitimacy to
    systems for the exercise of political authority. However, generating force efforts must be prioritized;
    generating force capacity is not unlimited.

    MILITARY
    2-9. The military variable explores the military capabilities of all relevant actors in a given operational
    environment. Army forces seek to thoroughly understand the evolving military capabilities of partners and
    adversaries.

    The Operational Environment

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 2-3

    2-10. The Army’s joint and multinational partners may accurately describe their capabilities without being
    fully aware of the implications for landpower. In addition, partners are continually adapting their
    capabilities. The Army must analyze the resulting implications. Many adversaries try to adapt their
    capabilities to exploit U.S. vulnerabilities and to mitigate their own, pitting their ability to adapt against
    overwhelming U.S. military power. The Army must analyze and anticipate the adaptation of its adversaries.
    Generating force organizations provide the analyses of partner and adversary military capabilities for
    operating forces, deployed and preparing to deploy. These analyses range from the technical capabilities of
    weapons systems, including improvised weapons, to the effect of adapted enemy or partner capabilities on
    the conduct of campaigns and major operations. The generating force supports the proactive adaptation of
    operating forces to the operational environment.

    2-11. The capabilities of the generating force enhance strategic partnerships with other nations. These
    capabilities provide the support required by combatant commanders conducting peacetime military
    engagement and theater security cooperation. They contribute to improving the situation in weak and
    failing states.

    ECONOMIC
    2-12. An economic system encompasses individual behaviors and aggregate phenomena related to the
    production, distribution, and consumption of resources. Successful conduct of operations depends, in part,
    on understanding the economic aspects of an operational environment.

    2-13. While individual military personnel may understand some aspects of economics and development,
    military organizations are not organized, trained, or equipped to analyze economic data. Interagency
    participants in military operations may or may not be able to provide the appropriate expertise. Generating
    force knowledge centers provide insight and analysis on the economic aspects of the operational
    environment or mobilize additional capability and capacity for this purpose.

    SOCIAL
    2-14. The social variable describes the cultural, religious, and ethnic makeup within an operational
    environment. Culture is the lens through which information is transmitted, processed, and understood.
    Military forces must understand and navigate different cultures. Much of the Army’s capability and
    capacity to acquire understanding of foreign cultures exists within the generating force. The generating
    force can facilitate operating forces’ access to significant analytical capability and capacity from sources
    outside the DOD. The uncertainty surrounding the outbreak of future conflicts and the long lead time
    associated with developing a useful degree of cultural understanding cause the Army’s knowledge of
    foreign cultures to be relatively limited.

    INFORMATION
    2-15. This variable describes the nature, scope, characteristics, and effects of individuals, organizations,
    and systems that collect, process, disseminate, or act on information. (For more on the information
    environment, see JP 3-13.) The information environment relevant to a specific campaign or major
    operation typically extends beyond the joint operations area. Adversaries and enemies establish their
    information operations capabilities in sanctuaries in neutral countries. They attempt to conduct information
    operations against the U.S. worldwide, making the defense of enterprise network capabilities relevant to
    the ongoing joint operations. The generating force has significant capability to meet these operational
    demands.

    2-16. Threats to the Global Information Grid (GIG) are worldwide, technologically multifaceted, and
    increasing in scope and severity. They come from individuals and groups motivated to achieve political,
    military, economic, or social advantages. The globalization of network communications creates
    vulnerabilities; access to information infrastructure is worldwide. Threats against computers, networks, and
    information systems vary according to the nature of the conflict and the technical capabilities of the enemy
    or adversary. Various sources pose threats to strategic, theater, and tactical forces on a continuing basis.
    Attacks and intrusions compromise missions, corrupt data, degrade networks and systems, and can destroy

    Chapter 2

    2-4 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    hardware and software applications. These effects hamper the effectiveness of supporting forces, degrade
    the strategic reach of the United States, and impair its ability to conduct distributed operations. Generating
    force capabilities that protect and maintain Army information systems contribute to defeating such threats.

    INFRASTRUCTURE
    2-17. The infrastructure system is composed of the basic facilities, services, and installations needed for
    the functioning of a community or society. A stable, functioning civil society requires adequate
    infrastructure. It is likely that Army forces will be employed in areas where infrastructure has been
    destroyed or was inadequate to begin with.

    2-18. Operating forces possess limited capability and capacity to repair, maintain, develop, and manage
    infrastructure. The requirements to conduct large-scale, systemic reconstruction and to manage the
    complex systems that enable modern society typically exceed this capacity. The generating force has
    significant capability and capacity to meet these operational demands related to infrastructure.

    PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
    2-19. The physical environment defines the physical circumstances and conditions that influence the
    conduct of operations throughout the domains of air, land, sea, and space. The defining factors of the land
    domain are complex terrain, including urban settings (supersurface, surface, and subsurface features),
    weather, topography, hydrology, and environmental conditions.

    2-20. The structural complexity of the physical environment requires capabilities to assess, repair,
    maintain, and even develop infrastructures in order to—

    Mitigate environmental hazards, including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear
    hazards.

    Provide essential services.
    Enhance the legitimacy of partner governments.

    The generating force has significant capability to meet operational demands related to the physical
    environment.

    TIME
    2-21. The variable of time influences military operations within an operational environment in terms of the
    decision-cycles, operating tempo, and planning horizons. It also influences endurance or protraction of
    operations since any actor in a conflict may exhaust its resources over time. The generating force enables
    operational forces to sustain efforts over a protracted period, ensuring that enemies exhaust their physical
    resources first.

    IMPLICATIONS OF OPERATIONAL VARIABLES
    2-22. In conflict—whether insurgencies, other types of irregular warfare, or conventional warfare—the
    civilian population often constitutes the conflict’s true center of gravity. Aggressors undertake violence,
    intending to enhance and sustain their domestic legitimacy. Sometimes this violence is against members of
    their own nation’s civilian population, as happened in Kosovo in the 1990s. Sometimes violence is directed
    against the people of neighboring countries, as in Iraq’s 1990 invasion of Kuwait. In each case, however,
    the civilian population was the center of gravity. In World War I, the conflict dragged on because of the
    nationalistic fervor within each of the populations involved. In any conflict, reaching an enduring peace
    accord requires the acceptance of civilian populations.

    2-23. In some cases, the civilian population may not constitute the conflict’s center of gravity.
    Nevertheless, it remains a major aspect of the increasing complexity of the operational environment.
    Today’s interconnectedness and rapid technological change complicate these dynamics. Understanding the
    resulting constraints on U.S. operations contributes to success. Generating force capabilities enable
    operating forces to understand these trends and variables.

    The Operational Environment

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 2-5

    2-24. Operational environments are different for each campaign or major operation. However, the likely
    environments in which Army forces operate share certain characteristics. FM 3-0 describes the process for
    analyzing operational and mission variables. This manual describes how the operational environment
    necessitates the application of generating force capabilities.

    THREATS
    2-25. Enemies and adversaries combine different kinds of threats in asymmetric and adaptive patterns.
    These are discussed in the following paragraphs.

    2-26. Catastrophic threats involve the acquisition, possession, and use of weapons of mass destruction and
    effect. The generating force has capabilities in the restoration of civilian infrastructure, making its role
    significant in response to catastrophic threats.

    2-27. Irregular threats come from those employing unconventional methods to counter the traditional
    advantages of stronger opponents. The generating force’s capabilities for institutional development are a
    significant aspect of the military instrument of national power. To defeat the constantly mutating methods
    of irregular opponents, military forces must adapt to the operational environment more rapidly and more
    effectively than their opponents. Often, the most effective way to counter irregular threats is the
    establishment of effective, stable institutions. Finally, the generating force can direct significant effort
    toward countering irregular threats requiring extensive research and development.

    2-28. Disruptive threats come from adversaries who develop and use breakthrough technologies to negate
    current U.S. advantages in key operational domains. The generating force leverages the scientific
    knowledge base to counter emerging threat technology.

    2-29. Traditional threats are posed by states employing recognized military capabilities and forces in well
    understood forms of military competition and conflict. These states also seek to adapt their capabilities.
    The generating force’s ability to understand and anticipate the nature and implications of an adversary’s
    adaptation helps operating forces respond.

    2-30. U.S. forces must adapt to a changing operational environment more rapidly and more effectively
    than their adversaries because of—

    The variety among adversaries.
    The way adversaries combine the different types of threats.
    The vast difference in adversaries’ organization and modes of operation.
    The reliance of adversaries on adaptation to counter U.S. superiority.

    The generating force is instrumental in this adaptation. (See paragraphs 4-57 through 4-79.)

    FULL SPECTRUM OPERATIONS: THE ARMY’S OPERATIONAL
    CONCEPT

    2-31. The Army’s operational concept, established in FM 1 and revised in FM 3-0, is full spectrum
    operations: Army forces combine offensive, defensive, and stability or civil support operations
    simultaneously as part of an interdependent joint force to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative to achieve
    decisive results. They employ synchronized action—lethal and nonlethal—proportional to the mission and
    informed by a thorough understanding of all dimensions of the operational environment. Mission command
    that conveys intent and an appreciation of all aspects of the situation guides the adaptive use of Army
    forces (FM 3-0). Outside the United States and its territories, Army operations can simultaneously combine
    up to three elements—offense, defense, and stability. Within the United States and its territories, operations
    combine civil support, defense, and offense in support of civil authority.

    2-32. The operational concept recognizes that landpower has a dual purpose. It must defeat enemies, and it
    must shape the civil situation within the joint operations area for other instruments of national power to be
    effective. Full spectrum operations involve more than simultaneous conduct of their components;
    commanders also consider the capabilities of each and how its use affects future operations. FM 3-0

    Chapter 2

    2-6 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    describes these elements in detail. Within all major operations, commanders combine offensive, defensive,
    and stability or civil support operations. Through stability operations, commanders seek to establish and
    maintain a stable environment that sets the conditions for a lasting peace. These efforts form a significant
    theme within any major operation.

    2-33. The Army’s operational concept defines and structures operations that Army forces, as part of a joint
    force, are best suited to execute. Army forces dominate their enemies when executing full spectrum
    operations to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative using combined arms, joint interdependent capabilities,
    and mission command. They defeat enemy forces and create conditions for continuing any campaign by
    diplomatic, informational, and economic instruments of power, supported by military operations.

    2-34. Commanders maintain awareness of and access to all Army capabilities to execute missions.
    Similarly, generating force leaders anticipate operational needs and prepare their relevant capabilities for
    employment. The generating force supports the conduct of full spectrum operations by providing
    capabilities, based on its mission to generate and sustain operational Army capabilities, for support of
    specific operational missions.

    2-35. Stability missions suitable for generating force capabilities include—
    Assisting in the establishment of institutions for administration and governance.
    Assisting security forces.
    Supporting infrastructure and economic development.

    2-36. To provide for homeland defense and to protect the United States from direct attack, DOD works as
    part of an interagency effort with the Department of Homeland Security and other federal, state, and local
    agencies to address threats to the United States homeland. Defense capabilities to mitigate the effects of
    attacks also allow DOD to respond to natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina. The generating force
    provides unique skills that augment the capability and capacity of the operational Army, other interagency
    partners, and state and local governments.

    2-37. Full spectrum operations require the following three capabilities from the generating force:
    networked battle command, strategic distributed support and sustainment, and cycling units in and out of
    operations without an operational pause.

    2-38. Networked battle command underpins the operational concept, enabling increased simultaneity and
    depth. Operating forces establish their own networks, but these draw critical information from networks
    established, maintained, and protected by the generating force.

    2-39. Strategic distributed support and sustainment meet complex requirements. The simultaneous conduct
    of operations throughout the depth of the operational area requires generating force organizations to
    posture these complex requirements through oversight and assessments of strategic distribution
    performance.

    2-40. Cycling units in and out of operations without an operational pause allows forces to sustain effort in
    protracted conflict. This requires the generating force to play a significant role in preparing operating
    forces for conducting operations in specific campaigns and major operations. Moreover, the necessity to
    cycle units in and out of operations increases the operational importance of generating force support to
    redeployment.

    2-41. DOD policy requires the military services to provide all capabilities necessary to conduct initial
    stability operations, when and if the appropriate civilian agencies are unable to do so. Examples include the
    development of indigenous capacity for a viable market economy, the rule of law, and democratic
    institutions. Some stability operations tasks such as these exceed the capability and capacity of operational
    Army organizations. The generating force addresses these shortfalls.

    UNIFIED ACTION
    2-42. In a complex operational environment, joint force commanders must integrate or support all joint
    and multinational, military, and civilian organizations to accomplish U.S. objectives in a given campaign or

    The Operational Environment

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 2-7

    major operation. These U.S. government agencies, international organizations, and nongovernmental
    organizations, among many others, provide essential capabilities.

    2-43. The term unified action refers to the synchronization, coordination, and/or integration of the
    activities of governmental and nongovernmental entities with military operations to achieve unity of effort
    (JP 1). It includes the broad scope of activities taking place when combatant commands, subordinate
    unified commands, or joint task forces work together. Within this general category of operations,
    subordinate commanders of forces conduct either single-Service or joint operations to support the overall
    operation. Unified action synchronizes and integrates joint, single-Service, special, multinational, and
    supporting intergovernmental organizations and operations with the operations of government agencies,
    nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and international organizations to achieve unity of effort in the
    operational area.

    2-44. Joint force commanders are responsible for integrating military and other capabilities to achieve
    unified action. The Army generating force maintains awareness of the capabilities and needs of
    organizations outside the DOD to support unified action effectively.

    JOINT INTERDEPENDENCE
    2-45. Joint interdependence is the purposeful reliance by one Service’s forces on another Service’s
    capabilities to maximize complementary and reinforcing effects of both. Joint capabilities make Army
    forces more effective than they would be otherwise. The following areas of joint interdependence are
    described in FM 3-0:

    Joint command and control.
    Joint intelligence.
    Joint information operations capabilities.
    Joint fires.
    Joint air operations.
    Joint air and missile defense.
    Joint force projection.
    Joint sustainment
    Joint space operations.

    2-46. The primary role of the generating force with regard to joint interdependence is to help operating
    forces leverage joint capabilities, particularly in the areas of command and control, force projection, and
    sustainment. In succeeding chapters, this manual briefly describes the role of generating force
    organizations in facilitating joint interdependence.

    ARFORGEN
    2-47. The overarching purpose of ARFORGEN is to provide combatant commanders and civil authorities
    with trained and ready units tailored as modular expeditionary forces. These forces are tailored to joint
    mission requirements and have a sustainable campaign capability to conduct continuous full spectrum
    operations. Simultaneously, the Army must be ready to—

    Provide forces to defend the homeland.
    Provide defense support to civil authorities.
    Deter conflict in critical regions.
    Respond promptly to contingencies and swiftly defeat the enemy in major combat operations.

    To meet these multiple strategic challenges, the Army is shifting from tiered readiness to cyclic readiness.
    This shift addresses rotational and contingency requirements under ARFORGEN. ARFORGEN represents
    a radical revision of the way the generating force performs its Title 10 functions. This manual does not
    address the conduct of ARFORGEN, which continues to evolve. Rather, this manual addresses the
    implications of cyclic readiness for the generating force.

    Chapter 2

    2-8 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    2-48. The Army provides units to joint force commanders for protracted campaigns on a rotational basis.
    Because the Army’s Title 10 responsibilities (often referred to as administrative control or ADCON) are
    continuous, the generating force initiates mission-specific support to units when identified for deployment.
    This begins with selection of particular units to meet the combatant commander requirements through the
    ARFORGEN process. Simultaneously, the generating force prepares to meet those unit Title 10 support
    requirements. The support provided by the generating force continues throughout the deployment.

    2-49. The generating force anticipates support requirements based on a likely operational environment.
    Following unit deployment, the generating force monitors conditions in the operational area to adjust the
    support provided to the actual operational environment. The generating force continuously coordinates
    with the gaining theater army for support requirements. This has broad implications for the generating
    force. It affects how the Army organizes, equips, and trains generating force units, and how they operate.
    The generating force rapidly adapts its support to deployed Army forces according to the changes in an
    operational environment. Consequently, the generating force acquires technology and develops policies
    and procedures necessary to make it as adaptive and versatile as the operating forces.

    2-50. The generating force reconstitutes operational forces upon redeployment. That support is specified
    by law and covered by Army regulation and therefore lies outside of this manual’s scope.

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 3-1

    Chapter 3

    Employing the Generating Force

    This chapter systematically describes how operating forces access and employ
    generating force capabilities for support to ongoing operations. Successful
    employment of generating force support depends on operating forces’ awareness and
    understanding of generating force capabilities.

    CATEGORIES OF SUPPORT
    3-1. The Army did not originally design institutional organizations to provide capabilities for
    participation in operations. The War on Terrorism, however, has necessitated employing generating force
    capabilities for specific operations. Effective employment of these capabilities depends heavily on
    anticipation through contingency planning and crisis-action planning. Operational plans now address the
    specific capabilities needed from the generating force. Those plans also address the relationships between
    generating force organizations and the operational Army organizations employing them.

    3-2. In mobilizing and employing generating force capabilities for participation in ongoing operations,
    leaders consider generating force capabilities under three broad categories.

    Adapting to the operational environment.
    Enabling strategic reach.
    Developing multinational partner capability and capacity.

    Generating force capabilities for operational support are described more thoroughly in succeeding chapters.

    ORGANIZATION OF GENERATING FORCE CAPABILITIES
    3-3. As previously stated, generating force organizations normally are not configured to participate in
    specific operations. Instead, the generating force is organized and resourced to achieve optimum efficiency
    in its role of generating and sustaining the operational Army. Engineers, force managers, field maintenance
    and supply technicians, transportation and movement managers, and other experts of the generating force
    maintain their proficiency mainly through continuing experiential learning in their designated technical
    field.

    3-4. In addition, certain generating force capabilities that might be mobilized to participate in operations
    do not permanently reside within the Department of the Army. For example, the War on Terrorism has led
    to extensive use of private contractors to provide capabilities that extend well beyond those envisioned in
    the logistics civil augmentation program (LOGCAP). Maintaining an equivalent, standing uniformed
    capability and capacity to perform limited-duration generating force operational support missions would be
    prohibitively expensive. It would drain resources from the operational Army.

    3-5. The generating force therefore configures its capabilities for participation in operations in response
    to a specific operational need. This occurs either in the course of ongoing operations or as anticipated in
    contingency or crisis action planning. These capabilities then are dissolved and reabsorbed into the
    generating force with the passing of that operational need. The generating force can provide its capabilities
    for specific operational support much more effectively when the capabilities sought have been identified
    through contingency planning and then exercised and employed in accordance with established plans.

    3-6. Generating force capabilities for operational support are incapable of independent operations. When
    deployed, generating force capabilities are incorporated into existing formations and structures to provide
    sustainment, communications, and, most critically, security.

    Chapter 3

    3-2 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    SUPPORTING THE JOINT CAMPAIGN
    3-7. The following paragraphs describe, in general, how the joint force employs Army generating force
    capabilities to support operations throughout the six phases of a joint campaign:

    Shape.
    Deter.
    Seize the initiative.
    Dominate.
    Stabilize.
    Enable civil authority.

    This description is illustrative rather than exhaustive. It does not prescribe the conditions under which
    particular generating force capabilities are employed. In addition, generating force capabilities to support
    operations can be applied in any phase of a joint campaign. The following descriptions of the employment
    of particular capabilities are not intended to limit their use to a particular campaign phase.

    SUPPORT DURING THE SHAPE PHASE
    3-8. Joint forces continuously execute theater security cooperation and peacetime military engagement to
    establish conditions favorable to the conduct of future joint campaigns and major operations. Such
    operations deter or dissuade potential adversaries and assure or solidify relationships with friends and
    allies.

    3-9. Considerations during the “shape” phase include the intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB),
    the organization and training of joint forces, and establishing and maintaining access to the area of
    operations. Shaping operations can include the stability operations in support of the aforementioned
    considerations.

    3-10. Generating force support during shaping focuses on adaptation to the operational environment. Also
    inherent in the shape phase are measures that enable strategic reach. These include actions that facilitate the
    projection and employment of U.S. capabilities across strategic distances.

    3-11. Headquarters (HQ), U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) facilitates access to
    U.S. intelligence community products to support IPB and operation plan (OPLAN) development. Elements
    of the generating force provide analytical products that describe the operational environment’s dynamics,
    especially its nonmilitary aspects (political, economic, social, informational and infrastructure). For
    example, the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command’s (TRADOC’s) Foreign Military Studies Office
    has the capability to provide research and assessment of a country or region and pertinent security issues.
    This type of background and analysis of the operational environment enables preparation of operating
    forces. Analysts from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) can assess the state of infrastructure in
    the operations area and its implications for full spectrum operations. They typically perform this role in
    conjunction with other analysts (medical, civil support, and others) to achieve an integrated assessment.
    (See the appendix for further discussion.) For some requirements, the generating force actually conducts
    the necessary analyses. In other cases, such as analysis of cultural or economic matters, it leverages its
    access to academic and business knowledge centers. The generating force may support a deployed joint
    force J-2 or ARFOR G-2 with this type of information, for example. This support supplements operating
    force intelligence capabilities; it does not duplicate them. (See chapter 4.) This support begins early and
    extends throughout all phases of the joint campaign.

    3-12. Concurrently, U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) and other generating force elements
    organize and train operating forces to adapt to the operational environment. The generating force
    sometimes augments unit capabilities, providing specialized equipment and personnel. The generating
    force trains units and individuals under conditions that replicate the operational environment for their
    missions. (See paragraphs 4-57 through 4-79. See also the description of the contemporary operational
    environment (COE) in paragraph 4-93.)

    Employing the Generating Force

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 3-3

    Educating for Understanding: The University of Foreign Military
    and Cultural Studies

    To enable force-wide red teaming capability and improve decisionmaking under
    conditions of uncertainty, the Army established the University of Foreign Military and
    Cultural Studies (UFMCS) at Fort Leavenworth in 2006. UFMCS offers the 9- or 18-
    week Red Team Leader Courses and the 6-week Red Team Member Course. These
    courses provide the Army and sister Services a rigorous curriculum that includes
    cultural anthropology, western and nonwestern military theory, the science of
    semiotics, critical analysis techniques, and other topics. Upon graduation, Army
    officers are assigned to red teams embedded at division headquarters and above.
    These graduates continue to draw upon the University’s resources, including a
    network of subject matter experts in other government agencies, academia, and from
    other governments.

    3-13. Generating force organizations also contribute to shaping by establishing and operating forward
    bases to support force projection. If new bases are required or if existing bases require improvement,
    USACE constructs or improves them for joint force commanders. The U.S. Army Installation Management
    Command (IMCOM), in conjunction with the U.S. Army Reserve Command, provides capabilities to
    augment or assist in operating and managing such bases. (See paragraphs 5-1 through 5-23.)

    3-14. The U.S. Army Network Enterprise Technology Command/9th Signal Command (Army)
    (NETCOM/9th SC(A)) conducts operations to establish connections between deployed joint forces,
    national authorities, and supporting commands. (See paragraphs 5-74 through 5-85.)

    3-15. Generating force capabilities support stability operations within partner nations. Generating force
    efforts can address the reform of a partner’s security forces and the development, repair and maintenance
    of infrastructure.

    SUPPORT DURING THE DETER PHASE
    3-16. The intent of the “deter” phase is to deter undesirable adversary action by demonstrating the
    capabilities and resolve of the joint force. Joint force commanders also continue to shape the operational
    environment to facilitate future operations should deterrence fail. During this phase, joint force
    commanders focus intelligence collection efforts on likely adversaries and the operational environment.
    Also, they establish military and nonmilitary flexible deterrent options.

    3-17. Concurrently, the generating force continues and intensifies actions taken during the shape phase.
    Generating force organizations assist the joint force commander in identifying enemy centers of gravity.
    This allows the joint force to credibly threaten and, should deterrence fail, to strike them as part of
    operations to seize the initiative. The generating force also provides capabilities to enable strategic reach
    and to facilitate the commencement of the “seize the initiative” phase.

    3-18. Organizations with analytical capability continually develop and refine products that contribute to
    the analysis of information and the development of intelligence. They provide support with a wide array of
    analysis capabilities. In particular, Army analytical organizations, coordinated by the Center for Army
    Analysis, can provide capabilities to war-game courses of action and model the dynamics of the
    operational environment. (See paragraphs 4-7 through 4-14.)

    3-19. Generating force power-projection activities significantly increase during the deter phase.
    FORSCOM prepares selected units for deployment while the Military Surface Deployment and
    Distribution Command (SDDC) places ports into operation. Generating force organizations, in support of
    theater armies, provide base operations support and assist in preparing bases. These include cooperative
    security locations, forward operating sites, and intermediate staging bases. Specific operational support
    sometimes includes the deployment of capabilities for joint force commanders to conduct essential pre-
    operational training as a demonstration of resolve and capability.

    Chapter 3

    3-4 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    3-20. NETCOM/9th SC(A) expands or establishes the information infrastructure to support reception,
    staging, onward movement, and integration (RSOI) of forces. It also supports mission readiness exercises
    of expeditionary forces. In addition, NETCOM/9th SC(A) provides increased capabilities and services to
    forward bases.

    SUPPORT DURING THE SEIZE THE INITIATIVE PHASE
    3-21. The intent of the “seize the initiative” phase is to set the terms for decisive operations. Joint force
    commanders seek to exploit friendly advantages to shock, demoralize, and disrupt the enemy, and to enable
    sustained operations. This phase commences—

    When an enemy initiates hostilities.
    When the decision is made to commence offensive operations.

    3-22. Generating force organizations enable continuous and proactive adaptation to a constantly and
    rapidly evolving operational environment. While helping operating forces adapt to the operational
    environment, generating force organizations also begin to assess how well friendly and enemy forces are
    coping with that environment.

    3-23. Once hostilities commence, the joint force assesses the actual effectiveness of friendly and enemy
    capabilities. Based on this assessment, generating force organizations facilitate the adaptation of operating
    force capabilities across the domains of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education,
    personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF). This improves operational effectiveness and efficiency.
    Organizations within the generating force that provide capabilities to support assessment and adaptation
    include the following:

    Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA) G-3/5/7’s Asymmetric Warfare Group.
    TRADOC’s G-2 elements (such as the UFMCS).
    TRADOC’s Center for Army Lessons Learned.
    Center for Army Analysis.
    Army Capabilities Integration Center (ARCIC).
    Other academic and analysis capabilities residing in Army schools and centers.

    3-24. FORSCOM leads the Army force generation (ARFORGEN) process. ARFORGEN activities
    incorporate specific adaptations to prepare Army forces for the operational environment in which they will
    fight. Such adaptations include, but are not limited to, changes in—

    Unit organization.
    Tactics, techniques, and procedures.
    Equipment.

    Adaptations also include preparation for the social and cultural aspects of the operational environment.

    3-25. Generating force organizations enable strategic reach by helping to project Army capabilities. They
    also provide sustainment capabilities that enable the conduct of protracted operations. Army installations,
    operating under IMCOM, prepare Army forces for deployment and move those forces from installations to
    their ports of embarkation. The SDDC manages those ports of debarkation. It opens and operates ports of
    debarkation to support the continuous, large-scale surface deployment of U.S. forces.

    3-26. The U.S. Army Materiel Command’s (USAMC’s) Army Sustainment Command coordinates
    national sustainment base support to deployed and deploying Army forces and to joint, interagency and
    multinational forces as directed. USAMC also assesses the capabilities stationed forward in theater, such as
    forward repair activities (see paragraphs 5-36 to 5-38), and those provided through reach. Capabilities
    provided through reach include the retrograde of major materiel components, such as engines (see
    paragraph 5-39), required to support operations.

    3-27. NETCOM/9th SC(A) manages, controls, and defends the network. This facilitates collaboration
    between expeditionary forces and generating force information applications, networks, and systems.

    Employing the Generating Force

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 3-5

    3-28. Finally, generating force organizations provide support to joint force efforts to develop multinational
    partner capability and capacity. The generating force provides capabilities for emergency infrastructure
    development and restoration of essential services. In addition, it brings indigenous officials into the
    planning process for developing post-conflict security forces.

    3-29. Generating force organizations support the joint force commander’s plans for the development of
    host-nation security forces in support of stabilization. The HQDA G-3/5/7 has the lead for coordinating
    generating force activity in support of security force assistance. Depending on the maturity of preconflict
    plans, generating force organizations play major roles in—

    Finalizing strategic plans for host-nation force development and force integration.
    Developing organizational templates for force structure.
    Developing and translating appropriate doctrine into host-nation languages.
    Organizing, training, and equipping U.S. Army capabilities for assisting host-nation forces with

    training and other aspects of training and force readiness.

    To the maximum extent possible, such efforts incorporate input from the current and prospective host-
    nation officials and other U.S. government agencies and multinational partners. As much as possible, these
    efforts should be compatible with the host nation’s culture.

    3-30. Concurrently, USACE commands provide emergency support in the joint operations area, while
    preparing to support the reconstruction or development of host-nation infrastructure for stabilization.
    USACE integrates its planning with that of other U.S. government agencies, multinational partners,
    international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and other entities that share the goal of the
    host nation’s long term development and stabilization.

    SUPPORT DURING THE DOMINATE PHASE
    3-31. The “dominate” phase focuses on breaking the enemy’s will for organized resistance, or, in
    noncombat situations, establishing control of the operational environment. Joint forces concentrate on
    direct and indirect attacks on enemy centers of gravity until an adversary’s will and/or capability to resist is
    destroyed.

    3-32. Just as in the seize the initiative phase, the Army’s generating force supports the joint force with the
    full range of its capabilities. Emphasis in this phase shifts to—

    Enabling the joint force to conduct sustained operations through the attainment of U.S. strategic
    objectives.

    Preparing capabilities to enable the joint force commander to initiate and conduct a successful
    stabilize phase.

    3-33. The range of capabilities provided by the generating force includes the Asymmetric Warfare Group,
    the Rapid Equipping Force, TRADOC’s Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL), and elements of
    TRADOC’s G-2. These organizations provide support through forward deployed teams and reachback.
    They draw on the capabilities of other generating force organizations such as USAMC’s Research,
    Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) (see paragraph A-23), and Army Capabilities
    Integration Center (ARCIC) (see paragraph A-9). These capabilities enable deployed operating forces to
    adapt to their operational environment.

    3-34. More important, FORSCOM has the responsibility to provide a steady flow of Army forces
    optimized for the operational environment through ARFORGEN. (See paragraphs 4-78 through 4-102.)

    3-35. SDDC postures its ports of debarkation for sustained operations. In this way, the generating force
    augments and substitutes for scarce operational Army port units with generating force port management
    capabilities.

    3-36. As previously stated, USACE builds and repairs bases to support the joint force commander’s
    concepts of operations. When requested, IMCOM provides capabilities to operate and manage these bases
    for the joint force commander. Security, however, remains the responsibility of deployed operating forces.

    Chapter 3

    3-6 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    3-37. During the dominate phase, redeployment of select units may become a complex and important
    element of sustained operations, as individual operational Army organizations are relieved by other
    operational units and sent back to their home bases for reset. USAMC plays an important role in managing
    unit equipment, only some of which typically redeploys with the unit. USAMC either facilitates the
    transfer of the theater-provided equipment to replacement forces or retrogrades select items of equipment
    directly to depots for repair and overhaul. USAMC may expand its in-theater presence, deploying forward
    repair activities and other call-forward capabilities required to sustain protracted operations.

    3-38. NETCOM/9th SC(A) supports force projection information services and capabilities for port
    operations and the establishment of additional bases. NETCOM/9th SC(A) continues to provide enterprise
    services through networks that enable collaboration, information sharing, and battle command capabilities.
    In addition, NETCOM/9th SC(A) begins to assess opportunities to transition some functions to commercial
    networks to reduce the burden on tactical communications systems.

    The Development of the Free French Army in World War II

    Beginning with the liberation of French North Africa in 1943, the Allies were faced
    with the opportunity to organize and equip Free French formations and integrate Free
    French capabilities into operations. By late 1943, several French divisions had been
    formed, a process that was to continue throughout the remainder of the war. With
    U.S. logistic support, French forces acquitted themselves well in Italy and played a
    major role in Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France. During the
    breakout from Normandy and the subsequent pursuit of German forces across
    France, French forces were the lead elements in liberating Paris. Just five years after
    their crushing defeat at Germany’s hands, a revived French Army constituted an
    important element of post-war occupying forces.

    3-39. Generating force organizations also contribute to post-conflict stabilization by assisting in the
    development of host-nation security forces. The generating force assists with initial efforts toward the
    development of host-nation operating forces. These efforts include the demobilizing, screening, and
    reintegration of host-nation forces; the promulgation of revised doctrine; the establishment of individual
    and collective training programs; leadership and education; new equipment training; and other efforts. The
    organization, training, and deployment of U.S. advisory teams for integration into host-nation forces
    constitute an important element of such efforts.

    3-40. USACE engineer commands continue to lead efforts to conduct restoration of essential services and
    allow the flow of humanitarian aid. In coordination with other multinational agencies, international
    organizations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and other entities, USACE commands initiate
    additional efforts contributing to the stabilization of the host nation.

    SUPPORT DURING THE STABILIZE PHASE
    3-41. Joint campaigns require a “stabilize” phase when a legitimate civil government is limited or not
    functioning, following the successful conclusion of the dominate phase. In such cases, the conduct of the
    stabilize phase may well determine the outcome of the campaign. Key considerations for the joint force
    commander during this phase include the Army’s five stability tasks:

    Civil security.
    Civil control.
    Restore essential services.
    Support governance.
    Support economic and infrastructure development.

    3-42. In this phase, the generating force emphasizes its capabilities to develop the host nation’s capability
    and capacity to secure itself, and to repair or develop, manage, and maintain infrastructure. Generating

    Employing the Generating Force

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 3-7

    force organizations continue to provide support with the full range of capabilities in preceding phases, but
    at a reduced scale commensurate with diminished intensity of operations.

    3-43. HQDA G-3/5/7, supported by TRADOC, USAMC and other generating force organizations,
    provides capabilities to conduct large-scale force development and force integration activities. These
    activities include organizing, training, equipping, rebuilding, and advising partner security forces. Such
    activities continue and extend the steps taken in previous phases, but emphasis shifts from the development
    of immediate host-nation operating force capabilities to the balanced development of security forces and
    supporting institutions. This development reflects a thorough assessment of host-nation security needs and
    capability to field and sustain the required security forces. Input from host-nation officials will increasingly
    govern ongoing organizational design, force structure, doctrine, and equipment for host-nation forces as
    the host-nation government matures. (See paragraphs 6-4 through 6-31.)

    3-44. Concurrently, USACE provides capabilities to joint force commanders and other U.S. government
    agencies for the infrastructure development necessary for a self-sustaining host-nation society and
    economy. During this phase, NETCOM/9th SC(A) coordinates and synchronizes efforts to provide
    operating forces with access to commercial communications and computer network capabilities.

    SUPPORT DURING THE ENABLE CIVIL AUTHORITIES PHASE
    3-45. During this phase, the joint force’s goal is to enable the viability of host-nation civil authority and its
    provision of essential services to the largest number of people in the region. This can be accompanied by a
    decrease in U.S. force presence (through redeployments) as the host nation assumes a greater role in
    security, governance, and the provision of public services.

    3-46. The generating force supports the joint force’s conduct of the “enable civil authorities” phase by
    continuing its support for developing multinational partner capability and capacity initiated during the
    dominate phase. Generating force organizations also enable the large-scale redeployment of U.S. forces
    and facilitate the placement and conduct of support to residual U.S. forces remaining in theater on a
    routine, cost-efficient basis.

    PLANNING SUPPORT FOR OPERATIONS
    3-47. Accessing generating force capabilities for supporting ongoing operations begins with planning.
    Initial planning consists of contingency planning and crisis action planning. Plans are informed by and
    incorporate the generating force’s operational capabilities.

    3-48. Army Service component commands (ASCCs) are the nexus where generating force capabilities are
    incorporated into operational planning. This is where generating force organizations are included in the
    planning effort as appropriate. HQDA G-3/5/7 and FORSCOM facilitate collaboration between ASCCs
    and generating force organizations. Where possible, plans—

    Identify generating force capabilities needed to support the combatant commander’s theater
    operational concept throughout the phases of the campaign or major operation.

    List generating force organizations that will provide in-theater required capabilities.
    State priorities of support.
    Specify the command relationships between the supported combatant commander or designated

    joint force commander, the ASCC, and the supporting generating force organization.

    3-49. As the Army’s representative to the Global Force Management Board, FORSCOM plays a crucial
    role in integrating generating force operational support. HQDA G-3/5/7 retains oversight of generating
    force capabilities. FORSCOM ensures that the Global Force Management Board is aware of these
    capabilities and recommends their employment to meet specific capabilities requirements.

    3-50. As part of its review of contingency and crisis action plans, the HQDA G-3/5/7 verifies that plans
    incorporate appropriate generating force capabilities. HQDA ensures that generating force organizations
    make adequate preparations to support those plans.

    Chapter 3

    3-8 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    3-51. When ongoing operations require generating force capabilities, the ASCC notifies FORSCOM, other
    relevant generating force organizations, and HQDA. The organizations affected then develop
    recommendations for providing the capability required. Such recommendations—

    Specify the mix of uniformed, Army civilian, and contractor personnel providing the requisite
    capabilities through reachback and deployed teams.

    Identify the command, control and support requirements needed to provide the required
    capability, subject to HQDA approval.

    Specify when and for how long the capability will be required.

    3-52. In the course of security cooperation planning, the Army Security Cooperation Implementation Plan
    prescribes Army support, including generating force support, to geographic combatant commander security
    cooperation activities.

    3-53. Planning for the employment of generating force capabilities is not restricted to the operational level
    of war. Clearly, some capabilities, such as security force assistance, are almost exclusively operational in
    nature. Others, such as the adaptation of operating forces, can be applied at any level.

    PROVIDING CAPABILITIES
    3-54. Army commands and direct reporting units provide generating force capabilities to meet operational
    requirements as directed. HQDA G-3/5/7 is responsible for identifying generating force capabilities that
    can meet operational requirements, and for coordinating the provision of those capabilities by Army
    commands and direct reporting units. Usually, HQDA G-3/5/7 coordinates such support for operations
    with generating force organization directorates of operations.

    3-55. Upon receipt of an execution order, generating force organizations ready the required capabilities for
    employment. Employing generating force capabilities does not necessarily require deployment of all or
    even part of an organization. The generating force can provide a significant degree of support through
    reachback.

    3-56. Potential measures include, but are not limited to—
    Organizing capabilities for employment.
    Reassigning personnel within the organization as necessary.
    Establishing 24-hour operations centers.
    Establishing secure communications links with the supported operating force organizations to

    enable support through reachback.
    Conducting Soldier readiness processing for deploying generating force elements.
    Mobilizing additional capacity to avoid prolonged degradation of the organization’s capability

    and capacity to execute its primary mission, the generation and sustainment of operational Army
    capability and capacity.

    3-57. Generating force organizations do not simply respond to requests for support. They anticipate the
    support operating forces will require. Given the comparatively long lead time required to mobilize
    capabilities to support operations, providing capabilities when and where needed requires considerable
    foresight.

    3-58. While generating forces ready their capabilities, operating forces make the necessary arrangements
    to enable generating force organizations to support them. Operating forces coordinate the necessary
    transportation, sustainment, communications facilities, and security for deploying generating force
    elements. Most importantly, operating forces provide supporting generating force organizations with
    access to their common operational picture. This enables the supporting organizations to anticipate
    requirements and provide support when and where it is needed.

    Employing the Generating Force

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 3-9

    ACCESSING CAPABILITIES
    3-59. Operational forces request generating force capabilities for operational support. They do not request
    particular units. This same principle applies to accessing all joint force capabilities.

    3-60. The HQDA G-3/5/7 plays the central role in enabling operating forces to access generating force
    capabilities by—

    Facilitating coordination between ASCC planners and generating force organizations.
    Identifying operating force requirements for landpower capabilities that can be met by the

    generating force.
    Advocating the use of generating force capabilities in the global

    force management process.

    Directing generating force organizations to develop and commit their capabilities to support

    operations.

    3-61. Operating forces access generating force capabilities in the same manner they access other
    supporting capabilities. Commanders identify the need for a particular kind of support and request it
    through operations (S-3/G-3/J-3) channels. If the requested capabilities are already available at the next
    echelon, higher commanders allocate them and assign priorities in the same manner they use to allocate
    operating force capabilities. If the requested capability is not available, commanders forward the request to
    the next higher echelon. The S-3, G-3, or J-3 normally manages this process on behalf of the commander.

    3-62. Requests for specific generating force support include a concise and accurate description of the
    capability required (but not a predetermination of the source of that capability). As with any request for
    support, the process begins with the recognition that the requesting unit lacks the organic capability to
    perform a given task. The requesting unit therefore describes the—

    Task to be performed.
    Conditions under which it is to be performed.
    Capability required.
    Duration of the task.
    Time frame in which the capability is required.

    3-63. Given the specialized nature of generating force capabilities and the generating force’s relatively
    limited capacity to participate in ongoing operations, it is probable that generating force capabilities will
    not be available within the geographic combatant commander’s area of responsibility. In this case, a
    request for capability is forwarded through the force management division of an ASCC’s movement and
    maneuver directorate. This directorate forwards the request as a separate request for forces/request for
    capability. See enclosure R to CJCSM 3122.01A.

    3-64. When direct liaison is authorized, ASCC planners begin informal coordination and collaboration
    with FORSCOM, HQDA G-3/5/7, and appropriate Army commands and direct reporting units. They do
    this as soon as they begin development of a formal request for capabilities that may require the
    employment of generating force support. The purpose of such coordination is to refine the description of
    the capability to be provided and assess the Army’s ability to provide it in the required time frame. The end
    result of this process is a formal request for capabilities.

    3-65. Once the request for capability is approved by the Global Force Management Board, FORSCOM
    then nominates a specific generating force capability as a sourcing solution. Upon receipt of an execution
    or deployment order, the Secretary of the Army then formally directs specific generating force
    organizations to provide the required capability.

    3-66. The participating generating force organizations establish direct coordination with supported
    operating forces at the earliest possible opportunity. This ensures that the capabilities being developed meet
    the operational requirement.

    Chapter 3

    3-10 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    Forming a Local Self-Defense Force

    A division commander conducting stability operations identifies the need to develop a
    local self-defense force, responsive to local government officials, to help provide
    security for the population in the area of operations. The commander assesses that
    the forces lack the organic force management capability to design, organize, equip
    and sustain such a force. However, subordinate brigades can implement individual
    and collective training programs. The division commander therefore requests
    assistance with the mission from the theater army, acting as the multinational force
    land component command.

    Determining that organizations assigned to theater also lack the required capability,
    the ASCC force management division initiates development of a request for
    capability (RFC). The force management division initiates informal coordination with
    FORSCOM, HQDA G-3/5/7, and TRADOC to determine whether the Army can
    provide the required capability by the time it is needed, and to refine the RFC. The
    ASCC’s combatant command then forwards the refined RFC to U.S. Joint Forces
    Command for sourcing through the global force management process.

    Concurrently, HQDA G-3/5/7 tasks its directorate of force management (G-37 [Force
    Management]) to lead an integrated product team in developing a sourcing solution
    to meet the RFC. This team, which includes TRADOC and USAMC’s U.S. Army
    Security Assistance Command (USASAC), as well as other elements of HQDA,
    recommends that the Army provide force development capabilities (see paragraphs
    6-19 to 6-26) through reachback, and initial force integration capabilities (see
    paragraphs 6-27 to 6-28), to include leader training and new equipment training by
    deploying mobile training teams. HQDA G-37 will augment the division’s staff with a
    force management liaison team to coordinate the application of these capabilities
    and to integrate local officials into the force management process.

    Once the Global Force Management Board recommends approval of a refined RFC
    and the Army’s proposed sourcing solution, the Secretary of Defense directs its
    employment in a deployment order. This leads to the conversion of the integrated
    product team into a task force composed of a force management liaison team to be
    deployed to theater; elements of HQDA, TRADOC, and USAMC for force
    development and force integration planning through reachback; and mobile training
    teams to conduct force integration. After predeployment training, the force
    management team deploys to theater, while HQDA G-37 [Force Management] leads
    an accelerated force development process that results in doctrine, organizational
    designs, a rudimentary force structure, and an equipping strategy that standardizes
    locally available weapons and provides communications equipment. The integrated
    product team also develops individual and collective training and certification
    programs. The deployed force management liaison team coordinates all plans with
    the local officials and integrates their input.

    Mobile training teams then deploy to theater to assist with the formation of the self-
    defense force, leveraging the training capability of the supported division’s brigades.
    Upon completion of the mission, the task force disbands and its forward elements
    redeploy.

    Employing the Generating Force

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 3-11

    3-67. Army field support brigades and contracting support brigades provide operational commanders a
    single point of contact for accessing much of the generating force’s acquisition, logistic, technology, and
    contingency contracting capabilities. Army field support brigade and contracting support brigade elements
    reach into each division, brigade combat team, and aviation brigade. While these brigades are operational
    Army units, they provide a conduit through which operating forces can access generating force capabilities
    for acquisition, logistic, technology, and contingency contracting.

    3-68. Generating force capacity for participating in specific operations is relatively limited. Therefore,
    commanders prioritize and allocate generating force operational support carefully. This support is used
    when the generating force possesses a clear advantage in effectiveness and efficiency over operating
    forces.

    This page intentionally left blank.

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 4-1

    Chapter 4

    Adapting to the Operational Environment

    The generating force enables operating forces to understand and adapt to a volatile
    and complex operational environment. Generating force intellectual capital and
    analytical capabilities facilitate understanding of the operational environment. Other
    generating force capabilities allow operating forces to exploit that understanding and
    adapt. Generating force capabilities help operating forces respond to the general
    operational environment and to the specific operational needs of a given campaign or
    major operation. The generating force sustains those capabilities as long as required,
    under conditions of protracted conflict.

    UNDERSTANDING THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
    4-1. To prevail in operations, U.S. and partner forces seek to understand the operational environment
    more rapidly and effectively than enemies and adversaries. U.S. and partner forces must win the battle to
    learn and adapt. The operational environment is dynamic, and operating forces must understand the likely
    implications of interactions among every component. This includes the political, military, economic, social,
    information, and infrastructure variables, as well as the physical environment and time. Also, it includes
    interactions of engagements, battles, campaigns, and tasks.

    4-2. The ability to understand and even to model these interactions is based on operations research and
    systems analysis (ORSA). In addition, the importance of the legal dimension of the operational
    environment has increased, and the generating force provides support for understanding and mastering this
    factor.

    4-3. Traditionally, to understand the operational environment, the Army used general templates based on
    an analysis of adversaries as systems of systems. Operating forces could apply the templates in a specific
    operational environment. Today, Army forces are faced with adaptive, asymmetric opponents and multiple,
    rapidly evolving elements of the operational environment. Now, the generating force collaborates directly
    with operating forces to understand a specific environment.

    4-4. The generating force provides capabilities to operating forces for identifying opportunities to adapt,
    for developing and implementing solutions, and for assessing the results. The generating force then
    transitions those adaptations, as appropriate, to other elements of the operational Army. Generating force
    organizations use their analysis of the operational environment and its implications to provide tailored
    landpower capabilities. Project Foundry is an example of this.

    Project Foundry
    Headquarters (HQ), Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) supports tailored
    immersion training through Project Foundry. Project Foundry is an operational
    readiness and training program to enhance tactical intelligence capabilities and
    provide regional expertise and technical training to the tactical military intelligence
    force. Project Foundry assists commanders in attaining intelligence certification and
    ensuring that military intelligence teams at the tactical level are prepared for tactical
    employment. Foundry provides Soldiers the opportunity to conduct real world
    intelligence operations to enhance their intelligence warfighting skills when not
    deployed in a tactical environment.

    Chapter 4

    4-2 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    4-5. Because of the increasing importance of understanding operational variables, the importance of
    generating force knowledge and analytical centers not traditionally associated with the intelligence
    community has also increased. Operating forces now draw on all generating force sources of analysis and
    information to understand specific operational environments.

    4-6. Generating force organizations provide operating forces with these analytical capabilities through
    intelligence reach. While operating force intelligence officers (J-2/G-2/S-2) are the primary integrators of
    all intelligence products, Soldiers and organizations responsible for understanding the operational
    environment integrate intelligence support with operations research and systems analysis to the maximum
    extent possible, at every level.

    KEY ORGANIZATIONS PROVIDING ANALYTICAL SUPPORT
    4-7. HQ, INSCOM facilitates analytical support to deployed S-2s and G-2s by assisting in linking them
    with the U.S. intelligence community. (See paragraphs 4-15 to 4-16.) HQ, INSCOM facilitates the
    provision of tailored immersion training to deploying military intelligence personnel, providing computer
    forensic capabilities, and supporting computer network operations. (For more about INSCOM, see
    paragraphs A-35 to A-36.)

    4-8. Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA) G-3/5/7’s Peacekeeping and Stability Operations
    Institute (PKSOI) provides research and analytical support of the political, economic, social, informational,
    and infrastructure aspects of a campaign. PKSOI can mobilize additional analytical capability and capacity
    from other generating force educational institutions, other U.S. government agencies, private industry, and
    academia.

    4-9. U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) G-2 provides a substantial capability to
    analyze the operational environment. It provides handbooks and operational environment assessments that
    capture enemy tactics, techniques, and procedures and relationships among the variables of the operational
    environment. TRADOC G-2 also maintains a current assessment of the state of the operational
    environment as a tool to guide and assess the development of needed doctrine, organization, training,
    materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) capabilities and likely enemy
    reactions or adaptations. Finally, they provide significant analytical and research capabilities through the
    University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies and the Foreign Military Studies Office in support of
    operating forces.

    4-10. The Center for Army Analysis, a field operating agency of the Deputy Chief of Staff, G-8,
    coordinates support from the generating force’s ORSA community to deployed operating forces. In
    particular, the Center for Army Analysis provides campaign plan modeling and analysis, using a
    combination of reachback and deployed analysts.

    4-11. The TRADOC Analysis Center, a special activity reporting to the TRADOC Commander, serves as
    TRADOC’s principal analytical organization. Staffed by military and civilian operations research analysts,
    it provides diverse research and analysis at the tactical and operational levels across TRADOC. It supports
    deployed operating forces and those preparing to deploy through a combination of deployed analysts and
    reachback.

    4-12. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), a direct reporting unit of HQDA, supports the
    operational Army and other members of the generating force with technical engineering expertise to
    conduct geospatial and terrain analysis, base camp and infrastructure master planning, and hydrologic
    analysis. Forward engineering support teams and reachback provide the operational Army with the
    capability to quickly analyze bridges, airfields, utilities, and other structures to determine suitability to
    support and sustain operational requirements. The USACE Engineering Research and Development Center
    (and other centers of excellence) provide analytic support for military construction and antiterrorism and
    force protection design and planning. They also provide environmental compliance and conservation, flood
    control, chemical demilitarization, and the Theater Construction Management System. (For more about
    USACE, see paragraph A-30.)

    4-13. The U.S. Army Medical Command’s Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, located
    at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, maintains the Global Threat Assessment Program that supports the

    Adapting to the Operational Environment

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 4-3

    identification and assessment of environmental threats and hazards in deployed settings. The center can
    deploy elements to sample the environment and quantitatively judge the operational and environmental
    risks posed by these threats and hazards.

    4-14. The U.S. Army Judge Advocate General Legal Center and School’s Center for Law and Military
    Operations is a joint and multinational organization. Its mission has three main parts. It collects and
    synthesizes data relating to legal issues arising in military operations. It manages a central repository of
    information relating to these legal issues. Finally, it disseminates resources about these issues to facilitate
    the development of DOTMLPF solutions as these areas affect the military legal community. Additionally,
    the center provides assistance to legal teams, preparing to deploy or deployed, on exercises and operations.
    Also, it coordinates with the Judge Advocates and paralegal observer-controllers at the combat training
    centers to identify current legal issues and trends rotational units confront.

    INTELLIGENCE SUPPORT TO OPERATIONS
    4-15. Generating force intelligence capabilities draw on the resources of the many intelligence
    organizations within and outside the Department of Defense (DOD) to understand the operational
    environment. These organizations are known collectively as the intelligence community. The intelligence
    community consists of DOD and Department of State intelligence organizations, the Central Intelligence
    Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the intelligence directorates of other agencies and
    departments. Title 50, U.S. Code, tasks the Army with supporting the larger intelligence community. HQ,
    INSCOM leverages its Title 50 responsibilities to support operating forces with national-level intelligence.

    4-16. HQ, INSCOM provides intelligence support to operations via nonsecure internet protocol router
    network, secret internet protocol router network (SIPRNET), the Joint Worldwide Intelligence
    Communications System (JWICS), and multinational systems. INSCOM continually maps and mines data
    from these various systems, allowing it to provide a single point of contact for existing intelligence
    information. HQ, INSCOM pushes data from these several networks to intelligence consumers, using the
    consumers’ networks. For example, collateral information from JWICS is sanitized and communicated via
    SIPRNET, while unclassified, confidential, and secret information are pulled up to networks that operate at
    a higher level of classification. HQ, INSCOM also manages an All-Source Intelligence Tear Line Reports
    Database that provides operating forces access to daily sanitized intelligence messages that would
    otherwise only be available via JWICS.

    4-17. Moreover, the generating force possesses significant capabilities, developed over time, to analyze
    and understand the enemy as a system of systems. The generating force integrates the collection of enemy
    doctrinal thought at the strategic, operational, and tactical levels with emerging technological trends and
    lessons learned. The lessons learned collection effort extends to conflicts in which the United States is not
    involved. Nowadays, the constant evolution of U.S. enemies and adversaries requires the generating force
    to develop threat templates for specific operational environments. The generating force updates the
    templates frequently in response to rapidly adapting, agile adversaries.

    4-18. Stability operations, in particular, require a heightened understanding of operational variables. The
    outcome of a campaign or major operation may well depend more on how it affects popular will and
    perceptions than it does on the relative combat power of the belligerents at its close. The analysis of
    operational variables is complicated by issues of language, culture, and economics. Generating force
    knowledge centers provide additional capacity in support of deployed and deploying operating forces,
    concentrating intellectual resources on these issues.

    Support to Force Generation
    4-19. Intelligence support to force generation refers to generating knowledge about an area of interest,
    facilitating future intelligence operations, and force tailoring. It includes establishing intelligence
    communications architecture and knowledge management to enable intelligence reach, collaborative
    analysis, data storage, processing, analysis, and intelligence production between the strategic and
    operational parts of the intelligence community. This generating force function supports operational
    intelligence through the development of tactical intelligence. Additionally, force generation intelligence

    Chapter 4

    4-4 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    supports staff planning and preparation by defining threats, forecasting future threats, and providing
    forewarning of enemy actions and intentions.

    4-20. The generating force is responsible for conducting area studies of foreign countries and operational
    environment assessments to assist in understanding operational variables as they affect multinational, host-
    nation, and indigenous forces. All of these capabilities form a foundation for generating force intelligence
    support to operations.

    4-21. Based on the requirements of operating forces, the TRADOC Intelligence Support Activity generates
    operational environment assessments that provide a holistic look at a specific operational environment for
    use in individual and collective training. The assessments and related products provide significant insights
    to deployed elements that help them in understanding these operational environments.

    4-22. Generating force organizations, particularly the U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency, support
    sensitive site exploitation. Sensitive site exploitation consists of a related series of activities inside a
    sensitive site captured from an adversary. A sensitive site is a designated, geographically limited area with
    special military, diplomatic, economic, or information sensitivity for the United States. Examples of
    sensitive sites are—

    Factories with technical data on enemy weapons systems.
    War crimes sites.
    Weapons of mass destruction sites.
    Critical hostile government facilities.
    Areas suspected of containing persons of high rank in a hostile government or organization.
    Terrorist money laundering locations.
    Document storage areas for secret police forces.

    4-23. These activities exploit personnel, documents, electronic data, and materiel captured at the site, while
    neutralizing any threat posed by the site or its contents. While the physical process of exploiting a sensitive
    site begins at the site itself, full exploitation may involve teams of experts located around the world. The
    generating force provides teams, either through the deployment of capabilities or through reachback.

    Support to Situational Understanding
    4-24. Support to situational understanding is providing information and intelligence to the commander to
    facilitate a clear understanding of the force’s current state in relation to the enemy and the environment.
    This contributes to the commander’s ability to make sound decisions. The J2/G2/S2 are primarily
    responsible for synthesizing and integrating information and intelligence; generating force organizations
    support operating force intelligence organizations with analysis and analytical products.

    4-25. Intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) is a systematic approach used by intelligence
    personnel to analyze information about the operational environment. The IPB process is used to—

    Define the operational environment.
    Describe the effects of the operational environment on enemy, adversary, and friendly courses

    of action.
    Evaluate the capabilities of enemy and adversary forces operating in the operational

    environment.
    Determine and describe enemy and adversary courses of action (COA).

    4-26. The generating force provides analytical products to support deployed J-2/G-2/S-2 officers in IPB.
    These products are discussed in the following paragraphs.

    4-27. The generating force analyzes characteristics of the joint operations area, including aspects of the
    information environment that affect friendly, adversary, and enemy operations. USACE provides
    topographic and broader geospatial analysis, including analysis of complex and evolving urban terrain,
    hydrology considerations, climactic ramifications, and other aspects of the physical environment.
    TRADOC G-2 produces operational environment assessments and other handbooks that facilitate a
    comprehensive understanding of the operational environment during the IPB process.

    Adapting to the Operational Environment

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 4-5

    4-28. The generating force identifies gaps in current intelligence holdings. The PKSOI surveys what is
    known and unknown, especially with regard to political, economic, social, information, and infrastructure
    aspects of the joint operations area, in conjunction with the USACE.

    4-29. The generating force provides identification and assessment of multiple enemy courses of action by
    employing predictive analysis techniques to anticipate future enemy actions, capabilities, or situations. The
    Center for Army Analysis, the TRADOC Analysis Center, and other organizations within the Army
    analytical community contribute to these assessments.

    4-30. The generating force establishes and maintains databases that encompass all relevant data sets
    pertinent to the operational environment.

    4-31. The generating force provides its determination of the enemy order of battle; capabilities; doctrine;
    equipment; and tactics, techniques, and procedures. For example, Army operations research, acquisition,
    and science and technology organizations such as the U.S. Army Materiel Command’s (USAMC’s)
    Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM) and the Army Test and Evaluation
    Command provide information about the technical capabilities of enemy weapons systems.

    4-32. The generating force identifies environmental hazards such as chemical, biological, and radiological
    materials; health threats; and toxic industrial material. The U.S. Army Medical Command’s Center for
    Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine supports this capability, primarily through its Global Threat
    Assessment Program.

    4-33. The generating force identifies threat high-value targets and develops threat models. Again, PKSOI
    can identify key leaders in adversary governments and in the civilian population. The generating force
    identifies key personnel among civilian populations and assesses the nature and extent of their importance.

    4-34. Generating force organizations assist deployed intelligence organizations with situation
    development. Situation development is a process for analyzing information and producing current
    intelligence about the enemy and environment during operations. This process helps identify and interpret
    indicators of enemy intentions, objectives, combat effectiveness, and possible enemy courses of action.
    Especially with the analysis of complex stability operations, generating force organizations can describe
    how enemy actions fit into an integrated diplomatic, informational, military, and economic strategy. They
    can help predict the next steps. They can also assess the likely results of enemy actions and current and
    planned friendly activities on the civilian population.

    Support to Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance
    4-35. Intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) is an integrated intelligence and operations
    function. ISR encompasses continuous planning, tasking, and employing of collection assets and forces to
    collect, process, and disseminate timely and accurate combat information and intelligence. The purpose is
    to satisfy the commander’s critical information requirements and other intelligence requirements. ISR
    primarily answers the commander’s priority intelligence requirements. As necessary, ISR assets collect on
    friendly force information requirements, especially those involving personnel recovery.

    4-36. The conduct of ISR is primarily the responsibility of operating forces. Nonetheless, generating force
    organizations help develop indicators and specific information requirements that provide intelligence
    support for full spectrum operations.

    Forensic Analysis Support
    4-37. Forensic analysis is the use of science and technology to establish facts or evidence, usually in
    support of legal proceedings. Forensics provides information that helps identify and locate insurgents and
    terrorists. Forensics also provides information about adversary capabilities against all types of challenge.

    4-38. The generating force has significant scientific and technical capability for analyzing physical
    evidence and captured enemy materiel. This capability provides combat information and intelligence that
    support critical information requirements such as the identification and capabilities of insurgents and
    terrorists.

    Chapter 4

    4-6 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    4-39. Forensic technologies include some biometrics, such as the use of fingerprinting and DNA.
    Biometrics is using measurable physical or behavioral traits to identify or verify the claimed identity of an
    individual. The Secretary of the Army is the executive agent for biometrics for the DOD. The Army’s
    biometrics task force operates and maintains the DOD’s repository for biometric data. Deployed units
    submit collected biometric data to the biometrics task force for matching and addition to the database.
    Currently, match results are processed and sent to the National Ground Intelligence Center and the
    submitting unit for further analysis and determination whether to detain, hold, or release suspected
    individuals.

    4-40. U.S. Army Medical Command’s Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, located at
    Aberdeen Proving Grounds, can also deploy elements to sample the environment (air, water, soil) for a
    variety of chemical compounds. This supports larger investigations and forensic studies.

    4-41. The RDECOM Forensic Cell plays a critical role in ensuring sharing of information throughout the
    DOD and other federal agencies supporting the development of new systems that detect and defeat radio-
    controlled improvised explosive devices. RDECOM conducts jammer development and modification and
    develops surrogate improvised explosive devices for countermeasure system testing, training, and
    demonstrations. RDECOM has science advisors at all major command headquarters.

    Support to Targeting and Information Operations
    4-42. The generating force provides intelligence support to targeting and information operations. This
    support provides the commander information and intelligence for targeting through lethal and nonlethal
    actions. It includes intelligence support to the planning, execution, and assessment of indirect fires;
    command and control engagement; and information engagement.

    4-43. The targeting process has four phases: decide, detect, deliver, and assess. The process covers the
    employment of lethal and nonlethal capabilities. Generating force organizations principally support the
    “decide” and “assess” phases through target development and the assessment of effects.

    4-44. Generating force organizations support target development by performing systematic analyses of
    selected systems and capabilities in the operational environment. The purpose is to determine high-value
    targets and the best method of engagement. High-value targets are not limited to enemy systems. They
    could include a segment of an indigenous population whose support is necessary to the attainment of U.S.
    and multinational objectives.

    4-45. Generating force organizations also contribute to combat assessment, especially with regard to the
    impact of military operations on populations and infrastructure. Combat assessment evaluates the overall
    effectiveness of force employment during military operations. In particular, the generating force assists
    with target system assessment, an estimate of the overall impact of force employment against a given target
    system. Quantifying inputs to the system, such as munitions expended against a given enemy force or
    stories broadcast to a targeted population, is relatively straightforward. On the other hand, assessment of
    the immediate effects, such as the destruction of an enemy weapons system, is somewhat more difficult but
    conceptually straightforward. Assessing the effects of a given action on an enemy’s net operational
    capability, however, is considerably more difficult. Assessment is primarily an intelligence responsibility.
    However, it requires input from other staff elements and organizations such as ORSA capabilities.

    OPERATIONS RESEARCH AND SYSTEMS ANALYSIS SUPPORT
    4-46. Operations analysis applies logical reasoning and sound processes to solve highly complex problems
    at the operational and strategic level when no readily apparent solutions exist. Operations analysis employs
    methods to perform tradeoff analysis, compare courses of action, determine the allocation of critical
    resources, and perform assessment of operational effectiveness. These methods are an integral part of the
    Army and joint leaderships’ decisionmaking processes to organize, man, train, equip, sustain, and resource
    the current and future force. Operations analysis supports commanders’ decisionmaking through sound
    reasoning and well constructed analytical models.

    Adapting to the Operational Environment

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 4-7

    4-47. The benefits of operations analysis extend further than the decisionmaking of the commander during
    operations. Operations analysis yields insight into how best to coordinate and integrate the activities of
    staff elements to achieve maximum efficiency and effectiveness within an organization. Operations
    analysis provides valuable insight into the most efficient way to sustain the force in areas such as resource
    analysis and the acquisition and sustainment of materiel to support adaptation.

    4-48. Generating force analytical organizations provide capabilities through an integrated combination of
    embedded analysts assigned or attached to Army or joint and multinational headquarters, or through
    reachback. Embedded analysts conduct analysis within their own capabilities. They reach back to
    generating force organizations when the complexity of a given problem exceeds their capability.

    4-49. Generating force operations research and systems analysis provides support to operations in several
    ways. One example is assessment of campaign plans, including the development of appropriate metrics.
    Another example is assessment of the effectiveness of operating force capabilities across the DOTMLPF,
    especially tactics, techniques, and procedures. Additionally, analysis of casualties includes the efficacy of
    personal equipment and implications for operating force tactics, techniques, and procedures

    4-50. Generating force analytical support to the current fight includes campaign modeling and analysis,
    stability operations analysis, force-on-force analysis, and weapon systems analysis. ORSA topics span
    DOTMLPF. Examples of generating force support through operations analysis include but are not limited
    to the five examples discussed in the following paragraphs.

    4-51. Theater campaign modeling and analysis focuses on the joint and multinational operational and
    strategic environment. These models incorporate weapon effectiveness data, unit formations, current war
    plans, and other factors in support of campaign analysis. Additionally, air and missile defense along with
    chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear operations (weapons of mass destruction elimination, active
    defense, passive defense, and consequence management) are analyzed at the tactical, operational, and
    strategic level.

    4-52. Generating force ORSA organizations provide force-on-force modeling and simulation. They
    develop scenarios, models, and simulations. They conduct research, analyses, and experiments to examine
    current and future operations across all echelons. These efforts range from analysis of individual entities
    and objects (such as Soldiers, weapons, and terrain features) to analyses of theater-level campaigns. These
    analyses are often supported by models that aggregate objects (battalions) at corps level. The Army
    Materiel Systems Analysis Activity leads Army efforts to model individual systems and subsystems and
    analyze their performance. The TRADOC Analysis Center leads Army efforts to model and analyze force
    performance and effectiveness at system level, tactical-unit and operational formation level, and up to
    corps level. The Center for Army Analysis models and analyzes the theater-level campaign.

    4-53. These organizations contribute to stability operations with a variety of analytic products. Some
    examples include the development of campaign plan assessment methods, convoy protection analysis,
    sensor placement recommendations, basing analysis, medical asset allocation recommendations, new
    materiel fielding, and utilization analysis. Other examples are IPB assistance, attack pattern analysis,
    economic forecasting, and force structure and size recommendations. Such ORSA capabilities assist in
    promoting a secure environment. This aids diplomatic and economic programs designed to eliminate root
    causes of instability. These efforts complement and reinforce overall stability operations.

    4-54. The generating force provides data collection and equipment analysis. The Research, Development,
    and Engineering Command’s Army Materiel System Analysis Activity leads Army efforts in modeling
    platform performance parameters and in data collection for Army systems. This agency rapidly provides
    the data and analysis from individual platforms and weapons to the life-cycle management commands so
    equipment can be improved as rapidly as possible. This information is also provided to the next-deploying
    units as lessons learned. Army Test and Evaluation Command also provides analytical capability within
    this arena.

    4-55. Analyses from ORSA organizations include programmatic analyses of sustainment and force
    structure, to aid decisionmaking. ORSA organizations mobilize and deploy simulation modeling, reducing
    costs. The cost of campaigns and major operations strongly affects domestic support and thus influences
    success or failure in a given mission. ORSA projects include force closure estimates, resource for

    Chapter 4

    4-8 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    mobilization and deployment data, lift asset requirements, pre-positioning recommendations, and high-
    level quick response courses of action analysis. ORSA organizations also conduct estimations of support
    force requirements and casualty analysis. They develop wartime class V and class VII requirements and
    compare theater logistic requirements to capabilities.

    LEGAL SUPPORT TO OPERATIONS
    4-56. Military operations are subject to legal requirements arising from domestic, international, and
    customary law. Legal issues, such as the disbursement of monies authorized and appropriated by the U.S.
    Congress, can quickly become very complex. Just as important, U.S. forces must understand the legal
    systems of host nations and occupied countries. These are part of the operational environment. Operational
    Army Staff Judge Advocates are trained and educated in these matters. Also, they receive support from the
    generating force, including organizations such as the U.S. Army Judge Advocate General’s Legal Center
    and School’s Center for Law and Military Operations.

    SUPPORT TO RAPID ADAPTATION
    4-57. U.S. and partner forces operate in a complex and rapidly evolving environment against adaptive and
    asymmetric foes. In this environment, the advantage goes to the force that most rapidly learns and adapts.
    The generating force helps operating forces adapt quickly. The Army develops capabilities to meet a broad
    range of threats, under the most likely conditions of employment. The Army seldom develops capabilities
    tailored to a specific, narrow contingency. Therefore, most Army forces must continually modify some
    aspect or aspects of their DOTMLPF capabilities to master the specific conditions under which they are
    employed.

    4-58. Commanders play the key role in adapting operational forces. They determine a need to adapt, either
    to exploit an inherent advantage in the operational environment or to defeat an enemy or adversary’s
    adaptation of its capabilities. Commanders develop the operational needs statements that lead to formal
    changes across the DOTLMLPF for their units. They are also responsible for implementing the required
    adaptation. The generating force provides commanders and their units a variety of capabilities for assessing
    the requirement for adaptation and assists in implementation.

    ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR OPERATIONAL ADAPTATION
    4-59. Adapting operating forces is a collaborative process, involving the operational Army and various
    organizations within the generating force. The following paragraphs describe organizations that play key
    roles in bringing generating force capabilities to bear for adaptation. As noted above, however, unit
    commanders drive change by identifying the opportunities for adaptation, choosing solutions, and
    integrating those solutions into their organizations.

    4-60. HQDA plays a vital role in adaptation by resourcing the required capabilities. While directing and
    resourcing the development of Army capabilities is a routine Title 10 function, these resourcing actions
    have an immediate impact on operational Army capabilities and the conduct of ongoing operations. In
    particular, HQDA reviews operational needs statements and approves or rejects them in accordance with
    overall Army priorities through the Army Requirements Review Board. The HQDA G-3/5/7 leads the
    review board process, supported by the HQDA G-8 and the rest of HQDA. The HQDA Chief Information
    Officer/G-6, Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology) (ASA(ALT)), and
    HQDA G-8 play an analogous role with regard to information technology systems. They review
    configuration changes, including software blocking plans, execution of those plans, and eventual
    certification. They resource the changes as appropriate. A thorough understanding of the operational
    environment informs this review and resourcing process, which must respond swiftly to operational Army
    requirements.

    4-61. The HQDA G-3/5/7’s Army Asymmetric Warfare Office (AAWO) assists operating forces in
    adapting their capabilities to mitigate or defeat asymmetric threats. In particular, the AAWO provides
    capabilities from two key organizations: the Asymmetric Warfare Group and the Rapid Equipping Force.

    Adapting to the Operational Environment

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 4-9

    4-62. The Asymmetric Warfare Group coordinates operations in support of joint and Army force
    commanders to mitigate and defeat specified asymmetric threats. The Asymmetric Warfare Group works
    not only to respond to but also to anticipate asymmetric threats. It focuses on the development and
    adaptation of tactics, techniques, and procedures. It also facilitates the integration of low-cost, off-the-shelf
    technologies into a unit’s capabilities. Asymmetric Warfare Group teams support deployed units and those
    preparing to deploy. Thus, they assist in developing successful adaptations and in transitioning adaptations
    to units preparing to deploy.

    4-63. The Rapid Equipping Force provides operational commanders with rapidly employable materiel
    solutions to enhance lethality, survivability, and protection through insertion of commercial and
    government off-the-shelf technologies and future force technologies

    4-64. In conjunction with ASA(ALT), USAMC provides science and technology support and research,
    development, and acquisition support to the adaptation of operating forces. In particular, RDECOM’s
    mission is to deliver the right integrated technologies into the hands of Soldiers quickly. This mission
    supports the Army and DOD goal of ensuring operating forces have the requisite capabilities. It also
    supports the accelerated fielding of capabilities to operating forces. RDECOM works in conjunction with
    ASA(ALT); USAMC’s other life-cycle management commands; and other elements of the acquisition,
    logistics, and technology community. Through this cooperation, RDECOM builds and maintains
    situational awareness about the kinds and maturity of military and civilian technologies with military
    application. RDECOM solicits information to address urgent capability shortfalls among various research,
    development, and engineering centers; the Army Research Laboratory; and International Technology
    Centers. In partnership with other Army organizations, including FORSCOM, TRADOC, USACE, the
    Army Test and Evaluation Command, and the Rapid Equipping force, RDECOM provides a conduit
    through which materiel solutions are quickly integrated into existing operational capabilities. USAMC and
    ASA(ALT) also assist in developing the necessary supply chain to support equipment fielded through the
    Rapid Equipping Force. USAMC and ASA(ALT) provide acquisition, logistic, and technology support
    through reachback and call forward, coordinated by deployed Army field support brigades (AFSBs).

    4-65. As the Army’s proponent for asymmetric warfare, TRADOC plays an important role in the
    adaptation of operational capabilities, especially the transition of successful adaptations to units preparing
    for deployment. The Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL), Army Capabilities Integration Center
    (ARCIC), and TRADOC G-2 are TRADOC organizations with a primary focus on operational adaptation.

    4-66. CALL collects, analyzes, disseminates, integrates, and archives Army, joint, interagency, and
    multinational observations; insights; lessons; and tactics, techniques and procedures to support full
    spectrum operations. CALL acts at the request and direction of the supported commander, within the
    boundaries the commander sets. In particular, CALL facilitates time-sensitive, situation-specific adaptation
    of tactics, techniques, and procedures, and in conjunction with other agencies, helps disseminate and
    integrate those adaptations to other elements of the force.

    4-67. ARCIC’s Accelerated Capabilities Developments Directorates’ Asymmetric Warfare Division
    enables the accelerated integration of capabilities (materiel and nonmateriel) to the current force. The
    division does this in conjunction with the Rapid Equipping Force, RDECOM, and other generating force
    organizations. Based on a comprehensive analysis of operational needs statements, combatant commander
    integrated priority lists, and lessons learned developed by CALL, ARCIC develops capabilities for
    integration across the force. The division’s emphasis is on capabilities that can be delivered within eighteen
    months. ARCIC also plays a major role in integrating successful operational adaptations to the larger Army
    and into the design of the future force.

    4-68. TRADOC G-2 provides a look from the threat (red) perspective on new capabilities and expected
    actions and reactions.

    4-69. As manager of Army force generation (ARFORGEN), FORSCOM ensures that useful adaptations
    are transitioned to forces alerted for employment by an execute order. In particular, FORSCOM ensures
    that mission rehearsal exercises conducted at combat training centers integrate relevant lessons learned
    from the field and enhance the integration of materiel capabilities.

    Chapter 4

    4-10 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    ADAPTING OPERATING FORCES
    4-70. Because adaptation is an operational requirement for Army forces, planners ensure generating force
    capabilities for adaptation are included in operational planning. For example, force planners coordinate
    with the Rapid Equipping Force and Asymmetric Warfare Group to determine the appropriate support for
    deployment.

    4-71. Adapting operating forces follows a five-phase process. The five phases, discussed in succeeding
    paragraphs, are—

    Identification of a need for adaptation, either to exploit an opportunity in the operational
    environment or to respond to adversary adaptation.

    Development of a viable capability (DOTMLPF ) solution.
    Implementation of that solution.
    Assessment.
    Transition of the capability solution to the rest of the Army, as appropriate.

    4-72. These phases are not necessarily sequential, and they often occur in parallel. Generating force
    organizations in particular maintain continuous awareness of current tactical and operational problems and
    their potential technological solutions. Organizations with analytical capabilities remain heavily involved
    throughout the process.

    4-73. The identification of the need to adapt can, in fact, come from any element of the force. As noted,
    elements of the generating force can independently identify a need based on their analysis of existing
    operational needs statements, lessons learned, and combatant commander integrated priority lists. Usually,
    however, unit commanders identify a need for adaptation based on their experience of the operational
    environment, focusing on local conditions and adversary capabilities. At this point, commanders have a
    variety of resources available to them. One resource is to consult with their associated team from the
    Asymmetric Warfare Group. Another is requesting support from a CALL collection and analysis team or a
    mobile training team. In addition, commanders can use CALL’s Request for Information system. A
    commander who deems a materiel solution necessary or advantageous develops an operational needs
    statement, either independently or in conjunction with one of the acquisition, logistic, technology, or
    contracting elements under the control of the deployed AFSB. For more on the process for developing,
    validating, and approving operational needs statements, see AR 71-9.

    4-74. Generating force organizations then begin development of a comprehensive DOTMLPF solution to
    the identified capability need. Solutions can range from a minor adjustment of tactics, techniques, and
    procedures to local conditions, to the introduction of new materiel capabilities. The goal is to develop a
    viable solution to the operational requirement that immediately enhances a unit’s capability, rather than
    waiting to seek an optimal and enduring solution. For a materiel solution, Army acquisition, logistic, and
    technology organizations provide an initial assessment of candidate solutions and a time estimate for
    implementation. A solution consists, in part, of the identified changes to a unit’s tactics, techniques, and
    procedures (doctrine); structure (organization); training program; materiel; leadership and education;
    personnel; and facilities. It also involves an integrated plan to implement those changes. TRADOC also
    provides capabilities to support rapid force development.

    4-75. Different generating force organizations take the initial lead to design and implement the DOTMLPF
    solution and plan, depending on the nature of the solution. If the solution lies primarily in the realm of
    tactics, techniques, and procedures, then the Asymmetric Warfare Group most likely takes the lead. If it is
    a materiel solution, the Rapid Equipping Force takes the lead. In all cases, the lead works with the
    supported commander and the rest of the generating force through reachback. The lead organization not
    only considers Army capabilities but also reaches out to joint and multinational partners for candidate
    solutions.

    4-76. Implementation is primarily the supported commander’s responsibility. The commander uses the
    plan developed by the lead generating force agency to make the necessary changes to the unit. Except
    under the most demanding conditions, units continue to train even while in combat, either during post-

    Adapting to the Operational Environment

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 4-11

    operations periods or while preparing for a mission. Commanders integrate the implementation plan into
    their ongoing training program.

    4-77. During and after implementation, operating force commanders and supporting generating force
    organizations assess the effectiveness of the change. Again, embedded analysts at division, corps and
    theater army level comprise an important element of this assessment effort. The logistic support element at
    the division and the brigade logistic support team (BLST) within brigade combat teams and aviation
    brigades provides a complementary analytical capability. The logistic support element and the brigade
    logistic support team give the operational commanders at brigade and above a direct link to the generating
    force, through the Army field support brigade. Depending on the assessment, the solution is transitioned to
    other elements of the Army as appropriate.

    4-78. Transition of the solution to other Army forces is a shared responsibility. Based on the nature of the
    requirement and solution, the ARFOR headquarters directs adoption of that solution by appropriate
    elements of the command. If the ARFOR headquarters determines the requirement and its solution
    represent an enduring condition within theater, FORSCOM and other generating force elements
    incorporate it as part of their efforts to prepare units to deploy in the context of ARFORGEN.

    4-79. In some cases, the solution may justify a permanent change to another part of the Army or the entire
    Army. A select number of rapidly spiraled capability enhancements are so effective they eventually
    transition to Army programs. In this case, an assessment by operational commanders and the generating
    force determines which capabilities being spiraled today have the greatest potential in the future force. A
    capability may have an Army-wide fielding as a whole, or it may address niche or specialized
    requirements. The Army Capabilities Integration Center is responsible to the Secretary of the Army and
    Chief of Staff, Army, for determining and integrating force requirements and synchronizing the
    development of DOTMLPF solutions across the Army.

    GENERATING CAPABILITIES FOR OPERATIONS
    4-80. Generating Army capabilities for specific operations requires two types of processes. One is the
    ongoing process of manning, training, equipping, and educating the Army for full spectrum operations.
    This is lies within the primary mission of the generating force. The second process is the activities that
    prepare Soldiers and units for a specific campaign or operation. This is the responsibility of the operational
    Army. The generating force focuses on its main mission, the general preparation of units to conduct full
    spectrum operations. This preparation is modified by units’ orientation on specific contingencies in
    accordance with their role in the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan. Combatant commanders prepare forces
    assigned to them for the specific campaigns or major operations to be conducted. The generating force
    supports the commander in this responsibility. In the traditional security environment, conflict was a
    possibility against which the nation hedged rather than an ongoing reality. This division of responsibilities
    was the most feasible in that environment. The current security environment necessitates a blend of the two
    processes.

    4-81. These traditional responsibilities remain unchanged. The generating force still prepares Army forces
    for full spectrum operations, against any enemy or adversary, anywhere in the world. The generating
    force’s primary concern remains its statutory role of preparing Army forces. Combatant commanders
    remain responsible to prepare assigned forces for their specific roles in major campaigns and major
    operations. The generating force supports combatant commanders in this latter responsibility to a large
    extent through reachback. Forces assigned to FORSCOM are prepared for general employment until
    assigned a specific mission.

    4-82. Through a shared understanding of the operational environment and its requirements, the generating
    force now plays a much greater role in preparing units for their operational mission. The generating force is
    responsible for enabling the Army to provide capabilities tailored to specific operational environments and
    that meet the specific requirements of joint force commanders. At a minimum, this requires orienting
    Soldiers and units to their specific operational environment. It may require the modification of unit
    capabilities or the development of entirely new capabilities to meet unanticipated operational needs. As
    noted, many of these capabilities reside in the generating force itself.

    Chapter 4

    4-12 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    4-83. Moreover, because of the current operational environment, the Army must sustain its operational
    capabilities through conditions of protracted conflict. ARFORGEN is the Army’s system for generating
    landpower capabilities that respond to the operational needs of joint force commanders and sustaining
    those capabilities as long as required. Guidance on the conduct and management of the ARFORGEN
    process is contained in the ARFORGEN Implementation Plan and is not covered in this manual. Instead,
    this manual describes the purposes of ARFORGEN that directly relate to generating force operational
    support.

    KEY ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR GENERATING LANDPOWER CAPABILITIES
    4-84. As noted, FORSCOM is the overall manager of the ARFORGEN system and serves as the Army
    Force Provider in the context of Global Force Management. Additionally, FORSCOM is responsible to
    identify requirements for landpower capabilities that do not exist in the Army’s inventory and to initiate the
    generation of new capabilities from existing resources. In developing these sourcing solutions, FORSCOM
    takes into account all potential and existing Army capabilities, including those managed by the generating
    force. Such capabilities include DOD civilians with unique capabilities and expertise managed by the
    Civilian Human Resource Agency.

    4-85. TRADOC develops the individual and collective training programs and scenarios used to prepare
    units for their operational mission. A key responsibility is the maintenance of the contemporary operational
    environment (COE), to inform training, leader development, and education throughout the force. When
    FORSCOM identifies the need for new capabilities, and HQDA approves those requirements, TRADOC
    designs them and develops the individual, functional, and collective training programs to bring them to
    fruition. TRADOC also plays an important role in monitoring the operational environment through its
    forward-deployed CALL theater observation detachments, in conjunction with the TRADOC G-2. The
    TRADOC G-2 monitors threat activities as they impact on the operational environment. CALL deploys
    collection and analysis teams to collect operational observations, insights, and lessons from deployed units
    in theater, and to provide those insights to redeployed units upon return to their home stations. TRADOC
    also provides new equipment or new organizational training teams to facilitate this process.

    4-86. Army Materiel Command is responsible, in conjunction with ASA(ALT), for resetting the force and
    for providing acquisition, logistic, technology, and contingency contracting support to globally deployed
    operational forces. Selected logistic support activities, within an installation’s Directorate of Logistics from
    the IMCOM, are under operational control to USAMC during the ARFORGEN process at designated
    installations. The selected activities assist in regenerating equipment and generating forces as required
    workload is allocated under the direction of the USAMC. The Military Surface Deployment and
    Distribution Command (SDDC) provides global surface deployment command and control and distribution
    operations as part of U.S. Army Transportation Command.

    4-87. AAWO also helps the entire generating force, especially TRADOC G-2, monitor the operational
    environment. It does this through its forward deployed teams from the Asymmetric Warfare Group and the
    Rapid Equipping Force. The Asymmetric Warfare Group also attaches teams to deploying units to help
    prepare them for the environment in which they will operate and the missions they will execute.

    4-88. NETCOM/9th SC(A) provides the communications infrastructure that allows the organizations
    generating Army forces to monitor the operational environment. NETCOM/9th SC(A) provides global and
    expeditionary communications to enable joint and multinational command and control. NETCOM/9th
    SC(A) leverages the Global Information Grid to ensure extension and reachback capabilities while
    operating, engineering, transforming, and defending LandWarNet (see paragraphs 5-74 through 5-75)
    across the entire spectrum of conflict. NETCOM/9th SC(A) accomplishes this mission with operational
    Army units linking its globally postured theater signal brigades, brigades, and its own enterprise
    capabilities, such as regional information managers.

    4-89. U.S. Army schools and centers, including the faculties of the U.S. Military Academy, the U.S. Army
    War College, and U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, provide the operating forces significant
    expertise on a wide variety of operational issues either as reachback or by means of forward deployed
    small teams. In addition, the PKSOI provides specific expertise in peacekeeping, stability operations, and
    irregular warfare.

    Adapting to the Operational Environment

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 4-13

    PREPARING EXISTING CAPABILITIES FOR EMPLOYMENT
    4-90. To the maximum possible extent, the generating force helps prepare operational Army formations for
    the specific environment in which they will operate. The generating force provides operational forces the
    personnel; equipment; and tactics, techniques, and procedures they will employ once deployed. Generating
    force organizations, therefore, maintain awareness of conditions within the joint operations area so they
    can provide tailored preparation to units. Depending on the operational environment, the organization,
    training, equipment, and personnel employed may differ considerably from the standard modified table of
    organization and equipment. However, the tactics, techniques, and procedures employed represent a fairly
    specific application of doctrine to the actual situation.

    4-91. The generating force assists commanders in preparing their organizations to encounter complex,
    even chaotic, situations encompassing competing operational themes. These include major combat
    operations, irregular warfare, peace operations, limited intervention, and peacetime military engagement.

    4-92. The generating force has several means at its disposal for preparing operating forces for the specific
    operational environment they will face. These are discussed in the following paragraphs.

    4-93. TRADOC’s G-2 maintains the COE, a holistic view of the operational environment in the near and
    mid term. The COE consists of the conditions, circumstances, and influences affecting the employment of
    military forces. It includes a full analysis of the variables of the operational environment. Used only in
    training, it serves as the basis for training scenarios, an opposing force model, and opposing force doctrine.
    It allows Soldiers and units to train against an adaptive, asymmetric enemy under physical and cultural
    conditions that resemble those in the operational area during mission readiness exercises.

    4-94. A mission readiness exercise is a mission-tailored training and rehearsal exercise for deploying units.
    It is conducted to reinforce a commander’s vision and intent and expose the unit to conditions
    approximating those in the theater of employment. The mission readiness exercise is conducted at a combat
    training center and may include a mission rehearsal exercise for the higher headquarters staff (division or
    corps). Some units with short deployment timelines cannot access a combat training center. They receive a
    mission readiness exercise at an alternate training site.

    4-95. A mission rehearsal exercise includes a staff-level exercise conducted as a culminating training event
    for deploying Regular Army and Reserve Component divisions. Units selected to perform a joint HQ
    mission receive joint personnel, equipment augmentation, and specialized training prior to deploying. The
    mission rehearsal exercise can be embedded in a mission readiness exercise when a division HQ provides
    command and control for the brigade combat team’s readiness exercise.

    4-96. Exportable training capability enables units to replicate combat training center capabilities at home
    station, albeit not to the same degree of intensity and realism. It is an adjunct to the Army’s combat training
    centers, which include the following: maneuver combat training centers, battle command brigade skills
    training, and support brigade warfighter exercises.

    4-97. Logistics force generation is managed by USAMC’s Army Sustainment Command—the continental
    U.S. (CONUS) theater sustainment command. Its purpose is to reset the force and prepare it for
    deployment in the areas of equipment and materiel management.

    4-98. Regular video-teleconferences between deploying division, corps, and other units with the units they
    will relieve prepare the deploying units to execute missions under anticipated conditions. Whether or not to
    conduct such conferences is a decision of the commanders involved; operational conditions and tempo may
    preclude routine involvement by the deployed unit. Nonetheless, the generating force facilitates such
    meetings by coordinating with the Army Service component command (ASCC) concerned and by
    providing facilities that enable such communications.

    GENERATING NEW CAPABILITIES
    4-99. In some cases, operations require a unit’s employment to differ from the purpose for which it was
    developed. One example is the employment of artillery and armor Soldiers as infantry in stability
    operations or in protracted counterinsurgency operations. Another is the employment of artillery and air

    Chapter 4

    4-14 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    defense artillery units as security forces for bases and convoys. TRADOC is responsible for developing
    organizational templates and training programs to accomplish this adaptation.

    4-100. In other cases, such as the development and deployment of military transition teams to Iraq,
    generating force organizations must rapidly develop unanticipated capabilities. If combatant commanders
    require a landpower capability not in the Army’s inventory, the generating force develops, fields, and
    projects such capabilities.

    4-101. The generating force prepares individuals to serve with deployed headquarters, both Army and
    joint. The generating force executes this mission at its power generation platforms and CONUS
    replacement centers.

    ANTICIPATING OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
    4-102. Generating force organizations monitor the operational environment to anticipate and generate the
    required capabilities. To a great extent, such monitoring is done through reachback, by reviewing ongoing
    operations, by collating and reviewing lessons learned by joint and Army organizations, and by reviewing
    other areas of generating force operational support. Generating force organizations remain prepared,
    however, to position observers forward in the joint operations area to independently assess ongoing
    operational requirements and transmit those requirements to their parent organizations. For example,
    CALL deployed over a dozen theater observation detachments in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and
    Operation Enduring Freedom at division-level units and higher.

    4-103. Army field support brigades can provide a mechanism in theater for the generating force to
    connect the operating force units with the operational command. Additionally, the Army can leverage field
    support brigade connectivity into the brigades and divisions to maximize information flow to the
    generating force while minimizing the footprint on the ground.

    4-104. Generating force parent organizations require the capability to receive and disseminate classified
    information through secure communications systems to forces preparing for deployment. These
    organizations practice effective operations security while maintaining connectivity with operating forces.

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 5-1

    Chapter 5

    Enabling Strategic Reach

    Strategic reach is the distance and duration across which the nation can project
    military power. Army generating force organizations enhance strategic reach by
    providing capabilities for projecting joint forces, sustaining those forces once
    deployed, and establishing the networks that enable operating forces to draw on the
    full range of Army and Department of Defense (DOD) capabilities.

    SUPPORT TO FORCE PROJECTION
    5-1. Force projection, the ability to project the military instrument of national power from the United
    States or another theater, in response to requirements for military operations (JP 5-0), is an identified area
    of joint interdependence. Force projection encompasses a range of processes including mobilization,
    deployment, employment, sustainment, and redeployment.

    5-2. The Army necessarily relies on air and sea transportation to project its capabilities into the joint
    operations area (JOA). The responsibility to move Army forces to and from ports of embarkation, assist in
    the management and operation of ports of embarkation and debarkation, and provide capabilities to
    geographic combatant commanders for conducting reception, staging, onward movement, and integration
    (RSOI) belongs to the generating force. The generating force also plays an important role in redeploying
    forces from the JOA.

    5-3. As noted, force projection is a significant area of joint interdependence because the Army relies on
    air and sea transportation to reach most theaters of operations. The Military Surface Deployment and
    Distribution Command (SDDC) is the Army Service component command (ASCC) to and primary
    interface with the U.S. Transportation Command (TRANSCOM). SDDC, therefore, plays a key role in
    coordinating surface movement, strategic surface and sea movement, and common user port management
    in the deployment of Army forces to theater and their redeployment from theater.

    5-4. Landpower capabilities, once generated, are projected for employment by joint force commanders.
    (Chapter 4 described the operational aspects of the generating force’s role in mobilizing or generating
    landpower capabilities.) Many capabilities may be employed without being deployed due to the reachback
    enabled by ongoing improvements to information technology. The generating force retains the
    responsibility to facilitate joint force commanders’ employment of its capabilities, whether deployed
    outside the continental United States (OCONUS) or not.

    5-5. Sustainment is another category of joint interdependence. Generating force sustainment
    organizations provide a continuum of support that integrates the sustainment base with operating forces.
    Generating force sustainment for operations emphasizes logistics and health service support. Sustainment
    is further discussed later in this chapter.

    ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR DEPLOYMENT AND REDEPLOYMENT
    5-6. U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has overall responsibility for the deployment of
    capabilities based in the continental United States (CONUS) to the JOA.

    5-7. U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM), through subordinate installations,
    supports unit commanders in the conduct of predeployment activities. Through its installation
    transportation offices, IMCOM plans and coordinates the movement of units from home station to ports of
    debarkation. IMCOM also provides capabilities to operate and manage bases on behalf of joint force

    Chapter 5

    5-2 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    commanders. Security for those bases, however, remains the responsibility of operating force commanders.
    IMCOM supports redeployment by facilitating movements from ports of debarkation to home station and
    by the conduct of reintegration activities.

    From Installations to Power Generation Platforms
    Throughout much of the 20th century, installations were simply locations where units
    lived and trained. While installations maintained facilities to deploy units to ports of
    debarkation, deployment was not a primary focus for the development and
    maintenance of installation infrastructure. During Operations Desert Shield and
    Desert Storm, however, it became apparent that installation capabilities to deploy
    units, especially armored and mechanized forces, had not kept pace with
    improvements in unit capabilities. The Army embarked on the Army Strategic Mobility
    Program to enhance installation capabilities to deploy units, mostly Regular Army.
    Installations became power projection platforms, in which the Army invested heavily
    to ensure their capability to move units from “fort to port.” These investments paid
    significant dividends during the deployments for Operation Iraqi Freedom. Reserve
    Component mobilization, however, lagged behind. Mobilization and training were
    conducted at a patchwork of mobilization stations, many of which lacked the
    infrastructure to train entire units or to deploy those units. Units would mobilize at
    various stations, consolidate at other locations for training, and then deploy from still
    other installations. This patchwork process introduced significant friction into the
    Army’s system for generating and projecting combat power, which depends on the
    continuous and cyclic employment of Reserve Component capabilities as an
    operational reserve. For this reason, the Army is establishing Power Generation
    Platforms, installations that provide continuous force generation, deployment, and
    training operations for active and Reserve Component forces. Power Generation
    Platforms will provide an integrated capability for generating Army capabilities,
    especially those from the Reserve Component, for operations.

    5-8. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a DOD contract construction agent responsible for
    the design, award, and management of construction contracts for projects (see DODD 4270.5 for the scope
    of USACE’s responsibilities). During contingency operations, the combatant commander may use USACE
    as a contract construction agent for design, award, and management of construction contracts in support of
    military operations. USACE can also provide facilities planning, contract administration, and technical
    engineering support to joint force commanders (for example, advanced base master planning, geospatial
    engineering, antiterrorism and force protection engineering, environmental engineering, and cold-weather
    mobility). USACE is the proponent for the design and functions of such bases.

    5-9. U.S. Army Materiel Command (USAMC) plays a critical role in force projection. USAMC manages
    Army equipment throughout all phases of deployment and redeployment. It maintains Army pre-positioned
    stocks, ashore and afloat. USAMC and the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, and
    Technology) (ASA(ALT)) manage equipment requirements for units undergoing modular conversions,
    theater-provided equipment, predeployment, and operational theater support and subsequent redeployment
    equipping. In accordance with the direction of Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA) and
    affected Army commands and direct reporting units, USAMC manages the redistribution of equipment
    affected by restationing, modularity, and impacts or changes requiring disposition of Army equipment and
    supplies. Through the Army Sustainment Command, USAMC assists FORSCOM with the rapid projection
    of Army forces to the JOA and their redeployment, integrates Army logistics with joint and strategic
    partners in the national sustainment base, and coordinates distribution plans with TRANSCOM and other
    strategic partners. SDDC is responsible for common-user land transportation and common-user ocean
    terminal services to deploy, employ, sustain, and redeploy U.S. forces. (See paragraphs A-18 to A-19 for a
    fuller description of USAMC’s mission and capabilities.)

    Enabling Strategic Reach

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 5-3

    DEPLOYING ARMY CAPABILITIES
    5-10. Deployment is the movement of forces to an operational area in response to an order. It encompasses
    all activities from origin or home station through destination, including predeployment events and
    intracontinental U.S., intertheater, and intratheater movement legs. This combination of dynamic actions
    supports the combatant commander’s concept of operations for employment of the force. It consists of four
    distinct phases:

    Predeployment activities.
    Home station to port of debarkation.
    Port to port.
    RSOI.

    5-11. The generating force’s primary roles in deployment are to—
    Support operational Army commanders in predeployment activities.
    Plan for and coordinate unit movement from home station to port of debarkation.
    Provide capabilities to TRANSCOM to operate ports.
    Provide capabilities to combatant commanders for the conduct of RSOI.

    USAMC also facilitates the deployment of operational Army units by maintaining Army pre-positioned
    stocks (APS), ashore and afloat, that reduce the amount of materiel to be transported from home station to
    the JOA.

    BUILDING BASES
    5-12. The generating force provides capabilities to develop and manage infrastructure. To manage existing
    ports, the SDDC can deploy terminal groups to open ports, but it cannot afford to commit these scarce
    assets indefinitely to mature theaters. Sustaining port operations over time requires employing host-nation
    capabilities and contractors in support of military operations. The command’s transportation groups and
    deployment and distribution support battalions manage these and other capabilities.

    5-13. The generating force provides capabilities to establish, operate, and manage bases in support of
    contingency operations. To support base development, USACE maintains base development teams that
    operating forces access through reachback. IMCOM also provides capabilities to operate and manage bases
    in support of joint force commanders. These capabilities have a contingency operations focus, emphasizing
    flexibility and responsiveness. Generating force organizations develop installations according to standard
    templates, modified as appropriate to local circumstances. This provides common levels of support for all
    of the Services. Operating force commanders provide security to bases within their areas of operation.

    5-14. In addition to standard base operations, the generating force provides combatant commanders
    capabilities for conducting theater-specific training. One example is ranges for the conduct of live fire
    exercises. Another is rehearsals and facilities for training in the use of electronic warfare. Other capabilities
    include training programs to refine the preparation of units and Soldiers for the operational environment.

    SUPPORT TO REDEPLOYMENT
    5-15. U.S. forces must sustain protracted operations, especially in irregular warfare. In this context,
    redeployment is an essential operational mission, conducted under combat conditions. Effective and
    efficient redeployment avoids operational pauses, contributes to the maintenance of landpower capabilities
    over the long term, and helps preserve the Army’s morale.

    Chapter 5

    5-4 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    Phases of Redeployment
    5-16. The generating force provides capabilities to support the four phases of redeployment:

    Redeployment preparation.
    Movement to and activities at the port of embarkation.
    Movements to ports of debarkation.
    Movement to home or demobilization stations.

    5-17. Redeployment preparation is actions taken out of contact to ready a unit for its redeployment to
    home station. During this phase, the primary generating force role is to manage the disposition of unit
    equipment that will either remain in theater as theater-provided equipment (see paragraph 5-57) or be
    subject to retrograde to the sustaining bases for repair or upgrade.

    5-18. The deployed ARFOR headquarters is responsible for facilitating units’ movement to ports of
    embarkation. SDDC manages sea ports of embarkation and prepares military traffic for movement by sea.
    It also provides capabilities, either with organic assets or through contract carriers, to move unit equipment
    from ports of embarkation to ports of debarkation.

    5-19. IMCOM, through its subordinate installations, also facilitates unit movement from ports of
    debarkation to home station. IMCOM, in coordination with FORSCOM, USAMC, National Guard Bureau,
    U.S. Army Reserve (USAR), and other generating force organizations, also facilitates the conduct of
    reintegration and demobilization as units return from the JOA. Reintegration includes activities to recover
    equipment and personnel, demobilization processing, and all other activities necessary to facilitate the
    reintegration of Soldiers and Army Civilians into their families and communities.

    Planning Redeployment
    5-20. In addition to supporting the execution of the four redeployment phases, generating force
    organizations play a major role in planning redeployment. They do this in conjunction with the redeploying
    units, the deployed ARFOR headquarters, and TRANSCOM. These generating force organizations include
    HQDA, FORSCOM, USAMC, and IMCOM.

    5-21. In coordination with FORSCOM, HQDA G-8 determines the disposition of the redeploying unit’s
    equipment, less what remains in theater as theater-provided equipment. HQDA determines which
    equipment the unit retains and which equipment is to be retrograded. (See paragraphs 5-49 to 5-57.)

    5-22. USAMC plans for and conducts the retrograde of Army equipment for restoration to serviceable
    conditions or improvement.

    5-23. IMCOM, through its Installation Transportation Offices, plans for unit movement from ports of
    debarkation to home station. In coordination with redeploying unit commanders, IMCOM also plans for
    the conduct of reintegration.

    SUSTAINING DEPLOYED FORCES
    5-24. Sustainment includes the provision of logistics, human resource services, and health service support
    required to maintain and prolong operations until mission accomplishment. The increasingly
    interconnected global environment allows the generating force to apply its sustainment capabilities directly
    within the JOA. These capabilities include contingency and sustainment contracting; the maintenance and
    repair of equipment; acquisition, logistic, and technology functions; and health service support. Generating
    force support to sustaining operations focuses on logistics and health service support.

    5-25. The generating force anticipates operating force sustainment needs to identify, accumulate, and
    maintain the right mix of personnel, equipment and materiel, services, capabilities, and information. In
    coordination with the ASCC’s logistics planners, generating force planners endeavor to foresee the
    probable logistic requirements of partners (such as other U.S. government agencies, multinational partners,
    international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations) whose support is critical to mission

    Enabling Strategic Reach

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 5-5

    accomplishment. Such foresight helps avoid unnecessary delays in planning and execution. This supports
    the imperative for unified action, the synchronization, coordination, and/or integration of the activities of
    governmental and nongovernmental entities with military operations to achieve unity of effort (JP 1). The
    requirement for foresight, however, does not necessarily extend to the accumulation or the provision of
    supplies and services, which is done only in accordance with international agreements.

    5-26. USAMC, in coordination with the supported ASCC’s theater sustainment command, facilitates the
    provision of in-theater support from Defense Logistics Agency depots, other Services, private industry, and
    other government agencies.

    MAJOR GENERATING FORCE SUSTAINMENT ORGANIZATIONS
    5-27. USAMC equips and sustains the Army, whether in garrison or deployed. In cooperation with
    ASA(ALT), USAMC provides acquisition, logistic, and technology support to deployed forces and
    provides mission-specific support to forces identified for deployment. (For a fuller description of
    USAMC’s mission and capabilities, see paragraph A-18.) USAMC provides this support through the Army
    Sustainment Command and deployed Army field support brigades (AFSBs).

    5-28. The Army Sustainment Command is the key Army logistic organization with which an ASCC-
    assigned theater sustainment command coordinates for strategic-level support. The Army Sustainment
    Command is responsible to coordinate national sustainment base support to operating forces. (For more
    information, see paragraph A-22.)

    5-29. AFSBs coordinate generating force sustainment support in the JOA. AFSBs are operational Army
    organizations residing in the JOA that draw on capabilities resident in the generating force. AFSBs add
    depth and capability to operating forces by facilitating the employment of their organic acquisition,
    logistic, technology, and contracting capabilities and capabilities resident in the generating force. AFSBs
    combine assets from the USAMC and the ASA(ALT) into a brigade-level unit that plans for and controls
    Army ALT support of the Army force in the operational area. AFSBs also provide common joint,
    multinational, and interagency ALT support when directed by the joint force commander and ASCC
    commander. While under the operational control (OPCON) of the theater sustainment command, AFSBs
    maintain technical channels to USAMC life-cycle management commands (LCMCs).

    5-30. Army Sustainment Command contracting support brigades (CSBs) are the lead for coordinating
    generating force planning for contracting and contracting support in the area of operations. Like the AFSB,
    a CSB is assigned to the Army Sustainment Command and operates OPCON to Army theater sustainment
    commands.

    5-31. The U.S. Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) provides enterprise-level health service support to
    the joint force, ensuring complete continuity of care. MEDCOM integrates the capabilities of its
    subordinate operational Army units with generating force assets such as military treatment facilities and
    research, development, and acquisition capabilities. MEDCOM’s generating force capabilities not only
    augment those of operating forces but also provide significant assistance in coping with unanticipated
    medical threats. (For more on the capabilities of MEDCOM and its major subordinate commands, see
    paragraphs A-39 through A-40.)

    LOGISTIC SUPPORT
    5-32. Logistics is the science of planning, preparing, executing, and assessing the movement and
    maintenance of forces. In its broadest sense, logistics includes the design, development, and acquisition of
    equipment and systems.

    5-33. USAMC support of operations primarily falls into five categories: distribution management at the
    strategic level; maintenance support; contractor logistic support; management of operating force
    equipment; and augmenting munitions and explosives safety management.

    Chapter 5

    5-6 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    Distribution Management
    5-34. USAMC maintains and manages the Army’s portions of the strategic distribution system for Army
    logistics that support the theater distribution system. USAMC provides the asset management, logistic
    requirements determination, distribution management, and resource management that ensure the generating
    force correctly anticipates operating forces’ logistic requirements.

    Maintenance Support
    5-35. Through a combination of forward presence, call forward, and technical reach support, USAMCs
    LCMCs ensure the safety, reliability, and sustainability of operational Army equipment and munitions.
    USAMC draws on the capabilities of its depots, national maintenance contracts, below depot maintenance
    activities, and deployable component repair companies. Based on the needs identified by the ASCC’s
    assigned theater sustainment command, USAMC generates the required sustainment maintenance
    capability. Component repair units are deployed primarily to provide sustainment support to secondary
    item repair and return to supply. USAMC provides limited, specialized maintenance capability to augment
    component repair units or theater maintenance units as needed. USAMC also integrates manufacturers into
    their support plans.

    Forward Repair Activities

    5-36. Army-operated depots are part of USAMC’s industrial base and are managed by their respective
    commodity-oriented LCMCs. USAMC depots have the organic capability to perform complete end item
    overhaul, component overhaul, remanufacturing, and fabrication of components and repair parts. Depot
    field support capabilities are provided in theater through the deployment of forward repair activities.

    5-37. Specialized maintenance operations, usually identified as forward repair activities, may be of short or
    long duration to support unique operating force requirements. These activities are carried out by Soldiers,
    Army civilians, and contractors. Examples of USAMC forward repair activities include—

    Projects to armor tactical wheeled vehicles.
    The installation of anti-rocket-propelled grenade skirts on tactical vehicles and other

    modifications.
    The repair and refurbishment of vehicles.
    Specialized communications and electronics component repair.

    5-38. To support unique weapons systems and equipment, USAMC LCMCs may establish forward repair
    activities or special repair activities. The systems involved are usually low density and technically
    complex.

    Retrograde Process

    5-39. USAMC manages the Army retrograde process. Retrograde is part of the Army’s distribution and
    supply chain management. Major end items of equipment, or major components such as engines,
    transmissions, weapons systems, and excess repair parts, are returned from the JOA to the sustaining base
    to restore unserviceable assets to serviceable condition or to return serviceable excess parts to the supply
    system. USAMC, in coordination with operating forces and DOD agencies, maintains in-transit visibility
    of retrograde assets from the point of origin to final destination through joint in-transit visibility systems.

    Contractor Logistic Support
    5-40. USAMC-managed contractor logistic support provides operating forces contracted resources for a
    variety of supplies and services. Examples are commercially available supplies and materiel, support to
    APS, common logistic services, and property accountability. USAMC and ASA(ALT) also help provide
    contractor sustainment and maintenance support to mobilization, deployment, employment, and
    redeployment. The three main types of contractor support are system support contracting, the logistics civil
    augmentation program (LOGCAP), and theater support contracting. For more information on contractor
    logistic support, see FM 100-10-2 and FM 3-100.21.

    Enabling Strategic Reach

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 5-7

    5-41. Planners identify contractor support requirements early in the planning process. This allows the
    timely and accurate development of time-phased force deployment data.

    5-42. In coordination with the ASCC commander’s principal assistant for contracting, Army field support
    brigades integrate generating force contracting support elements into sustainment brigades and other units
    as directed.

    System Support Contracting

    5-43. USAMC’s LCMCs provide the entire life-cycle management of Army systems, munitions, and
    platforms. The Army Sustainment Command, through its subordinate AFSBs, assists the LCMCs and
    separate program executive officers (PEOs) and project management (PM) offices in providing system
    contract support to new or partially fielded Army systems and platforms. In some cases, utilizing
    deployable system contract support personnel (often referred to as field service representatives), the PEOs
    and PMs provide technical support to selected weapon and other major military systems and platforms.
    They sometimes provide complete maintenance support. These system contractor personnel can and often
    do use technical reach and call forward capabilities for additional assistance. System support contracts are
    pre-arranged by the ASA(ALT) program and PM offices.

    5-44. System contractors, made up mostly of U.S. citizens, provide support to the force in training and
    real-world operations. System contractors provide either temporary support during the initial fielding of a
    system, called interim contracted support, or long-term support for selected materiel systems, referred to as
    contractor logistic support.

    Logistics Civil Augmentation Program

    5-45. The Army LOGCAP provides logistic and base support. This includes minor engineering and
    construction support from commercial sources. LOGCAP is an external support contract program that
    provides the operational commander an alternative source for filling logistic shortfalls by using contractor
    expertise and resources when military and host-nation support sources are not available.

    5-46. External support contracts may be prearranged contracts or contracts awarded during the
    contingency to support the mission and may include a mix of U.S. citizens, third-country nationals, and
    local national subcontractor employees. The Army Sustainment Command is the USAMC element
    responsible for the LOGCAP, while the supported AFSB provides assistance to the ASCC with LOGCAP
    planners and integrators.

    Theater Support Contracting

    5-47. Theater support contracting is primarily an operating force capability where in-theater contingency
    contracting personnel contract common logistic support via commercial vendors primarily located in or
    near the operational area. Theater support contracting is coordinated among the following: AFSB, ASCC
    principal assistant responsible for contracting, ASCC G-4, and the support operations officer (SPO) of the
    theater sustainment command. The SPO can also draw on generating force contracting capabilities.

    5-48. The principal assistant responsible for contracting, the ASCC’s senior theater support contracting
    staff officer, and the contracting support brigade commander, lead the overall contracting support planning
    effort. Through the ASCC G-4, they publish the contracting support plan. In some situations, theater
    support contacting for deployed forces can be reinforced through reachback from home station directorates
    of contracting, or the Acquisition Support Center.

    Management of Operating Forces’ Equipment
    5-49. The current security environment is characterized by protracted operations. To resource training and
    readiness, the Army effectively and efficiently makes use of all sources of equipment, including left-behind
    equipment. This resourcing process includes the reallocation of left-behind equipment.

    5-50. USAMC maintains deployed units’ equipment and also manages and maintains APS. The ASCC,
    under the direction of HQDA and in coordination with the combatant commander, directs redeploying

    Chapter 5

    5-8 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    units to leave some equipment in theater when necessary. This becomes theater-provided equipment that
    will be issued to deploying units. Deploying units leave equipment at home station (left-behind equipment)
    so they can fall in on other units’ and theater-provided equipment.

    5-51. Theater-provided equipment was originally deployed with units and then left in theater for follow-on
    forces. In some cases, theater-provided equipment was purchased and remains in theater for issue to units
    as they rotate. Deploying units fall in on other units’ equipment and theater-provided equipment in the
    JOA. This reduces the burden on deploying units and the transportation system. As a result, identification,
    accountability and visibility, maintenance, and disposition of the unit equipment remaining at home station
    are necessary to support the equipping needs of the Army.

    5-52. Deploying units conduct a predeployment site survey to determine the theater-provided equipment
    they will need. Deploying units leave like items behind at home station, and these become left-behind
    equipment. HQDA then reallocates left-behind equipment to other units to meet mission requirements. For
    example, the equipment may be used to ready units for deployment or to support transformation. HQDA
    requires no formal input, other than readiness reporting, to make its allocation decisions. However, it does
    solicit input from relevant operational Army headquarters.

    5-53. FORSCOM may reallocate remaining left-behind equipment to meet mission requirements.
    Similarly, subordinate operational Army headquarters with oversight of deploying units may reallocate
    remaining left-behind equipment to other deploying units, all subject to HQDA approval. USAMC, in
    conjunction with IMCOM, maintains, stores, and distributes equipment in accordance with the disposition
    instructions issued by HQDA, FORSCOM, and other headquarters.

    Predeployment Training Equipment

    5-54. Units often operate with a different set of equipment than they are authorized under their modified
    table of organization and equipment. To ensure they are fully ready for the operational environment, units
    conduct the final phases of their training using the equipment they will employ in theater. USAMC
    maintains equipment at training centers to conduct theater-specific premobilization training.

    Left-Behind Equipment

    5-55. During the predeployment site survey, the deploying unit’s parent headquarters and the ARFOR
    headquarters in a JOA verify all equipment to be issued in the JOA and to be designated as left-behind
    equipment.

    5-56. USAMC, in conjunction with IMCOM receives, stores, and maintains left-behind equipment.
    USAMC provides a maintenance and supply “bridge” to units upon redeployment as they reintegrate their
    equipment and personnel onto unit property books.

    Theater-Provided Equipment

    5-57. Theater-provided equipment usually consists of critical items used to protect Soldiers, such as anti-
    explosive protective equipment and reinforced armor vehicles. Another example is the intra-theater fielding
    of the toxic industrial chemical protection and detection equipment set to support environmental
    assessment and restoration functions. USAMC provides accountability and support of theater-provided
    equipment, in coordination with the appropriate ASCC and the HQDA G-8 and G-3/5/7.

    Army Pre-positioned Stocks

    5-58. The Army maintains APS to increase the responsiveness of U.S. Army forces and selected allies.
    APS consist of pre-positioned unit sets of equipment, operational projects stocks (OPROJ), Army War
    Reserve Stocks (AWRS), and war reserve stocks for allies (WRSA).

    5-59. HQDA G-4 is the Army’s APS program manager and develops and coordinates all policy-related
    actions. Under the guidance and oversight of the G-4, USAMC executes the APS program and provides
    accountability, storage, maintenance, and transfer (issue and receipt) of all equipment and stocks (except

    Enabling Strategic Reach

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 5-9

    medical supplies and subsistence items). The Army Surgeon General manages medical supplies, and the
    Defense Logistics Agency manages subsistence items.

    5-60. A team from the Army Sustainment Command, a subordinate command of USAMC, assists in
    transferring equipment to unit(s) designated to receive APS. Unit personnel actively participate in the
    equipment preparation and transfer process. Upon mission completion, or as directed, this equipment then
    is transferred back to Army Sustainment Command. The Army Sustainment Command manages and
    coordinates support to deploying and deployed forces. The supporting AFSB executes this support.

    Augmenting Munitions and Explosives Safety Management
    5-61. Operational Army organizations, headquarters and units, routinely rely on civilian specialists to
    execute the day-to-day tasks associated with the management of munitions in transportation and storage
    during peacetime. Most of these civilian specialists are not organic to these operational Army
    organizations. Instead, they are assigned to IMCOM installations or USAMC. Consequently, non-unit
    civilian augmentees are required at headquarters, transportation hubs, and storage sites when munitions are
    provided to operating forces.

    5-62. When U.S. or multinational ammunition is stored or transported during logistic operations in the area
    of operations, personnel familiar with the proper methods of handling packaged munitions and the effects
    of explosions involving mass quantities of packaged munitions participate during planning and execution.
    Proper planning of munitions operations in the logistic system and constant monitoring of operations and
    storage preclude the occurrence of and the severity of unintended explosions.

    5-63. USAMC provides munitions management and explosives safety specialists. They augment
    headquarters and unit personnel in the planning and execution of the munitions mission in the JOA.

    HEALTH SERVICE SUPPORT
    5-64. The Army’s health service support system is a complex system of interrelated and interdependent
    systems designed to improve the health of Soldiers, prepare them for deployment, prevent casualties, and
    promptly treat injuries or illnesses that do occur. It ensures a seamless continuum of care from the point of
    injury, through successive levels of essential care within the JOA, to definitive, rehabilitative, and
    convalescent care within the support base.

    Augmenting Operating Force Capabilities
    5-65. The Office of The Surgeon General leverages capabilities resident in the joint Military Health
    System and, when necessary, the civilian medical community. The purpose is to enhance care provided to
    deployed forces and to reduce the morbidity and mortality among U.S. forces.

    5-66. MEDCOM special medical augmentation response teams provide consultation and advice to
    operating force medical personnel and organizations in the following areas:

    Trauma and critical care.
    Nuclear, biological, and chemical incidents.
    Stress management.
    Medical command, control, communications, and telemedicine.
    Pastoral care.
    Preventive medicine and disease surveillance.
    Burn.
    Veterinary.
    Health systems assessment and assistance.
    Aeromedical isolation.
    Occupational and environmental health surveillance.

    Chapter 5

    5-10 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    MEDCOM also has the capability to field logistic special medical response teams to assist deploying
    forces. In addition, MEDCOM medical treatment facilities and dental treatment facilities support the
    Soldier readiness process by ensuring that deploying Soldiers are fit to deploy and in the best possible
    medical condition prior to deployment.

    5-67. The U.S. Army Medical Department Center and School develops exportable or web-based training
    products to bridge identified training gaps based on lessons learned and after action reports. Its personnel
    perform site visits with units deploying to or redeploying from the JOA to ensure unit personnel have the
    necessary capabilities. New equipment training teams and new organization training teams facilitate the
    integration of new medical equipment into the force.

    5-68. MEDCOM has a variety of health service support assets available in the generating force to augment
    the operating force medical capability. Preventive medicine assets available through the U.S. Army Center
    for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine conduct health risk assessment for environmental and
    occupational health threats. Also, they provide technical reachback for medical and chemical, biological,
    radiological, and nuclear staffs. These assets can be deployed to collect, analyze, and communicate health
    risk data.

    5-69. Military treatment facilities provide critical logistic support to deploying units. Military treatment
    facilities act as the installation medical support activities and provide medical supplies (class VIII) to
    deploying units.

    Unanticipated Health Threats
    5-70. The generating force also assists operating forces in identifying, responding to, and countering
    unique threats encountered in the JOA. USAMC develops medical technologies, including new
    investigational drugs that may be useful in responding to such threats. USAMC’s subordinate command,
    the U.S. Army Medical Materiel Agency supports medical operational needs by procuring and fielding
    commercial off-the-shelf medical equipment solutions to assist in meeting emerging, unanticipated medical
    threats that develop in the JOA.

    BUILDING AND SUSTAINING OPERATIONAL NETWORKS
    5-71. Operational networks blur the distinction between operating forces and the generating force. At an
    elementary level, the equipment, processes, and information needed by joint force commanders to create
    operational networks do not reside entirely within the JOA. More importantly, at a conceptual level,
    operational networks are more than their enabling information technology. They are the connections
    between individuals and institutions that enable the collaborative creation of knowledge.

    Creating a Human Network: The Army Analytical Community
    Since 2002, the Center for Army Analysis has pushed analysts forward to support
    ongoing operational assessment at U.S. Central Command. Analysts are currently
    stationed forward with the Multinational Force–Iraq and Combined Forces
    Command–Afghanistan headquarters. They provide on-site analysis and awareness
    of and access to more robust generating force analytical capabilities from the Center
    for Army Analysis, the TRADOC Analysis Center, and other generating force
    analytical centers.

    5-72. The purpose of an operational network is to connect people with information. Generating force
    organizations, primarily the U.S. Army Network Enterprise Technology Command/9th Signal Command
    (Army) (NETCOM/9th SC(A)), conduct Army network operations (NETOPS) to enable information
    management. This includes the collection, processing, storage, dissemination and protection of information
    among operational units, policy makers, and support personnel. Generating force organizations also work
    to establish the organizational and personal connections that facilitate operating forces’ access to relevant
    information and capabilities resident in the generating force.

    Enabling Strategic Reach

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 5-11

    5-73. Moreover, the employment of operational capabilities through reachback depends on the Global
    Information Grid (GIG). The GIG is a globally interconnected, end-to-end set of information capabilities,
    associated processes, and personnel for collecting, processing, storing, disseminating, and managing
    information on demand.

    LANDWARNET
    5-74. LandWarNet is the Army’s contribution to the GIG. LandWarNet supports Soldiers, policy makers
    and support personnel. It integrates the universal elements of the operations process (plan, prepare,
    execute, and assess), organizes LandWarNet-authorized elemental users (the institution, commanders and
    staffs, leaders, Soldiers, and sensors), and force-wide relevant information sources (across warfighting
    functions and business mission areas) into a fully networked, distributed, precisely tailored, continuously
    evolving, dynamically organized joint force.

    5-75. LandWarNet allows operating forces access to capabilities not physically resident in the JOA,
    including capabilities for planning, analysis, and administrative support. Reachback broadens the range of
    such capabilities available to operating forces well beyond what can be deployed. Conversely, the
    pervasive nature of the network means that its capabilities in the JOA depend on performance and
    capabilities physically located outside the JOA.

    5-76. NETCOM/9th SC(A) manages and defends LandWarNet as an enterprise under global standards,
    protocols, processes, and configurations that ensure common capabilities at all levels. Global oversight and
    defense capabilities unify the network and enable the rapid, uninterrupted flow of information across all
    operational echelons. NETCOM/9th SC(A) works with operating forces to develop the necessary degree of
    standardization to allow the network to function effectively, while providing the flexibility necessary to
    respond to the operational environment.

    5-77. Joint command and control is another area of joint interdependence in which the generating force
    leverages complementary joint capabilities. NETCOM/9th SC(A) ensures the integration of LandWarNet
    to the GIG, in part, to enable access to joint capabilities. In addition, generating force information
    managers ensure operating forces have the necessary access to sources of information held by other
    Services and DOD agencies.

    GENERATING FORCE SUPPORT OF ARMY LANDWARNET OPERATIONS
    5-78. Army LandWarNet operations encompass the integrated and mutually supportive areas of command
    and control, NETOPS, and information management. The communications network, the systems and
    applications that generate and manipulate data and information, and the information are bound together in
    the GIG. This is a responsive, flexible, protected, global network of systems and information enabling
    coordinated and synchronized action among Army, joint, national, and international forces.

    The Command and Control System
    5-79. The command and control system supports the commander’s decisionmaking and disseminates the
    commander’s decisions to subordinate commanders. The command and control system is the arrangement
    of personnel, information management, procedures, and equipment and facilities essential for the
    commander to conduct operations.

    5-80. The maintenance and performance of the command and control system are primarily the
    responsibility of operating forces. The generating force supports these functions, however, by providing
    access to operationally relevant information from sources outside the JOA. The generating force provides
    access to analytical and planning capabilities through reachback and by assisting the communication of the
    commander’s intent and instructions to subordinate elements when theater assets do not suffice.

    Support of Network Operations
    5-81. NETOPS provide collaborative, integrated management of networks, information systems, and
    resources that enable communication and information sharing. The goal of NETOPS is to provide the right

    Chapter 5

    5-12 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    information to the right user at the right time. NETOPS rely on the understanding, application, and
    integration of information technology, technology standards, and standard processes. These processes
    provide traditional systems, information and infrastructure protection, and network management. They also
    provide the ability to move information across the LandWarNet and GIG terrestrial, space, airborne, and
    wireless environments. NETOPS processes and capabilities include the organizations, procedures, and
    technologies required to monitor and control the LandWarNet.

    5-82. The NETOPS framework consists of situational awareness, command and control, and three
    essential tasks: enterprise management, network defense, and content management. NETOPS supports
    situational awareness by allowing for the active involvement, coordination, and cooperation of service
    providers for an open view of networks and information systems. They also allow the integration and
    interaction of the terminal applications employed in support of the warfighting functions. This requires the
    integration of operating forces and the generating force in Army communications systems. As part of the
    NETOPS community, the Army utilizes command and control to operate, control, and defend the
    LandWarNet. The NETOPS essential tasks are interdependent. The NETOPS operational framework
    integrates these tasks to accomplish three interdependent purposes.

    5-83. The first essential task, enterprise management, is integral to achieving the desired effect of assured
    network and system availability. This effect is achieved through visibility and control over the systems and
    networks resources. Effectively managing resources and anticipating and mitigating problems ensure
    uninterrupted availability and protection of the system and network resources.

    5-84. The next essential task, network defense, is integral to achieving the desired effect of assured
    information protection. This effect is achieved through the protection of information in storage, at rest, and
    passing over the network and systems. Information is protected from the time it is stored, catalogued, and
    distributed to the users, operators and decisionmakers.

    5-85. Finally, content management is an essential task integral to achieving the desired effect of assured
    information delivery. This effect is achieved by providing timely information to users, operators, and
    decisionmakers. Networks are continuously monitored to ensure information is transferred with the correct
    response time throughput, availability, and performance to meet user needs.

    Support to Information Management
    5-86. Information management is the science of using procedures and information systems to collect,
    process, store, display, disseminate, and protect knowledge product, data, and information. It aims to
    provide the relevant information to the right person at the right time in a usable form, to facilitate
    situational understanding and decisionmaking. Information management does far more than control data
    flowing across networks. It also communicates decisions that initiate the effective actions to accomplish
    missions, and it fuses information from many sources. Successful information management adds meaning
    to information as it is processed so decisionmakers can focus on achieving understanding instead of simply
    processing or evaluating information.

    5-87. The generating force role in information management is to fuse relevant information from the JOA
    with information from other sources. The generating force then identifies the users to whom that
    information is relevant and conveys it to them.

    Role of NETCOM/9th Signal Command (Army)
    5-88. The Commander, NETCOM/9th SC(A), is responsible for the administration and support of organic,
    assigned, or attached Army forces worldwide. The Commander, NETCOM/9th SC(A) is authorized to
    communicate and coordinate directly with Army Command, ASCC, direct reporting unit commanders,
    HQDA, other DOD headquarters and agencies, and other government departments on matters of mutual
    interest, subject to procedures established by Chief Information Officer/G-6. The Commander, U.S. Army
    Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Strategic Command (USASMDC/ARSTRAT), designates the
    Commander, NETCOM/9th SC(A) as the USASMDC/ARSTRAT deputy for network operations. In that
    capacity, the Commander, NETCOM/9th SC(A) communicates and coordinates directly with DOD and
    U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) regarding USASMDC/ARSTRAT network operations.

    Enabling Strategic Reach

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 5-13

    5-89. NETCOM/9th SC(A) is the network service provider for the Army, Army network systems in the
    JOA, and LandWarNet. NETCOM/9th SC(A) has full enterprise-level authority for all global Army
    networks and information systems and networks that comprise the LandWarNet. NETCOM/9th SC(A) is
    the single Army authority to operate, control, and defend the Army’s information structure (infostructure)
    at the enterprise level. NETCOM/9th SC(A) executes communications capabilities to enable joint and
    multinational command and control, while operating, engineering, transforming, and defending the Army’s
    LandWarNet enterprise. NETCOM/9th SC(A) NETOPS responsibilities are described more fully in
    paragraphs A-31 through A-34

    This page intentionally left blank.

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 6-1

    Chapter 6

    Developing Multinational Partner Capability and Capacity

    This chapter describes the role of the generating force in supporting stability
    operations by assisting security forces, restoring essential services, and developing
    infrastructure. On behalf of joint force commanders, the generating force performs
    force management for partner security forces by helping design and build partner
    security institutions. The generating force also performs acquisition functions on
    behalf of partners. More important, generating force organizations help partners
    develop their own force management capabilities so they can sustain and improve
    their forces independently. Generating force organizations also provide a range of
    capabilities to assist in the restoration of essential services and to support economic
    and infrastructure development, most notably for the repair, development,
    maintenance, and management of infrastructure.

    STABILITY OPERATIONS
    6-1. Stability operations encompass various military missions, tasks, and activities conducted outside the
    United States in coordination with other instruments of national power to maintain or reestablish a safe and
    secure environment, provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and
    humanitarian relief (JP 3-0). Stability operations involve both coercive and cooperative actions by the
    military force. They are designed to establish a safe and secure environment, facilitate reconciliation
    among local or regional adversaries, establish political, social, and economic institutions, and facilitate the
    transition to legitimate local governance. Army forces engaged in stability operations establish or restore
    basic civil functions and protect them until the host nation is capable of doing so. They act in support of
    other governmental agencies and the host nation. When the host nation or an agency is unable to
    accomplish its role, Army forces may provide basic civil functions directly. Stability operations seek to
    allow other instruments of national power or cooperating agencies to predominate. Most stability
    operations are multiagency and multinational.

    6-2. Within the context of stability operations, U.S. military forces provide a wide range of capabilities.
    Department of Defense (DOD) policy states that U.S. military forces must be prepared to perform all tasks
    necessary to establish or maintain order when civilians cannot do so. In support of this, the Army executes
    the following stability tasks:

    Civil security.
    Civil control.
    Restore essential services.
    Support to governance.
    Support to economic and infrastructure development.

    6-3. Generating force organizations can provide capabilities for some of the above tasks, most notably
    civil security and infrastructure development. The Army (generating force and operational Army) lacks
    standing capabilities to perform certain stability tasks and subordinate tasks. At times, however, it becomes
    necessary for Army forces to perform them. To generate the required capability for these tasks, the
    generating force builds on its existing capabilities. For example, the generating force administers a criminal
    justice and corrections system in the United States. This system is a large government department, with all
    the attendant issues such as personnel and information management, policy development, financial

    Chapter 6

    6-2 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    management, administration. The generating force adds subject matter experts as necessary to support
    stability tasks.

    SUPPORT FOR SECURITY FORCE ASSISTANCE
    6-4. From a U.S. perspective, security force assistance is unified action to generate, employ, and sustain
    host-nation or regional security forces in support of a legitimate authority. Success in stability operations
    requires U.S. forces to support a legitimate authority in a nation or region; such operations require security
    forces. Security forces are all military, intelligence, law enforcement, and constabulary organizations that
    support a legitimate authority, including the systems and institutions that generate, employ, and sustain
    these forces. Furthermore, “security forces” is an inclusive term; it could potentially include U.S., host-
    nation, regional, and multinational elements. These contributors could be an actual part of a security force,
    provide security force assistance, or combine the two efforts.

    6-5. The National Defense Strategy of the United States of America highlights the importance of
    developing the military capability and capacity of our partners to defend themselves and collectively meet
    challenges to our common interests. Developing or expanding partner security forces subdivides into tasks
    defined as organizing, training, equipping, rebuilding, and advising foreign security forces. In the long run,
    such efforts reduce the demands for U.S. forces and resources but require a significant initial investment of
    manpower and resources. In the short run, the attainment of U.S. objectives in a given conflict may depend
    more upon successfully developing host-nation forces than on any other factor. Additionally, because of
    their greater familiarity with local conditions, partners may be more effective in identifying and countering
    threats to common interests.

    6-6. The large scale of support to security forces places high demands on the Army’s manpower,
    especially for officers and senior noncommissioned officers. Over time, these demands can strain the
    readiness of operational Army formations. Moreover, supporting effective and self-sustaining partner
    security forces requires building partner institutions that generate and sustain those forces, an area in which
    the generating force’s expertise is unique and unequaled. For this reason, operating forces leverage existing
    generating force capabilities to organize, train, equip, rebuild, and advise landpower capabilities to the
    maximum extent possible.

    ROLES FOR SECURITY ASSISTANCE
    6-7. JP 3-07.1 describes joint roles and responsibilities for security assistance. The generating force
    supports the development of multinational partners’ capability and capacity within the security assistance
    framework.

    6-8. Army generating force organizations normally operate in direct support of a security assistance
    organization designated by the responsible Army Service component command (ASCC). Headquarters,
    Department of the Army (HQDA) G-3/5/7, as the Army’s lead agency for force management support and
    security cooperation, organizes force management activities in support of security assistance (see the
    discussion of force management in the next section).

    6-9. U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) plays a leading role in force development
    and in supporting force integration conducted by operating forces. The Army G-8 also plays an important
    role in assessment, analysis, and force integration in support of security assistance. TRADOC’s Center for
    Army Lessons Learned also provides lessons learned support to multinational partners.

    6-10. U.S. Army Materiel Command (USAMC) executes materiel-related Army security assistance
    programs. It delegates management of Army security assistance programs to the U.S. Army Security
    Assistance Command (USASAC), a major subordinate command of USAMC. In particular, USASAC
    provides total program management. This includes planning, delivery, and life-cycle support of equipment;
    services and training to U.S. agencies and international partners; and coproduction with them. USASAC
    provides the vital link to the Combatant Commanders within the Army for security assistance.
    Additionally, USASAC provides capability to operational commanders through embedded capability in
    security assistance offices.

    Developing Multinational Partner Capability and Capacity

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 6-3

    6-11. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Defense Exports and Cooperation, within the
    Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology) (ASA(ALT)), is the Army’s lead
    for international cooperative research, development, and acquisition (ICRDA), an important security
    cooperation tool. ICRDA activities include international agreements, information exchange, personnel
    exchanges, and bilateral and multi-lateral forums with foreign partners.

    6-12. While generating force organizations can perform force management support activities on behalf of
    partner security forces, the long term goal always is for the partner nation to attain self-sufficiency. For this
    reason, host-nation officials are integrated into all force management activities to the greatest extent
    possible throughout the duration of the project.

    6-13. Because of the range and complexity of the issues involved, planning for generating force support of
    security forces normally occurs in support of the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan or theater security
    cooperation planning. Generating force organizations, however, remain prepared to participate in crisis
    action planning to ensure the smooth integration of force management capabilities into crisis resolution.
    Such plans constitute annexes to the overall Army supporting plan.

    FORCE MANAGEMENT FOR PARTNER SECURITY FORCES
    6-14. The development of partners’ military capabilities most closely aligns with the generating force
    function of force management. Force management involves decisionmaking and activities including
    concept development, capabilities requirements generation, force development, organizational
    development, force integration functions, and resourcing. It results in the development of a capable
    operational force within available resources. FM 3-24 lays out the doctrine for security force development
    planning and provides a framework for generating force planners.

    6-15. The Army derives its strength not only from the tactical capabilities of operating force formations
    but also from its capability to develop, maintain, and improve those capabilities over time. Most potential
    partners maintain some sort of army. However, many lack the institutional capacity to systematically assess
    their operational and strategic requirements and capabilities and to identify and remedy capability gaps.
    Operating forces employ the generating force’s force management capabilities to develop and integrate
    partner capabilities and to develop partner capability for organizational force management.

    6-16. Force management has two major subcomponents: force development and force integration. These
    are discussed at greater length in succeeding paragraphs. Briefly, force development is the determination of
    military requirements and associated development programs. Force integration is the translation of those
    designs and programs into actual military capabilities. Through reachback, Army generating force
    organizations conduct force development for deployed operational commanders in support of host-nation
    force management activities. Generating force organizations also provide deployable teams, on a temporary
    basis, to assist with aspects of force integration and with establishing host-nation force management
    institutions, policies, systems, and processes.

    6-17. Force management activities in support of partner security forces typically require a much higher
    tempo and cover a much broader scope than normal Army force management. Force management planners
    may have to plan the development of an entirely new army, including its operating forces and institutions,
    under very compressed planning conditions. Lengthy, repetitive review processes that mitigate risks
    associated with the evolution of the U.S. military may impede essential progress if applied unthinkingly to
    developing partner security forces. For this reason, the HQDA G-3/5/7 issues instructions that identify the
    generating force organizations involved, assign roles, and clearly identify the constraints and limitations
    under which those forces have to operate.

    6-18. Effective force management has long lead times. For that reason, force management support is most
    effective when it follows a deliberate plan, as part of the development of the Joint Strategic Capabilities
    Plan. This is especially true for establishing an entirely new force following a regime change.

    Chapter 6

    6-4 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    Force Development
    6-19. Force development is the determination of capability requirements for doctrine, organization,
    training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF). Force development
    includes the design of individual capabilities, defined as the means to accomplish a given mission or task
    decisively. It also includes their amalgamation into a comprehensive force structure capable of meeting the
    host nation’s strategic requirements under a given set of conditions. The generating force therefore
    performs the following functions on behalf of operational commanders and host-nation officials.

    6-20. The generating force provides independent assessment of host-nation military capabilities to meet
    their existing and future strategic, operational, and tactical requirements. Also, it identifies capability gaps,
    leading to an identification of required capabilities. This assessment can include analysis of the effects of
    proposed changes in capabilities on the net operational effectiveness of host-nation military forces.

    6-21. The generating force develops military concepts that describe methods for employing specific
    military attributes and capabilities for the achievement of stated objectives. Put another way, a concept is a
    description of a military problem and its solution set across the DOTMLPF domains. Force developers
    develop concepts for partner security forces that account for local capabilities, capacity, and culture. They
    do this in cooperation with host-nation officials as much as possible. Few nations share common U.S.
    cultural values or possess the extensive human, material, and financial resources of the United States.
    Therefore, force developers do not simply attempt to apply U.S. concepts, doctrine, and capabilities in a
    foreign context.

    6-22. The generating force develops appropriate doctrine on behalf of partner security forces. Concepts
    influence doctrine development. Host-nation military leaders normally have a firm grasp of how to operate
    in their operational environment. That understanding can be captured and institutionalized to improve
    processes for leadership, education, and collective and individual training. The generating force assists in
    the development of appropriate doctrine, its translation into indigenous languages, and its incorporation
    into education and training programs.

    6-23. The generating force creates organizational designs for units and designs for supporting institutions
    analogous to the Army’s generating force. Such designs may resemble U.S. Army modified tables of
    organization and equipment and tables of distribution and allowances, but the models adopted by a given
    nation need not be identical in format.

    6-24. The generating force plans for the distribution of equipment and associated support items of
    equipment and personnel throughout a partner’s security force. Such plans also address the personnel
    implications of distribution. In the U.S. Army, this is known as a basis-of-issue plan.

    6-25. The generating force provides comprehensive force structure analysis and design, resulting in the
    most effective, affordable, and sustainable force. This analysis also includes an assessment of the strategic
    risk inherent therein, much like the U.S. process of Total Army Analysis.

    Documenting Afghan and Iraqi Security Forces
    Standardized organizational design and comprehensive databases are necessary
    tools in managing a force, particularly in understanding the implications of force
    development decisions that alter one or more aspects of DOTMLPF. As part of the
    effort to establish Afghan and Iraqi security forces, the U.S. Army Force Management
    Support Activity developed systems to allow Afghan and Iraqi police and defense
    officials to manage their forces. The U.S. Army Force Management Support Agency
    developed organizational designs and databases to aggregate them and trained
    Afghan and Iraqi officials in their use.

    6-26. The generating force documents the host-nation force. An army is a complex array of people (each
    with one or more of a variety of skills) and different items of equipment. This necessitates an organized
    system for documenting requirements and resources authorized. This documentation allows officials to
    make informed decisions about the impact and costs of future changes to the force.

    Developing Multinational Partner Capability and Capacity

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 6-5

    Force Integration
    6-27. Once a force is designed, it must be built. This process is known as force integration. Force
    integration is the synchronized, resource-constrained execution of an approved force development
    program, including—

    The introduction, incorporation, and sustainment of doctrine, organizations, and equipment to
    create or improve landpower capabilities

    Coordination and integration of operational and managerial systems collectively designed to
    improve the effectiveness and capability of land forces

    Knowledge and consideration of the potential implications of decisions and actions taken within
    the execution process.

    6-28. Force integration activities on behalf of partner security forces necessarily take place within a given
    joint operations area, and therefore are inherently the responsibility of operating forces. The generating
    force can help, however, by planning force integration activities for operational forces, by preparing
    operational forces to conduct force integration activities, and by providing teams to assist operating forces
    in the process. Figure 6-1 lists some of the generating force’s force integration capabilities.

    Figure 6-1. Representative force integration capabilities

    Advisory Capabilities

    6-29. Historically, the United States has employed advisory teams to teach, coach, and mentor the leaders
    of partner armies. The Korean Military Assistance Group helped transform the Army of the Republic of
    Korea from defeat and disintegration in 1950, to an effective, powerful fighting force capable of holding its
    ground against superior forces in 1953.

    6-30. Advising foreign forces is a core competency of special operations forces, typically at the battalion
    level and below. Nonetheless, the cumulative scale and scope of such efforts occasionally exceed special
    operations force capacity, especially with regard to large scale development efforts such as in Afghanistan
    and Iraq. In such cases, the Army may have to expand advisory capabilities from existing resources,
    accepting risk with regard to alternative capabilities.

    6-31. The generating force provides these capabilities. A surge capability can develop by modifying
    existing operational Army organizations or developing entirely new ones, and then training, equipping, and
    projecting those capabilities as required. Typically, TRADOC designs the organizations and develops
    individual and collective training programs for implementation by U.S. Army Forces Command
    (FORSCOM) and operational Army formations charged with execution of the program. HQDA resources
    such efforts. The operational Army may also provide advisory capabilities through a unit partnering
    construct, with instructional assistance from the generating force.

    Acquisition and Logistic Support

    6-32. The acquisition and fielding of appropriate materiel capabilities is an element of force integration.
    The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Defense Exports and Cooperation, within ASA(ALT),
    coordinates the development and execution of Army ICRDA agreements with foreign partners by various

    Chapter 6

    6-6 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    materiel development community stakeholders, including program managers, program executive officers,
    and USAMC’s research and development laboratories and centers. USASAC provides acquisition support
    to partner security forces via foreign military sales. In the execution of this function, USASAC calls on all
    USAMC life-cycle management commands, ASA(ALT), and other DOD agencies and the industrial base.

    6-33. There is more to the acquisition process than the purchase and delivery of equipment. USAMC and
    ASA(ALT) provide life-cycle program management. This encompasses conceptualization, initiation,
    design, development, contracting, production, deployment, logistic support, modification, and disposal of
    weapons systems and other systems supplies or services.

    6-34. USAMC also provides logistic support to host-nation security forces as requested. This is done
    through the logistics civil augmentation program (LOGCAP) or by building national-level capability for
    the host nation. For example, in Iraq, USAMC is providing contract maintenance support for the Iraqi
    Security Forces. At the same time, it is providing employees from continental United States (CONUS)
    Army depots to assist in the building of Iraqi Army maintenance and supply depots.

    DEVELOPING HOST NATION GENERATING FORCE CAPABILITY
    6-35. Developing partners’ capability to generate and manage their own force structure to meet existing
    and future operational and strategic challenges is often essential to U.S. strategic success. Transitioning
    primary responsibility for security to independent and capable host-nation forces enables the
    disengagement of U.S. forces from a given conflict. Developing force management capabilities within
    host-nation institutions and establishing effective and efficient systems and processes consistent with the
    cultural and organizational framework of the host nation are complex endeavors. The selective
    employment of deployable force management teams and the use of information technology extend the
    reach of U.S. institutions. This enables U.S. officials to facilitate the development of indigenous force
    management capability to develop, deploy, and sustain military forces effectively.

    SUPPORT FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
    6-36. Generating force organizations, primarily the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), provide
    significant capabilities for the repair or development, maintenance, and management of infrastructure.
    Generating force organizations also provide important analytical and consulting services, either based upon
    organic capabilities or by facilitating access to other organizations with similar missions.

    REPAIR AND DEVELOPMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE
    6-37. Ideally, generating force involvement in the development of critical infrastructure begins before
    operations commence. Assessment and integration begin early in the planning process. Responsible
    organizations assess the state of a nation or region’s critical infrastructure, then plan and conduct the
    necessary repairs to prevent the deterioration of public order.

    6-38. This is primarily, but not exclusively, an engineering challenge. It is well suited to generating force
    capabilities for developing and repairing transportation infrastructure, power generating and distribution
    networks, telecommunications networks, water management, environmental engineering, and real estate
    management. It also includes the restoration of medical infrastructure and the considerations involved with
    protection standards. It may require technical reachback to generating force knowledge centers such as the
    U.S. Army Maneuver Support Center (Engineer and Chemical Schools) to access expertise about
    environment restoration and remediation of environmental hazards.

    6-39. The Army does have inherent capabilities for the establishment, repair, and maintenance of critical
    infrastructure. The USACE is responsible for Army and DOD military construction, real estate acquisition,
    and development of U.S. infrastructure through the civil works program. USACE also provides technical
    assistance and contract support to joint forces deployed worldwide.

    6-40. USACE supports engineer planning and operations through reachback and deployable forward
    engineering support to joint force commanders. Teams conduct engineer reconnaissance (assessments and
    surveys) in support of the full range of reconstruction operations. USACE provides two types of forward

    Developing Multinational Partner Capability and Capacity

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 6-7

    engineering support teams (FESTs) to assist deployed forces with reconstruction and other basic
    engineering support.

    6-41. The FEST-A (advanced) provides additional engineer planning capability to combatant command
    and ASCC engineer staff, or it deploys in support of a joint task force. Capabilities include multiple-
    engineer planning and design, real estate acquisition and disposal, and contracting. The FEST-A may
    provide an initial technical infrastructure assessment or survey, technical engineer assistance, contracting
    support, and real estate acquisition support.

    6-42. The FEST-M (main) provides command and control of USACE teams in the joint operations area. It
    also provides sustained USACE engineering execution capability within the joint operations area. This
    team generally supports an ARFOR headquarters or a joint task force. The FEST-M provides liaison
    officers and USACE engineering planning modules to supported units, as required. It is a flexible, self-
    sustaining organization with a mission of providing USACE capabilities through forward presence and
    reachback for the following mission areas:

    Infrastructure engineering planning and design.
    Technical engineering expertise.
    Contract construction.
    Real estate acquisition, and disposal, protection.
    Environmental engineering.
    Geospatial engineering support.

    6-43. Building indigenous capacity to sustain and manage infrastructure is a key component of
    reconstruction. Ultimately, host-nation officials and engineers must be able to maintain and expand their
    own infrastructure without U.S. assistance.

    CITY MANAGEMENT
    6-44. Infrastructure does not operate in a vacuum. It exists as part of a complex social and administrative
    system to meet the needs of a given population. Someone must pick up the garbage, and someone else must
    pay the garbage collectors. These types of systems differ greatly in different societies, in sophistication and
    societal norms. In some respects, the physical damage inflicted in the course of conflict is less important
    than the disruption of these types of administrative and social systems.

    6-45. Army civil affairs units and military police units, elements of the operational Army, provide
    operating forces with the basic, general purpose capability to restore civil administration and order.
    USACE provides technical expertise for infrastructure management through FESTs and its reachback
    center. HQDA mobilizes additional expertise to cope with administration and issues specific to a given
    urban area.

    GENERATING FORCE SUPPORT TO ESTABLISHING THE RULE OF LAW
    6-46. Establishing the rule of law allows the achievement of security and facilitates the emergence of a
    stable and sovereign indigenous political authority. Regardless of the legal tradition involved and the host
    nation’s constitutional arrangements, establishing the rule of law requires the impartial and efficient
    administration of justice, including a viable penal system.

    6-47. Generating force organizations provide expertise for establishing systems of justice. This type of
    support includes justice systems organization, education, policies, and procedures. Support extends to
    creating penal systems, including assisting in their construction and administration.

    This page intentionally left blank.

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 A-1

    Appendix

    Organizations and Their Capabilities for Operational
    Support

    This appendix lists the principal generating force organizations and their capabilities
    for supporting operations. These organizations exist primarily to perform functions
    specified and implied by law in order to support operational Army organizations, but
    can also employ their capabilities to enable adaptation to the operational
    environment, enable strategic reach, and develop multinational partner capability and
    capacity. While every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy
    of this list, it is not exhaustive.

    HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
    A-1. Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA) is the executive part of the Department of the
    Army. It is the highest level headquarters in the department and exercises supervisory control over it.
    HQDA is composed of the Office of the Secretary of the Army, Office of the Chief of Staff, Army, the
    Army staff, and specifically designated staff support agencies. HQDA is critical to the provision of
    generating force capabilities in support of operations.

    A-2. HQDA anticipates operational requirements for generating force capabilities and directs subordinate
    generating force organizations to develop the required capabilities. It enables the integration of those
    capabilities into contingency planning, crisis action planning, and ongoing operations by—

    Facilitating coordination between Army Service component commands (ASCCs) and generating
    force organizations during planning and during the global force management process.

    Reviewing ASCC war plans.
    Advocating the employment of generating force capabilities to support operations in the global

    force management process.

    A-3. HQDA is critical to the adaptation of operational Army forces to the operational environment. It
    validates, or confirms, all significant changes to operational Army capabilities across the doctrine,
    organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities (DOTMLPF) domains.
    It also provides the human, materiel and financial resources required to make the necessary changes.
    Finally, it directs and resources the transition of successful adaptations to the rest of the force, as
    appropriate.

    A-4. In addition to directing other organizations of the generating force to provide capabilities to support
    operations, elements of HQDA and their staff support agencies also provide critical capabilities to enable
    strategic reach and develop multinational partner capability and capacity.

    The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve Affairs and the Army G-1
    anticipate operational requirements for human resource support and direct Human Resource
    Command in manning the force accordingly.

    The Directorate of Force Management (G-37), within the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for
    Operations and Plans (G-3/5/7) leads the force management process on behalf of partner
    security forces. It directs the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) to
    develop the necessary force development and force integration products required to support the
    development of multinational partner security forces. Its U.S. Army Force Management Support
    Agency can finalize organizational designs and document overall force structure for partner

    Appendix

    A-2 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    security forces. The G-37 leads analysis to determine the optimum force structure for partner
    security forces.

    The HQDA G-3/5/7’s Army Asymmetric Warfare Office (AAWO) integrates military and
    civilian disciplines to rapidly organize, train, and equip Army formations with the inherent
    ability to apply and defeat asymmetric threats while simultaneously changing the culture of our
    Army to a mentally agile and adaptive force. The AAWO supports the joint Improvised
    Explosive Device Defeat Organization, and helps coordinate joint adaptation to operational
    problems. The AAWO’s key tasks are to—

    Serve as the global Army expert in asymmetric warfare.
    Provide Asymmetric Warfare Group forces.
    Assist in identification, development, and integration of countermeasure technologies.
    Establish linkages with all internal, combatant command, and national intelligence agencies
    Analyze asymmetric threats.
    Observe, collect, develop, validate, and disseminate emerging tactics, techniques and

    procedures.
    Support joint task force commanders and units in countering asymmetric warfare threats.
    Provide oversight and direction of the Asymmetric Warfare Group and the Rapid Equipping

    Force. For more on the Asymmetric Warfare Group, see paragraphs 4-61 to 4-62. The Rapid
    Equipping Force¸ a field operating agency of the Army G-3/5/7, provides operational
    commanders with rapidly employable materiel solutions to enhance lethality, survivability and
    other aspects of protection through insertion of commercial-off-the-shelf and government-off-
    the-shelf and Future Force technologies while informing Army stakeholders to remain ahead of
    an adaptive enemy. While the Rapid Equipping Force actually commits resources in accordance
    with approved operational needs statements, it maintains situational awareness operational
    requirements through its forward deployed teams. The goal of the Rapid Equipping Force is to
    provide a viable materiel solution within 90 to 180 days of an identified operational need. The
    Rapid Equipping Force focuses on operational adaptation, and requires support from other
    generating force organizations to transition materiel solutions to the rest of the force when
    appropriate.

    The Deputy Chief of Staff for Programs (G-8), in combination with the Deputy

    Chief of Staff

    for Logistics (G-4) and the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans (G-3/5/7) manages
    the disposition of equipment in support of ARFORGEN, to enable the deployment and
    employment of operational Army units prepared for the specific operational environment in
    which they will fight.

    The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology (ASA(ALT)),
    in close coordination with U.S. Army Material Command’s (USAMC’s) life-cycle management
    commands (LCMCs), provides system support contracting capability to the operational Army.

    The Center for Army Analysis is a field operating agency of the Deputy Chief of Staff, G-8. The
    mission of the Center for Army Analysis is to conduct analyses of Army forces and systems in
    the context of joint and combined warfighting. Operational research and systems analysis
    (ORSA) organizations at the center perform numerous functions in the operations analysis
    arena. They analyze strategic concepts and military options, estimate requirements to support
    Army inputs to the Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Execution System, evaluate the
    Army’s ability to mobilize and deploy forces, evaluate Army force capabilities, design Army
    forces and evaluate force alternatives, develop theater force level scenarios and conduct resource
    analysis.

    A-5. The U.S. Army Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute (PKSOI) is a field operating agency
    of the Army Staff located at Carlisle Barracks. It serves as the U.S. military’s center of excellence with
    regard to stability operations and peace operations at the strategic and operational levels. Its purpose is to
    improve military, civilian agency, international and multinational capabilities and execution. PKSOI
    supports the generating the force in multiple phases, including shaping, stabilization, and enabling civil

    Organizations and Their Capabilities for Operational Support

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 A-3

    authorities, as well as playing a key role in developing partner capability and capacity. PKSOI’s mission
    includes the following tasks:

    Policy support:
    Support the Army, Department of Defense (DOD), and other agencies of the government in

    their development and implementation of policies relating to stability operations and peace
    operations. This includes supporting the implementation of NSPD-44 and DODD 3000.05.

    Support HQDA, TRADOC, and combatant commanders in identifying and developing
    DOTMLPF solutions to stability operations and peace operations gaps.

    Assist in establishing a process to ensure current stability operations policy development
    informs ongoing strategic and operational planning, preparation, and execution of stability
    operations.

    Research and publications:
    Conduct research and analysis and publish on key issues related to stability operations and

    peace operations.
    Identify and encourage, through outreach, collaborative networking and promising research.
    Leverage existing initiatives such as the Eisenhower National Security Series to address the

    emerging operational environment.
    Assist, participate, and work in consortiums with domestic and international

    nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), academia,
    research organizations and “think-tanks.”

    Concepts and doctrine:
    Shape military, interagency, and multinational concept and doctrine development processes

    to address stability operations and peace operations.
    Assist in the development of concepts, doctrine, and organizational practices based on

    emerging thought in current and future operational environments.
    Provide and coordinate technical review to the proponents of existing and emerging

    doctrine to identify gaps and propose fixes.
    Work in partnership with military, U.S. government civilian, international, and

    multinational organizations to enhance exchange of information and influence concepts,
    doctrine, and organizational practices.

    Promote the integration of stability operations and peace operations doctrine into education,
    training, and execution.

    Assist in incorporating stability operations and peace operations in joint, interagency,
    intergovernmental, and multinational experimentation.

    Security and rule of law reform:
    Assist in the development of models for re-establishing a nation’s post-conflict security and

    rule of law systems in non-permissive and semi-permissive environments.
    Assist in development of programs and systems which promote a proactive, pre-

    intervention, approach to security and rule of law systems in fragile nation-states.
    Conduct outreach to DOD, multiagency and international organizations and reachback from

    deployed elements to assist in the development of security and rule of law reform.
    Provide subject matter experts to assist in predeployment preparation for all government

    agencies.
    Training and education:

    Advise and assist with the development and incorporation of stability operations and peace
    operations into the curriculum of Service, joint, and civilian agency education.

    Facilitate the development and refinement of U.S. government DOD/civilian agency
    policies and guidance that support integrated stability operations and peace operations training.

    Assist the development of educational procedures, processes, and coordination mechanisms
    that support integrated learning opportunities. Assist in the creation of formal procedures that

    Appendix

    A-4 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    harmonize training programs by linking U.S. agencies’, IGOs’, NGOs’, multinational
    organizations’, and private sector organizations’ institutional training bases.

    Assist in the development of integrated U.S. government training programs to fill identified
    training gaps.

    After action review/lessons learned:
    Support the development and implementation of policies/guidance that facilitate the

    collection, analysis, and dissemination of integrated lessons learned at the strategic and
    operational levels.

    Assist existing lessons learned organizations to expand processes and products including
    the strategic and operational level of stability operations and peace operations.

    Assist in the development of lessons learned capabilities across U.S. military and U.S.
    government civilian agencies, IGOs, NGOs, and private sector organizations.

    Civil military integration:
    Advise, assist, and provide subject-matter expert support to enhance the integration of the

    civil and military effort across the U.S. government and internationally in support of stability
    operations and peace operations.

    Assist in the development of civilian-military teams and their support systems that can
    effectively support re-establishment of basic infrastructure, economic, public service and
    governance systems in a post-conflict non-permissive or semi-permissive environment.

    Develop alternative infrastructure rehabilitation strategies with government partners.
    Assist in the establishment of processes and procedures for developing a common set of

    measures of effectiveness.
    Support the understanding and coordination of non-DOD and multi-agency capacities

    within the DOD.
    Operational integration:

    Advise and assist geographic combatant commands (GCCs) with an interagency approach
    for the development of Operation Plans/Contingency Plans.

    Assist interagency, Joint Forces Command, Service, and multinational experimentation and
    predeployment exercises in concept development and exercise design, coordination of subject
    matter external support, and participation.

    Support the development of a network for information sharing and assist in providing
    products to stability operations and peace operations practitioners.

    Advise and assist GCCs, civilian agencies, multinational organizations, NGOs, and IGOs in
    the identification of deployment requirements for teams that support stability and peace
    operations.

    U.S. ARMY FORCES COMMAND
    A-6. U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) trains, mobilizes, deploys, sustains, transforms and
    reconstitutes conventional forces, providing relevant and ready landpower to Combatant Commanders
    world wide in defense of the nation both at home and abroad. FORSCOM serves as Army force provider in
    the global force management process. It recommends sourcing solutions that include generating force
    capabilities to Combatant Commander capabilities requirements. FORSCOM configures assigned
    operational Army forces for employment, and prepares them for the specific operational environment and
    mission in which they will be employed, to include the planning and execution of mission readiness
    exercises and mission rehearsal exercises, as well as the maintenance and employment of an exportable
    training capability.

    U.S. ARMY TRAINING AND DOCTRINE COMMAND
    A-7. The mission of TRADOC is to recruit, train, and educate the Army’s Soldiers; support training in
    units; develop doctrine; establish standards; and build the future Army. TRADOC can continue to provide
    this support to operating forces even while they are conducting operations. TRADOC assists operating

    Organizations and Their Capabilities for Operational Support

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 A-5

    forces in integrating new capabilities and in otherwise adapting to the operational environment, as well as
    transitioning successful adaptations to the rest of the Army. It can also support security force assistance, in
    particular force design for those forces and their supporting institutions. TRADOC support is provided
    primarily through its major subordinate commands and field operating agencies.

    THE ARMY WAR COLLEGE
    A-8. The Army War College prepares selected military, civilian, and international leaders for the
    responsibilities of strategic leadership; educates current and future leaders on the development and
    employment of landpower in a unified action, researches and publishes on national security and military
    strategy, and engages in activities that support the Army’s strategic communication efforts. The Army War
    College can provide capabilities to combatant commanders to support the development of strategic-level
    professional military education that is focused on theory, concepts, and systems as applied to national
    security, strategy, decisionmaking, and conflict analysis. The Army War College can perform related
    functions to support the development of partner strategic professional educational programs and to develop
    partners’ indigenous senior leader capabilities.

    U.S. ARMY CAPABILITIES INTEGRATION CENTER
    A-9. The U.S. Army Capabilities Integration Center (ARCIC) designs, develops and integrates all aspects
    of the force, from concept to capability development, in a joint operational environment. It develops and
    integrates joint and Army concepts, architectures and DOTMLPF capabilities; validates science and
    technology priorities; and leads experimentation. It also synchronizes and integrates Army capabilities with
    those of joint, interagency and multinational partners. ARCIC capabilities for operational support lie
    primarily in the areas of enabling adaptation to the operational environment and developing partner
    capability and capacity. Specific capabilities are described below:

    ARCIC develops concepts. In brief, a concept is a statement of a military problem and solution
    across the DOTMLPF domains. The solutions identify required military capabilities.

    ARCIC conducts experimentation. Experimentation is the focused, disciplined, multi-
    disciplinary exploration of related sets of military problems and their potential solutions under
    controlled conditions, with the results subject to verification and analysis. Experiments can help
    identify the effect of changes in the environment upon the efficacy of military capabilities, the
    ability of an existing or proposed military capability to cope with a given set of circumstances,
    or to demonstrate the efficacy of a military capability. In short, an experiment is an exploration
    of how well a given capability will work in a particular set of circumstances.

    ARCIC determines requirements. Simplified, a requirement is a statement of what a military
    force will need to perform its mission. It lays out in concrete terms the DOTMLPF attributes and
    qualities of a solution set that make up a given capability, as well as the number and kind of
    capabilities that are required for a force to perform its mission.

    ARCIC develops and manages operational architectures. An operational architecture describes
    how entities within a system (for example, units and headquarters) relate to one another, and the
    types of information required to support those relationships. Operational architectures inform
    the development of command and control capabilities.

    ARCIC supports modeling and simulation: ARCIC can coordinate, direct, and focus the
    employment and development of modeling and simulation capabilities to explore particular
    military problems and their solutions, either in support of concept development, capability
    development, or actual operational problems.

    ARCIC identifies science and technology solutions. ARCIC helps identify the most promising
    science and technology solutions to particular operational problems.

    ARCIC transitions new capabilities to the force. ARCIC enables the accelerated integration of
    capabilities (both materiel and nonmateriel) to the current force, in conjunction with the Rapid
    Equipping Force, U.S. Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command (RDECOM)
    and other generating force organizations. Based on a comprehensive analysis of operational
    needs statements, combatant commander integrated priority lists, and lessons learned developed

    Appendix

    A-6 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    by the Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL), ARCIC develops capabilities for integration
    across the force, with an emphasis on those that can be delivered within eighteen months.
    ARCIC plays an especially important role in integrating successful operational adaptations to
    the larger Army and into the design of the future force.

    ARCIC manages studies and analysis. It can coordinate, direct and focus analytical capabilities
    from across the Army, defense agencies, the joint, interagency and multinational community,
    and the academic and commercial sector on problems and issues at the tactical and operational
    levels of war, in support of concept development, capability development, or ongoing
    operations.

    ARCIC manages international activities. It manages and coordinates TRADOC international
    activities to synchronize the exchange of multinational DOTMLPF information with
    multinational partners to enhance current and future operational capabilities in support of U.S.
    security cooperation activities.

    ARCIC influences the development of other service doctrine and capability. It is responsible for
    integrating Army needs into joint, allied, multinational, interagency, and multi-service doctrine.

    DEPUTY CHIEF OF STAFF FOR INTELLIGENCE
    A-10. The TRADOC G-2 is the central organization in TRADOC responsible for maintaining cognizance
    of the operational environment for DOTMLPF in both a general perspective (opposing force program) and
    a specific perspective relative to ongoing military operations in a theater. The TRADOC G-2 develops and
    maintains the theoretical construct for the operational environment as embodied in current doctrine and
    uses the construct as tool to provide relevant products to support training and force development. Within
    TRADOC, the G-2 is the proponent for the contemporary operational environment (COE).

    TRADOC ANALYSIS CENTER
    A-11. The TRADOC Analysis Center produces relevant, credible operations analysis to inform key
    decisions vital to the Army, directly impacting current and future force operations. The center’s research
    and analytical products enable TRADOC and the Army to decide how to change, invest in change and
    conduct operations. It develops and applies the Army’s standard models and simulations and family of
    standard scenarios at the tactical and operational levels. It also researches, develops and shares new
    analytic methods and modeling applicable to current forces and future concepts. It provides operations
    analysis, reachback support and analysts to operating forces.

    THE U.S. ARMY ACCESSIONS COMMAND
    A-12. The command provides integrated command and control of recruiting and initial military training for
    the Army officer, warrant officer, and enlisted forces. It can assist host nations in designing and
    implementing indigenous recruiting and initial military training programs for their enlisted and officer
    forces.

    COMBINED ARMS CENTER
    A-13. The Combined Arms Center provides leadership and supervision for leadership and professional
    military and civilian education; institutional and collective training; functional training; training support;
    battle command; doctrine; collection, analysis, and integration of lessons learned; and specified areas
    commanding general, TRADOC designates in order to serve as a catalyst for change to support developing
    relevant and ready land formations with campaign qualities in support of the joint force commander. The
    Combined Arms Center can support combatant commanders with responsive professional military
    education, functional training, and training support in the theatre of operations. It also leads the time
    sensitive adaptation of Army doctrine to specified operational environments. This center also supervises
    CALL.

    Organizations and Their Capabilities for Operational Support

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 A-7

    COMBINED ARMS SUPPORT COMMAND
    A-14. The Combined Arms Support Command provides leadership, supervision, and integration of
    concepts, doctrine, organizational/force design, materiel development, unit and collective training leader
    development and professional military education, Soldier requirements, and facilities for generating force
    capabilities. It develops, prepares for, and integrates logistic and personnel services into ongoing and future
    operations in the areas of concepts, doctrine, organizational/force design, materiel development, unit and
    collective training leader development and professional military education, personnel/Soldier requirements,
    and facilities in support of the joint force commander, as directed by the Commanding General, TRADOC.
    This command provides functional logistic training and training requirements in support of ongoing
    operations, performing rapid adaptation of doctrine and training products specific to the changing
    operational environment. It directly supports the transformation of the operational Army. It supports
    deploying and redeploying units by performing site visits, providing training teams, and lessons learned
    teams to ensure operating forces are trained and equipped commensurate with their mission. The Combined
    Arms Support Command works to ensure the relevancy of the Army in the future by coordinating logistic
    and personnel service requirements across the services and allied community to develop future concepts
    and ensure future interoperability.

    A-15. The Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology-Futures Office, located at command headquarters, is
    responsible to develop and integrate ALT related concepts, doctrine, organizational/force design, materiel
    development, unit and collective training leader development and professional military education, and
    Soldier requirements. The ALT-Futures Office closely integrates its actions with this command, other
    TRADOC organizations, MEDCOM as well as other Army and joint organizations. Additionally, the ALT-
    Futures Office works very closely with USAMC and other organizations responsible to execute ALT
    operations in support of the operational Army

    U.S. ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT CENTER AND SCHOOL
    A-16. The U.S. Army Medical Department Center and School performs force development functions for
    the medical force. In addition to providing the traditional educational and training base for our Soldiers, it
    focuses on providing support to current operations by developing exportable or web-based training
    products to bridge identified training gaps based on lessons learned and after action reports. Its personnel
    perform site visits with units deploying to or redeploying from an operational area to ensure the unit
    personnel have all of the appropriate resources necessary for mission accomplishment. New equipment
    training teams and new organization training teams are fielded to enhance the incorporation of new
    equipment into units (such as the chemically biologically protective shelter and to facilitate the
    transformation of units to the new modular force. Combat and materiel developers ensure the most modern
    and effective medical equipment is issued to deploying units through the rapid fielding initiative as was
    accomplished for the improved first aid kit in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Further, doctrinal products are
    rapidly researched, produced, and disseminated to fill doctrinal voids for the employment of new
    organizational designs and new missions (such as medical support to detainee operations).

    U.S. ARMY CHAPLAIN CENTER AND SCHOOL
    A-17. The U.S. Army Chaplain Center and School provides unique support in the specific areas of world
    religions expertise, data collection, lessons learned, and comprehensive religious support issues to the
    Operating Force. Both the Office of the Chief of Chaplains and the school provide recruiting, accessioning,
    training, placement, mobilization, and demobilization generating force support

    U.S. ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND
    A-18. The USAMC equips and sustains the Army. The USAMC mission is to provide logistics,
    technology, acquisition support, and selected logistic support to Army forces as well as USAMC related
    common support to other Services, multinational and interagency partners. Capabilities of USAMC are as
    diverse as the functions of the USAMC major subordinate commands and separate reporting agencies.

    Appendix

    A-8 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    A-19. This mission is accomplished principally through national-level maintenance and supply programs
    managed and executed by the LCMCs. These USAMC LCMCs include USAMC staff as well as related
    ASA(ALT) program executive officer (PEO) and program manager (PM) offices. Together, these LCMC
    USAMC and ASA(ALT) elements work to ensure support for fielded weapon systems and equipment for
    their entire life cycle. PEO and PM staffs often work in the same office or on the ground in the field along
    with USAMC LCMC item managers and other technical support personnel. The succeeding paragraphs
    discuss the role of USAMC’s major subordinate commands in supporting ongoing operations.

    U.S. ARMY TANK AND AUTOMOTIVE COMMAND LCMC
    A-20. This command develops, acquires, fields, and sustains Soldier and ground systems for the
    operational Army through the integration of effective and timely acquisition, logistics, and cutting-edge
    technology. It, along with its imbedded ASA(ALT) PEO/PM organizations, provides significant technical
    support capabilities to deploying and deployed Army forces. This technical support is provided in the form
    of forward presence, call-forward and technical reachback support. Forward presence and call-forward
    support includes both system support contractor and logistic assistant representative support. Technical
    reachback support is provided from both the command elements as well as ASA(ALT) PEO/PM offices.
    PEO/PM technical reachback support often includes support directly from the system manufacturer,
    especially for newly fielded systems. The Tank and Automotive Command LCMC provides acquisition
    support of billions of dollars of commodity end items, spare parts, and supplies for more than a thousand
    different U.S. and Allied weapons systems. It also overhauls, modernizes, and repairs millions of pieces of
    commodity Army equipment from the tactical command. Support to deploying and deployed forces is
    coordinated through the Army Sustainment Command and is executed under the control of the supporting
    Army field support brigade (AFSB).

    JOINT MUNITIONS AND LETHALITY LCMC
    A-21. The Joint Munitions and Lethality LCMC’s mission is to execute integrated life-cycle management
    through a team of professionals who provide effective, available, and affordable munitions and lethality for
    the joint force. It is comprised of the Joint Munitions Command, the Program Executive Officer for
    Ammunition and the U.S. Army Armament, Research, Development, and Engineering Center, both at
    Picatinny Arsenal, NJ. It facilitates product responsiveness, minimizes life-cycle costs, and enhances the
    effectiveness and integration of acquisition, logistics, and technology to deliver the best munitions in the
    right place, at the right time, at the right cost.

    The Joint Munitions Command, a major subordinate command of USAMC, is the readiness and
    logistic arm of the LCMC and serves as field operating activity for the single manager for
    conventional ammunition. Munitions readiness analysis and logistic support are the major
    competencies of the Joint Munitions Command including planning, execution and control of the
    movement, storage, transportation, asset positioning, maintenance, inventory, accountability,
    surveillance, inspection, and disposition of Class V munitions. It also manages the Army’s
    eighteen ammunition production plants and storage depots as well as the Defense Ammunition
    Center. The Defense Ammunition Center provides engineering, demilitarization technology,
    logistics, training, and explosives safety support. It manages the quality assurance specialist
    (ammunition surveillance) career program; providing personnel as needed as part of the AFSBs.

    The Program Executive Office for Ammunition, a subordinate element of the ASA(ALT),
    develops and acquires conventional and leap-ahead munitions to increase the combat firepower
    of the joint force. Through its four project management offices, PEO for Ammunition executes
    the total ammunition acquisition requirements of the Army and other military services. The PEO
    for Ammunition serves as the executor for the single manager for conventional ammunition and,
    supported by the Joint Munitions Command and the Armament, Research, Development, and
    Engineering Center, is responsible for the life-cycle management, acquisition, system
    development, and production base management and modernization.

    The Armament, Research, Development, and Engineering Center is the Army’s center of
    excellence for research, technology development and sustainment of current and future
    armament and munitions systems. It provides life-cycle engineering for armaments and

    Organizations and Their Capabilities for Operational Support

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 A-9

    munitions in support of the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marines, Coast Guard, Special Operations
    Forces, and a number of non-DOD agencies. One of eight technical centers of USAMC’s
    Research, Development and Engineering Command, the Armament, Research, Development,
    and Engineering Center improves fielded items, develops new ones, maintains a strong
    technology base and provides rapid support to the Soldier in the field.

    The integration of the people, infrastructure and processes of these components make possible
    the Joint Munitions and Lethality LCMC’s vision of battle space dominance for the warfighter
    through superior munitions.

    U.S. ARMY SUSTAINMENT COMMAND
    A-22. This command is the key logistic organization in the Army. It coordinates (national sustainment
    base) support to the operational Army. It provides effective planning, resource, materiel management,
    contractor support, distribution management in accordance with the need of the operational Army It is the
    single continental United States (CONUS) Army logistic integrator which uses the Corps theater automated
    data processing service center and the logistic information warehouse interfaces to provide both time
    sensitive materiel management to maintain the logistic portion of the common operational picture. The
    Army Sustainment Command accomplishes this challenging mission through close coordination with other
    USAMC and other national level sustainment and distribution organizations such as Defense Logistics
    Agency and U.S. Transportation Command and the deployable theater sustainment commands. It supports
    operating forces through its deployable AFSBs and contracting support brigades (CSBs). In addition to the
    AFSBs, the Army Sustainment Command has a logistic support element with each Division and a brigade
    logistic support element with each maneuver brigade combat team and aviation brigade.

    U.S. ARMY RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND ENGINEERING COMMAND
    A-23. RDECOM provides science and technology solutions that enable the Army to transform and become
    more operationally effective across the full spectrum conflict. Integrating technology across the Army,
    DOD, industry and academia, RDECOM rapidly transitions state of the art technology to the force.
    RDECOM develops supplies and equipment from combat rations, clothing, battledress, to weapons,
    vehicles, and future combat systems for the force. When deployed, RDECOM elements are attached to the
    supported AFSB. Additionally, RDECOM has Science and Technology Advisors embedded at most major
    Army and Joint Commands.

    U.S. ARMY SECURITY ASSISTANCE COMMAND
    A-24. USASAC manages Army security assistance that provides total program management, including
    planning, delivery, and life cycle support of equipment, services, and training to, and co-production with
    U.S. multinational partners. Negotiate and implements co-production agreements; serves as proponent for
    Army security assistance information management and financial policy and provides logistic procedural
    guidance to the Army security assistance community. USASAC, with the LCMCs, ensures transfer of
    defense articles and services to international and friendly foreign governments to promote the sharing of
    common burdens and build allied capabilities for self defense and multinational operations. For additional
    information see AR 12-1 and AR 12-7.

    U.S. CHEMICAL MATERIALS AGENCY
    A-25. This agency provides safe, secure storage of chemical stockpiles and recovered chemical warfare
    material. It is responsible for destroying chemical warfare materials. It is the leader in the field of
    protective mask fabrication and is the Army’s facilitator for the repair and rebuild of chemical protective
    masks and breathing apparatus.

    LOGISTICS SUPPORT ACTIVITY
    A-26. The Logistics Support Activity is a separate reporting activity within USAMC that provides logistic
    information and management support to the Department of the Army and other services in the broad areas

    Appendix

    A-10 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    of logistic mission readiness and assistance, integrated logistic support, materiel distribution management,
    procedures and systems, packaging, storage and containerization policy and procedures, data management
    and distribution; logistic intelligence, life-cycle support, and technical advice and assistance to the force.
    The Logistics Support Activity provides logistic information to deploying and deployed forces that
    includes equipment readiness, distribution pipeline performance analysis, and asset visibility for timely and
    predictive decision making.

    THE COMMUNICATIONS-ELECTRONICS LIFE-CYCLE MANAGEMENT COMMAND
    A-27. The Communications–Electronics LCMC develops, acquires, fields and sustains Army
    communications systems. It provides significant technical support capabilities to deploying and deployed
    Army forces. This technical support is provided in the form of forward presence, call-forward and
    technical reachback support. Forward presence and call-forward support includes both system support
    contractor and logistic assistant representative support. Technical reachback support often includes support
    provided by the system manufacturer, especially for newly fielded systems. Communications–Electronics
    LCMC support to deploying and deployed forces is coordinated through the Army Sustainment Command
    and is executed under the control of the support AFSB.

    AVIATION AND MISSILE LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT COMMAND
    A-28. This command develops, acquires, fields, and sustains aviation, missile and unmanned vehicle
    systems, ensuring system readiness with seamless transition to operations. The LCMC transitions science
    and technology into aviation, missile and unmanned vehicle systems and manages industrial depot
    operations for aviation, missile, and unmanned vehicle systems and manages industrial depots at
    Letterkenny and Corpus Christi, as well as industrial operations at the Aviation Center Logistics Command
    in Ft. Rucker, Alabama.

    MILITARY SURFACE DEPLOYMENT AND DISTRIBUTION COMMAND
    A-29. This command is the ASCC to the United States Army Transportation Command (TRANSCOM)
    and operates sea ports of embarkation and debarkation. It provides global surface transportation and traffic
    management services to meet national security objectives in peace and war. It acts as a liaison between
    government shippers and commercial carriers. This command is responsible for the establishment and
    maintenance of contracts, solicitations and agreements with the carrier industry to deploy and distribute
    DOD supplies, personal property and personnel worldwide. Additionally, it leads the development of
    software applications to manage transportation movements.

    U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS
    A-30. The U.S. Army Corps Engineers (USACE) provides engineering, construction, and environmental
    management services for the Army, other Services, other assigned U.S. government agencies, and foreign
    governments. Some of the frontline services provided by USACE include base camp construction and
    master planning, antiterrorism/force protection, protective design, utility assessment and repair,
    contingency airfields, tactical military hydrology, rapid mapping, reconnaissance of infrastructure
    (assessments and surveys), bridge assessment, repair, and other support. These services are provided by a
    variety of entities, including forward engineering support teams (FESTs), contingency real estate support
    teams, and USACE overseas districts and field offices. USACE also provides a wealth of technical
    expertise and analytical capabilities through reachback from its supporting agencies, including—

    U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center consists of seven laboratories and is one
    of the most diverse engineering and scientific research organizations in the world. Research
    projects include facilities, airfields and pavements, protective structures, sustainment
    engineering, environmental quality, installation restoration (cleanup), compliance and
    conservation, regulatory functions, flood control, navigation, recreation, hydropower,
    topography, mapping, geospatial data, winter climatic conditions, oceanography, environmental
    impacts, and information technology.

    Organizations and Their Capabilities for Operational Support

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 A-11

    The Transatlantic Programs Center provides quality, responsive engineering services to
    deployed U.S. military forces, other U.S. government agencies, and friendly foreign defense
    forces. Under U.S. DOD auspices, the work is carried out in the Middle East, Africa, and
    Russia.

    U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville, which supports very specialized
    missions that require unique technical expertise in programs that are generally national or very
    broad in scope. The center supports tasks that require a centralized management structure,
    integrated facilities or systems that cross geographic division boundaries; and tasks that require
    commonality, standardization, multiple-site adaptation or technology transfers. Major programs
    include chemical demilitarization, installation support, removal and disposal of unexploded
    ordnance, and the Theater Construction Management System.

    NETCOM/9TH SIGNAL COMMAND (ARMY)
    A-31. U.S. Army Network Enterprise Technology Command/9th Signal Command (NETCOM/9th
    SC(A))’S mission is to execute globally based and expeditionary communications capabilities to enable
    joint and multinational command and control, leveraging the information grid to ensure extension and
    reachback capabilities to the operational Army; while operating, engineering, transforming and defending
    the Army’s LandWarNet enterprise across the entire spectrum of conflict. NETCOM/9th SC(A) is a
    generating force headquarters that leverages other organic and direct support generating force
    organizations to generate and sustain signal support to operational Army forces. NETCOM 9th SC(A)
    supports Geographical Component Commanders (GCCs) and their respective ASCC commander directly
    with brigade sized elements or through one of the signal commands (theater). In either scenario, the
    brigade commander or the signal command (theater) commander, serving as the ASCC G-6, positions and
    organizes the signal forces that support the theater.

    A-32. In addition to robust expeditionary and operational base forces, NETCOM/9th SC(A) operates and
    defends the LandWarNet through a tiered network operations (NETOPS) construct. These NETOPS
    capabilities are managed as part of the operational force. At the top of the tier is the Army Global Network
    Operations and Security Center, which is the entry point for joint task force global network operations and
    the Army leadership for execution of NETOPS for NETCOM/9th SC(A). The second tier of the NETOPS
    construct includes Theater Network Operations and Security Centers that operate, manage and defend their
    portion of the LandWarNet and provide situational understanding to their respective theater Combatant
    Commander/Army Service Component Commander. The Army Global Network Operations and Security
    Center is an essential sub-element of NETCOM/9th SC(A). Its mission is to develop and disseminate
    LandWarNet situational understanding by collecting and maintaining near real-time status information on
    vital LandWarNet resources, networks, information systems, and intratheater gateways. Its primary mission
    focus centers on LandWarNet operational compliance, management, and defense. It is integrated with the
    1st Information Operations Command Army Computer Emergency Response Team to create a
    consolidated NETOPS Center and each Theater Network Operations Center integrated with a Regional
    Computer Emergency Response Team.

    A-33. Enterprise Systems Technology Activity is NETCOM/9th SC(A)’s subordinate and is responsible for
    planning, engineering, and installing enterprise networks throughout the LandWarNet. It develops,
    implements, and enforces enterprise systems management processes and activities required to operate,
    defend and manage the LandWarNet and Army interfaces with the Global Information Grid (GIG). Other
    functions this activity accomplishes are—

    Coordinates external requirements with the HQDA staff and chief information officers for Army
    Commands, ASCCs, and direct reporting units.

    Establishes enterprise systems management and information assurance policies and procedures,
    and executes necessary actions to ensure common user services within a secure NETOPS
    framework across the LandWarNet enterprise.

    Provides operational policy and functional staff oversight for enterprise system management
    operations to CONUS installation directorates of information management and regional chief
    information officers.

    Appendix

    A-12 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    Assesses, develops, staffs, and manages enterprise systems management functional proponent
    requirements and service level agreements for the LandWarNet.

    Conducts testing, evaluation, and architectural review of operational architectures to ensure that
    new systems facilitate technological compliance. Ensures all capabilities fielded within
    LandWarNet conform to established standards, practices, and procedures.

    Provides technical expertise to execute long-haul and base communications programs.
    Provides oversight of all Army activities related to the allocation, allotment, and assignment of

    RF spectrum.

    A-34. NETCOM/9th SC(A) is also the executive agent for critical no-fail missions in support of the Office
    of the President and the DOD.

    HEADQUARTERS, U.S. ARMY INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY
    COMMAND

    A-35. Headquarters, U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) synchronizes the
    operations of all INSCOM units to produce intelligence in support of the Army, combatant commands, and
    the national intelligence community. INSCOM responds to taskings from national and departmental
    authorities for signals intelligence (SIGINT), human intelligence, counterintelligence, imagery intelligence,
    measurement and signature intelligence, technical intelligence, electronic warfare, and information
    operations. INSCOM provides USC Title 50 National Intelligence Program support to combatant
    commands and Army organizations.

    A-36. INSCOM possesses the following capabilities that can support operations:
    Project Foundry: Provides target/area of responsibility immersion training to enhance the

    military intelligence technical skills for designated Soldiers assigned to tactical units prior to
    deployment.

    Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Certification Program: Serves as executive agent for
    the certification program.

    DOD Contract Linguist Program: Serves as executive agent for the contract linguist program.
    Sensor Programs: Fields and trains personnel in gaining units on purpose-built measurement and

    signature intelligence and SIGINT sensors for use in the area of responsibility.
    Security Clearance Adjudication: Grants, denies or revokes security clearances and determines

    eligibility of sensitive compartmented information access for the total Army.
    SIGINT: Provides the SIGINT interface between tactical military intelligence units and the

    national SIGINT System.
    Computer Forensics: Provides subject matter expertise in specialized computer forensics to

    retrieve lost, compromised, or destroyed data.
    Computer Network Operations: Conducts planning, resourcing, and capabilities development of

    all aspects of computer network attack and computer network exploitation; and in coordination
    with NETCOM, manages facets of Army computer network defense.

    Serves as the combat developer and training developer for strategic signal intelligence,
    information security, computer network operations capabilities, and INSCOM sole-user
    intelligence and electronic warfare systems; responsible for formulating doctrine, concepts,
    organization, materiel, and training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations requirements and
    objectives; prioritizes materiel needs; and coordinates with the materiel developer on INSCOM
    sole user systems, SIGINT and computer network operations capabilities.

    Conducts counter-intelligence scope polygraphs and screening activities in support of Army
    units worldwide.

    U.S. ARMY RESERVE COMMAND
    A-37. U.S. Army Reserve Command is a direct reporting unit to HQDA. It exercises command and control
    over all Army Reserve forces based in the CONUS and provides significant support to Army Reserve units

    Organizations and Their Capabilities for Operational Support

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 A-13

    based outside CONUS in Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa and in Europe. The Army Reserve forces in
    CONUS include both operational Army and generating force capabilities. Operating forces include the
    following:

    Deployable support and sustainment units and Soldiers.
    Deployable operational and functional commands.

    Army Reserve generating forces include the following:
    Regional Readiness Sustainment Commands that provide base operations and administrative

    support to units within one of four CONUS regions.
    Training support organizations that provide individual and collective training, leadership, and

    education opportunities for Soldiers and units for all three components of the Army.

    A-38. The Army Reserve is no longer a strategic reserve, but rather is an integral part of the operational
    Army. Army Reserve generating force units have clearly demonstrated that they can deploy into a joint
    operations area to apply their generating force capabilities in an operational environment and in support of
    operational objectives, thereby expanding the reach of the operational Army. These capabilities can be
    applied across full spectrum operations either in a training status or in a mobilized status in support of
    contingency operations.

    U.S. ARMY MEDICAL COMMAND
    A-39. U.S. Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) is responsible for providing health service support for
    modernization, deployment, sustainment, and demobilization of Army forces. It provides—

    Medical, dental, and veterinary capabilities to the Army and designated DOD activities.
    Conducts medical research, materiel development, and acquisition.
    Educates and trains personnel.
    Develops medical concepts, doctrine, and systems to support Army healthcare delivery.

    A-40. MEDCOM will simultaneously maintain the capability to provide continuity of patient care, while
    ensuring it retains the capability to care for patients returning from theaters. MEDCOM also provides
    individual Army Medical Department training and medical materiel, research and development support to
    support the Army mobilization force. The MEDCOM will expand the health care base in CONUS to
    support the mobilizing Army force and casualties returning from theaters. The MEDCOM ensures that
    medical treatment facilities, to include dental and veterinary activities, coordinate their support plans with
    the installation’s mobilization plan. Additionally, the MEDCOM is responsible for the medical/dental
    portion of Soldier readiness processing for the mobilized Army force. The MEDCOM and its subordinate
    units provide:

    Special medical augmentation response teams. These teams are organized by their regional
    medical commands and other subordinate organizations to provide consultation and advise in
    the following areas: trauma/critical care; nuclear, biological, and chemical incidents; stress
    management; medical command and control, communications, and telemedicine; pastoral care;
    preventive medicine/disease surveillance; burn; veterinary; health systems assessment and
    assistance; aeromedical isolation; and occupational and environmental health surveillance.
    MEDCOM also has the capability to field logistics special medical augmentation response teams
    to provide assistance to deploying forces.

    Regional medical commands and home station/mobilization site installation medical treatment
    facilities. To ensure that the health care delivery system is transparent and seamless, the
    deployed medical service corps commander must have the ability to coordinate a Soldier’s
    individual health care needs through the theater force health protection system and to the
    facilities providing definitive and rehabilitative care in the CONUS-support base. Additionally,
    regional medical commands and installation medical treatment facilities and/or other medical
    facilities are a crucial link in sustaining the longitudinal medical record of each Soldier to ensure
    data from all medical encounters is captured and documented, that health assessments are
    accomplished prior to and after deployments, thereby facilitating the development of accurate
    and comprehensive medical treatment plans as required, and enhancing the medical readiness of

    Appendix

    A-14 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    our force projection Army. The regional medical commands and installation medical treatment
    facilities also provide the professional filler system from which medical personnel are assigned
    to MEDCOM medical treatment facilities to maintain their medical proficiency on a daily basis
    by working in the clinics and hospitals of the generating force, and deploy with field medical
    units within the operational Army as required.

    U.S. ARMY DENTAL COMMAND
    A-41. The Dental Command provides the requisite control and focus to promote dental health, to sustain
    and maintain dental operations, to enhance dental readiness, and to provide highly trained dental
    professionals to the deployed force through the professional filler system.

    U.S. ARMY VETERINARY COMMAND
    A-42. This organization provides military veterinary services in support of MEDCOM and DOD missions
    in their area of responsibility. The Veterinary Command assures the readiness of the command and deploys
    individual and unit professional filler system personnel. Its responsibilities include food safety and quality
    assurance, care of government-owned animals, and animal disease prevention and control.

    U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND MATERIEL COMMAND
    A-43. This organization’s mission is to project and sustain a medically protected force and to enhance
    medical care to the deployed Soldier by leveraging medical solutions. The deployed medical commander
    and staff must be cognizant of the clinical and research capabilities encompassed by this diverse
    organization and its subordinate commands in order to gain the insights into emerging technologies and
    medical materiel improvements and innovations to include investigational new drugs in order to identify,
    respond to, and counter unique health threats encountered in the deployed setting.

    THE U.S. CENTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
    A-44. This center provides worldwide scientific expertise and services in clinical and field preventive
    medicine, occupational and environmental health, health promotion and wellness, epidemiology and
    disease surveillance, toxicology, and related laboratory sciences. It can deploy task organized teams in a
    variety of specialties.

    U.S. ARMY INSTITUTE OF SURGICAL RESEARCH
    A-45. This institute is dedicated to both laboratory and clinical trauma research. Its mission is to provide
    requirements-driven combat casualty care medical solutions and products for injured Soldiers from self-aid
    through definitive care across the spectrum of conflict; and to provide state-of-the-art trauma, burn, and
    critical care to DOD beneficiaries around the world.

    U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR CHEMICAL DEFENSE
    A-46. This institute develops medical countermeasures to chemical warfare agents and trains medical
    personnel in the medical management of chemical casualties.

    U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES
    A-47. This institute conducts research to develop strategies, products, information, procedures, and training
    programs for medical defense against biological warfare threats and naturally occurring infectious diseases
    that require special containment. It is the lead medical research laboratory for the U.S. Biological Defense
    Research Program. The Institute plays a key role in the national defense and in infectious disease research
    as the largest biocontainment laboratory in the DOD for the study of hazardous diseases.

    Organizations and Their Capabilities for Operational Support

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 A-15

    U.S. ARMY MEDICAL MATERIEL CENTER–EUROPE
    A-48. This center provides the entire spectrum of medical logistic support as the single medical logistic
    manager for the European Command and out of sector support to the Department of State Humanitarian
    Assistance Program, the U.S. Central Command in southwest Asia, Central Asia, and portions of Africa.

    U.S. ARMY MEDICAL MATERIEL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY
    A-49. This agency is the designated Program Manager for combat medical systems. It develops and fields
    medical products for the U.S. Armed Forces in conjunction with the U.S. Army Medical Department
    Center and School. It assists in protecting and preserving America’s sons and daughters serving in the
    nation’s Armed Forces by providing new drugs, vaccines, and medical devices. This enhances readiness,
    ensures the provision of the highest quality of medical care to the DOD, and maximizes the survival rate
    for medical casualties on the battlefield.

    ARMY RESERVE–MEDICAL COMMAND
    A-50. Coordination with Army Reserve–Medical Command is required to achieve a high level of
    integration between the active Army and Reserve Component assets. Over 66 percent of the Army Medical
    Department’s force health protection assets lie within the Reserve Component force structure. The
    distribution of future force capabilities between the active Army and the Army Reserve must support
    strategic reach as well as maintain strategic health service support reserves for extended campaigns and
    multiple global engagements. By and large, contingency response requires some Reserve Component
    forces with unique complementary capabilities maintained at the same level of readiness as the active
    Army. Simultaneously, the force health protection Reserve Component assets must include capabilities that
    mirror those of the active force for expansibility, but which may be afforded additional response time prior
    to commitment.

    U.S. ARMY TEST AND EVALUATION COMMAND
    A-51. This command’s mission is to plan, conduct and report the results of tests, simulations, experiments
    and evaluations to decision makers to ensure that our Army’s Soldiers have the right capabilities for
    success across the entire spectrum of operations. In addition to the regular mission, the U.S. Army Test and
    Evaluation Command performs rapid testing in direct support of the current operations to determine the
    capabilities and limitations of untested weapon systems issued directly to Soldiers in combat operations.

    U.S. ARMY CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION COMMAND
    A-52. This command conducts criminal investigations of felony crimes in which the Army has an interest.
    It provides investigative support to the Army. Felony criminal investigation requires complete investigative
    independence and absolute objectivity and integrity in the manner in which it is accomplished and in the
    oversight it receives. In addition to operational independence, these factors dictate that the command
    singularly perform this function and have maximum control over its resources. Criminal investigation
    division support to both the generating force and operational Army is provided by units under command
    and control of a criminal investigation division headquarters. Criminal investigation division units have
    dual missions to conduct both generating force and operational Army missions. The same units that
    provide investigative support for post, camp, and station are deployable to the operational area in support
    of the operational Army. Investigative support includes felony investigations, procurement fraud
    investigations, computer crime investigative support, classified/sensitive investigative support, forensic
    support by the U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory, polygraph and crime records support by the
    U.S. Crime Records Center, and protective service operations for designated DOD principals and their
    visiting foreign equivalents. In the operational area, U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command units also
    investigate suspected war crimes.

    Appendix

    A-16 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    U.S. ARMY INSTALLATION MANAGEMENT COMMAND
    A-53. IMCOM manages Army installations to support readiness and mission execution. It provides
    equitable services and facilities, optimizes resources, sustains the environment, and enhances the quality of
    life of the Military community. IMCOM provides capabilities to operate and manage bases in support of
    Army and Joint Force commanders. It also provides capabilities to support the unit deployment,
    redeployment and reintegration. IMCOM provides base operations support to the Army in contingency
    operations as directed. To provide functional support, IMCOM—

    Administers a full range of human resources support including military personnel services,
    Army Substance Abuse Program and Army Education Services.

    Supports Family and Morale, Welfare, and Recreation programs (see paragraph A-55).
    Provides support to Warriors in Transition with facilities to accommodate healing and support

    services as well as programs to aid them and their families.
    Coordinates and provides emergency services (fire and law enforcement plus emergency

    medical services at designated installations).
    Provides a full range of logistic support—supply, food/laundry services, maintenance and

    transportation support.
    Plans coordinates and implements G-3 approved stationing actions.
    Ensures sustainable installations; manages environmental programs (see paragraph A-54).
    Establishes, operates, and maintains the public works infrastructure to satisfy basic engineering

    and environmental requirements of the installation for water, sewer, power, facilities,
    conditioned space, physical plant maintenance and sustainable operations.

    Develops and implements the force protection program.
    Facilitates integrated planning, training, mobilization and security on Army Installations.

    Manages the operation and ensures the availability of training ranges and airfields. Safety and
    sustainability are key factors of readiness.

    Delivers typical Special Staff support to tenants as follows:
    Legal Services.
    Public Affairs.
    Religious Support.
    Equal Employment Opportunity.
    Safety and Occupational Health.
    Internal Review.
    Contracting in conjunction with Army Contracting Agency.
    Inspector General.
    Civilian Personnel in conjunction with PDM.

    A-54. The Army Environmental Command is a major subordinate command within IMCOM. The Army
    Environmental Command provides technical expertise to ensure sustainable Army bases worldwide and
    advises commanders in support of operations in environmentally constrained conditions. The Army
    Environmental Command monitors and supports environmental regulatory requirements globally in the
    conservation, restoration, compliance and pollution prevention programs. Specifically, this command
    oversees services in water resources, oil, hazardous materials, spill response, hazardous waste
    management, air, environmental quality technology, environmental management systems, environmental
    condition of properties, and Army environmental programs in foreign countries. This command provides
    subject matter experts in response to contingencies and inquiries as needed.

    A-55. The Family and Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Command is a major subordinate command within
    IMCOM. It enables Soldier and Family readiness at Garrisons around the world. This command provides
    recreational opportunities and support services for Soldiers and their Families at home as well as across all
    stages of the ARFORGEN. The command’s domain includes Army Community Services, Child and Youth
    programs, Community Recreation programs, non-appropriated fund management, business operations,
    Armed Forces Recreation Centers, Army Recreation Machine Programs, and Army Lodging. This

    Organizations and Their Capabilities for Operational Support

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 A-17

    command provides subject matter experts that deploy in response to contingencies or inquiries to support
    unit recreational requirements or assist commanders in planning for unit/garrison requirements across all
    stages of the ARFORGEN.

    A-56. IMCOM also provides religious support to operational Army units, administered through the
    installation Chaplain’s office to unit ministry teams, unit leadership, Soldiers, and family members in
    accordance with the Chief of Chaplains’ policy and established local memoranda of instruction and
    memoranda of agreement. Religious support may include activities such as suicide prevention,
    predeployment, redeployment, reintegration, and marriage and family life training, and will track
    deployment cycle support phase descriptors.

    This page intentionally left blank.

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 Glossary-1

    Glossary

    The glossary lists terms with Army and joint definitions. Where Army and joint
    definitions are different, (Army) follows the term. The proponent manual (the
    authority) for most terms is listed in parentheses after the definition.

    SECTION I – ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

    AAWO Army Asymmetric Warfare Office
    ADCON Administrative control

    AFSB Army field support brigade
    ALT acquisition, life-cycle logistics support, and technology

    APOE Aerial port of embarkation
    APS Army pre-positioned stocks

    ARCIC Army Capabilities Integration Center
    ARFORGEN Army force generation

    AR-MEDCOM Army Reserve-Medical Command
    ASA(ALT) Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology)

    ASCC Army Service component command
    ATEC United States Army Test and Evaluation Command
    AWRS Army War Reserve Stocks
    BLST brigade logistic support team
    CAC Combined Arms Center

    CALL Center for Army Lessons Learned
    CIDC United States Army Criminal Investigation Command

    CJCSM Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff manual
    COE contemporary operational environment

    CONUS continental United States
    CSB contracting support brigade

    DOD Department of Defense
    DODD Department of Defense directive

    DOTMLPF doctrine, organizations, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel,
    and facilities

    FEST forward engineering support team
    FEST-A forward engineering support team-advanced
    FEST-M forward engineering support team-main

    FM field manual
    FORSCOM United States Army Forces Command

    Glossary

    Glossary-2 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    G-2 assistant chief of staff, intelligence
    G-3 assistant chief of staff, operations
    G-4 assistant chief of staff, logistics
    G-5 assistant chief of staff, plans
    G-6 assistant chief of staff, network operations
    G-7 assistant chief of staff, information engagement
    G-8 assistant chief of staff, financial management

    G-37 force management directorate
    GCC geographic combatant commander
    GIG Global Information Grid
    HQ headquarters

    HQDA Headquarters, Department of the Army
    IGO intergovernmental organization

    IMCOM United States Army Installation Management Command
    INSCOM United States Army Intelligence and Security Command

    IPB intelligence preparation of the battlefield
    IRCRDA international cooperative research, development and acquisition

    ISR intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance
    J-2 intelligence directorate of a joint staff
    J-3 operations directorate of a joint staff

    JOA joint operations area
    JP joint publication

    JSAT joint security assistance training
    JWICS Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System
    LCMC life-cycle management command

    LOGCAP logistics civil augmentation program
    MDW United States Army Military District of Washington

    MEDCOM United States Army Medical Command
    METT-TC mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time

    available, civil considerations
    NETCOM/
    9th SC(A)

    United States Army Network Enterprise Technology Command/9th Signal
    Command (Army)

    NETOPS network operations
    NGO nongovernmental organization

    NSPD national security Presidential directive
    OCONUS outside the continental United States

    OPCON operational control
    OPLAN operation plan
    OPROJ operational project

    ORSA operations research and systems analysis
    PEO program executive officer

    Glossary

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 Glossary-3

    PKSOI Peacekeeping and Stability Operations Institute
    PM project manager

    RDECOM United States Army Research, Development, and Engineering Command
    RFC request for capability

    RSOI reception, staging, onward movement, and integration
    S-2 intelligence staff officer
    S-3 operations staff officer

    SAO security assistance organization
    SDDC Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command

    SIGINT signals intelligence
    SIPRNET SECRET internet protocol router network

    SPO support operations officer
    TADSS training aids, devices, simulators, and simulations

    TRADOC United States Army Training and Doctrine Command
    TRANSCOM United States Army Transportation Command

    U.S. United States
    USACE United States Army Corps of Engineers

    USAMC United States Army Materiel Command
    USASAC United States Army Security Assistance Command

    USAR United States Army Reserve
    USASMDC/
    ARSTRAT

    United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Arm y Strategic
    Command

    UFMCS University of Foreign and Military Cultural Studies
    USMA United States Military Academy

    USC United States Code
    USSTRATCOM United States Strategic Command

    WRSA war reserve stocks for allies

    SECTION II – TERMS

    administrative
    control

    (joint) Direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other
    organizations in respect to administration and support, including organization
    of Service forces, control of resources and equipment, personnel management,
    unit logistics, individual and unit training, readiness, mobilization,
    demobilization, discipline, and other matters not included in the operational
    missions of the subordinate or other organizations. Also called ADCON. (JP 1)

    adversary A party acknowledged as potentially hostile to a friendly party and against
    which the use of force may be envisaged. (JP 3-0)

    area of operations (joint) An operational area defined by the joint force commander for land and
    maritime forces. Areas of operations do not typically encompass the entire
    operational area of the joint force commander, but should be large enough for
    component commanders to accomplish their missions and protect their forces.
    Also called AO. (JP 3-0)

    Glossary

    Glossary-4 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    ARFOR The Army Service component headquarters for a joint task force or a joint and
    multinational force. (FM 3-0)

    concept A description of a military problem and its solution across the domains of
    doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel,
    and facilities.

    force development The determination of capability requirements for doctrine, organizations,
    training, materiel, leadership and education, personnel, and facilities.

    force integration The synchronized, resource-constrained execution of an approved force
    development program, including the introduction, incorporation, and
    sustainment of doctrine, organizations, training, materiel, leadership and
    education, personnel, and facilities; coordination and integration of operational
    and managerial systems collectively designed to improve the effectiveness and
    capability of forces; and knowledge and consideration of the potential
    implications of decisions and actions taken within the execution process.

    force management A process involving decisionmaking and the execution of a range of
    operations, including concept development, capabilities requirements
    generation, force development, organizational development, force integration
    functions, and resourcing, resulting in the development of a capable
    operational force with constrained resources.

    generating force Those Army organizations whose primary mission is to generate and sustain
    the operational Army’s capabilities for employment by joint commanders.

    operating forces (joint) Those forces whose primary missions are to participate in combat and
    the integral supporting elements thereof. (JP 1-02)

    operational area (joint) An overarching term encompassing more descriptive terms for
    geographic areas in which military operations are conducted. Operational areas
    include, but are not limited to, such descriptors as area of responsibility,
    theater of war, theaterof operations, joint operations area, amphibious
    objective area, joint special operations area, and area of operations. (JP 5-0)

    operational Army Those Army organizations whose primary purpose is to participate in full
    spectrum operations as part of the joint force.

    operational
    environment

    (joint) A composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect
    the employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander.
    (JP 3-0)

    reachback (joint) The process of obtaining products, services, and applications, or forces,
    or equipment, or material from organizations that are not forward deployed.
    (JP 3-30)

    security assistance (joint) Group of programs authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961,
    as amended, and the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended, or other
    related statutes by which the United States provides defense articles, military
    training, and other defense-related services, by grant, loan, credit, or cash sales
    in furtherance of national policies and objectives. (JP 1-02)

    security
    cooperation

    (joint) All Department of Defense interactions with foreign defense
    establishments to build defense relationships that promote specific US security
    interests, develop allied and friendly military capabilities for self-defense and
    multinational operations, and provide US forces with peacetime and
    contingency access to a host nation. (JP 3-07.1)

    Glossary

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 Glossary-5

    security forces All military, intelligence, law enforcement, and constabulary organizations that

    support a legitimate authority, including the systems and institutions that
    generate, employ, and sustain these forces.

    security force
    assistance

    Unified action to generate, employ, and sustain host-nation or regional security
    forces in support of a legitimate authority.

    situational
    awareness

    Immediate knowledge of the conditions of the operation, constrained
    geographically and in time. (FM 3-0)

    situational
    understanding

    The product of applying analysis and judgment to relevant information to
    determine the relationships among the mission variables to facilitate decision
    making. (FM 3-0)

    strategic reach The distance across which the Nation can project decisive military power.

    This page intentionally left blank.

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 References-1

    References

    REQUIRED PUBLICATIONS
    These documents must be available to intended users of this publication.
    AR 12-1. Security Assistance, International Logistics, Training, and Technical Assistance Support

    Policy and Responsibilities. 24 January 2000.
    AR 12-7. Security Assistance Teams. 15 June 1998.
    CJCSM 3122.01A. Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES). Volume I (Planning

    Policies and Procedures). 29 September 2006.
    DOD Directive 4270.5. Military Construction. 12 February 2005.
    FM 1. The Army. 14 June 2005.
    FM 3-0. Operations. 27 February 2008.
    FM 3-100.21. Contractors on the Battlefield. 3 January 2003.
    FM 100-10-2. Contracting Support on the Battlefield. 4 August 1999.
    JP 5-0. Joint Operation Planning. 26 December 2006.

    RELATED PUBLICATIONS
    These sources contain relevant supplemental information.
    AR 71-9. Materiel Requirements. 30 April 1997.
    DOD Directive 3000.05. Military Support for Stability, Security, Transition, and Reconstruction

    (SSTR) Operations. 28 November 2005.
    FM 3-24. Counterinsurgency. 15 December 2006.
    How the Army Runs: A Senior Leader Reference Handbook. U.S. Army War College, Department of

    Command, Leadership, and Management. Carlisle Barracks, PA. 2006.
    JP 1-02. DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. 12 April 2001.
    JP 3-0. Joint Operations. 17 September 2006.
    JP 3-07.1. Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Foreign Internal Defense (FID). 30 April

    2004.
    JP 3-13. Information Operations. 13 February 2006.
    NSPD-44. Management of Interagency Efforts Concerning Reconstruction and Stabilization.

    7 December 2005. Available online at http://www.ndu.edu/ITEA/storage/716/nspd-44
    National Defense Strategy of the United States of America. March 2005.

    PRESCRIBED FORMS
    None

    REFERENCED FORMS
    DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms.

    This page intentionally left blank.

    2 April 2008 FM 1-01 Index-1

    Index

    Entries are by paragraph number.

    A
    Army pre-positioned stocks

    (APS), 5-11, 5-40, 5-50, 5-
    58–5-60

    ARFORGEN, 2-47–2-50, 3-24,
    3-34, 4-69, 4-78, 4-83–4-86, A-
    4, A-55
    Army communications systems

    operations. See network
    operations.

    C
    civil support, 1-19, 2-31–32
    contemporary operational

    environment (COE), 3-12, 4-
    85, 4-93, A-10

    content management, 5-82, 5-
    85

    contingency planning, 3-1, 3-5,
    3-47, A-2

    contractor logistic support, 5-
    33, 5-40–5-42

    crisis action planning, 3-1, 3-5,
    3-47, 6-13, A-2

    D
    deployment, 2-48–2-50, 3-19,
    3-25–3-26, 4-65, 4-70, 4-86–4-
    88, 4-94–4-97, 4-100, 4-104, 5-
    1, 5-3, 5-6–5-70, A-4–A-5, A-
    36, A-53, A-56.
    DOTMLPF, 1-10, 3-23, 4-9, 4-

    14, 4-49–4-50, 4-57–4-58, 4-
    74–4-79, 6-19, 6-21, A-3, A-
    5, A-9–A-10

    E
    economic and infrastructure

    development, 1-25–1-26, 3-
    41, 6-2

    enterprise management. See
    network operations.

    exportable training capability,
    4-96, A-6

    F
    force development,1-25, 3-29,
    3-43, 4-74, 6-9, 6-14, 6-16, 6-
    19–6-26, A-4, A-10, A-16

    force integration, 1-25, 3-29, 3-

    43, 4-74, 6-9, 6-14, 6-16, 6-
    27–6-34, A-4

    force management, 1-25, 3-49,
    3-60–3-68, 6-14–6-34

    force projection, 1-21–1-22, 2-
    45–2-46, 3-38, 5-1–5-23, A-
    40

    forward engineering support
    team (FEST), 6-40–6-45, A-30

    forward repair activities, 3-26,

    5-36–5-38
    full spectrum operations, 1-3,

    1-7, 2-31–2-41, 2-47, 4-80–
    4-81, A-38

    G
    Global Information Grid (GIG),

    1-24, 2-16, 5-73–5-81, A-33

    H
    health service support, 1-23, 5-

    5, 5-24, 5-31, 5-64–5-70, A-
    39–A-50

    I
    information environment, 2-2,

    2-15–2-16, 4-27
    information management, 5-

    72–5-87, A-24
    intelligence reach, 4-6, 4-19
    intelligence, surveillance, and

    reconnaissance (ISR), 4-35–
    4-36

    J
    joint interdependence, 2-45–2-

    46, 5-1–5-5, 5-77

    L
    landpower, 1-2–1-3, 2-10, 2-32,

    4-4, 4-83–4-89, 4-100, 5-4,
    6-27, A-6, A-8

    LandWarNet, 1-24, 4-88, 5-74–
    5-89

    left-behind equipment, 5-49–5-
    56

    legal support, 4-56
    logistics civil augmentation

    program (LOGCAP), 3-4, 5-
    40, 5-45–5-46, 6-34

    logistics force generation, 4-97
    Logistics Support Activity, A-26

    M
    MEDCOM, 5-31, 5-66–5-68, A-

    15, A-39–A-40
    Military Surface Deployment

    and Distribution Command
    (SDDC), 3-19, 3-35, 4-86, 5-
    3, 5-9–5-10, 5-12, 5-18, A-29

    N
    network operations (NETOPS),

    5-71–5-89, A-32–A-36

    O
    operating forces, 1-7
    operational Army, 1-3–1-13, 1-

    29
    operational variables, 2-6–2-24

    P
    partner security forces, 3-43, 6-

    4–6-6, 6-12–6-34
    phases, joint campaign, 3-7–3-

    46
    predeployment, 5-7–5-11, 5-54

    R
    redeployment, 5-6–5-9, 5-15–

    5-23, A-53
    request for capability, 3-59–3-

    63

    Index

    Index-2 FM 1-01 2 April 2008

    request for forces. See request
    for capability.

    retrograde, 3-26, 3-37, 5-17, 5-
    21–5-22, 5-39

    rule of law, 2-41, 6-46–6-47

    S
    security assistance, 6-7–6-13
    security cooperation, 6-8,

    6-11–6-13, A-9
    security force assistance, 3-29,

    6-4–6-6, A-7
    situational understanding, 4-

    24–4-34
    stability operations, 2-31–2-41,

    3-9–3-15, 4-18, 4-53, 6-1–6-
    6, A-5

    sustainment, 1-23, 3-26, 5-5, 5-
    24-5-89

    T
    theater-provided equipment, 3-

    37, 5-9, 5-17, 5-21, 5-50-5-
    53, 5-57

    U
    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    (USACE), 3-11, 3-13, 3-30,
    3-40, 3-44, 4-12, 4-27–4-28,
    5-8, 5-13, 6-36–6-45, A-30

    U.S. Army Dental Command,
    A-41

    U.S. Army Materiel Command
    (USAMC), 3-26, 3-37, 4-64,
    4-86, 5-9–5-10, 5-22, 5-26–
    5-63, 5-70, 6-10, 6-32–6,34,
    A-18–A-19

    U.S. Army Medical Command
    (MEDCOM), 4-13, 4-32, 4-
    40, 5-31, A-39–A-40

    U.S. Army Research,
    Development, and
    Engineering Command
    (RDECOM), 3-33, 4-31, 4-
    41, 4-64, A-23

    U.S. Army Security Assistance
    Command (USASAC), 6-10,
    A-24

    U.S. Army Sustainment
    Command, 3-26, 4-97, 5-9,
    5-27–5-30, 5-43, 5-46, 5-60,
    A-22

    U.S. Army Veterinary
    Command, A-42

    U.S. Chemical Materials
    Agency, 4-22, A-25

    unified action, 2-42–2-44, 5-25,
    6-4

    FM 1-01
    2 April 2008

    By order of the Secretary of the Army:

    GEORGE W. CASEY, JR.
    General, United States Army

    Chief of Staff

    Official:

    JOYCE E. MORROW

    Administrative Assistant to the
    Secretary of the Army

    0807201

    DISTRIBUTION:
    Active Army, Army National Guard, and U.S. Army Reserve: Not to be distributed: electronic media
    only.

    PIN: 084724-000

    • Cover
    • Contents
      Preface
      Introduction

    • Chapter 1: The Army’s Generating Force
    • THE ARMY
      EFFECTIVE CAPABILITIES

    • Chapter 2: The Operational Environment
    • SIGNIFICANT SOCIETAL TRENDS
      OPERATIONAL VARIABLES
      THREATS
      FULL SPECTRUM OPERATIONS: THE ARMY’S OPERATIONAL CONCEPT
      UNIFIED ACTION
      JOINT INTERDEPENDENCE
      ARFORGEN

    • Chapter 3: Employing the Generating Force
    • CATEGORIES OF SUPPORT
      ORGANIZATION OF GENERATING FORCE CAPABILITIES
      SUPPORTING THE JOINT CAMPAIGN
      PLANNING SUPPORT FOR OPERATIONS
      PROVIDING CAPABILITIES
      ACCESSING CAPABILITIES

    • Chapter 4: Adapting to the Operational Environment
    • UNDERSTANDING THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT
      SUPPORT TO RAPID ADAPTATION
      GENERATING CAPABILITIES FOR OPERATIONS

    • Chapter 5: Enabling Strategic Reach
    • SUPPORT TO FORCE PROJECTION
      SUSTAINING DEPLOYED FORCES
      BUILDING AND SUSTAINING OPERATIONAL NETWORKS

    • Chapter 6: Developing Multinational Partner Capability and Capacity
    • STABILITY OPERATIONS
      SUPPORT FOR SECURITY FORCE ASSISTANCE
      SUPPORT FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

    • Appendix: Organizations and Their Capabilities for Operational Support
    • Glossary
      References
      Index

    • Authentication
    • PIN

    << /ASCII85EncodePages false /AllowTransparency false /AutoPositionEPSFiles true /AutoRotatePages /None /Binding /Left /CalGrayProfile (Dot Gain 20%) /CalRGBProfile (sRGB IEC61966-2.1) /CalCMYKProfile (U.S. Web Coated \050SWOP\051 v2) /sRGBProfile (sRGB IEC61966-2.1) /CannotEmbedFontPolicy /Error /CompatibilityLevel 1.4 /CompressObjects /Tags /CompressPages true /ConvertImagesToIndexed true /PassThroughJPEGImages true /CreateJDFFile false /CreateJobTicket false /DefaultRenderingIntent /Default /DetectBlends true /DetectCurves 0.0000 /ColorConversionStrategy /CMYK /DoThumbnails false /EmbedAllFonts true /EmbedOpenType false /ParseICCProfilesInComments true /EmbedJobOptions true /DSCReportingLevel 0 /EmitDSCWarnings false /EndPage -1 /ImageMemory 1048576 /LockDistillerParams false /MaxSubsetPct 100 /Optimize true /OPM 1 /ParseDSCComments true /ParseDSCCommentsForDocInfo true /PreserveCopyPage true /PreserveDICMYKValues true /PreserveEPSInfo true /PreserveFlatness true /PreserveHalftoneInfo false /PreserveOPIComments true /PreserveOverprintSettings true /StartPage 1 /SubsetFonts true /TransferFunctionInfo /Apply /UCRandBGInfo /Preserve /UsePrologue false /ColorSettingsFile () /AlwaysEmbed [ true ] /NeverEmbed [ true ] /AntiAliasColorImages false /CropColorImages true /ColorImageMinResolution 300 /ColorImageMinResolutionPolicy /OK /DownsampleColorImages true /ColorImageDownsampleType /Bicubic /ColorImageResolution 300 /ColorImageDepth -1 /ColorImageMinDownsampleDepth 1 /ColorImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000 /EncodeColorImages true /ColorImageFilter /DCTEncode /AutoFilterColorImages true /ColorImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG /ColorACSImageDict << /QFactor 0.15 /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1] >>
    /ColorImageDict << /QFactor 0.15 /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1] >>
    /JPEG2000ColorACSImageDict << /TileWidth 256 /TileHeight 256 /Quality 30 >>
    /JPEG2000ColorImageDict << /TileWidth 256 /TileHeight 256 /Quality 30 >>
    /AntiAliasGrayImages false
    /CropGrayImages true
    /GrayImageMinResolution 300
    /GrayImageMinResolutionPolicy /OK
    /DownsampleGrayImages true
    /GrayImageDownsampleType /Bicubic
    /GrayImageResolution 300
    /GrayImageDepth -1
    /GrayImageMinDownsampleDepth 2
    /GrayImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000
    /EncodeGrayImages true
    /GrayImageFilter /DCTEncode
    /AutoFilterGrayImages true
    /GrayImageAutoFilterStrategy /JPEG
    /GrayACSImageDict << /QFactor 0.15 /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1] >>
    /GrayImageDict << /QFactor 0.15 /HSamples [1 1 1 1] /VSamples [1 1 1 1] >>
    /JPEG2000GrayACSImageDict << /TileWidth 256 /TileHeight 256 /Quality 30 >>
    /JPEG2000GrayImageDict << /TileWidth 256 /TileHeight 256 /Quality 30 >>
    /AntiAliasMonoImages false
    /CropMonoImages true
    /MonoImageMinResolution 1200
    /MonoImageMinResolutionPolicy /OK
    /DownsampleMonoImages true
    /MonoImageDownsampleType /Bicubic
    /MonoImageResolution 1200
    /MonoImageDepth -1
    /MonoImageDownsampleThreshold 1.50000
    /EncodeMonoImages true
    /MonoImageFilter /CCITTFaxEncode
    /MonoImageDict << /K -1 >>
    /AllowPSXObjects false
    /CheckCompliance [
    /None
    ]
    /PDFX1aCheck false
    /PDFX3Check false
    /PDFXCompliantPDFOnly false
    /PDFXNoTrimBoxError true
    /PDFXTrimBoxToMediaBoxOffset [
    0.00000
    0.00000
    0.00000
    0.00000
    ]
    /PDFXSetBleedBoxToMediaBox true
    /PDFXBleedBoxToTrimBoxOffset [
    0.00000
    0.00000
    0.00000
    0.00000
    ]
    /PDFXOutputIntentProfile ()
    /PDFXOutputConditionIdentifier ()
    /PDFXOutputCondition ()
    /PDFXRegistryName ()
    /PDFXTrapped /False
    /Description << /CHS
    /CHT
    /DAN
    /DEU
    /ESP
    /FRA
    /ITA
    /JPN
    /KOR
    /NLD (Gebruik deze instellingen om Adobe PDF-documenten te maken die zijn geoptimaliseerd voor prepress-afdrukken van hoge kwaliteit. De gemaakte PDF-documenten kunnen worden geopend met Acrobat en Adobe Reader 5.0 en hoger.)
    /NOR
    /PTB
    /SUO
    /SVE
    /ENU (Use these settings to create Adobe PDF documents best suited for high-quality prepress printing. Created PDF documents can be opened with Acrobat and Adobe Reader 5.0 and later.)
    >>
    /Namespace [
    (Adobe)
    (Common)
    (1.0)
    ]
    /OtherNamespaces [
    << /AsReaderSpreads false /CropImagesToFrames true /ErrorControl /WarnAndContinue /FlattenerIgnoreSpreadOverrides false /IncludeGuidesGrids false /IncludeNonPrinting false /IncludeSlug false /Namespace [ (Adobe) (InDesign) (4.0) ] /OmitPlacedBitmaps false /OmitPlacedEPS false /OmitPlacedPDF false /SimulateOverprint /Legacy >>
    << /AddBleedMarks false /AddColorBars false /AddCropMarks false /AddPageInfo false /AddRegMarks false /ConvertColors /ConvertToCMYK /DestinationProfileName () /DestinationProfileSelector /DocumentCMYK /Downsample16BitImages true /FlattenerPreset << /PresetSelector /MediumResolution >>
    /FormElements false
    /GenerateStructure false
    /IncludeBookmarks false
    /IncludeHyperlinks false
    /IncludeInteractive false
    /IncludeLayers false
    /IncludeProfiles false
    /MultimediaHandling /UseObjectSettings
    /Namespace [
    (Adobe)
    (CreativeSuite)
    (2.0)
    ]
    /PDFXOutputIntentProfileSelector /DocumentCMYK
    /PreserveEditing true
    /UntaggedCMYKHandling /LeaveUntagged
    /UntaggedRGBHandling /UseDocumentProfile
    /UseDocumentBleed false
    >>
    ]
    >> setdistillerparams
    << /HWResolution [2400 2400] /PageSize [612.000 792.000] >> setpagedevice

    ATP 4-93
    11 April 2016

    Sustainment Brigade

    DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

    This publication supersedes ATP 4-93 dated 9 August 2013.

    Headquarters

    Department of the Army

    APRIL 2016

    This publication is available at Army Knowledge Online
    (https://armypubs.us.army.mil/doctrine/index.html).
    To receive publishing updates, please subscribe at

    http://www.apd.army.mil/AdminPubs/new_subscribe.asp

    https://armypubs.us.army.mil/doctrine/index.html

    http://www.apd.army.mil/AdminPubs/new_subscribe.asp

    *ATP 4-93

    Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

    *This publication supersedes ATP 4-93 dated 9 August 2013.

    i

    Army Techniques Publication

    No. 4-93

    Headquarters

    Department of the Army

    Washington, DC, 11 April 2016

    Sustainment Brigade

  • Contents
  • Page

    PREFACE……………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii

    INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………… iv

    Chapter 1 SUSTAINMENT BRIGADE CAPABILITIES, FUNCTIONS AND ORGANIZATION
    ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1-1
    Capabilities …………………………………………………………………………………………… 1-1
    Role and Functions ………………………………………………………………………………… 1-2
    Relationships ………………………………………………………………………………………… 1-2
    Organization …………………………………………………………………………………………. 1-9
    Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 1-16

    Chapter 2 SPECIAL TROOPS BATTALION CAPABILITIES AND ORGANIZATION …… 2-1
    Capabilities …………………………………………………………………………………………… 2-1
    Organization …………………………………………………………………………………………. 2-1
    Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2-6

    Chapter 3 COMBAT SUSTAINMENT SUPPORT BATTALION CAPABILITIES AN

    D

    ORGANIZATION …………………………………………………………………………………… 3-1
    Capabilities …………………………………………………………………………………………… 3-1
    Relationships ………………………………………………………………………………………… 3-1
    Organization …………………………………………………………………………………………. 3-2
    Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3-8

    Chapter 4 MISSION COMMAND ……………………………………………………………………………. 4-1
    Overview ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4-1
    Command Post Cells and Staff Elements …………………………………………………. 4-4
    Sustainment Brigade Integrating Processes and Continuing Activities ……….. 4-10
    Operations Process ……………………………………………………………………………… 4-14
    Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 4-19

    Chapter 5 THE EMPLOYED SUSTAINMENT BRIGADE ………………………………………….. 5-1
    Joint Operations ……………………………………………………………………………………. 5-1
    Theater Opening ……………………………………………………………………………………. 5-2

    Contents

    ii ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    Support To Decisive Action ……………………………………………………………………… 5-3
    Theater Closing ……………………………………………………………………………………. 5-14
    Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5-16

    Appendix A TEAMS SUPPORTING RETROGRADE OF MATERIEL …………………………… A-1

    GLOSSARY ………………………………………………………………………………

  • Glossary
  • -1

    REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………….

  • References
  • -1

    INDEX ……………………………………………………………………………………………

  • Index
  • -1

    Figures

    Figure 1-1. Sustainment brigade staff organization ……………………………………………………… 1-9

    Figure 1-2. Sustainment brigade support operations ………………………………………………….. 1-

    13

    Figure 2-1. Notional special troops battalion……………………………………………………………….. 2-2

    Figure 3-1. Examples of combat sustainment support battalion support relationships ……… 3-2

    Figure 3-2. Combat sustainment support battalion headquarters and staff ……………………… 3-3

    Figure 3-3. Notional combat sustainment support battalion. …………………………………………. 3-7

    Figure 4-1. Example sustainment brigade command post ……………………………………………. 4-5

    Figure 4-2. Sustainment brigade integrating cells ……………………………………………………….. 4-8

    Figure 4-3. Example combat sustainment support battalion command post ……………………. 4-9

    Figure 4-4. Logistics status reporting flow ………………………………………………………………… 4-13

    Figure 5-1. Notional task organized sustainment brigade conducting theater opening
    tasks ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5-2

    Figure 5-2. Sustainment brigade emplacement …………………………………………………………… 5-6

    Figure 5-3. Notional task organized sustainment brigade conducting sustainment
    operations …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5-7

    Figure 5-4. Notional task organized sustainment brigade conducting theater
    distribution operations ……………………………………………………………………………. 5-8

    Figure 5-5. Notional support operations in a developed joint operations area …………………. 5-9

    Figure 5-6. Notional task organized sustainment brigade conducting theater closing
    tasks ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5-15

    Tables

    Introductory table-1. New term ……………………………………………………………………………………… v

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 iii

  • Preface
  • ATP 4-93 provides doctrine describing the capabilities, organization and operations of the sustainment brigade

    and its subordinate units. Subordinate units are task organized to the sustainment brigade depending on

    operational and mission variables. This publication also describes sustainment brigade command and support

    relationships with tactical units and strategic partners.

    The principal audience for ATP 4-93 is all members of the profession of arms. Commanders and staffs of Army

    headquarters serving as joint task force or multinational headquarters should also refer to applicable joint or

    multinational doctrine concerning the range of military operations and joint or multinational forces. Trainers and

    educators throughout the Army will also use this publication.

    Commanders, staffs and subordinates ensure that their decisions and actions comply with applicable United

    States, international, and in some cases host-nation laws and regulations. Commanders at all levels ensure that

    their Soldiers operate in accordance with the law of war and the rules of engagement. (See FM 27-10.)

    ATP 4-93 uses joint terms where applicable. Selected joint and Army terms and definitions appear in both the

    glossary and the text. Terms for which ATP 4-93 is the proponent publication (the authority) are italicized in the

    text and are marked with an asterisk (*) in the glossary. Terms and definitions for which ATP 4-93 is the proponent

    publication are boldfaced in the text. For other definitions shown in the text, the term is italicized and the number

    of the proponent publication follows the definition.

    ATP 4-93 applies to the Active Army, Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States and

    United States Army Reserve unless otherwise noted.

    The proponent of ATP 4-93 is the United States Army Combined Arms Support Command. The preparing agency

    is the G-3/5/7 Doctrine Division, USACASCOM. Send comments and recommendations on a DA Form 2028

    (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) to Commander, United States Army Combined Arms

    Support Command, ATTN: ATCL-TDID (ATP 4-93), 2221 Adams Ave, Bldg 5020, Fort Lee, VA, 23801-1809;

    or submit an electronic DA Form 2028 by e-mail to: usarmy.lee.tradoc.mbx.leee-cascom-doctrine@mail.mil. In

    addition to submission of DA Form 2028, provide same comments and recommendations in MilWiki for rapid

    dissemination to doctrine authors and for universal review at https://www.milsuite.mil.

    file://///vs/CASCOM/Concepts_and_Doctrine/Doctrine_Division/FM%20Development%20files-CASCOM/ATP%204-93%20Sustainment%20%20Brigade/Initial%20Draft/usarmy.lee.tradoc.mbx.leee-cascom-doctrine@mail.mil

    https://www.milsuite.mil/

    iv ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

  • Introduction
  • ATP 4-93 describes the Army sustainment brigade characteristics, capabilities, organizations and operational

    processes. ATP 4-93 is a revision of ATP 4-93, Sustainment Brigade, last published in 2013. It is written for

    commanders, staffs and Soldiers at all levels, leaders and instructors at military institutions, student and doctrine

    and training developers. It provides relevant information for an Army sustainment brigade in support of decisive

    action tasks.

    This publication refines the description of the sustainment brigade headquarters, combat sustainment support

    battalion and the special troops battalion. New topics include: command and support relationships, mission

    command, command post activities, and sustainment brigade notional task organizations. It reflects the

    experiences and knowledge gained from current operations. This ATP also captures organization changes that

    impact the capability of the unit to accomplish its mission. Newly created and updated graphics reflect

    sustainment brigade current staff organizations and command post cells.

    The ATP explains how a sustainment brigade operates to sustain Army forces as part of Army unified land

    operations. Unified land operations describe how the Army operates through simultaneous offensive, defensive,

    and stability or defense support of civil authorities’ tasks.

    The sustainment brigade’s garrison command relationships and activities performed in support of home station

    are intended to maximize mission command effectiveness. The attachment of sustainment brigades to a division

    at home station does not change their doctrinal mission or war time requirements. Sustainment brigade

    headquarters, combat sustainment support battalion headquarters and their garrison subordinate units remain

    available for global deployment requirements. Deployed sustainment brigades are task organized to support Army

    forces in support of decisive action tasks. The sustainment brigade provides support and services to enable

    operational reach, ensure freedom of action, and prolonged endurance, to Army forces conducting decisive action

    tasks. The content of ATP 4-93 is consistent with Army doctrine and nested with joint logistics.

    The ATP is organized to describe the sustainment brigade capabilities, organization and employed missions. AT

    P

    4-93 has five chapters and one appendix:

    Chapter 1 describes the sustainment brigade’s capabilities, functions, and organization. The sustainment brigade

    is a multifunctional headquarters integrating and employing all assigned and attached units while planning and

    synchronizing sustainment operations. This chapter includes the sustainment brigade’s command and support

    relationships. Support operations is introduced as a new term and definition in

    this chapter.

    Chapter 2 describes the special troops battalion capabilities and organization. It is the sustainment brigade’s only

    organic unit. The special troops battalion is task organized with companies and detachments which provide

    capabilities from across the warfighting functions.

    Chapter 3 describes the combat sustainment support battalion capabilities, functions, and organization. The

    combat sustainment support battalion conducts logistics operations in support of decisive action. This chapter

    includes a discussion of command and support relationships and a graphic illustrating examples of combat

    sustainment support battalion support relationships.

    Chapter 4 describes how the sustainment brigade commander and staff apply mission command doctrine. It

    describes how commanders organize the staff into functional and integrating cells to perform command post

    functions and includes recommendations of which staff members perform specific functional cell tasks. This

    chapter also offers considerations for establishing integrating cells; current operations, future operations and

    plans.

    Chapter 5 describes the missions an employed sustainment brigade performs. It depicts notional task organized

    sustainment brigades conducting tasks supporting theater opening, sustainment, theater distribution and theater

    closing. This chapter includes recently revised materiel management tasks and an expanded theater closing

    discussion.

    Introduction

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 v

    Appendix A identifies recommended teams to conduct retrograde of materiel tasks and provides references to

    enable a unit to plan for and execute a retrograde of materiel mission. The appendix lists examples of task

    organized teams performing logistics related theater closing tasks. The teams enable base closure and transfer,

    recovery, redistribution, retrograde, and disposal of materiel.

    Based on current doctrinal changes, a term for which ATP 4-93 is the proponent has been added. The glossary

    contains acronyms and defined terms. See introductory table-1 for new Army terms.

    Introductory table-1. New term

    Term Remarks

    support operations New Term and Definition

    This page intentionally left blank.

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 1-1

    Chapter 1

    Sustainment Brigade Capabilities, Functions and
    Organization

    The sustainment brigade is a flexible headquarters that is task organized to support

    unified land operations and command subordinate sustainment organizations. It is task

    organized with a combination of combat sustainment support battalions and functional

    logistics battalions. This chapter describes the capabilities, relationships and

    organization of the sustainment brigade headquarters.

    CAPABILITIE

    S

    1-1. The sustainment brigade is a multifunctional headquarters integrating and employing all assigned and
    attached units while planning and synchronizing sustainment operations. It is the Army’s primary brigade

    level sustainment headquarters. The sustainment brigade supports Army forces at the tactical and operational

    levels, providing support to brigade combat teams (BCTs), multifunctional and functional support brigades,

    deployable, self-contained division and corps headquarters, and other units operating in its assigned support

    area. Depending upon operational and mission variables, the sustainment brigade commands between three

    and seven battalions. Sustainment brigades are usually assigned or attached to a sustainment command. The

    sustainment brigade and its attached units will normally have a general support relationship with supported

    organizations.

    1-2. The sustainment brigade is expeditionary, inter-operable and agile. These characteristics describe the
    attributes that the organization requires to be effective. The sustainment brigade is expeditionary as it can

    deploy task organized forces on short notice to austere locations and conduct sustainment operations

    immediately upon arrival. The sustainment brigade is inter-operable as it can task organize rapidly and

    integrate joint, inter-organizational and multinational requirements and capabilities. The sustainment brigade

    is agile as it can transition sustainment support across all

    decisive action

    tasks.

    1-3. The sustainment brigade is task organized with units required to execute logistics and personnel
    services. Logistics includes; supply, maintenance, transportation, field services, distribution, and operational

    contract support. Personnel services are sustainment functions that fund and man the force. Examples of

    brigade task organizations are in

    chapter 5.

    1-4. The combat sustainment support battalion (CSSB) is the building block upon which the sustainment
    brigade capabilities are developed. The CSSB is addressed in chapter 3. The organization and operations of

    most functional logistics battalions are addressed in specific functional Army techniques publications.

    Organizational information about functional logistics battalions is available in unit authorization documents

    and from force design resources located at the Combined Arms Support Command Sustainment Unit One

    Stop website.

    1-5. A financial management support unit and a human resources company may be attached or assigned to
    the sustainment brigade. The financial management support unit and the human resources company are

    addressed in chapter 2.

    1-6. The sustainment brigade headquarters is designed to operate as a single command element without the
    ability to conduct split based operations. The sustainment brigade cannot create or operate a tactical command

    post (CP) without accepting risk in other areas. More information about the command post is in chapter 4.

    1-7. The sustainment brigade headquarters plans and conducts base security and protection against level

    I

    threats. Level II and III threats require coordination with designated combat reaction forces. The sustainment

    Chapter 1

    1-2 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    brigade cannot be assigned an area of operations or manage terrain. More information about protection is in

    chapter 5.

    1-8. A task organized sustainment brigade is dependent on the following organizations:

     Sustainment brigade signal network support company for signal

    support.

     Area support medical company for Role 2 medical support.

    ROLE AND FUNCTIONS

    1-9. A role is the broad and enduring purpose for which the organization or branch is established (ADP 1-
    01). An organization or branch has only one role. The role of a sustainment brigade commander and staff is

    to exercise mission command for task organized sustainment brigades. Mission command is the exercise of

    authority and direction by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative within the

    commander’s intent to empower agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of unified land operations (ADP

    6-0).

    1-10. The sustainment brigade executes logistics and personnel services functions associated with theater
    opening, sustainment, distribution, and theater closing missions. A function is a practical grouping of tasks

    and systems (people, organizations, information, and processes) united by a common purpose (ADP 1-01).

    Properly task organized, a sustainment brigade could be conducting theater opening tasks, sustainment and

    theater distribution tasks during the early phases of an operation or if it is the only sustainment brigade in the

    joint operations area (JOA). This same sustainment brigade, with a different task organization, can transition

    to conducting a theater distribution mission or sustainment mission. More information about sustainment

    brigade functions supporting employed operations is in chapter 5.

    RELATIONSHIPS

    1-11. Commanders task organize the force to provide specific capabilities in support of mission
    requirements. They task organize the force by establishing command and support relationships. These

    relationships establish clear responsibilities and authorities between subordinate and supporting units. For

    every operation, the sustainment brigade commander and subordinate commanders must make every effort

    to ensure command and support relationships are clearly expressed in orders; their own and those of their

    higher headquarters and supported organizations. Doctrine sets general guidelines; mission orders will

    determine the details of the relationships. Doctrinal relationships are defined and explained in ADRP 5-0,

    The Operations Process, and FM 6-0, Commander and Staff Organization and Operations.

    1-12. Sustainment brigade commanders closely evaluate the outcome they wish to achieve and then decide
    which combination of command and support relationships to assign subordinate units. The relationships must

    accommodate the known situation and empower subordinate leaders to respond to the unknown. Changes in

    command relationships do not necessarily require changes in support relationships, especially if the nature

    of the support does not change. Simple command and support relationships increase the likelihood of success.

    1-13. The sustainment brigade commander also establishes informal relationships. The informal relationship
    between the sustainment brigade and the division G-4 (assistant chief of staff, logistics) provides another

    source of information for the sustainment brigade commander to consider when determining appropriate

    command and support relationships and internal task organization. A description of the relationship between

    the division G-4 and sustainment brigade support operations (SPO) is in the organization discussion later in

    this chapter.

    COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

    1-14. Command relationships define command responsibility and authority. Army command relationships
    are: organic, assigned, attached, operational control, and tactical control. Command relationships unify effort

    and enable commanders to use subordinate forces with maximum flexibility. The type of command

    relationship often relates to the expected longevity of the relationship between the headquarters involved and

    quickly identifies the degree of support that the gaining and losing Army commanders provide. Leaders and

    Soldiers must understand the different kinds of command relationships and the impact those relationships

    have on providing and receiving sustainment support.

    Sustainment Brigade Capabilities, Functions and Organization

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 1-3

    1-15. The sustainment brigade has different command relationships depending on many factors including,
    mission, priorities of support and transitioning task organization. Sustainment brigades are usually assigned

    or attached to a sustainment command. The sustainment brigade’s command relationship and task

    organization changes based on changing mission requirements. Subordinate battalions may have different

    command relationships than the parent sustainment

    brigade.

    1-16. The command relationship provides the authority to control unit mission. If a CSSB, or functional
    logistics battalion, has a command relationship with a unit they do not also have a support relationship with

    that unit. If the CSSB is attached to a sustainment brigade, the sustainment brigade has the authority to

    establish priorities and impose further command or support relationships. This relationship enables the

    sustainment brigade to maximize the capacity of all the subordinate CSSBs. Mission command doctrine

    describes the intended relationship, not a prescribed relationship.

    Army Service Component Command

    1-17. An Army Service Component Command (ASCC) assigned to a geographic combatant command is
    organized, manned, and equipped to perform three roles:

     Theater Army for the geographic combatant command to which it is assigned.

     Joint task force headquarters (with augmentation) for a limited contingency operation in that area

    of responsibility (AOR).

     Joint force land component (with augmentation) for a limited contingency operation in that AOR.

    1-18. The ASCC is the primary vehicle for Army support to joint, interagency, intergovernmental, and
    multinational forces. The ASCC headquarters directs functions that include theater opening, theater

    distribution, reception, staging, onward movement and integration (RSOI), joint logistics over-the-shore

    operations; and sustainment and security coordination. A theater sustainment command (TSC) assigned to

    the ASCC is task organized with expeditionary sustainment commands and sustainment brigades to support

    mission requirements. The sustainment brigade has a command relationship with a sustainment command.

    The sustainment command has a command relationship with the ASCC. See FM 3-94, Theater Army, Corps,

    and Division Operations, for more information about the ASCC.

    Corps

    1-19. The corps headquarters is organized, trained, and equipped to serve as the ARFOR in campaigns and
    major operations, with command of two or more Army divisions, together with supporting theater-level

    organizations, across the range of military operations. When required, a corps may become an intermediate

    tactical headquarters under the land component command, with operational control of multiple divisions

    (including multinational or Marine Corps formations) or other large tactical formations. The corps

    headquarters has the capability to provide the nucleus of a joint task force or joint force land component

    headquarters. The corps normally has one expeditionary sustainment command (ESC) and one medical

    brigade in direct support. The sustainment brigade normally has a command relationship with an

    expeditionary sustainment command.

    Sustainment Commands

    1-20. The TSC synchronizes current and future sustainment operations for an ASCC headquarters. The TS

    C

    deploys an expeditionary sustainment command when the TSC determines that a forward command presence

    is required.

    1-21. The expeditionary sustainment command is a headquarters which deploys to an area of operations
    (AO) or joint operations area (JOA). The ESC provides command capabilities when multiple sustainment

    brigades are employed or when the TSC determines that a forward command presence is required.

    1-22. The significant difference between TSC and ESC capabilities is scale and scope. The TSC looks across
    the area of responsibility and shapes sustainment operations. It sets the conditions for successful sustainment

    operations. The TSC provides guidance to the strategic partners when priority conflicts exist between JOAs.

    The ESC is focused on the JOA and executing the joint task force or Army forces commander’s priorities.

    The ESC also manages the sustainment mission in the JOA. The TSC maintains oversight of sustainment

    Chapter 1

    1-4 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    operations within the operational area with direct coordination with the ESC and its sustainment information

    systems. This capability provides the TSC commander with the regional focus necessary to provide effective

    operational-level support to Army or joint task force missions. The TSC may employ multiple ESCs within

    the theater.

    1-23. The sustainment command, either the theater sustainment command or the expeditionary sustainment
    command, is the senior Army sustainment headquarters (less medical) in an area of responsibility in support

    of the ASCC, Corps or joint task force. The sustainment command plans and coordinates the sustainment

    functions supporting theater opening and theater closing. They also plan and coordinate theater distribution

    and sustainment operations in support of Army, joint, interagency, and multinational forces as required. The

    sustainment command communicates sustainment priorities, as determined by the geographic combatant

    commander (GCC) and ASCC, to the sustainment brigade commander. See ATP 4-94, Theater

    Sustainment

    Command, for more information about sustainment commands. Sustainment brigades are usually assigned

    or attached to a sustainment command.

    Division

    1-24. The division commands multiple Army brigades and is the Army’s primary tactical headquarters for
    decisive action. When required it may serve as a joint task force or joint force land component headquarters

    in a limited contingency operation. As required, the division may be the Army component and the joint force

    land component within a joint task force. Their principal task is directing subordinate brigade

    operations.

    Divisions are not fixed formations. They may control more than one type of brigade combat team (BCT). A

    division can control up to six BCTs with additional appropriate multifunctional supporting brigades. In most

    cases, deployed sustainment brigades will have a command relationship with a sustainment command and a

    support relationship with a division.

    SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS

    1-25. Support relationships define the desired purpose, scope, and effect when one capability supports
    another. Army support relationships are not command authorities and are more specific than joint support

    relationships. FM 6-0, Commander and Staff Organization and Operations, discusses Army and joint support

    relationships. JP 4-0, Joint Logistics and JP 4-08, Logistics in Support of Multinational Operations, and

    Allied Land Publication 4.2, Land Forces Logistic Doctrine, have more information about the authorities,

    organizations, and control mechanisms that enable the synchronization of logistics in support of the joint and

    multinational force commander. Chapter 5 of this ATP has more information about the sustainment brigade’s

    support to joint

    operations.

    1-26. There are four support relationships in Army doctrine: direct support, reinforcing, general support
    reinforcing and general support. In the past, these relationships were referred to as field artillery tactical

    missions. These tactical missions are now referred to as support relationships and are used by the rest of the

    Army to employ unit capabilities to achieve results required by supported commanders. The sustainment

    brigade’s support relationship is general support unless otherwise ordered. This support is executed through

    the area support method. Area support is discussed in chapter 5 of this ATP.

    Joint Forces

    1-27. The Services are responsible for operational logistics support systems, platforms, and their execution
    to support the force. However, the sustainment brigade may provide common user support, common-user

    logistics, and common-land transportation support to the joint force. If this is the case, the joint force

    commander (JFC) will annotate the details in orders. A sustainment brigade providing support to joint forces

    is not a command or center for joint logistics, it is a brigade supporting a joint force, as per the operations

    order. See chapter 5 for a more complete discussion of the sustainment brigade’s role in joint operations. See

    FM 4-95, Logistics Operations, for more information on the Army’s responsibilities as executive agent to

    other Services.

    Sustainment Brigade Capabilities, Functions and Organization

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 1-5

    Special Operations Forces

    1-28. The sustainment brigade special operations (SO) airborne (ABN) is a unique Army sustainment
    brigade because it maintains global situational awareness of deployed Army special operations forces

    logistics support structures. The sustainment brigade (SO) (ABN) sets the operational-level logistics

    conditions in order to enable Army special operations forces missions. It is assigned to United States (U.S.)

    Army Special Operations Command and focuses on operational to tactical sustainment support. During

    periods where only special operations forces are operating in a theater, support may be executed under the

    sustainment brigade (SO) (ABN). ATP 3-05.40, Special Operations Sustainment, provides more details on

    special operations sustainment.

    1-29. When deployed, the sustainment brigade (SO) (ABN) acts as the single logistics headquarters for a
    joint special operations task force. The sustainment brigade (SO) (ABN) integrates Army special operations

    forces support requirements into the ASCC support plan and ensures a timely response to Army special

    operations forces requirements. The sustainment brigade (SO) (ABN) may also serve as an early entry control

    element for one CSSB in support of a conventional force expansion in the theater of operation until relieved

    by a conventional sustainment brigade. The sustainment brigade provides general support to special

    operations forces.

    Transportation Brigade Expeditionary

    1-30. The transportation brigade expeditionary is a transportation headquarters controlling all assigned and
    attached units while managing and conducting seaport operations. The transportation brigade expeditionary

    is task organized with battalions engaged in non-permissive port opening, water terminal, and watercraft

    operations to meet mission requirements. The transportation brigade expeditionary is attached to a

    sustainment command. The sustainment brigade provides support to the transportation brigade expeditionary

    and coordinates with the staff to synchronize onward movement as part of RSOI.

    Brigade Support Battalion

    1-31. Brigade support battalions (BSB) are organic to BCTs and are tailored to support its brigade. Aviation
    brigades have a similar support unit, the aviation support battalion. The BSB provides supply, field

    maintenance, transportation, and Role 2 medical support to the supported brigade. The aviation support

    battalion provides aviation and ground field maintenance, brigade-wide satellite signal support, resupply of

    all commodities, and Role 1 medical support. The sustainment brigade provides the support these support

    battalions are lacking, such as water purification and storage, petroleum storage and transportation support.

    1-32. The sustainment brigade commander may recommend a direct support relationship if mission and
    operational variables indicate. A direct support relationship between a specific CSSB and a specific division,

    BCT, combat aviation brigade or battalion would be for a specific operation and the CSSB task organization

    would reflect the supported unit’s mission. Support relationships designated by appropriate orders will be

    used to specify the details of the support relationship, including the designated priorities

    of support.

    STRATEGIC INTERFAC

    E

    1-33. The ASCC staff and the sustainment command staff provide the strategic interface for the sustainment
    brigade. However, there are instances when the sustainment brigade communicates and coordinates directly

    with unified action partners’ representatives to synchronize and integrate support. Unified action partners

    are those military forces, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and elements of the private

    sector with whom Army forces plan, coordinate, synchronize, and integrate during the conduct of operations

    (ADRP 3-0). The level or degree of interaction will depend on how mature the theater is, what phase of

    operations and the sustainment brigade’s mission. This coordination will be more common for a sustainment

    brigade supporting operational level forces, a theater opening mission or a largely contracted mission.

    Sustainment brigade commanders and staff must be familiar with U.S. governmental partners and understand

    what each partner provides to support ASCC objectives. There are more details about the strategic partners

    and their actions in support of retrograde of materiel in Appendix A.

    Chapter 1

    1-6 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    Defense Logistics Agency (DLA)

    1-34. The Defense Logistics Agency provides the Services, other federal agencies, and combined and allied
    forces with the full spectrum of logistics, acquisition and technical services, including reutilization of military

    equipment management. The sustainment brigade interfaces with representatives of the DLA organizations

    which are providing support to them. DLA publishes a Customer Assistance Handbook which includes a

    description of subordinate DLA organizations and points of contact. For more details of support available to

    a specific operation, contact the DLA Customer Interactions Center.

    1-35. The Defense Logistics Agency supports each geographic combatant commander with a DLA regional
    commander. This commander is the focal point for coordinating all DLA activities throughout the theater and

    can provide flexible support on demand. Once the Services identify capability required, the requirement goes

    through the joint task force commander, the combatant command and to the joint staff for approval. Following

    approval, DLA organizes its capabilities to meet requirements. The DLA regional commander will stand up

    a Defense Logistics Agency Support Team, commonly known as DST, to provide direct support to the area

    of operations.

    1-36. The DLA support team provides logistical support to conflicts, disasters (both natural and man-made),
    emergencies, mobilizations and other contingency operations around the world. DLA support teams are

    responsible to the combatant commander. The DLA support team works directly with the sustainment

    command and integrates materiel management support of DLA common commodities such as subsistence,

    protective clothing, general supplies, and bulk petroleum. They also provide disposal support as appropriate

    including the disposal of hazardous wastes. The DLA support teams require protection, life support, use of

    common-user land transport assets and may need terrain prepared for their operations.

    U.S. Army Materiel Command

    1-37. The United States Army Materiel Command (USAMC) provides technology, acquisition support,
    materiel development, logistics power projection, and sustainment (less medical) to the Army. Three of the

    USAMC’s major subordinate commands that have important roles providing national-level support to the

    sustainment brigade are the U.S. Army Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command, the Army

    Contracting Command and the Army Sustainment Command. The sustainment brigade interacts with

    USAMC organizations listed below.

    U.S. Army Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command

    1-38. U.S. Army Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command is the Army Service component
    command of United States Transportation Command and a major subordinate command of U.S. Army

    Materiel Command. U.S. Army Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command is the single port

    manager for all common user seaports of embarkation and debarkation and supports the flow of deploying

    units, equipment and sustainment into the seaport of debarkation. A sustainment brigade conducting port

    operations coordinates with elements of the U.S. Army Military Surface Deployment and Distribution

    Command.

    Contracting Team

    1-39. Contracting teams operate under the command of a parent contracting support brigade or battalion and
    may be task organized into separate expeditionary contracting elements. They usually have a direct support

    relationship with the sustainment brigade. The primary mission of the contracting teams is to develop, solicit,

    award, manage, and close out theater support contracts (less medical contingency contracts). The contracting

    team requires logistics and security support such as field feeding, religious, personnel services, medical and

    movement and protection. For more information about the contracting support brigade and its subordinate

    units, see ATP 4-92, Contracting Support to Unified Land Operations.

    Army Field Support Battalion

    1-40. Army field support battalions are subordinate units of the Army field support brigade (AFSB). They
    are either assigned or attached to the AFSB. The Army field support battalions usually have a direct support

    relationship with a division headquarters and general support relationship with other units in its assigned

    Sustainment Brigade Capabilities, Functions and Organization

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 1-7

    support area. It is the sustainment brigade’s portal to USAMC’s logistics providers such as the Life Cycle

    Management Command’s logistics assistance representatives, sustainment maintenance support and

    Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP) support.

    1-41. The Army field support battalion (Prepositioned Stock) is responsible for managing Army
    prepositioned stocks (less medical). These battalions support equipment fielding, systems modernization,

    sustainment level maintenance, and augment field level maintenance operations. They also support other

    missions as needed to support Army forces during RSOI, retrograde and redeployment. For more information

    about the AFSB and its subordinate units, see ATP 4-91, Army Field Support Brigade. The U.S. Army

    Medical Materiel Agency is responsible for management of class VIII Army prepositioned stock. Refer to

    ATP 4-02.1, Army Medical Logistics, for additional information regarding class VIII Army pre-positioned

    stock.

    Civil Affairs Operations

    1-42. Civilian organizations, such as other government agencies, intergovernmental organizations, and
    nongovernmental organizations, bring resources and capabilities that can help establish host-nation civil

    authority and capabilities. Sustainment brigades may be required to support stability and foreign

    humanitarian operations that are often sustainment intensive. In these operations, sustainment brigades often

    work closely with or directly support intergovernmental, non-governmental and other agencies and

    organizations. This support may include ground transportation, provision of equipment and supplies, port

    operations and must be specifically authorized by the Secretary of Defense. Sustainment brigade commanders

    and staff must be familiar with the legal authorizations to provide support to the interagency and inter/non-

    governmental organizations or indigenous populations and institutions. ADRP 4-0, Sustainment, provides

    greater detail on inter-governmental organizations and interagency coordination.

    1-43. The Department of State is the U. S. Government’s lead agency for foreign affairs. Diplomacy is a
    principal means of organizing coalitions and alliances, which may include states and non-state entities, as

    partners, allies, surrogates, and/or proxies. The credible threat of force reinforces, and in some cases, enables

    the diplomatic process. The GCCs are responsible for aligning military activities with diplomatic activities

    in their assigned AORs.

    Contractors

    1-44. Commanders can expect that contractors will be involved in operations. The management and control
    of contractors differs from that of Soldiers and Department of the Army civilians. During military operations,

    Soldiers and Army civilians are under the control of the military chain of command. Commanders can direct

    Soldier and Army civilian tasks, special recognition, and disciplinary action. However, they do not have the

    same control over contractors. The terms and conditions of the contract establish relationships between the

    military and the contractor.

    1-45. A challenge for the sustainment brigade commander is identifying who contracted the support and who
    is responsible for oversight. Many of the contractors working in the sustainment brigade’s area will either be

    contracted by or through the Army field support battalion but the Army Corps of Engineers, the Defense

    Logistics Agency and other units also contract support. The sustainment brigade commander may use the

    operational contract support branch in the SPO to assist with identifying who is performing what contract in

    the sustainment brigade’s assigned support area. Commanders and staff planners must also assess the need

    for providing protection to a contractor and designate forces to provide protection when appropriate. See JP

    4-10, Operational Contract Support, and ATP 4-10, Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for

    Operational Contract Support, for more details on contractor support.

    Multinational

    1-46. Sustainment of forces is a national responsibility. However, certain efficiencies and effects can be
    obtained through sharing, supporting and/or receiving support from allied or coalition forces. Chapter 138 of

    Title 10 United States Code (USC) authorizes exchanging support between U.S. services and those of other

    countries. Depending on the extent or scope of the multinational support agreement, sustainment brigades

    may be required to coordinate, control and support these types of operations.

    Chapter 1

    1-8 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    1-47. Participating nations should strive to achieve unity of command for the operation. Missions, tasks,
    responsibilities, and authorities must be clearly defined and understood by all participants. While command

    relationships are fairly well defined in U.S. doctrine, they are not necessarily part of the doctrinal lexicon of

    nations with which the U.S. may operate in multinational operations. The basic structures for multinational

    operations fall into one of three types: integrated, lead nation, or parallel command.

    1-48. The integrated command structure is found in North Atlantic Treaty Organization where a strategic
    commander is designated from a member nation, but the staff and the subordinate commanders and staffs are

    of multinational makeup. The key factors in an integrated command are:

     A designated single commander.

     A staff composed of representatives from all member nations.

     Subordinate commands and staffs integrated into the lowest echelon necessary to accomplish the

    mission.

    1-49. A lead nation structure exists when all member nations place their forces under the control of one
    nation. The lead nation command structure can be distinguished by a dominant lead nation command and

    staff arrangement with subordinate elements retaining strict national integrity. A good example of the lead

    nation structure is Multinational Force–Iraq, wherein a U.S.-led headquarters provided overall military

    command and control over U.S. and multinational subordinate commands.

    1-50. Under a parallel command structure, no single force commander is designated. The coalition leadership
    must develop a means for coordination among the participants to attain unity of effort. This can be

    accomplished through the use of coordination centers. Nonetheless, because of the absence of a single

    commander, the use of a parallel command structure should be avoided if at all possible.

    1-51. When multiple nations are operating together it is often expensive and inefficient for each nation to
    conduct sustainment operations unilaterally. As such, sustainment amongst allies and coalitions is often

    viewed as a collective responsibility. Support agreements between U.S. forces and other nations may be

    formed to maximize sustainment efficiencies and operational effectiveness. There are differing types of

    multinational support agreements, each with varying degrees of responsibility and scope. North Atlantic

    Treaty Organization allied land publications and ADRP 4-0, Sustainment, discuss these agreements in detail.

    The agreements include but are not limited to:

     Acquisition cross-servicing agreements.

     Mutual support agreements.

     Third party logistics support services.

     Contracting support to multinational operations.

     Host-nation support.

    1-52. Types of support provided or received include transportation, using bulk petroleum facilities, provision
    of supplies to include class III (bulk) and field services. Pay special attention to LOGCAP services provided

    as an overall theater service but used by multinationals (including requirement calculations). Sustainment

    brigade commanders and their staff must be familiar with established multinational support agreements,

    understand the extent and limitations of each agreement, and understand the sustainment brigade role in

    supporting the agreements. See JP 3-16, Multinational Operations, and JP 4-08, Logistics in Support of

    Multinational Operations, for more information about multinational logistics.

    Host Nation

    1-53. Host-nation support is civil and military assistance rendered by a nation to foreign forces within its
    territory during peacetime, crises or emergencies, or war based on agreements mutually concluded between

    nations. Host-nation support may include the use of sea and aerial ports of debarkation, warehousing for

    storage, transportation assets, personnel such as stevedores and other distribution related or supported

    capabilities. Many host nation support (HNS) agreements have already been negotiated between existing

    allies. There are certain sustainment efficiencies that can be achieved to facilitate a unity of effort through

    the use of host nation (HN), allied and intergovernmental organization agreements. These can be pre-existing

    agreements or agreements that are generated after deployment to a theater. A comprehensive analysis of HN

    Sustainment Brigade Capabilities, Functions and Organization

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 1-9

    capabilities and plans for incorporating these resources provides sustainment commanders with an array of

    options. Note that HNS is different than contracted support.

    Other

    1-54. In addition to doctrinally defined relationships, there are critically important professional relationships
    that cannot be categorized as either a command or a support relationship. The sustainment brigade should

    develop and participate in partnership activities to build the capacity of partners to secure populations, protect

    infrastructure, and strengthen institutions. This engagement builds a strong relationship with the indigenous

    populations and institutions which also benefits the sustainment brigade’s efforts to obtain contracted

    transport and goods.

    1-55. Army National Guard sustainment brigades have official relationships that are not doctrinal. The State
    Governor commands Army National Guard sustainment brigades until they are federalized. They exercise

    command through the state adjutants general. When a National Guard sustainment brigade is activated by the

    governor of the state, they establish doctrinal command and support relationships with other military units,

    if there are any. The sustainment brigade will have non-doctrinal relationships with other organizations or

    state agencies that they are supporting or supported by. Title 10 USC contains the general and permanent

    laws governing the Armed Forces. Specific provisions of the Code pertaining to the Army National Guard

    are contained in Title 32 USC.

    ORGANIZATION

    1-56. The sustainment brigade is a headquarters organization comprised of a command group, staff and a
    special troops battalion. The sustainment brigade headquarters plans, coordinates, synchronizes, monitors,

    and controls sustainment operations within its support area. The following paragraphs discuss each staff

    element’s responsibilities in broad terms. Figure 1-1, depicts the recommended sustainment brigade staff

    organization.

    Figure 1-1. Sustainment brigade staff organization

    THE COMMAND GROUP

    1-57. A command group consists of the commander and selected staff members who assist the commander
    in controlling operations away from a command post (FM 6-0). The command group is organized and

    equipped to suit the commander’s decision making and leadership requirements. It does this while enabling

    the commander to accomplish critical mission command warfighting function tasks anywhere in the AO. The

    Chapter 1

    1-10 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    sustainment brigade’s command group is usually considered the brigade commander, the deputy commander

    and the command sergeant major (CSM). However, the mission and available staff dictate the command

    group’s makeup.

    1-58. The deputy commander is the commander’s principal staff officer, directing and overseeing staff
    coordination and ensuring effective and prompt staff actions. The commander normally delegates authority

    to the deputy commander for executive management of coordinating and special staff officers. The deputy

    commander monitors the status of all subordinate units and ensures that status is provided to the sustainment

    brigade commander.

    1-59. The sustainment brigade CSM is the senior enlisted member of the sustainment brigade and a member
    of the commander’s personal staff. The CSM provides mature knowledge, experience and judgement. The

    CSM provides technical and tactical advice to the commander on the planning, training, preparation, and

    execution of all sustainment brigade missions. The command sergeant major’s duties and responsibilities

    vary according to the commander’s specific desires or needs. The CSM is located wherever the duties require.

    1-60. The sustainment brigade staff assists subordinate units and communicates with and informs units and
    organizations outside the headquarters. They ensure that decisions, directives, and instructions are

    implemented and that the commander’s intent is fulfilled. The sustainment brigade staff includes the

    coordinating staff and special and personal staff. In addition to the generic staff duties identified in FM 6-0,

    Commander and Staff Organization and Operations, sustainment brigade staff proactively identifies and

    solves sustainment issues.

    THE

    COORDINATING STAF

    F

    1-61. These staff sections perform common staff responsibilities that are briefly described below with more
    detail provided in annotated appropriate doctrinal publications. The staff develops internal sustainment

    brigade policies and plans in their respective technical areas and provides guidance, priorities, and allocations

    to subordinate commands. The sustainment 1 section includes the staff elements that are internal brigade

    support, and sustainment 2 focuses on support external to the brigade. They also review the plans of

    counterpart staffs in subordinate units.

    Sustainment 1 S-1 Section

    1-62. The brigade manpower and personnel staff officer (S-1) is the brigade’s principal staff officer for
    internal human resources support and other issues impacting on the health, morale, and welfare of assigned

    and attached sustainment brigade Soldiers. The S-1 coordinates medical, religious, and legal support and is

    responsible for developing the human resources support portion of operations plan or order. The S-1 is

    directly linked with the Human Resources Command for strength management, replacement operations,

    personnel accounting, and strength reporting. The S-1 provides technical guidance to all subordinate battalion

    S-1. See ATP 1-0.1, G-1/AG and S-1 Operations for more information on the Battalion S-1.

    Current Operations S-2 Section

    1-63. The brigade intelligence staff officer (S-2) identifies threat composition, strength, capabilities, and
    courses of action; conducts intelligence and sustainment preparation of the operational environment; and

    provides terrain and weather analysis. The S-2 prepares Annex B-Intelligence of the operations order;

    monitors the intelligence requirements to support current and future operations; monitors intelligence

    analysis of higher, lower, adjacent, and subordinate units; coordinates with other intelligence agencies to

    effectively provide predictive and timely intelligence to support logistic missions.

    1-64. Examples of S-2 input to operations includes analysis regarding how weather affects the lines of
    communication, the impact threat’s tactics changes have on convoys, supply routes, and sustainment brigade

    sustainment hubs. The S-2 develops a means to collect, analyze and disseminate information from

    subordinate units conducting support missions. This includes any contractors or civilian personnel who

    participated in the support mission. All information must be evaluated to determine value, ability to answer

    the commanders’ priority intelligence requirements, or to update intelligence annexes to an operation plan

    (OPLAN) or operation order (OPORD), daily intelligence summary for subordinate units, and intelligence

    estimates. ADRP 2-0, Intelligence, provides more detail of intelligence operations.

    Sustainment Brigade Capabilities, Functions and Organization

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 1-11

    Current Operations S-3 Section

    1-65. The brigade operations staff officer (S-3) synchronizes and integrates sustainment operations with all
    warfighting functions across the planning horizons in current operations, future operations, and plans

    integrating cells in accordance with the commander’s intent and planning guidance. The sustainment brigade

    S-3 performs the following:

     Coordinates with supported units to synchronize future operations and the transition from the

    current operation to a future operation without loss of momentum and unit integrity.

     Plans for and optimizes automation for mission planning, course of action development,

    rehearsals, operational planning, and after action reviews.

    1-66. The S-3 prepares, coordinates, authenticates, publishes, reviews, and distributes written orders
    (warning, operations, and fragmentary) and plans. The S-3 also develops the unit task organization, plans

    and executes operations security and develops force module packages. The S-3 section plans tactical troop

    movements, including route selection, priority of movement, timing, security, quartering, staging, and

    preparing movement orders.

    Plans Branch

    1-67. The plans branch is a small cell led by the plans officer. All staff sections assist the plans branch as
    required. The plans branch prepares, coordinates, and publishes operation orders and plans. The branch plans

    operations for the long range time horizon and develops plans, orders, branches, and sequels based on orders

    from higher echelons, projected outcome of the current operation, and the sustainment brigade commander’s

    guidance. The brigade S-3 is responsible for the plans branch. More information on how the plans branch

    operates in chapter 4.

    Civil Affairs Operations S-9 Section

    1-68. The brigade civil affairs staff officer (S-9) is the principal advisor to the commander and staff on civil
    affairs operations. The S-9 integrates civil affairs operations into operations and exercises and advises on the

    capabilities, allocation, and employment of subordinate civil affairs units and provides specific country

    information for training or deployment. The civil affairs operations staff develops Annex K (Civil Affairs

    Operations) to OPLANs, concept plans and OPORDS. The S-9 coordinates with supporting civil affairs

    forces and the civil-military operation center to conduct interagency collaborative planning and coordination

    and integration of nonmilitary stakeholders with the staff to synchronize operations. The S-9 prepares and

    maintains the civil affairs operations running estimate and advises the commander on the obligations incurred

    from the short and long-term effects (economic, environmental, and health) of military operations on the

    indigenous population and institutions, and the effects that the indigenous population and institutions have

    on military operations. For a full discussion on the requirements and duties of the brigade S-9 see FM 3-57,

    Civil Affairs Operations.

    1-69. The sustainment brigade S-9 is especially important when sustainment operations depend on host
    nation resources to accomplish critical sustainment tasks. The S-9, through the civil information management

    process within the civil-military operation center, continually provides updated information on the civil

    component of the operational environment. This data can identify current capabilities and resources of the

    indigenous population and institutions that can support the operations. These identified resources can assist

    the SPO in planning near term sustainment operations.

    Sustainment 1 S-4 Section

    1-70. The brigade logistics staff officer (S-4) is the principal staff officer for internal sustainment and
    readiness. Primary tasks include: sustainment operations and plans, supply, maintenance, transportation, and

    field services. The S-4 advises the commander and staff on all internal logistics issues; coordinates estimates,

    plans, annexes, and orders for internal sustainment operations; tracks the current operation, provides staff

    oversight of food service operations, property book operations, and maintenance operations for the

    sustainment brigade and its subordinates. The S-4 is normally ordered to oversee the deployment and

    redeployment process of the sustainment brigade and its subordinate units.

    Chapter 1

    1-12 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    Signal

    S-6 Section

    1-71. The brigade signal staff officer (S-6) major tasks involve network operations and information
    management. The S-6 provides technical staff supervision over signal support activities throughout the

    sustainment brigade. The S-6 provides technical supervision of all communications asset attachments,

    coordinates with the supporting signal unit to maintain access to higher echelons common user signal

    networks, develops and coordinates signal support plans, and identifies potential information network

    constraints and takes action to offset or adapt to these constraints by ensuring redundant signal means are

    available to maintain the network. FM 6-02, Signal Support to Operations, provides some details about the

    signal officer’s role in operations.

    Financial Management S-8 Section

    1-72. The sustainment brigade financial management staff officer (S-8) is the brigade’s financial
    management expert. An officer and a noncommissioned officer (NCO) make up the S-8 section. They are the

    focal point for the brigade’s financial management planning and support. They integrate all financial

    management requirements into the sustainment brigade’s operational planning and assist with developing the

    financial management concept of support. The S-8 identifies, certifies, and manages funds available for

    immediate expenses. They monitor all expenditures, including contract expenditures.

    1-73. The S-8 is a part of the entire brigade’s contracting, local purchase, and credit card processes. They
    submit spend plans and monitor the status of requirements packets. They coordinate contracting and financial

    management support for the sustainment brigade’s field ordering officers and pay agents. The S-8 also

    coordinates and manages the audit and internal control program.

    1-74. As part of the coordinating staff, the S-8 receives, develops, and disseminates financial management
    guidance throughout the brigade. They analyze information from the brigade staff, and assigned and attached

    commanders, they consider aspects of the fiscal triad and develop funding requirements which they submit

    the higher headquarters. More details about the S-8 and financial management are in FM 1-06, Financial

    Management Operations.

    Support Operations Staff

    1-75. The brigade support operations plans and coordinates support operations. Support Operations is the

    staff function of planning, coordinating, and synchronizing sustainment in support of units conducting

    decisive action in an area of operations. It is performed by support operations coordinating staff of a

    sustainment unit. The brigade support operations balances external sustainment support requirements with

    sustainment capabilities. The SPO conducts distribution operations, maintenance management, operational

    contract support and commodity management of general supplies, ammunition, fuel and water.

    1-76. The sustainment brigade SPO executes materiel priorities established by the sustainment command’s
    distribution management center in accordance with the ASCC policy and priorities. The SPO manages

    internal supplies and stocks as well as supervise distribution, maintenance, and materiel management

    functions within the brigade’s geographic support area. The SPO employs integrated and automated control,

    and logistics information systems to develop a logistics common operational picture and maintain situational

    awareness throughout the brigade’s geographic support area. The SPO provides staff supervision of human

    resources and finance operations. Support operations is depicted in figure 1-2 on page 1-13. A brief

    description of each staff element follows.

    Distribution Integration Branch

    1-77. The distribution integration branch plans, coordinates and synchronizes distribution operations. This
    branch plans and monitors execution of distribution operations and executes the sustainment command’s

    distribution plan in accordance with the concept of support. It synchronizes operations within the distribution

    system to maximize throughput. The distribution integration branch consolidates distribution requirements

    from all sections of support operations and creates the distribution plan. The distribution plan describes how

    sustainment flows from the sustainment brigade to supported units.

    Sustainment Brigade Capabilities, Functions and Organization

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 1-13

    Mobility Branch

    1-78. The Mobility Branch coordinates transportation requirements for supported units with movement
    control teams (MCT). The branch balances transportation capabilities with requirements to meet mission

    requirements and develops the movement plan. The movement plan is provided to the distribution integration

    branch to be included in the distribution plan.

    1-79. The branch provides technical assistance on the employment and capabilities of air, land, and water
    transportation for subordinate units, to include hub and node operations. This branch manages common-user

    transportation assets, allocated by the sustainment command. Common-user land transportation assets are

    Department of Defense (DOD)-controlled land transportation assets and facilities designated as common use

    in theater. The sustainment command may delegate the authority to allocate common-user land transportation

    assets if the sustainment brigade is the senior sustainment headquarters in the JOA or if there is no movement

    control battalion. They are charged with maintaining liaison with HN transportation agencies, mode

    operators, and supported units.

    1-80. They monitor transportation capability and capacity at transshipment nodes. The mobility branch
    coordinates internally with supply and distribution integration branches for distribution management of all

    commodities (less class VIII and communications security equipment), and unit movements (RSOI,

    redeployment, and retrograde). See ATP 4-16, Movement Control, for specifics of movement control.

    Figure 1-2. Sustainment brigade support operations

    Supply and Services Branch

    1-81. The supply and services branch conducts materiel management and plans and coordinates field service
    support. This branch determines requirements and recommends priorities for the allocation and distribution

    control of supplies. It monitors requisition of commodities and makes recommendations for redistribution

    within the brigade’s assigned support area. It maintains visibility of on-hand and in-transit supply stocks using

    automated logistics systems.

    1-82. The general supply section controls, manages and directs the receipt, storage, and distribution of class
    I, II, III (packaged), IV and IX supplies to the supported elements within the sustainment brigade’s support

    area. The fuel and water section controls and manages the bulk fuel and water supply to supported

    organizations. It directs the receipt, storage, inspection, testing, quality, issue, distribution, and accountability

    of the bulk fuel and water stocks for the operational area. The field services section coordinates field services

    for supported forces. Field services are: aerial delivery, mortuary affairs, field feeding, laundry, shower, and

    water purification. Military personnel provide most of the field service support in forward areas with support

    from HN and contractors.

    Chapter 1

    1-14 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    Munitions Branch

    1-83. The Class V munitions branch coordinates and supervises supply management of all ammunition
    operations for the operational area using automated logistics systems. This branch determines requirements

    and recommends priorities for the allocation and distribution control of ammunition. It monitors requisition

    of munitions and makes recommendations for redistribution within the brigade’s assigned support area. It

    maintains visibility of on-hand and in-transit ammunition using automated logistics systems.

    Maintenance Branch

    1-84. The maintenance branch coordinates maintenance support requirements for supported units. This
    section conducts trend analysis, fleet management and field and sustainment maintenance requirements.

    Sustainment maintenance requirements are coordinated with the AFSB. This office also is responsible for

    managing maintenance production for automotive, ground support equipment, armament, electronic system

    repair and for managing maintenance production for test, measurement, and diagnostic equipment for the

    brigade.

    Human Resources Operations Branch

    1-85. The human resources operations branch is responsible for planning, coordinating, integrating, and
    synchronizing the activities of subordinate human resources companies, platoons and teams in the

    sustainment brigade operational area. This includes ensuring they are resourced, correctly positioned, and

    properly allocated to provide required postal, personnel accountability, and casualty support. They are

    responsible for HR plans and operations, personnel accountability/casualty operations and postal operations.

    The human resources operations branch deploys as part of the sustainment brigade early entry element to

    assist in establishing the initial theater personnel accountability, casualty assistance center, and postal

    operations. FM 1-0, Human Resources Support, has more details about the human resources operations

    branch

    activities.

    1-86. One of the primary functions of the human resources operations branch is to serve as an integrator. It
    integrates the efforts of the Human Resources Sustainment Center and assigned or attached human resources

    organizations including HR company, military mail terminal team, and Theater Gateway

    Personnel

    Accountability Team for execution of HR support. They are also an integrator between supported units H

    R

    staffs and the sustainment organizations for the execution of external HR support. This includes

    synchronizing non-HR support requirements with other sustainment elements and organizations such as,

    transportation, billeting, and feeding for transient personnel. The human resources operations branch ensures

    that the emplacement and displacement of HR support organizations are in synchronization with the concept

    of support plan for personnel accountability, casualty, and postal operations.

    Operational Contract Support Branch

    1-87. Operational Contract Support is the integration of commercial sector support into military operations.
    The sustainment brigade operational contract support branch conducts contract support integration –

    synchronizing operational planning, requirements development and contracting in support of the deployed

    military forces and other designated organizations in their assigned support area. Specifically, they develop,

    review statements of work or performance work statements, independent government estimates, requirement

    justification documentation, and purchase requests.

    1-88. The sustainment brigade operational contract support branch also conducts contractor management by
    managing and integrating contractor personnel and their equipment into military operations. The branch

    monitors, tracks and coordinates required unit actions associated with contracting officer representatives

    (COR) and receiving officials. Members of the operational contract support branch also participate in unit

    operational planning teams and develop Annex W – Operational Contract Support. For more information, see

    ATP 4-10, Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Operational Contract Support.

    Sustainment Automation Support Management Office (SASMO)

    1-89. The SASMO is the network administrator of the tactical Very Small Aperture Terminals and wireless
    Combat Service Support Automation Information System Interface network. The SASMO provides

    Sustainment Brigade Capabilities, Functions and Organization

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 1-15

    sustainment information technology support to the brigade. As the network administrator, the SASM

    O

    manages network configuration and supervises access operations related to supported units. The SASMO

    coordinates with the S-6 to integrate into the sustainment command’s communications and electronic warfare

    plan to ensure security and use of its vital functions. The SASMO performs the function of the first tier help

    desk for sustainment systems. The SASMO performs system administration to include roles and permission

    management. Refer to ATP 4-0.6, Techniques for Sustainment Information Systems Support, for more

    information about the Sustainment Automation Support

    Management Office duties and certifications.

    SPECIAL AND PERSONAL STAFF

    1-90. Special staff officers help the commander and other staff members perform their functional
    responsibilities. Special staff officers routinely deal with more than one coordinating staff officer.

    1-91. Personal staff members work under the commander’s immediate control. They also may serve as
    special staff officers when they coordinate with other staff members. When performing their duties as special

    staff officers, personal staff officers may work through the deputy commander and under a coordinating staff

    officer for coordination and control purposes.

    Public Affairs Office

    1-92. The public affairs office is a special staff office that supports the commander and assigned units and
    may serve as the sustainment brigade’s spokesperson. Two public affairs non-commissioned officers

    comprise this office. As skilled communicators and members of the commander’s special staff, the public

    affairs office is closely and continuously involved in the operations, staff coordination, and communication

    processes. Public affairs Soldiers accomplish their mission through public information, command

    information, and community engagement functions.

    1-93. The sustainment brigade public affairs office conducts public affairs planning and integrates and
    synchronizes information related actions and themes with the overall brigade plans and orders. This office

    works closely with the brigade staff to integrate strategy and unify efforts to communicate the commander’s

    perspective. The public affairs officer conducts media analysis and develops communication strategies that

    support the brigade’s operations. The office supports division and higher media embed plans and works with

    information related capabilities such as combat camera, military information operations and lessons learned

    programs. FM 3-61, Public Affairs Operations, offers details about public affairs at every level of command.

    Brigade Judge Advocate

    1-94. The brigade judge advocate is a member of the commander’s personal staff. The brigade legal section
    consists of a brigade judge advocate, a trial counsel, and a senior paralegal NCO. Battalion paralegals, under

    the direction and supervision of the brigade judge advocate and the senior paralegal NCO, serve at either the

    unit level or may be consolidated at the brigade level. The brigade legal section provides legal support to the

    command across the Judge Advocate General’s Corps’ six core legal disciplines: military justice, international

    and operational law, administrative and civil law, contract and fiscal law, claims, and legal assistance.

    Members of the brigade judge advocate office participate in brigade operations planning process, including

    the military decisionmaking process (MDMP), preparing legal estimates, drafting legal annexes, and

    reviewing operational plans and orders. See FM 1-04, Legal Support to the Operational Army, for additional

    information about brigade legal section support.

    1-95. The brigade legal section supports sustainment through personnel legal support. Personnel legal
    support encompasses those areas of the law in which the support is primarily to individual Soldiers in their

    personal capacity, namely, legal assistance, claims, and trial defense. The brigade legal section provides legal

    assistance services (including Soldier readiness processing and claims) consistent with all applicable laws,

    regulations, rules of professional responsibility, and the section’s level of services. Commanders must ensure

    Soldiers undergoing disciplinary actions under the Uniform Code of Military Justice receive appropriate legal

    counseling, which is a function of trial defense. To ensure adequate representation and avoid conflicts of

    interest, trial defense is provided by the U.S. Army Trial Defense Service.

    Chapter 1

    1-16 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    Brigade Surgeon

    1-96. The sustainment brigade surgeon is a special staff officer answering directly to the sustainment brigade
    commander. Command surgeons at all echelons of command have similar duties and responsibilities. For a

    listing and an in-depth discussion of the command surgeon’s duties and responsibilities refer to ATP 4-02.3,

    Army Health System Support to Maneuver Forces.

    1-97. The sustainment brigade surgeon advises the commander on the health of the sustainment brigade units
    and ensures all Army Health System support functions are considered and included in operation plans and

    orders. The sustainment brigade surgeon is responsible for technical supervision of the special troops

    battalion’s (STB) medical treatment team and medical evacuation team.

    1-98. The sustainment brigade surgeon section consists of a medical operations officer, health care NCO and
    a medical logistics officer. They assist the sustainment brigade surgeon with medical planning and medical

    operations monitoring and reporting. This section’s goal is to ensure adequate Army Health System support

    is available to the sustainment brigade in a timely and efficient manner.

    1-99. They coordinate with higher, adjacent, and supported elements including Army special operations
    forces that may be operating within the sustainment brigade’s operational area. This section also coordinates

    with the medical brigade for the placement and support requirements of medical units and elements located

    in the sustainment brigade operational area. This information ensures medical support is integrated and

    synchronized with the sustainment brigade’s operational support plan and helps determine which capabilities

    are required to meet the sustainment brigade’s medical requirements identified by the brigade surgeon. For

    more information on medical planning see ATP 4-02.55, Army Health System Support Planning.

    Unit Ministry Team (UMT)

    1-100. The sustainment brigade UMT consists of a chaplain and a chaplain assistant. At the brigade level,
    the main effort is focused on supervising, synchronizing, and resourcing subordinate UMTs as they provide

    religious support throughout the larger sustainment brigade assigned support area. As a member of the

    brigade commander’s personal staff, the chaplain has direct access to the commander and other leaders

    throughout the brigade area of operations to advise on all religious, moral, ethical, and morale issues with

    potential impact on operations. The chaplain assistant also performs these supervisory and advisory functions.

    FM 1-05, Religious Support, provides further detail regarding brigade UMT duties and responsibilities.

    1-101. The brigade UMT participates in brigade operations processes, to include publishing a concept of
    religious support as an attachment to operation orders and plans, typically following the five-paragraph

    format of the base plan or order as Tab D (Religious Support) to Appendix 2 (Personnel Services Support) to

    Annex F (Sustainment). ATP 1-05.01, Religious Support and the Operations Process, includes further

    information regarding effective integration of religious support within unit operations and planning

    processes.

    SPECIAL TROOPS BATTALION

    1-102. The STB commander and staff integrate and control assigned and attached units. The battalion
    consists of a command group, a unit ministry team, and a coordinating staff. The STB has a headquarters

    company, which includes a field feeding section a maintenance section, a medical treatment team and a

    medical evacuation team. The STB is discussed in chapter 2.

    SUMMARY

    1-103. The sustainment brigade is a multifunctional headquarters integrating and employing all assigned
    and attached units while planning and synchronizing sustainment operations. It is the Army’s primary brigade

    level sustainment headquarters. Sustainment brigades are usually assigned or attached to a sustainment

    command. The sustainment brigade and its attached units will normally have a general support relationship

    with supported organizations. The sustainment brigade executes logistics and personnel services functions

    associated with theater opening, sustainment, distribution, and theater closing missions. Command

    relationships define command responsibility and authority. Support relationships define the desired purpose,

    scope, and effect when one capability supports another. Army support relationships are not command

    Sustainment Brigade Capabilities, Functions and Organization

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 1-17

    authorities and are more specific than joint support relationships. The sustainment brigade is a headquarters

    organization comprised of a command group, staff and a special troops battalion. The sustainment brigade

    headquarters plans, coordinates, synchronizes, monitors, and controls sustainment operations within its

    support area.

    This page intentionally left blank.

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 2-1

    Chapter 2

    Special Troops Battalion Capabilities and Organization

    The special troops battalion is a battalion headquarters which controls all units assigned

    and attached to the STB. The special troops battalion is comprised of a command

    group, coordinating staff and a headquarters and headquarters company. It is the only

    organic unit to the sustainment brigade. STB attached units include human resources,

    finance and signal units. The special troops battalion is task organized with

    detachments and teams to meet mission requirements.

    CAPABILITIES

    2-1. The STB commander and staff integrate and control assigned and attached units. The STB provides all
    administrative support, life support, and communications for the sustainment brigade headquarters. It is a

    battalion level headquarters available to the sustainment brigade to control assigned and attached mission

    enabling units.

    2-2. The STB’s organic elements include a command group, coordinating staff, a unit ministry team, and
    the headquarters company. The staff provides information and advice to the headquarters and headquarters

    company (HHC) and attached unit commanders. The headquarters company has a field feeding section, a

    maintenance section, a medical treatment team, and a medical evacuation team. The teams provide Role 1

    care for the sustainment brigade HHC and the STB’s assigned and attached units.

    2-3. The STB can control a variety of units based on the operational situation. The task organization may
    include units that perform functions which are not represented on the staff. Examples include aerial delivery,

    mortuary affairs, theater gateway teams and military mail terminals. The STB commander and staff must be

    adaptable and innovative to meet mission requirements.

    2-4. The STB will have attached companies, detachments and teams with differing command and support
    relationships. Human resources, Finance and Signal units are the most common attachments to the STB. The

    command relationship of any unit in the STB task organization will depend on the expected longevity of the

    relationship between the headquarters involved and additional mission variables. Sustainment units attached

    to the STB usually have a general support relationship with units in the sustainment brigade’s assigned

    support area.

    2-5. The STB does not normally have a direct interface with strategic partners. However, the STB may
    have to provide life support to elements of combat support agencies that are in direct support to sustainment

    brigade operations. The most likely strategic interface will be with organizations overseeing contracts and

    contractors. This includes elements of the Army field support battalion such as logistics assistance

    representatives or a logistics support element designated to oversee LOGCAP execution.

    ORGANIZATION

    2-6. The STB headquarters comprises a command group, a coordinating staff and an HHC. When financial
    management and human resources organizations are attached to the sustainment brigade, they are usually

    further attached to the STB. Figure 2-1 on page 2-2 depicts a notional special troops battalion. There are five

    to seven organizations assigned or attached to the STB. The STB headquarters has a limited staff capabilit y

    and depends upon the brigade staff for support.

    Chapter 2

    2-2 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    Figure 2-1. Notional special troops battalion

    HEADQUARTERS

    2-7. Like all commanders, the STB commander applies mission command philosophy while blending the
    art of command with the science of control. The mission determines which activities to accomplish. These

    activities determine how commanders organize, tailor, or adapt their individual staffs to accomplish the

    mission. For example, the commander assigns select staff responsibilities to the HHC commander such as

    overseeing contracts or facility construction. Or, the commander coordinates support with the sustainment

    brigade commander when a particular staff section requires more manpower to accomplish a specific mission.

    2-8. One of the challenges for the STB commander and staff is adapting to the quantity and complexity of
    attached units and assigned missions. A clear commander’s intent, a well-informed professional staff,

    teamwork among the units and cooperation will help to minimize these challenges and foster a positive

    climate. The STB commanders and staffs contribute to this positive climate during training and sustain it

    during operations.

    2-9. The command sergeant major is the senior enlisted member of the STB and a member of the
    commander’s personal staff. The CSM provides mature knowledge, experience, and judgement. The CS

    M

    communicates with supported unit’s command sergeants major to verify the quality of support. The CSM

    circulates amongst all the STB’s assigned and attached units. The CSM provides technical and tactical advice

    to the commander on the planning, training, preparation, and execution of all STB missions.

    2-10. In addition to the standard executive officer (XO) duties, the STB executive officer has the challenge
    of training and building a small and junior grade staff. The STB task organization will change often and the

    task organization will likely include teams and detachments. Communication between the STB and the parent

    unit of the attached element will be accomplished by the staff. Establishing and monitoring a battle rhythm

    and nesting it with higher and subordinate headquarters battle rhythms will enable better communication,

    especially reporting procedures.

    Special Troops Battalion Capabilities and Organization

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 2-3

    2-11. The STB unit ministry team consists of a chaplain and chaplain assistant who plan, prepare, execute,
    and assess religious support in support of all battalion personnel and operations. The UMT provides religious

    support to meet religious needs of all Soldiers, families, and authorized civilians. Battalion UMTs are

    prepared to provide mobile direct delivery of pastoral religious support to strengthen and sustain Soldiers.

    As a member of the STB commander’s personal staff, the chaplain has direct access to the commander and

    other leaders throughout the battalion area of operations to advise on all religious, moral, ethical, and morale

    issues with potential impact on operations; the chaplain assistant also performs the advisory function to the

    command and staff. The STB unit ministry team works for the STB commander, but also works closely with

    their

    supervising brigade UMT to ensure religious support provision and advisement is comprehensive and

    coordinated throughout the brigade area of operations. Battalion UMTs plan and continuously synchronize a

    concept of religious support with battalion operations processes to ensure effective religious support

    throughout the assigned support area in accordance with ATP 1-05.01, Religious Support and the Operations

    Process.

    COORDINATING STAFF

    2-12. The staff is a key component of the mission command system. As an organization, the STB must be
    able to apply mission command warfighting function tasks to sustainment operations and to sustainment

    enabling operations. The STB staff is a small battalion staff, to be efficient and effective; the staff must act

    as a team. All members must be technically competent and work together as a team.

    2-13. The mission determines the size and composition of a staff. The sustainment brigade commander
    augments the STB staff with special teams or units, such as a combat camera team. Frequent personnel

    changes and augmentation to the headquarters adds challenges to building and maintaining the team. The

    staff performs the basic primary staff duties outlined in FM 6-0, Commander and Staff Organization and

    Operations. The following paragraphs highlight additional considerations for the STB staff.

    S-1

    2-14. The S-1 is the principle staff officer for human resources support and other issues impacting on the
    health, morale and welfare of STB Soldiers. The S-1 coordinates medical, religious, legal support, command

    interest programs and is responsible for developing the human resources support portion of an operations

    order or plan (Annex F). Human resources support in the STB includes personnel accountability, strength

    reporting, casualty operations, personnel information management, personnel readiness, essential personnel

    services and postal operations. See ATP 1-0.1, G-1/AG and S-1 Operations, for more information on the

    Battalion S-1.

    S-2/3

    2-15. The STB has a combined intelligence and operations staff section. This five person staff executes all
    the basic operations and intelligence tasks of battalion operations section. The S-3 prepares, coordinates,

    authenticates, publishes, reviews, and distributes written orders (warning, operations, and fragmentary) and

    plans. The S-3 also develops the unit task organization, plans and executes operations security. The S-3

    section plans tactical troop movements, including route selection, priority of movement, timing, security,

    quartering, staging, and preparing movement orders. Members of this staff also disseminate intelligence

    products throughout the battalion and up to sustainment brigade staff.

    S-4

    2-16. The S-4 develops the logistic plan and determines the STB’s sustainment requirements. It is likely the
    deployed battalion will have attached units with whom there is no habitual relationship. The S-4 requires

    some basic information from the parent unit’s battalion logistics staff officer on what organic support the

    attached units are bringing with them and what they will require from the STB. The S-4 also monitors and

    analyzes the equipment readiness status of all attached units. The S-4 is responsible for coordinating for

    battalion services such as food preparation, water purification or showers. The S-4 may be responsible for

    oversight of contracted services or facilities.

    Chapter 2

    2-4 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    SUBORDINATE UNITS

    2-17. The STB is responsible for five to seven organizations, ranging from team to company size. The staff
    must understand the capabilities and relationships of these units. The HHC could easily become overwhelmed

    with internal support requirements if they do not request support augmentation when required.

    Headquarters And Headquarters Company (HHC)

    2-18. The HHC provides oversight of all company level operations for the sustainment brigade headquarters
    and STB. The HHC is responsible for the Soldiers assigned to the sustainment brigade and STB headquarters.

    In addition to responsibilities common to all commanders, the commander coordinates food service, billeting,

    field sanitation, supply, field maintenance for organic equipment and Army Health System support.

    2-19. The headquarters company field feeding and maintenance sections support the STB, the sustainment
    brigade headquarters, the sustainment brigade’s signal company, human resources company and finance

    company. The maintenance section provides field maintenance for vehicles and equipment belonging to the

    sustainment brigade headquarters, STB and all assigned/attached assets smaller than battalion-level and not

    assigned to a battalion. The support maintenance company, normally found in the CSSB, assists the

    maintenance section when required.

    Medical Support

    2-20. Medical support within the STB is provided by the medical treatment team and medical evacuation
    team. The teams provide Role 1 Health Service Support for the sustainment brigade HHC and the STB’s

    assigned and attached units. They operate under the supervision of the sustainment brigade surgeon. The

    medical treatment team is primarily responsible for providing unit level (Role 1) Health Service Support,

    which includes emergency medical treatment, behavioral health, advanced trauma management and sick call

    services.

    2-21. The teams are dependent on the surgeon’s section for planning, coordination, and synchronization of
    the health service support. The medical evacuation team provides tactical combat casualty care, en route

    medical care, and ground medical evacuation from the point of injury to the medical treatment team for Role

    1 care. Refer to ATP 4-02.3, Army Health System Support to Maneuver Forces, for additional information.

    FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SUPPORT UNI

    T

    2-22. The financial management support unit is a tailorable unit which is responsible for three to seven
    financial management support detachments. The financial management support unit’s primary mission is to

    provide financial management support. They provide general support to units in the sustainment brigade’s

    assigned support area. Supported entities include joint and multinational commands, units, Soldiers,

    authorized civilians and contractors. The sustainment brigade S-8 plans and integrates financial management

    operations.

    2-23. The financial management support unit analyzes the supported commander’s tasks and priorities to
    identify the financial resource requirements that will enable mission accomplishment. The financial

    management support unit is capable of augmenting other financial management units to meet requirements

    at echelons above division. It ensures regulatory guidelines, directives, and procedures are followed by

    operational elements.

    2-24. The financial management support unit commander is the primary account holder to the Treasury and
    the limited depositary account. This commander is responsible for funding subordinate financial management

    support detachments, determining currency requirements and replenishment (U.S. and foreign) needs,

    receiving collections, making payments on certified vouchers, supporting detainee operations, safeguarding

    funds, and protecting funds from fraud, waste, and abuse. In conjunction with the financial management

    support center banking section, the financial management support unit establishes banking relationships with

    host nation banking institutions.

    2-25. The financial management support unit is responsible for the management and execution of electronic
    commerce programs, to include program oversight of its financial management support detachments. Strong

    Special Troops Battalion Capabilities and Organization

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 2-5

    consideration should be given to locating the financial management support unit in the proximity of the

    Division G-8 (assistant chief of staff, resource management) and the contingency contracting teams due to

    its critical role in operational contract support.

    2-26. The financial management support unit relies on the Financial Management Tactical Platform as an
    integrated system with multiple software capabilities. Additionally, the financial management support unit

    relies on the General Funds Enterprise Business System in order to perform vendor pay and accounting

    transactions. The financial management support unit requires continuous connectivity in order to perform

    these functions. This is especially critical during theater opening operations. Financial management

    operations also depend on electronic submission of finance documents through the Financial Management

    Tactical Platform to Defense Finance and Accounting Service for disbursing, vendor support, and travel and

    pay support. See FM 1-06, Financial Management Operations, for more information about financial

    management support organizations and operations.

    HUMAN RESOURCES (HR) COMPANY

    2-27. The HR company provides command, planning, and technical support to all assigned or attached
    human resources and postal platoons. This headquarters includes a command section, a plans and operations

    section and a headquarters support section. The capabilities of the company depend on attached platoons and

    detachments. Company capabilities include postal directory services, integrating personnel arriving or

    transiting the theater, postal inspections, and casualty liaison teams or personnel accountability teams.

    2-28. The HR company receives operational guidance from the human resources operations branch in the
    supporting sustainment brigade. Technical guidance may be provided by the human resources operations

    branch and the Human Resources Sustainment Center. There are many capability configurations available

    for the HR company and platoons. Composition changes according to mission and operational variables. The

    two platoons most likely to be in the human resources company are the multifunctional platoon and the postal

    platoon. A short explanation of these platoons is below. A full explanation of all the human resources

    capabilities and organizational relationships is in FM 1-0, Human Resources Support.

    2-29. The HR multifunctional platoon has the capability to form casualty liaison teams or personnel
    accountability teams, or a combination of both, to perform the casualty and personnel accountability mission.

    The platoon also provides augmentation to the theater gateway personnel accountability team. The HR

    company retains command of augmentation personnel.

    2-30. The postal platoon provides postal support to all individuals and units in an assigned support area or
    serves as an element of a military mail terminal. The command of the postal platoon remains with the HR

    company, even when the postal platoon augments the military mail terminal.

    BRIGADE SIGNAL COMPANY

    2-31. The brigade signal company provides 24-hour communications support of the signal system networks
    for the sustainment brigade. Unit subordinate elements (platoons and teams) deploy throughout the

    sustainment brigade’s assigned support area. The brigade signal company Soldiers engineer, install, operate,

    maintain, and defend the joint enterprise theater network supporting operations.

    2-32. The brigade signal company extends defense information systems network services to the sustainment
    brigade’s subordinate elements operating in the assigned support area and provides basic network

    management capabilities. The sustainment brigade S-6 and S-3 coordinate to determine allocation and

    positioning of signal assets in the brigade’s assigned support area.

    2-33. The network extension platoon provides support to the sustainment brigade CP. The range extension
    platoon employs three Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System wireless network extension teams

    for coverage of the sustainment brigade’s assigned support area and two small CP support teams that have

    command post nodes support for sustainment brigade CP plus one other CP. FM 6-02, Signal Support to

    Operations, offers details about the sustainment brigade’s signal company.

    Chapter 2

    2-6 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    SUMMARY

    2-34. The STB is task organized with companies and detachments that provide capabilities from across the
    warfighting functions. The STB task organization changes depending on the sustainment brigade’s specific

    operational environment and may include competencies with which the staff is not familiar. There are five

    to seven organizations assigned or attached to the STB. One of the challenges for the STB commander and

    staff is adapting to the quantity and complexity of attached units and assigned missions. A clear commander’s

    intent, a well-informed professional staff, teamwork among the units, and cooperation will help to minimize

    these challenges and foster a positive climate. The STB commanders and staffs contribute to this positive

    climate during training and sustain it during operations.

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 3-1

    Chapter 3

    Combat Sustainment Support Battalion Capabilities and
    Organization

    The combat sustainment support battalion is a multifunctional logistics headquarters

    responsible for controlling execution and synchronizing logistics operations. The

    CSSB is the sustainment brigade’s primary logistics support battalion level unit and is

    tailored to meet specific mission requirements. This chapter describes the capabilities,

    relationships and organization of the CSSB headquarters.

    CAPABILITIES

    3-1. The combat sustainment support battalion is a flexible and versatile headquarters that controls
    execution and synchronizes logistics support in a designated area of operations. The CSSB can be task

    organized with functional companies, teams and detachments that execute transportation (mode, terminal and

    movement control) operations, maintenance operations, ammunition operations, supply support activity

    operations, water operations, petroleum operations, aerial delivery operations and mortuary affairs. The

    CSSB is the building block upon which the sustainment brigade capabilities are developed.

    3-2. The combat sustainment support battalion employs and controls up to seven company-sized assigned
    and attached units conducting logistics operations and support. The CSSB staff establishes a command post,

    executes the operations process and synchronizes logistics operations in support of mission requirements.

    The CSSB supports brigade combat teams, multifunctional support brigades, and other units operating in its

    assigned support area. Command and support relationships are discussed later in this chapter.

    3-3. The CSSB is task organized with units required to support logistics requirements. A task organized
    CSSB is dependent on the following organizations:

     The sustainment brigade for administrative support.

     Support maintenance company for field maintenance and recovery support.

     Area support medical company for Role 2 medical support.

    3-4. The CSSB executes and synchronizes logistics functions as required to support units in its assigned
    support area. It is task organized to provide specific types of logistics functions support depending on its

    assigned mission. The CSSB usually has a general support relationship with its supported organization.

    RELATIONSHIPS

    3-5. CSSBs are normally attached to a sustainment brigade upon deployment. The CSSB has a general
    support relationship with all units in its assigned support area, unless otherwise stated by order. This includes

    brigade combat teams and echelon above brigade units such as special operations forces or field artillery

    units. The CSSB and its subordinate units may have a direct support relationship with supported units.

    Reinforcing and general support reinforcing support relationships are less common. Army support

    relationships allow supporting commanders to employ their units’ capabilities to achieve results required by

    supported commanders.

    3-6. A CSSB may be task organized to support brigade combat teams. CSSBs develop habitual relationships
    with BCTs in garrison to facilitate training and leader development. The CSSB has capabilities that can

    augment brigade support battalions. They also provide additional capacity to support the BSB. These CSSBs

    are task organized with a composite truck company and a composite supply company capable of providing

    water purification and bulk fuel storage. When deployed, the habitually supporting CSSBs will have the same

    Chapter 3

    3-2 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    command and support relationship considerations as all CSSBs. Figure 3-1 shows differing CSSB support

    relationships throughout the JOA.

    Figure 3-1. Examples of combat sustainment support battalion support relationships

    3-7. The CSSB may provide common item support or common-user logistics. The CSSB provides support
    to other services as a result of: executive agent responsibility, lead service designation and inter-service, cross

    servicing or service support agreements.

    3-8. These agreements range from formal to informal. Executive agency is a formal responsibility usually
    assigned by the secretary of defense. A service support agreement is an informal agreement between two

    Services to exchange support or services of equal value or like in kind. For example, the Army may establish

    an informal agreement with the Marines to share a dining facility or maintenance operation on a forward

    operating base.

    3-9. The CSSB has limited strategic interface. Strategic interface is most often with the Army field support
    battalion. The CSSB accesses sustainment maintenance through the Army field support battalion. The

    logistics assistance representatives are resident in the Army field support battalion. CSSB using prepositioned

    stock interface with an Army field support battalion (preposition stock). More information about Army field

    support battalions and brigades is available in ATP 4-91,

    Army Field Support Brigade.

    3-10. The CSSB may be required to provide support to intergovernmental, interagency, non-governmental
    agencies and multinational organizations. Support for these organizations is coordinated and directed by the

    JFC and should be specified in orders with detailed instructions on what and how much support is provided.

    ORGANIZATION

    3-11. The CSSB is a logistics headquarters with a command group, coordinating staff and a headquarters
    company. The CSSB is task organized with logistics capabilities to support specific requirements. These

    logistics companies, platoons or detachments include maintenance, supply, transportation mode, terminal and

    Combat Sustainment Support Battalion Capabilities and Organization

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 3-3

    movement control, mortuary affairs and field services. Figure 3-2 depicts the combat sustainment support

    battalion staff.

    Figure 3-2. Combat sustainment support battalion headquarters and staff

    3-12. The concept of support developed by the sustainment brigade may require CSSBs to change task
    organization frequently to meet mission requirements. Cascading concepts carry the top commander’s

    intentions to the lowest levels, and the nesting of those concepts traces the critical path of concentration and

    priorities. When requirements change, the supporting unit may be released from its direct support relationship

    and the support or command relationship reassigned in orders.

    HEADQUARTERS

    3-13. The CSSB commander exercises mission command of all units assigned and attached to the

    CSSB.

    The commander creates a positive command climate to inculcate and foster trust and mutual understanding.

    The commander trains subordinates in mission command philosophy and executes operations using the

    mission command warfighting functions tasks and systems.

    3-14. The CSSB command sergeant major is the senior enlisted member of the CSSB and a member of the
    commander’s personal staff. The CSM provides mature knowledge, experience, and judgement. The CSM

    communicates with supported unit’s command sergeants major to verify the quality of support. The CSM

    provides technical and tactical advice to the commander on the planning, training, preparation, and execution

    of all CSSB missions.

    3-15. The combat sustainment support battalion XO is the commander’s chief of staff and is responsible for
    monitoring the CSSB current operations cell. The XO directs, coordinates, supervises, trains, and

    synchronizes the work of the staff and ensures effective and prompt staff actions. The XO must understand

    the commander’s intent and ensure the battalion staff implements it. The XO provides the commander with

    the tools to visualize, describe, direct, and assess operations. The executive officer monitors the status of all

    subordinate units and ensures that status is provided to the CSSB commander.

    UNIT MINISTRY TEAM (UMT)

    3-16. The UMT consists of a chaplain and a chaplain assistant who plan, prepare, execute, and assess
    religious support in support of all battalion personnel and operations. The UMT provides religious support

    Chapter 3

    3-4 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    to meet religious needs of all Soldiers, families, and authorized civilians. Battalion UMTs are prepared to

    provide mobile direct delivery of pastoral religious support to strengthen and sustain Soldiers. As a member

    of the CSSB commander’s personal staff, the chaplain has direct access to the commander and other leaders

    throughout the battalion area of operations to advise on all religious, moral, ethical, and morale issues with

    potential impact on operations; the chaplain assistant also performs the advisory function to the command

    and staff. The CSSB unit ministry team works for the CSSB commander, but also works closely with their

    supervising brigade UMT to ensure religious support provision and advisement is comprehensive and
    coordinated throughout the brigade area of operations. Battalion UMTs plan and continuously synchronize a
    concept of religious support with battalion operations processes to ensure effective religious support
    throughout the assigned support area in accordance with ATP 1-05.01, Religious Support and the Operations
    Process.
    COORDINATING STAFF

    3-17. The CSSB coordinating staff includes the sustainment 1 sections, current operations section,
    sustainment 2 and the S-6. The sustainment 1 includes the staff elements that are internal battalion support:

    the S-1 and the S-4. The sustainment 2 section is focused on support external to the battalion. It includes the

    support operations and the SASMO. The current operations section includes the S-2 and the S-3.

    Sustainment 1 S-1 Section

    3-18. The S-1 is the principle staff officer for human resources support and other issues impacting on the
    health, morale and welfare of CSSB Soldiers. The S-1 coordinates CSSB medical, religious, legal support,

    and command interest programs. The S-1 collaborates with the S-4 to complete the sustainment paragraph

    and Annex F (Sustainment) of the OPLAN or OPORD. See ATP 1-0.1, G-1/AG and S-1 Operations, for the

    full description of battalion S-1 responsibilities.

    Current Operations Intel S-2 Section

    3-19. The S-2 is the chief of the intelligence warfighting function and provides intelligence information to
    support current and future operations and plans. The S-2 leads the staff in intelligence preparation of the

    battlefield and assists the S-3 with developing and executing the information collection plan. Examples of

    the critical S-2 input to operations includes analysis regarding how weather affects the MSR, the impact

    threat’s tactics changes have on convoys, supply routes, and supply points. The S-2 develops a means to

    collect, analyze and disseminate information from battalion personnel returning from convoy operations and

    other support missions. This includes any contractors or civilian personnel who participated in the support

    mission. All information is evaluated to determine value, ability to answer the commanders’ priority

    intelligence requirement, or to update intelligence annexes to OPLAN or OPORD, daily intelligence

    summary for subordinate units, and intelligence estimates. The S-2 prepares Annex B (Intelligence) to the

    operation order or operation plan. ADRP 2-0, Intelligence, provides more detail of intelligence operations.

    Current Operations S-3 Section

    3-20. The S-3 is responsible for training, operations and plans. The S-3 synchronizes and integrates CSS

    B

    sustainment operations with warfighting functions for the commander. The S-3 operations officer integrates

    across the planning horizons in current operations, future operations, and plans integrating cells. Current and

    future operations must be assessed and responsibility for each area fixed and acted on as a team. The S-3 is

    responsible for writing and reviewing the battalion’s tactical standard operating procedures (SOP) and

    prepares friendly forces overlays. Chapter four has more details about S-3 activities and command post

    operations.

    3-21. The S-3 also includes an electronic warfare NCO who supervises and performs military action
    involving the use of electromagnetic energy to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the

    electromagnetic spectrum. The responsibilities of the electronic warfare NCO may include synchronization

    with higher headquarters and planning for:

    Combat Sustainment Support Battalion Capabilities and Organization

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 3-5

     Electronic attack which is using electronic warfare to disrupt threat communications systems and

    such.

     Electronic support which is helping friendly forces by using electronic warfare detection assets to

    locate threat.

     Electronic protection which is using equipment to protect our communication systems and other

    electronic type of equipment.

    3-22. The S-3 section prepares, coordinates, authenticates, publishes, reviews, and distributes written orders
    (warning, operations, and fragmentary) and plans. The CSSB support operations and the S-3 work together

    on the battalion’s concept of operations (paragraph 3.b. of the OPLAN or OPORD). The S-3 also coordinates

    with the battalion SPO to: develop the unit task organization, plan and execute operations security and

    develop the force module packages for CSSB deployment. Planners recommend and incorporate all

    technologies and automation, current/future logistics posture, mobility data, and commander’s guidance into

    the development of the support plan. S-3 plans and operations officers plan tactical troop movements,

    including route selection, priority of movement, timing and security, quartering, staging, and preparing

    movement orders.

    Sustainment 1 S-4 Section

    3-23. The S-4 coordinates the strategic and operational deployment of the CSSB. Specifically, the S-4
    coordinates for internal supply functions, determines supply requirements (except medical), and coordinates

    the requisition, acquisition, and storage of supplies and equipment. The S-4 maintains unit equipment lists

    and assists in developing unit movement plans for the CSSB.

    3-24. The S-4, with assistance from the S-1, prepares the sustainment paragraph (paragraph 4 of the O

    PLAN

    or OPORD) and Annex F (Sustainment). The section monitors internal field feeding, property book activities,

    unit basic loads and status of requisitions for equipment and supplies. The S-4 acquires and assigns facilities,

    and develops the internal battalion logistics status report. The S-4 also manages CSSB budget, to include the

    funding approval portion of execution management under Global Combat Support System–Army.

    S-6 Section

    3-25. The battalion signal staff officer is responsible for electromagnetic spectrum operations and networks
    within the CSSB’s assigned support area. The CSSB may operate remotely from the sustainment brigade and

    therefore must maintain communications with the sustainment brigade. The CSSB establishes voice

    communications to support mission command and convoy operations as well as to monitor, update, and

    evaluate the logistics posture. The S-6 focuses on maintaining the integrity of the frequency modulation radio

    and digital communications network, ensuring links, and planning backup systems. The S-6 is responsible

    for the full range of tasks associated with network management, systems administration, and

    systems/software security for all tactical automation, including establishing administration procedures for all

    information systems. The S-6 uses the command post node to establish a secure wireless local area network

    for the logistics network. The CSSB has no organic command post node capability and requires support from

    the sustainment brigade to provide it. The S-6 also ensures SASMO functions are reflected in the brigade

    electronic warfare plan to ensure the security and use of the Very Small Aperture Terminals and wireless

    Combat Service Support Automated Information System Interface network.

    Sustainment 2

    Support Operations

    3-26. The CSSB support operations synchronizes logistics support for the battalion’s future operations
    within the assigned support area. The staff includes transportation, maintenance, supply, fuel, ammunition

    officers and NCOs. The staff may perform duties as CORs to support mission requirements.

    3-27. The SPO develops the logistics concept of support for the assigned support area. It synchronizes
    operations to maximize efficiencies and ensure priorities are executed in accordance with published orders.

    The support operations plans and coordinates resupply operations. Support requirements that exceed the

    capabilities of the CSSB must be communicated to the sustainment brigade for coordination. The CSSB is

    executing the distribution plan developed by the sustainment brigade.

    Chapter 3

    3-6 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    3-28. The support operations is responsible for establishing and maintaining the logistics common
    operational picture for the command. Logistics operations are monitored using a suite of logistics automation

    systems and mission command systems.

    3-29. The support operations includes a transportation staff capability which enables planning and
    coordinating for transportation operations (mode, terminal and movement control). This staff also provides

    COR support to monitor contract execution.

    3-30. The ammunition staff oversees ammunition resupply and distribution. They work closely with the
    attached ammunition ordnance company to ensure prompt and adequate support to units. The ammunition

    NCOs must be aware of ammunition requirements and controlled supply rates that affect operations. The

    ammunition staff also plans and coordinates ammunition operations and provides ammunition surveillance

    and COR support to monitor contract execution.

    3-31. The supply staff includes functional petroleum, water treatment, and materiel handler specialists who
    plan and coordinate operations. They manage the on-hand stocks within the CSSB supply support activities

    and supply points, determine requirements, coordinate local purchases, coordinate retrograde of materiel, and

    distribution of supplies. They may also assist with providing oversight of repair parts requirements and

    projections of parts availability. The supply staff plans and coordinates fuel, water and supply support activity

    operations, performs execution management functions as outlined by Global Combat Support System–Army

    and may act as COR for contract execution.

    3-32. The maintenance management personnel provide maintenance oversight of the maintenance
    organizations attached to the CSSB. They ensure integrated maintenance management for combat vehicles,

    automotive ground support, communications electronics, armament equipment and missile equipment. The

    maintenance management personnel also plan and forecast maintenance and related materiel requirements

    based on future operational plans and coordinates the disposal of threat equipment. The maintenance staff

    provides COR support.

    Sustainment Automation Support Management Office (SASMO)

    3-33. The SASMO provides sustainment information technology support to the battalion and performs
    system administration to include roles and permission management. Refer to ATP 4-0.6, Techniques for

    Sustainment Information Systems Support, for more information about the Sustainment Automation Support

    Management Office duties and certifications.

    SUBORDINATE ORGANIZATIONS

    3-34. The CSSB headquarters and headquarters company is the only organic unit in the CSSB. The CSSB is
    task organized to meet mission requirements. Details about the capabilities of attached logistics units are in

    the appropriate doctrinal publication. Figure 3-3 is an example of what a CSSB might look like. More

    examples of CSSB task organizations are in chapter 5.

    Combat Sustainment Support Battalion Capabilities and Organization

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 3-7

    Figure 3-3. Notional combat sustainment support battalion.

    Ammunition

    3-35. The CSSB may be task organized with ammunition units to support decisive action tasks. Ammunition
    capability includes the functions of receiving, storing, issuing and reconfiguring ammunition packages. An

    ammunition storage area is operated by one or more modular ammunition platoons with or without an

    ammunition company headquarters. Ammunition support is fully modular and platoons may be added or

    reduced from the organization based upon ammunition support requirements and mission variables. The

    CSSB ammunition staff coordinates receipt and issue of ammunition from the ammunition supply point. The

    ammunition staff has no materiel management responsibility for class V. See ATP 4-35, Munitions

    Operations and Distribution Techniques, for more information about ammunition organizations.

    Maintenance

    3-36. The CSSB may be task organized with support maintenance companies to support decisive action
    tasks. Maintenance capability includes the functions of wheeled vehicle repair, armament repair, allied trades,

    radio repair, computer and electronic equipment maintenance, ground support equipment repair and recovery

    assistance to units within its assigned support area. The SPO maintenance section provides priorities of effort

    to the support maintenance company, coordinates evacuation of equipment to sustainment maintenance level

    activities and provides COR support of monitoring the contract execution. See ATP 4-33, Maintenance

    Operations, for more information about field maintenance capabilities.

    General Supply and Field Services

    3-37. The CSSB may be task organized with supply and service units to support decisive action tasks. Supply
    capability include subsistence support, fuel storage and issue, water purification and storage and supply

    support activity (SSA) support to units within its assigned support area. The type and quantity of supply

    companies attached to the CSSB will vary based upon mission requirements and units supported.

    Quartermaster companies and/or platoons may be assigned to a CSSB to provide supported units with field

    services such as: aerial delivery, mortuary affairs, field feeding, laundry, shower, and water purification.

    More information about quartermaster capabilities is in ATP 4-42, General Supply and Field Services

    Operations, ATP 4-43, Petroleum Supply Operations, ATP 4-44, Water Support Operations, ATP 4-45,

    Force Provider Operations and ATP 4-48, Aerial Delivery.

    Transportation

    3-38. The CSSB may be task organized with transportation units to support decisive action tasks.
    Transportation capability includes terminal, mode and movement control support to units within its assigned

    support area. The assigned mission will determine the number and type of truck companies attached to the

    CSSB. Information about transportation may be found in ATP 4-11, Army Motor Transport Operations.

    Chapter 3

    3-8 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    SUMMARY

    3-39. The CSSB is the building block upon which the sustainment brigade capabilities are developed. The
    combat sustainment support battalion is a flexible and responsive headquarters that controls execution and

    synchronizes logistics support in a designated AO. It is a logistics headquarters with a command group,

    coordinating staff and a headquarters company. It is task organized with logistics capabilities to support

    specific requirements. CSSBs are normally attached to a sustainment brigade upon deployment. Functional

    sustainment companies, detachments and teams may be assigned or attached to the CSSB. Details about the

    capabilities of attached logistics units are in the appropriate doctrinal publication. The CSSB usually has a

    general support relationship with units in its assigned support area. The CSSB coordinating staff includes

    sustainment 1, current operations, and sustainment 2 sections. The CSSB headquarters and headquarters

    company is the only organic unit in the CSSB.

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 4-1

    Chapter 4

    Mission Command

    This chapter describes sustainment brigade mission command, the operations process

    and command post operations. It describes how sustainment brigade and CSSB

    commanders organize the staff into functional and integrating cells to perform

    command post functions. This chapter includes examples of a command post layout

    and a discussion of logistics reports and reporting. Readers should be familiar with the

    fundamentals and principles of mission command and the operations process before

    reading this chapter. Readers may refer to ADRP 5-0, The Operations Process, ADRP

    6-0, Mission Command, and FM 6-0, Commander and Staff Organization and

    Operations for more information about the topics in this chapter.

    OVERVIEW

    4-1. Mission command is both a philosophy of command and a warfighting function. Applying the mission
    command philosophy helps commanders exercise authority skillfully and master the systems and procedures

    that help forces accomplish missions. They use the mission command warfighting function to help them

    integrate and synchronize operations. Mission command (as opposed to detailed command) tends to be

    decentralized and flexible. This uncertain nature requires an environment of mutual trust and shared

    understanding among commanders, subordinates, and partners. ADRP 1-03, The Army Universal Task List,

    includes parameters that provide the basis for describing varying levels of performance of the key tasks

    associated with the warfighting functions.

    TASKS

    4-2. The commander is the central figure in mission command. While staffs perform essential functions
    that amplify the effectiveness of operations, commanders are ultimately responsible for accomplishing

    assigned missions. Throughout operations, commanders encourage disciplined initiative through a clear

    commander’s intent while providing enough direction to integrate and synchronize the force at the decisive

    place and time. To this end, commanders perform three primary mission command warfighting function

    tasks. The commander’s tasks are:

     Drive the operations process through their activities of understanding, visualizing, describing,

    directing, leading, and assessing operations.

     Develop teams, both within their own organizations and with joint, interagency and multinational

    partners.

     Inform and influence audiences, inside and outside their organizations.

    4-3. Sustainment brigade commanders collaborate with supported maneuver commanders, their staff, and
    strategic partners to create a shared understanding. As sustainment brigade commanders begin to develop an

    understanding of the operational environment, they start visualizing the operation’s end state and potential

    solutions to solve sustainment problems. Based on this understanding, commanders make decisions and

    direct action throughout the operations process.

    4-4. Sustainment brigade commanders cannot always rely on habitual relationships established in garrison.
    They use teambuilding skills to form effective teams and foster unity of effort across all components of the

    Army and joint, interagency and multinational partners.

    4-5. Sustainment brigade commanders use inform and influence activities to ensure actions, themes, and
    messages compliment and reinforce each other to accomplish objectives. An information theme is a unifying

    or dominant idea or image that expresses the purposes for an action. Messages support themes. They can be

    Chapter 4

    4-2 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    verbal, written, or electronic communications that supports a theme focused on an audience. Messages are

    tailored to specific audiences. More information is available in FM 3-13, Inform and Influence Activities.

    4-6. Staffs support commanders in the exercise of mission command by performing four primary mission
    command warfighting function tasks. The staff tasks are—

     Conduct the operations process: plan, prepare, execute and assess.

     Conduct knowledge management and information management.

     Synchronize information-related capabilities.

     Conduct cyber electromagnetic activities.

    Conduct The Operations Process: Plan, Prepare, Execute and Assess

    4-7. The operations process consists of the major activities of mission command conducted during
    operations: planning, preparing, executing and assessing operations. Commanders drive the operations

    process, while remaining focused on the major aspects of operations. Staffs conduct the operations process;

    they assist commanders in the details of planning, preparing, executing, and assessing.

    4-8. Sustainment brigade planning starts a cycle of the operations process that results in a plan or operation
    order to guide the unit during execution upon receipt of a mission. Preparing for a specific operation begins

    during planning and continues through execution. Execution puts plans into action. Planning future

    operations are based on assessments of progress. Assessment is continuous and affects the other three

    activities.

    4-9. Sustainment brigade operations are guided by eight principles; integration, anticipation,
    responsiveness, simplicity, economy, survivability continuity and improvisation. Leaders apply the

    principles of sustainment throughout planning and execution to balance competing mission requirements

    against available assets and resources.

    4-10. For more details about the sustainment principles, see ADP 4-0, Sustainment. The sustainment
    principles are essential to maintaining combat power, enabling strategic and operational reach, and providing

    Army forces with endurance. While these principles are independent, they are also mutually supporting.

    When applied properly, the principles of sustainment provoke thought and enable commanders and staffs to

    use their knowledge, experience, and judgment to employ their capabilities more effectively. Application of

    the principles of sustainment are considered throughout planning, reevaluated during, and reviewed following

    operations.

    Conduct Knowledge Management and Information Management

    4-11. Knowledge management facilitates the transfer of knowledge between staffs, commanders, and forces.
    It aligns people, processes, and tools within an organization to distribute knowledge and promote

    understanding. Commanders apply judgment to the information and knowledge provided to understand their

    operational environment and discern operational advantages.

    4-12. The sustainment brigade deputy commander is the senior knowledge management officer in the
    brigade and advises the commander on knowledge management policy. The deputy commander is

    responsible for directing the activities of each staff section and subordinate units to capture and disseminate

    organizational knowledge. The sustainment brigade S-6 enables knowledge management by providing

    network architecture and the technological tools necessary to support content management and knowledge

    sharing. See ATP 6-01.1, Techniques for Effective Knowledge Management, for more information.

    4-13. Sustainment brigade commanders constantly seek to understand their operational environment in order
    to facilitate decision making. The sustainment brigade staff studies the operational environment, identifies

    information gaps, and helps the commander develop and answer information requirements. The shared

    understanding of an operational environment, the operation’s purpose, the problem, and approaches to solving

    the problem form the basis for unity of effort and trust. The staff uses information management to assist the

    commander in building and maintaining understanding.

    Mission Command

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 4-3

    Synchronize Information-Related Capabilities

    4-14. Information-related capabilities are tools, techniques, or activities employed within a dimension of the
    information environment that can be used to create effects and operationally desired conditions. Sustainment

    brigade special staff assist the brigade commander in developing themes and messages to inform domestic

    audiences and influence foreign friendly, neutral, adversary, and enemy populations throughout the

    operations process. They coordinate the activities and operations of information-related capabilities to

    integrate and synchronize all actions and messages into a cohesive effort. Refer to FM 3-13, Inform and

    Influence Activities, for more information.

    4-15. All assets and capabilities at a commander’s disposal have the capacity to inform and influence to
    varying degrees. The sustainment brigade public affairs staff and Soldier and leader engagements are the

    primary capability within the brigade.

    Conduct Cyber Electromagnetic Activities

    4-16. Commanders, supported by their staff, integrate cyberspace operations, electromagnetic spectrum
    operations and electronic warfare. Cyber electromagnetic activities within the sustainment brigade must be

    integrated and synchronized across all command echelons and warfighting functions. The sustainment

    brigade S-3 staff has the primary electronic warfare capability within the brigade. The sustainment brigade

    S-6 staff has the responsibility for cyber electromagnetic activity of network operations.

    MISSION COMMAND SYSTEMS

    4-17. The sustainment brigade is designed with a mission command system that enhances the commander’s
    ability to conduct operations. Commanders organize a mission command system to:

     Support the commander’s decision making.

     Collect, create, and maintain relevant information and prepare knowledge products to support the

    commander’s and leaders’ understanding and visualization.

     Prepare and communicate directives.

     Establish the means by which commanders and leaders communicate, collaborate, and facilitate

    the functioning of teams.

    4-18. To provide the four overlapping functions shown above, sustainment brigade commanders arrange the
    five components of their mission command system. The five components are: personnel, networks,

    information systems, processes and procedures, and facilities and equipment.

    Personnel

    4-19. The sustainment brigade’s mission command system is focused on trained Soldiers and leaders
    exercising disciplined initiative and accomplishing assigned missions in accordance with the commander’s

    intent, not technology. Key personnel dedicated to supporting the commander include seconds in command,

    command sergeants major, and liaison officers and staffs.

    4-20. The sustainment brigade deputy commander is the commander’s principal assistant. Sustainment
    brigade commanders delegate authority to their DCOs to act in their name for specific functions and

    responsibilities and inform them of any changes in the commander’s visualization or intent.

    4-21. Sustainment brigade commanders employ their command sergeant major throughout the area of
    operations to extend command influence, assess morale of the force, and assist during critical events.

    4-22. The sustainment brigade staff is an essential component of the mission command system. Led by the
    sustainment brigade deputy commander, the staff supports the commander in understanding situations,

    decision making, and implementing decisions throughout the operations process. Sustainment brigade

    commanders arrange their staffs to perform three functions as part of their mission command system:

     Support the commander.

     Assist subordinate units.

     Inform units and organizations outside the headquarters.

    Chapter 4

    4-4 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    Networks

    4-23. A network is a grouping of things that are interconnected for a purpose. Networks enable commanders
    to communicate information and control forces. Networks are key enablers to successful operations.

    Sustainment brigade commanders establish networks to connect people. These connections can be

    established socially through the introduction of two personnel to perform a task, or technically through

    information systems.

    Sustainment Brigade Automated Systems

    4-24. Sustainment brigade commanders determine their information requirements and focus their staffs and
    organizations on using automated systems to meet these requirements. Automated systems include

    computers-hardware and software-and communications, as well as policies and procedures for their use.

    These systems enable extensive information sharing, collaborative planning, execution, and assessment that

    promote shared understanding. The core systems include:

     Global Combat Support System–Army.

     Distributed Common Ground System–Army.

     Joint Capabilities Release and Joint Capabilities Release–Logistics transitioning to Joint Battle

    Command Platform and Joint Battle Command Platform–Logistics.

     Digital Topographic Support System.

     Command Post of the Future.

    Processes and Procedures

    4-25. Sustainment brigade commanders establish and use systematic processes and procedures to organize
    the activities within the headquarters. Processes are a series of actions directed to an end state, such as the

    military decisionmaking process. Procedures are standard, detailed steps, often used by staffs, which describe

    how to perform specific tasks to achieve the desired end state.

    Facilities and Equipment

    4-26. Sustainment brigade commanders arrange facilities and equipment, including command posts,
    platforms, operation centers, signal nodes, and all mission command support equipment. A facility is a

    structure or location that provides a work environment and shelter for the other components of the mission

    command system.

    Operational Energy

    4-27. Sustainment brigades will consider operational energy in the planning and executing of their missions.
    Operational energy is the sum of energy and associated systems, information and processes required to train,

    move, and sustain forces and systems for military operations. Commanders at all levels must consider ways

    to conserve or reduce the amount of operational energy resources used in military operations. Through

    conservation of energy resources, commanders can reduce resupply operations, increase vehicle and

    equipment efficiency, and reduce environmental damage. A continuous process, commanders must plan and

    oversee operations to reduce consumption, use alternative energy means, and incorporate the latest energy

    saving technologies. Employing a combination of best practices, technologies, and discipline in managing

    and executing supply and field services operations will extend operational reach and reduce mission risk.

    COMMAND POST CELLS AND STAFF ELEMENTS

    4-28. The sustainment brigade and its subordinate unit’s command post conduct activities supporting
    sustainment tasks, tasks the commander assigns and tasks common to all command posts. The deputy

    commander establishes and leads command post operations. A command post is a unit headquarters where

    the commander and staff perform their activities (FM 6-0). The sustainment brigade and its subordinate unit’s

    command post functions include:

    Mission Command

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 4-5

     Plan and prepare for operations.

     Control operations, integrate resources and synchronize current operations.

     Receive, analyze and disseminate information.

     Prepare reports.

    4-29. There are three types of command post; main command post, tactical command post and early entry
    command post. The main command post is a facility containing the majority of the staff designed to control

    current operations, conduct detailed analysis, and plan future operations (FM 6-0). The tactical command

    post is a facility containing a tailored portion of a unit headquarters designed to control portions of an

    operation for a limited time (FM 6-0). An early entry command post is a lead element of a headquarters

    designed to control operations until the remaining portions of the headquarters are deployed and operational

    (FM 6-0).

    4-30. The sustainment brigade’s headquarters’ design and its organic communications capability provides
    commanders a flexible mission command structure to support a main CP and an early entry command post.

    The sustainment brigade’s main CP includes representatives of all staff sections and a full suite of information

    systems to plan, prepare, execute, and assess operations. The commander considers the size, location and

    mobility requirements of the CP and then configures the command post.

    4-31. An example sustainment brigade command post is depicted in figure 4-1. This example uses equipment
    that is authorized by the table of organization and equipment or common table of allowances. Additional

    examples of command post layouts are available on the Army Training Network. Commanders may add or

    take equipment and space away depending on the factors of mission variables.

    Figure 4-1. Example sustainment brigade command post

    4-32. The CSSB’s headquarters’ design does not have organic communications capability. The CSSB
    depends on the sustainment brigade or an expeditionary signal battalion for CP communications support. The

    CSSB main CP includes representatives of all staff sections and a full suite of information systems to plan,

    prepare, execute, and assess operations. The XO leads and provides staff supervision of the main CP.

    4-33. Effective CP operations require frequent training that includes establishing and practicing staff battle
    drills. The number and sophistication of staff battle drills vary by organization. They are as diverse as the

    personalities of the commanders. Battle drills can be trained and practiced in a variety of locations.

    Chapter 4

    4-6 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    4-34. Commanders organize their CPs into functional and integrating cells. Functional cells group personnel
    and equipment by warfighting function (minus mission command). The entire command post assists the

    commander in the exercise of mission command. Therefore, commanders do not form a specific mission

    command functional cell. Since all of the staff assists the commander with specific tasks of the mission

    command warfighting function, the command post as a whole, including the commander, deputy

    commanders, and command sergeants major, represents the mission command warfighting function.

    SUSTAINMENT BRIGADE FUNCTIONAL CELLS

    4-35. Functional cells coordinate and synchronize forces and activities by warfighting function. The
    functional cells within the sustainment brigade CP are intelligence, movement and maneuver, fires,

    protection, and sustainment. The functional cells provide a standardized method of vertically integrating

    closely related tasks. The commander is responsible for ensuring all command post functions are executed.

    This is a challenge for sustainment units since they do not have all the warfighting functions represented on

    their staffs. The functional cell descriptions below include staffing recommendations.

    Intelligence Cell

    4-36. The sustainment brigade CP intelligence cell includes the brigade S-2, current operations and the
    brigade S-2, geospatial. They coordinate activities and systems that help commanders understand the threat,

    terrain and weather, and civil considerations. The intelligence cell requests, receives, and analyzes

    information from all sources to produce and distribute intelligence products. This includes tasks associated

    with the intelligence process, intelligence preparation of the battlefield/battlespace, MDMP, information

    collection and targeting.

    Movement and Maneuver Cell

    4-37. The sustainment brigade CP movement and maneuver cell is the brigade S-3, operations. It coordinates
    activities and systems that position forces to support mission requirements. The brigade S-3 maintains

    synchronization by continuously updating running estimates, the synchronization matrix, and the decision

    support template, to effectively arrange mission command activities across time, space, purpose, and

    warfighting functions, to accomplish the mission.

    Fires Cell

    4-38. The fires cell coordinates, plans, integrates, and synchronizes the employment and assessment of fires
    in support of current and future operations. The sustainment brigade operations staff includes an operations

    officer with an infantry additional skill identifier who could be the brigade S-3 CP fires cell. This Soldier

    coordinates activities and systems that provide collective and coordinated use of electronic warfare capability

    to support sustainment operations.

    Protection Cell

    4-39. The sustainment brigade CP protection cell is the brigade S-3 operations support cell. This cell
    coordinate the activities and systems that preserve the force through risk management. This includes tasks

    associated with protecting personnel, physical assets, and information. Elements of the following staff

    sections form this cell: chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear; engineer; and operations security.

    Sustainment Cell

    4-40. The sustainment brigade CP has two sustainment cells. The brigade S-1, brigade S-4, brigade S-8 and
    brigade surgeon sections form one of the sustainment cells. This cell is responsible for coordinating activities

    and systems that provide personnel management, logistics support, financial management, and Army Health

    System support for units assigned and attached to the sustainment brigade. The brigade support operations

    forms the second sustainment cell. This cell is responsible for coordinating activities and systems that provide

    support and services to the supported force to ensure freedom of action, extend operational reach, and prolong

    endurance of a supported maneuver commander.

    Mission Command

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 4-7

    Other Staff Sections

    4-41. The sustainment brigade CP includes the brigade S-6. The brigade S-6 section establishes and
    maintains the network architecture for the sustainment brigade CP. Mission command systems, logistics

    information systems, email, and voice communications systems are systems sending and receiving data to

    the command post. The brigade S-6 conducts network operations.

    SUSTAINMENT BRIGADE INTEGRATING CELLS

    4-42. Horizontal integration occurs in three integrating cells that synchronize across three planning horizons
    (or by the phases of the operation). A planning horizon is a point in time commanders use to focus the

    organization’s planning efforts to shape future events (ADRP 5-0). The planning horizons are short, mid, and

    long and correspond to the integrating cells within a headquarters: current operations cell, future operations

    cell, and plans cell. The timelines associated with planning horizons depend on the unit and operational and

    mission variables. For example, the long range planning horizon for a sustainment command is different than

    a company command.

    4-43. The sustainment brigade has a small plans branch, usually used as the long range planning cell. The
    majority of the sustainment brigade staff balance their efforts between the current operations and the plans

    cells. Mid-range planning (future operations) is accomplished by integrating members from the SPO

    distribution plans and integration branch with staff representatives as required. The S-3 conducts many of the

    tasks associated with short range planning and execution (current operations), but not all. Representative

    from the functional cells and special staff assist with short range planning and execution as required.

    Current Operations Integration Cell

    4-44. The sustainment brigade CP current operations integration cell is the focal point for operations
    execution. This involves assessing the current situation while regulating forces and warfighting functions in

    accordance with the mission, commander’s intent and concept of operations. The current operations

    integration cell displays the common operational picture and conducts shift changes, assessments, and other

    briefings as required. It provides information on the status of operations to all staff members and to higher,

    subordinate, and adjacent units. The operations synchronization meeting is the most important event in the

    battle rhythm in support of the current operation. The brigade S-3 section forms the core of the current

    operations integration cell. Elements or watch officers from each staff section and liaison officers from

    subordinate and adjacent units form the remainder of the cell. All staff sections are represented in the current

    operations integration cell, either permanently or

    on call.

    Future Operations Cell

    4-45. The future operations cell is responsible for planning operations in the mid-range planning horizon.
    The sustainment brigade commander must execute mid-range planning tasks. This includes considering the

    requirement for convoy support centers or centralized receiving and shipping points and other tasks that

    facilitates continuation of the current operation. The future operations cell serves as a fusion cell between the

    plans and current operations integration cells. The future operations cell monitors current operations and

    determines implications for operations within the mid-range planning horizon. In coordination with the

    current

    operations integration cell, the future operations cell assesses whether the ongoing operation must be

    modified to achieve the current phase’s objectives.

    4-46. The brigade SPO distribution plans and operations branch, updates and adds details to the distribution
    plan and human resources plan supporting the current operation. The brigade S-3 operations section updates

    and adds details to the branch plans foreseen in the current operation and prepares any orders necessary to

    implement a sequel to the operation. They develop the fragmentary order necessary to implement the change.

    Plans Cell

    4-47. The sustainment brigade CP plans cell is responsible for planning operations for the long-range
    planning horizons. It prepares for operations beyond the scope of the current order by developing plans and

    orders, including branch plans and sequels. The brigade S-3 plans develops plans for future operations. All

    Chapter 4

    4-8 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    staff sections of the sustainment brigade balance their efforts between the current operations integration and

    plans cells. The brigade SPO develops the concept of support which is included in plans and orders. The

    distribution plans and integration section is the SPO integrator to the plans cell. This includes human

    resources planning for casualty, personnel accountability and postal operations and logistics estimates for

    sustainment operations supporting decisive action tasks. Figure 4-2 depicts the sustainment brigade

    integrating cells.

    Figure 4-2. Sustainment brigade integrating cells

    CSSB FUNCTIONAL CELLS

    4-48. The functional cells within the CSSB command post are intelligence, movement and maneuver, fires,
    protection, and sustainment. An example CSSB command post is depicted in figure 4-3. This example uses

    equipment that is authorized by a table of organization and equipment or common table of allowances.

    Commanders adjust the CP configuration depending on the factors of mission variables.

    Intelligence Cell

    4-49. The CSSB intelligence cell, current operations S-2, coordinates activities and systems that help
    commanders understand the threat, terrain and weather, and civil considerations. The intelligence cell

    requests, receives, and analyzes information from all sources to produce and distribute intelligence products.

    This includes tasks primarily associated with intelligence preparation of the battlefield/battlespace.

    Movement and Maneuver Cell

    4-50. The CSSB movement and maneuver cell, current operations S-3, coordinates activities and systems
    that position forces to support mission requirements. The battalion S-3 maintains synchronization by

    continuously updating running estimates, the synchronization matrix, and the decision support template, to

    Mission Command

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 4-9

    effectively arrange mission command activities across time, space, purpose, and warfighting functions, to

    accomplish the mission.

    Figure 4-3. Example combat sustainment support battalion command post

    Fires Cell

    4-51. The CSSB fires cell, current operations S-3, coordinates activities and systems that provide collective
    and coordinated use of electronic warfare capability to support distribution operations.

    Protection Cell

    4-52. The CSSB protection cell, current operations S-3, coordinates the activities and systems that preserve
    the force through risk management. This includes tasks associated with protecting personnel, physical assets,

    and information. The only element of this cell is chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear.

    Sustainment Cell

    4-53. The CSSB has two sustainment cells. The battalion S-1, battalion S-4 and UMT sections form one of
    the sustainment cells. This cell is responsible for coordinating activities and systems that provide personnel

    management, logistics support, and religious support for units assigned and attached to the CSSB. The

    battalion support operations forms the second sustainment cell. This cell is responsible for coordinating

    activities and systems that provide support and services to ensure freedom of action, extend operational reach,

    and prolong endurance of a supported maneuver commander.

    Other Staff Sections

    4-54. The battalion S-6 section establishes and maintains the network architecture for the CSSB. Mission
    command systems, logistics information systems, email, and voice communications systems are systems

    sending and receiving data to the command post. The support operations Sustainment Automation Support

    Management Office works closely with the S-6 to ensure the logistics information systems are considered

    during preparation of network plans and diagrams establishing the information network.

    CSSB INTEGRATING CELLS

    4-55. The CSSB command post integrating cells are organized by planning horizon. They coordinate and
    synchronize forces and warfighting functions within a specified planning horizon and include the current and

    future operations integration cells. The CSSB relies on the sustainment brigade for long term planning.

    Chapter 4

    4-10 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    Current Operations Integration Cell

    4-56. The CSSB current operations integration cell is the focal point for the execution of the operations. This
    involves assessing the current situation while regulating forces and warfighting functions in accordance with

    the mission, commander’s intent, and concept of operations. The current operations integration cell displays

    the common operational picture and conducts shift changes, assessments, and other briefings as required. It

    provides information on the status of operations to all staff members and to higher, subordinate, and adjacent

    units. The operations synchronization meeting is the most important event in the battle rhythm in support of

    the current operation.

    4-57. The battalion S-3 section forms the core of the current operations integration cell. Elements or watch
    officers from each staff section and liaison officers from subordinate and adjacent units form the remainder

    of the cell. All staff sections are represented in the current operations integration cell, either permanently or

    on call.
    Future Operations Cell

    4-58. The CSSB future operations cell is responsible for planning operations in the mid-range planning
    horizon. The future operations cell serves as a fusion cell between the current operations integration cell and

    the sustainment brigade plans cell. The future operations cell monitors current operations and determines

    implications for operations within the mid-range planning horizon. In coordination with the current

    operations integration cell, the future operations cell assesses whether the ongoing operation must be

    modified to achieve the current phase’s objectives. It focuses on adjustments to the current operation,

    including positioning forces which facilitate continuation of the current operation.

    4-59. The S-3 updates and adds details to the branch plans foreseen in the current operation and prepares any
    orders necessary to implement a sequel to the operation develop the fragmentary order necessary to

    implement the change. The battalion SPO executes the concept of support for logistics operations supporting

    decisive action tasks.

    SUSTAINMENT BRIGADE INTEGRATING PROCESSES AND

    CONTINUING ACTIVITIES

    4-60. The sustainment brigade commander and staff use integrating processes and continuing activities to
    integrate the warfighting functions to synchronize the force.

    INTEGRATING PROCESSES

    4-61. The sustainment brigade uses integrating processes to synchronize specific functions throughout the
    operations process. The brigade uses two integrating processes

     Sustainment preparation of the operational environment.

     Risk management.

    Sustainment Preparation of the Operational Environment

    4-62. Sustainment preparation of the operational environment is the analysis to determine infrastructure,
    physical environment, and resources in the operational environment that will optimize or adversely impact

    friendly forces means for supporting and sustaining the commander’s operations plan (ADP 4-0). The

    sustainment preparation of the operational environment identifies friendly resources (HNS, contractible, or

    accessible assets) or environmental factors (endemic diseases, climate) that impact sustainment. It assists

    planning staffs in refining the logistics estimate and concept of support. Sustainment preparation of the

    operational environment integration during the operations process is the primary responsibility of the

    sustainment brigade S-2.

    Risk Management

    4-63. Identifying and accepting prudent risk is a principle of mission command. Throughout the operations
    process, commanders and staffs use risk management to identify and mitigate risks associated with all hazards

    Mission Command

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 4-11

    that have the potential to injure or kill friendly and civilian personnel, damage or destroy equipment, or

    otherwise impact mission effectiveness. Risk management integration during all operations process activities

    is the primary responsibility of the

    sustainment brigade S-3 protection cell.

    CONTINUING ACTIVITIES

    4-64. The Sustainment brigade executes numerous tasks throughout the operations process. Commanders
    and staffs plan for and coordinate the following continuing activities.

    Battle Rhythm

    4-65. Commanders and staffs integrate and synchronize numerous activities, meetings, and reports within
    their headquarters, with their higher headquarters, and with subordinate and supported units. A headquarters’

    battle rhythm consists of a series of meetings, report requirements, and other activities synchronized by time

    and purpose. This is part of the unit battle rhythm. These activities may be daily, weekly, monthly, or

    quarterly. An effective battle rhythm:

     Establishes a routine for staff interaction and coordination.

     Facilitates interaction between the commander, staff, and subordinate units.

     Facilitates planning by the staff and decision making by the commander.

    4-66. The commander adjusts the battle rhythm as operations progress. The sustainment brigade’s mission,
    task organization and supported units will change throughout the operation. These changes cause adjustments

    to the unit’s battle rhythm.

    Information Collection

    4-67. Information collection is an activity that synchronizes and integrates the planning and employment of
    sensors and assets as well as the processing, exploitation, and dissemination of systems in direct support of

    current and future operations (FM 3-55). It integrates the functions of the intelligence and operations staffs

    focused on answering the commander’s critical information requirements. Information collection activities

    are the primary responsibility of the sustainment brigade S-3 and S-2. The sustainment brigade has an

    unmanned aerial surveillance capability to perform this function.

    4-68. Commander’s critical information requirements and decision points focus the staff’s monitoring
    activities and prioritize the unit’s collection efforts. Friendly reports, out briefs from returning convoys, and

    information from the common operational picture are ways to monitor operations. Commanders and staffs

    continuously collect, validate and analyze timely information to help satisfy the commander’s critical

    information requirement and other information requirements. Much of the information garnered as a result

    of the sustainment preparation of the operational environment may be used to develop information

    requirements. Effective information requirements may include but are not limited to –

     Information requested based on assumptions made during mission analysis.

     Specific indicators of the desired activity to assist the collector in identification.

     Special reporting guidance.

    Liaison

    4-69. Liaison is that contact or intercommunication maintained between elements of military forces or other
    agencies to ensure mutual understanding and unity of purpose and action (JP 3-08). Most commonly used for

    establishing and maintaining close communications, liaison continuously enables direct, physical

    communications between commands. Sustainment brigade commanders coordinate with higher, lower,

    adjacent, supporting, and supported units and civilian organizations. The sustainment brigade participates in

    boards, bureaus and working groups that require liaison. Commanders must understand that use of liaisons

    places a tax on organic staff manpower and must establish a balance between liaison requirements and staff

    operations.

    4-70. Coordinating and conducting liaison helps ensure that leaders internal and external to the headquarters
    understand their unit’s role in upcoming operations, and that they are prepared to perform that role. Available

    Chapter 4

    4-12 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    resources and the need for direct contact between sending and receiving headquarters determine when to

    establish liaison. Establishing liaisons with civilian organizations is especially important in stability

    operations because of the variety of external organizations and the inherent coordination challenges. The

    number of liaisons sent out by a unit must be carefully considered against mission support as these are

    personnel who will not be functioning in their day to day capacities.

    4-71. The sustainment brigade sends liaisons to the sustainment command, supported Army forces or
    division headquarters, a unified action partner or other organizations as appropriate. Liaisons to the

    sustainment brigade include members of the supported unit sustainment staff, a representative of supporting

    contractor or a host nation representative. The commander and staff consider the role of any liaison staff

    elements; where to locate the liaison, the tasks the commander expects the liaison to do and the liaison

    officer’s requirements for access to the local area network and power.

    Meetings

    4-72. Meetings take up a large amount of the sustainment brigade’s and the CSSB’s battle rhythm. Meetings
    are gatherings to present and exchange information, solve problems, coordinate action and make decisions.

    Meetings may involve the staff, the commander and staff, or the commander, subordinate commanders, staff,

    and other partners. They will also participate in sustainment command synchronization meetings, movement

    boards, acquisition review boards and other meetings and boards that apply. In some circumstances the

    sustainment brigade will participate in supported unit updates, meetings and boards.

    Protection

    4-73. Protection is the preservation of the effectiveness and survivability of mission-related military and
    nonmilitary personnel, equipment, facilities, information, and infrastructure deployed or located within or

    outside the boundaries of a given operational area (JP 3-0). Commanders and staffs synchronize, integrate,

    and organize capabilities and resources throughout the operations process in order to preserve combat power

    and mitigate the effects of threats and hazards. Protection activities are the primary responsibility of the

    sustainment brigade S-3 protection cell.

    Reports

    4-74. The sustainment brigade and the CSSB submit many reports, not just logistics status reports. FM 6-99,
    U.S. Army Report and Message Formats, includes standardized report and message formats. The formats in

    the FM are for manual and voice use, but they are an excellent tool for staffs developing a report or SOP.

    The report and message formats in FM 6-99 help users prepare and manually transmit written and voice

    reports and messages. Each format provides an organized template to record, pass, and store information. All

    the formats list the applicable doctrinal publication as a reference. Sustainment organizations should maintain

    manual reporting skills in the event of power interruption during operations.

    4-75. Sustainment brigade commanders use logistics status reports to identify logistics requirements to
    support decisive action. The logistics status report informs the common operating picture, running estimates

    and logistics synchronization. The logistics status report is a compilation of data that requires analysis before

    action. It is a snapshot of current stock status, on-hand quantities, and future requirements. Some common

    logistics reports include the logistics status report, bulk petroleum report, and maintenance status report.

    4-76. Although mission command systems make capturing and disseminating data and information easier
    and faster, the staff’s focus is the integrity and usability of the data by commanders and planners. The value

    of automated logistics information systems and mission command systems is that everyone on the network

    can see and use the reported information. The data requested and subsequently analyzed should be linked to

    the commander’s critical information requirement.

    4-77. The organization’s battle rhythm is critical when considering cut off times, as of times, and reporting
    times. Allow enough time to analyze the data in order to provide the commander with a considered

    recommendation on future courses of action. The staff must balance timeliness of reporting and amount of

    time needed to analyze the report.

    Mission Command

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 4-13

    4-78. Collect only data which can be turned into information for a decision. Below are possible categories
    of information to consider when analyzing logistics status:

     Status of classes of supply.

     Changes to anticipated expenditure rates.

     Any incident having significant impact on the operational capability of a logistics unit.

     Any incident having significant impact on logistical posture of any tactical unit.

     Critical low density equipment.

     Logistics information system connectivity status.

     Route and transportation node status.

     Distribution platform capabilities.

    4-79. All of the sustainment brigade staff has an interest in reviewing the incoming reports and all contribute
    to the outgoing report. The sustainment command and the supported unit’s S-4 or G-4 require access to

    logistics status. Figure 4-4 shows an example of logistics status reporting flow for sustainment brigade or

    CSSB.

    Figure 4-4. Logistics status reporting flow

    Running Estimates

    4-80. Each staff element and command post functional cell maintains a running estimate focused on how its
    specific areas of expertise are postured to support future operations. A running estimate is the continuous

    assessment of the current situation used to determine if the current operation is proceeding according to the

    commander’s intent and if planned future operations are supportable (ADP 5-0). Running estimates can be

    presented verbally or in writing. FM 6-0, Commander and Staff Organization and Operations, explains types

    of running estimates, information included in running estimates, how information in the running estimate fits

    in the operations process and a generic running estimate format.

    4-81. Commanders may choose a different running estimate format. The intent is to develop and maintain a
    useful body of information identified in the generic running estimate format. One way to develop input for

    the running estimate is to use existing planning tools, such as the Operational Logistics Planner, and

    automated reporting systems. It is good practice to maintain running estimates in a way that enables

    collaboration.

    Chapter 4

    4-14 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    Security Operations

    4-82. Sustainment brigade commanders and staffs continuously plan for and coordinate security operations
    throughout the conduct of operations. Security operations are those operations undertaken by a commander

    to provide early and accurate warning of enemy operations, to provide the force being protected with time

    and maneuver space within which to react to the enemy, and to develop the situation to allow the commander

    to effectively use the protected force (ADRP 3-90). Security operations activities are the primary

    responsibility of the sustainment brigade S-3 protection cell.

    Standard Operating Procedures

    4-83. Tested and practiced SOPs are comprehensive with regard to command post operations and processes
    and they are focused on core functions of the command post. SOPs change only to accommodate specific

    requirements or circumstances. The command post SOP should complement the supported units SOP, if

    appropriate. The command post SOP includes standardized CP layout, battle drills, battle rhythm,

    communications, reporting procedures and report formats. The most successful units follow and revise SOPs

    throughout training and mission execution. ATP 3-90.90, Army Tactical Standard Operation Procedures,

    provides techniques for developing unit tactical SOPs.

    OPERATIONS PROCESS

    4-84. Army leaders plan, prepare, execute, and assess operations by analyzing the operational environment
    in terms of the operational and mission variables. Operational variables consist of political, military,

    economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, and time. Mission variables consist of

    mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, and civil considerations.

    How these variables interact in a specific situation, domain (land, maritime, air, space, or cyberspace), area

    of operations, or area of interest describes a commander’s operational environment but does not limit it.

    Commanders, applying understanding of the operational variables in relation to the mission variables, must

    visualize the operational environment, describe their intent and direct staff and subordinates through plans

    and orders to execute the mission.

    PLAN

    4-85. Planning helps commanders create and communicate a common vision between commanders, their
    staffs, subordinate commanders, and unified action partners. Planning results in a plan and orders that

    synchronize the action of forces in time, space, and purpose to achieve objectives and accomplish missions.

    4-86. Sustainment brigade planning is both a continuous and a cyclical activity of the operations process.
    While planning may start an iteration of the operations process, planning does not stop with the production

    of an order. During preparation and execution, the plan is continuously refined as the situation changes.

    Through assessment, subordinates and others provide feedback as to what is working, what is not working,

    and how the unit can do things better.

    4-87. Sustainment brigade commanders issue plans and orders to subordinates to communicate their
    understanding of the situation and their visualization

    of an operation.

    A plan is a continuous, evolving

    framework of anticipated actions that maximizes opportunities. The measure of a good plan is not whether

    execution transpires as planned, but whether the plan facilitates effective action in the face of unforeseen

    events. Good plans and orders foster initiative.

    4-88. Planning and plans help leaders-

     Understand and develop solutions to problems. An operational problem is the issue or set of issues

    that impede commanders from achieving their desired end state.

     Anticipate events and adapt to changing circumstances. Planning keeps the force oriented on

    future objectives despite the requirements of current operations.

     Task-organize the force and prioritize efforts.

    4-89. The staff’s role is to assist commanders with understanding situations, making and implementing
    decisions, controlling operations, and assessing progress. FM 6-0, Commander and Staff Organization and

    Mission Command

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 4-15

    Operations, includes key components of a plan or order as well as descriptions and formats for mission orders

    and appropriate appendixes.

    Military Decisionmaking Process

    4-90. The MDMP is a planning methodology. It integrates the activities of the commander, staff, subordinate
    headquarters, and unified action partners to understand the situation and mission; develop and compare

    courses of action; decide on a course of action and produce an operations plan or order. Commanders guide

    staff planning efforts. The unit executive officer or deputy commander usually facilitates MDMP for the

    commander by synchronizing the staff, and establishing and maintaining staff fusion.

    Key Components of a Plan

    4-91. The unit’s task organization, mission statement, commander’s intent, concept of operations, tasks to
    subordinate units, coordinating instructions, and control measures are key components of a plan.

    Commanders ensure their mission and end state nest with those of their higher headquarters.

    Task Organization

    4-92. Task organization is a temporary grouping of forces designed to accomplish a particular mission
    (ADRP 5-0). Commanders task organize the force by establishing command and support relationships.

    Chapters one and three of this publication provide details about the sustainment brigade and the CSSB’s

    recommended relationships. The unit’s task organization is in the plan or order or in Annex A (Task

    Organization).

    4-93. The commander and staff evaluate the sustainment brigade’s task organization and assess the ability of
    the brigade to accomplish their mission. The sustainment brigade task organization changes as operations

    progress through each phase. Establishing clear command and support relationships is fundamental to

    organizing for any operation. These relationships establish clear responsibilities and authorities between

    subordinate and supporting units.

    Mission Statement

    4-94. The mission is the task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the
    reason therefore (JP 3-0). The staff analyzes the higher headquarters’ order and the higher commander’s

    guidance to determine their specified and implied tasks. The “what” of a mission statement is always a task.

    From the list of specified and implied tasks, the staff determines essential tasks for inclusion in the

    recommended mission statement. Sustainment commanders also consider the mission of supported units.

    Results of that analysis yield the essential tasks that clearly specify the action required. This analysis produces

    the unit’s mission statement.

    Commanders Intent

    4-95. The sustainment brigade commander personally develops the commander’s intent which conveys a
    clear image of the operation’s purpose, key tasks, and the desired outcome. The commander’s intent must be

    easy to remember and clearly understood by leaders and Soldiers two echelons lower in the chain of

    command. The shorter the commander’s intent, the better it serves these purposes.

    4-96. The sustainment brigade’s subordinate units are geographically dispersed across its assigned support
    area. Delivering the commander’s intent face-to-face to all subordinate commanders at the same time may

    not be possible. Sustainment operations require the sustainment brigade to adapt to the changes in the

    operational environment and changes to missions of supported units. By understanding the commander’s

    intent and the overall common objective, subordinates are able to adapt to rapidly changing situations and

    exploit fleeting opportunities.

    Concept of Operations

    4-97. The concept of operations expands on the commander’s intent. The sustainment brigade commander
    describes sustainment or logistics support operations in terms of time, space, resources, purpose, and action

    Chapter 4

    4-16 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    in the unit OPORD. The concept of operations directs the manner in which subordinate sustainment units

    cooperate to accomplish the mission and establishes the sequence of actions they will use to achieve the end

    state. It states the principal tasks required, the responsible subordinate units, and how the principal tasks

    complement one another. In the sustainment brigade, the S-3 and the SPO develop the concept of operations,

    paragraph 3.b. of the OPLAN or OPORD.

    Tasks to Subordinate Units

    4-98. Tasks to subordinate units direct individual units to perform a specific action. Tasks are specific
    activities that contribute to accomplishing missions or other requirements. Tasks to subordinate units includes

    not only the task (what), but also the unit (who), place (where), time (when), and purpose (why). A task is a

    clearly defined and measurable activity accomplished by individuals and organizations.

    Coordinating Instructions

    4-99. Coordinating instructions apply to more than one unit. Examples include commander’s critical
    information requirements, essential elements of friendly information, rules of engagement or the time the

    operation order becomes effective. An example of a sustainment brigade coordinating instruction could be

    related to logistics information systems connectivity.

    Control Measure

    4-100. Tailored to the higher commander’s intent, the commander assigns subordinate units missions and
    imposes control measures necessary to synchronize and maintain control over the operation. The sustainment

    brigade commander, subordinate commanders and their staffs must thoroughly understand the control

    measures in place in the areas they support and traverse through. This is particularly important in an

    asymmetrical environment where distribution and sustainment operations are crossing brigade, multinational

    and possibly nation state boundaries.

    Sustainment

    4-101. Sustainment, paragraph 4, of the commander’s order or plan describes the broad concept of
    sustainment support. It also includes instructions for deployment and references to applicable appendices.

    The unit S-4 is the lead for paragraph 4 and annex F.

    4-102. Annex F, Sustainment, is the sustainment plan of the published OPLAN or OPORD. It is an
    overarching plan, which specifies the concept of sustainment, support relationships, priorities of support, and

    task organization for support of the maneuver force. It translates tactical level support policies into a unified

    logistics concept of support. Annex F tells the unit the details of how they will be sustained.

    4-103. The sustainment brigade refers to its higher headquarters’ operation order distribution plan for
    instructions. The distribution plan outlines who, what, when, where, and how distribution will be

    accomplished. The scope of the distribution plan is limited to explaining exactly how the sustainment brigade

    will maintain asset visibility; adjust distribution capacity; and control the distribution of supplies, services,

    and support capabilities for an area of operations. The distribution plan outlines the architecture of the

    distribution system and describes how units, materiel, equipment, and sustainment resources are to be

    distributed within the area of operations. It is continually updated to reflect changes in, infrastructure, support

    relationships, and customer locations. The distribution plan is developed as Appendix 1 (Tab F- Distribution)

    to Annex F (Sustainment) to the operation order.

    PREPARE

    4-104. Preparation includes those activities performed by units and Soldiers to improve their ability to
    execute an operation (ADP 5-0). The military decisionmaking process drives preparation. Preparation usually

    begins upon receipt of a warning order from the higher headquarters. The sustainment commander and staff

    conduct a time analysis early in the planning process which helps them determine what actions they need to

    take and when to begin those actions to ensure forces are ready and in position before execution. The plan

    may require the commander to direct subordinates to start necessary movements; conduct task-organization

    changes; and execute other preparation activities before completing the plan.

    Mission Command

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 4-17

    4-105. Leaders and Soldiers take required time to understand the plan, develop the plan and rehearse key
    parts of the plan. In addition to the activities listed below, other preparation activities include confirmation

    briefs, training and information collection.

    Plans To Operations Transition

    4-106. During preparation, the responsibility for developing and maintaining the plan shifts from the plans
    (or future operations) cell to the current operations cell. The plans-to-operations transition ensures members

    of the S-3 current operations cell fully understand the plan before execution. This transition is the point at

    which the current operations cell becomes responsible for controlling execution of the operation order. This

    responsibility includes answering requests for information concerning the order and maintaining the order

    through fragmentary orders. This transition enables the plans cell to focus its planning efforts on sequels,

    branches, and other planning requirements directed by the commander. The S-3 is responsible for managing

    the handoff of a plan from future operations to current operations.

    Sustainment Preparation of the Operational Environment

    4-107. Sustainment preparation of the operational environment consists of the actions taken by logisticians
    at all echelons to optimize means (force structure, resources, and strategic lift) for supporting the

    commander’s plan. These actions include identifying and preparing intermediate staging bases and forward

    operating bases; selecting and improving lines of communication; and forecasting and building operational

    stock assets forward and afloat. Sustainment preparation of the operational environment focuses on

    identifying the resources currently available in the theater of operations for use by friendly forces and

    ensuring access to those resources. Factors to consider when conducting a sustainment preparation of the

    operational environment are in the following paragraphs.

    Geography

    4-108. Information on climate and terrain may be used to determine if current maps are accurate, or when
    various types of supplies, equipment, and field services will be needed. For example, use water information

    to determine the requirement for early deployment of well-digging assets and water production and

    distribution units. Geography and climate could have a negative impact on rotary wing operations thus

    limiting options for distribution. Geography coupled with the road network shapes sustainment unit locations.

    Supply and Service

    4-109. Determine if required supply items are available in the operational environment and if any of the
    required items can be used in support of U.S. forces. Subsistence items, bulk petroleum, and barrier materials

    are often available in country. Has the host nation bought, through foreign military sales, repair parts

    supporting current U.S. systems? Is there a commonality in equipment and repair parts? Can contingency

    contracting provide resources from HNS sources or third country sources until Army capabilities arrive?

    Answers to these types of questions will aid in analyzing whether HNS negotiations are possible.

    Facilities

    4-110. Are there warehousing and cold storage facilities, production and manufacturing plants, reservoirs,
    administrative facilities, maintenance facilities, sanitation capabilities, desalination plants used to convert sea

    water to drinking water, or hotels available? Their availability could reduce the requirement for deployment

    of similar capacity. Does the country have adequate machine works for possible use in the fabrication of

    repair parts? The types of communication systems available (cell towers or internet access) will shape what

    additional capability units bring into country to communicate with strategic partners.

    Transportation

    4-111. Information about road networks, truck availability, rail, bridges, ports, cargo handlers
    (longshoremen), petroleum pipelines, and materials handling equipment are important to know. Known

    information about traffic flow, ingress and egress specifics around ports and airports, urban transition areas,

    road repair capability, choke points, and control problems will also inform planning for potential operations.

    Chapter 4

    4-18 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    General Skills

    4-112. Collect information on the general population of the supported country. Population demographics
    become very important as they inform the command regarding education levels, religious leanings,

    languages, predominate age groups, school systems (skill sets), gender discrepancies, and employment

    strengths/dominances. All these shape available manpower employment decisions. Are personnel available

    for interpreter/translator duties? Will a general labor pool be available? Will drivers, clerks, materiel handling

    equipment operators, food service personnel, guards, mechanics, and longshoremen be available?

    Rehearsals

    4-113. A rehearsal is a session in which the commander and staff or unit practices expected actions to
    improve performance during execution. Commanders use this tool to ensure staffs and subordinates

    understand the concept of operations and commander’s intent. Rehearsals also allow leaders to practice

    synchronizing operations at times and places critical to mission accomplishment. Effective rehearsals imprint

    a mental picture of the sequence of the operation’s key actions and improve mutual understanding. Some

    leaders differentiate rehearsals as combined arms rehearsals and support rehearsals. Logistics leaders must

    participate in both. A CSSB in direct support of a division or BCT must understand the maneuver plan in

    order to support it and understand how the sustainment brigade will resupply them.

    4-114. A support rehearsal may include all warfighting functions or a single warfighting function and helps
    synchronize each warfighting function with the overall operation. Rehearsals typically involve coordination

    and procedure drills for aviation, fires, engineer support, or casualty evacuation. Units may conduct

    rehearsals separately and then combine them into full-dress rehearsals. Although these rehearsals differ

    slightly by warfighting function, they achieve the same result.

    EXECUTE

    4-115. During execution, commanders focus their activities on directing, assessing, and leading while
    improving their understanding and modifying their visualization. Initially, commanders direct the transition

    from planning to execution as the order is issued and the responsibility for integration passes from the plans

    cell to the current operations integration cell.

    4-116. The S-3 current ops and the SPO solve problems and make decisions throughout execution. Some
    SPO staffs use a synchronization matrix as a visual and sequential representation of critical tasks and

    responsible organizations. The S-3 is focused on defining command and support relationships and

    geographical placement of units while generating and synchronizing staff support to the tactical units

    executing the mission. These efforts include the assignment of responsibilities among staff sections and

    command post cells for conducting analysis and decision making.

    ASSESS

    4-117. Throughout the operations process, commanders integrate their own assessments with those of the
    staff, subordinate commanders, and other unified action partners. Primary tools for assessing progress of the

    operation include the operation order, the common operational picture, personal observations, running

    estimates, and the assessment plan. The commander’s visualization forms the basis for the commander’s

    personal assessment of progress. Use assessment and supporting data to provide feedback to improve support

    effectiveness and efficiency and to optimize sustainment operations.

    4-118. The commander has multiple tools to use as a check and balance; logistics information systems,
    internal assessment and feedback from supported units. Another means to assess the performance of the

    brigade or battalion is through supported unit feedback. As the commander and the command sergeant major

    execute their battlefield circulation plan, they are not only checking on their Soldiers but they are also

    speaking with supported units, including the division G-4, to verify the quality of support.

    4-119. Assessment is continuous; it precedes and guides every operations process activity and concludes
    each operation or phase of an operation. Broadly, assessment consists of, but is not limited to, the following

    activities:

    Mission Command

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 4-19

     Monitoring the current situation to collect relevant information.

     Evaluating progress toward attaining end state conditions, achieving objectives, and performing

    tasks.

     Recommending or directing action for improvement.

    SUMMARY

    4-120. Applying the mission command philosophy helps commanders exercise authority skillfully and
    master the systems and procedures that help forces accomplish missions. They use the mission command

    warfighting function to help them integrate and synchronize operations. Sustainment brigade commanders

    determine their information requirements and focus their staffs and organizations on using information

    systems to meet these requirements. The sustainment brigade’s main CP includes representatives of all staff

    sections and a full suite of information systems to plan, prepare, execute, and assess operations. Commanders

    organize their CPs into functional and integrating cells. Functional cells group personnel and equipment by

    warfighting function. The three integrating cells synchronize across planning horizons. They are: current

    operations cell, future operations cell, and plans cell. The operations process consists of the major activities

    of mission command conducted during operations: planning, preparing, executing and assessing operations.

    This page intentionally left blank.

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 5-1

    Chapter 5

    The Employed Sustainment Brigade

    The sustainment brigade plays an important role in providing maneuver forces with

    operational reach, prolonged endurance, and freedom of action. It is task organized to

    conduct sustainment functions associated with theater opening, theater distribution,

    sustainment, and theater closing missions. The sustainment brigade will have multiple

    CSSBs to provide distribution and sustainment support to forces operating in or

    transiting its assigned support area. There are examples of sustainment brigade task

    organization for deployed sustainment brigade missions.

    JOINT OPERATIONS

    5-1. A joint force is one composed of elements of two or more military departments operating under a single
    JFC. Army forces operate as an interdependent joint force; there is a purposeful reliance by one service on

    another service’ capabilities. Sustainment brigade commanders and staffs operate as part of an interdependent

    joint force and may be required to provide common-user logistics support to another service or multinational

    force. Commanders and staff must be aware of which logistics capabilities are shared by the joint forces so

    that the sustainment brigade provides the required support. Regardless of command and support relationships

    established by the JFC, Service component commanders retain responsibility for administrative and logistics

    support of their forces. See JP 4-0, Joint Logistics, for more information about joint logistics.

    5-2. The U.S. Army has a major role in joint operations by conducting theater opening tasks and setting
    logistics conditions for conducting military operations in a theater. The Army may also provide common-

    user logistics for the joint force to include class I, class III, class IX and transportation.

    5-3. The GCC may designate the senior logistics headquarters of a service as a joint command for logistics.
    The joint command for logistics is responsible for coordinating and synchronizing logistics support across

    the joint force. If designated, the GCC would augment the selected unit with joint augmentation.

    5-4. The sustainment brigade may be required to establish or operate an intermediate staging base. The
    intermediate staging base is a secure temporary theater staging facility. They may be used to sustain forces

    in the area of operations. Intermediate staging base required capabilities are contingent on the operational

    situation and are located where they can best support the force.

    5-5. Units establishing the intermediate staging base must deploy early to be prepared to receive deploying
    forces and to operate the nodes inherent in the theater distribution plan. Intermediate staging bases serve as

    a principal staging base in order to secure a lodgment to project the force for the rapid delivery of combat

    power to an AOR. In some instances, an intermediate staging base is also used to transition from intertheater

    lift to intratheater lift to increase the number of points of entry available to the force to mitigate anti-access

    measures.

    5-6. Units staging through an intermediate staging base will require life support, including housing,
    sanitation and health care. This life support may be as simple as improvised shelters and unit field sanitation

    or as complex as a force provider module. Planners must identify force provider requirements early in the

    planning phase. All the force provider companies are in the reserve component and the modules are in

    prepositioned stock. More information about force provider is in ATP 4-45, Force Provider Operations.

    5-7. The theater sustainment command is responsible for sustainment support to an area of responsibility.
    An area of responsibility is the geographical area associated with a combatant command within which a

    geographic combatant commander has authority to plan and conduct operations (JP 1). Theater of operations,

    area of operations or joint area of operations may all be included in an AOR.

    Chapter 5

    5-2 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    5-8. Area of operations is an operational area defined by the joint force commander for land and maritime
    forces that should be large enough to accomplish their missions and protect their forces (JP 3-0). To conduct

    operations within its geographic area of responsibility, the GCC may designate a specific area within their

    AOR as a theater of war, theater of operations, or a JOA.

    THEATER OPENING

    5-9. Theater opening is the ability to establish and operate ports of debarkation (air, sea, and rail), to
    establish a distribution system, and to facilitate throughput for the reception, staging, and onward movement

    of forces within a theater of operations (ADP 4-0). Theater opening is a complex joint process involving the

    JFC and strategic and joint partners such as U. S. Transportation Command, DLA and the joint deployment

    and distribution operations center. The joint deployment and distribution operations center supports the

    geographic combatant commander’s operational objectives by synchronizing and optimizing the interface of

    inter-theater and intra-theater distribution. See JP 4-0, Joint Logistics for information about the joint

    deployment and distribution operations center.

    5-10. The sustainment command is responsible for planning and executing sustainment tasks enabling
    theater opening and RSOI. They also develop the theater sustainment concept of support. See ATP 3-35,

    Army Deployment and Redeployment, for more information.

    5-11. When given the mission to support theater opening, the sustainment brigade is task organized with
    CSSB or functional logistics battalions. It performs the following tasks: establish in-transit visibility; conduct

    transportation management; support theater RSOI; conduct distribution and distribution management;

    support movement control, support expeditionary contracting efforts and establish initial theater sustainment.

    Figure 5-1 depicts a notional sustainment brigade performing theater opening tasks.

    Figure 5-1. Notional task organized sustainment brigade conducting theater opening tasks

    5-12. In addition to the task organized sustainment brigade, a transportation brigade expeditionary is also in
    the JOA directing logistics over the shore or port opening operations. The sustainment brigade will become

    larger as the operational area and missions mature. The longer the operation lasts the more likely reserve

    component units are activated.

    The Employed Sustainment Brigade

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 5-3

    5-13. The sustainment command identifies initial theater opening requirements for contract and host-nation
    support. The deployed sustainment brigade works with the supporting contingency contracting team or

    battalion which assesses and acquires available HN infrastructure capabilities and contracted support.

    Working together, units conducting theater opening functions set the conditions for effective support and lay

    the groundwork for subsequent expansion of the theater distribution system.

    PORT OPENING

    5-14. Port opening is a subordinate function of theater opening. Port opening is the ability to establish,
    initially operate and facilitate throughput for ports of debarkation to support unified land operations (ADRP

    4-0). Throughput refers to the quantity of cargo and passengers that can pass through a port or a transportation

    terminal on a daily basis. This is not to be confused with throughput distribution, which is a method of

    distribution explained in ATP 4-11, Army Motor Transport Operations. The port opening process is complete

    when the ports of debarkation and supporting infrastructure are established to meet the desired operating

    capacity for that node. The port is the first node in the theater distribution system. Seaport opening requires

    units designed to support seaport of debarkation operations; such as harbor master and watercraft

    detachments.

    RECEPTION, STAGING, ONWARD MOVEMENT, AND INTEGRATION

    5-15. RSOI is a joint task force operation heavily enabled by the sustainment community. The sustainment
    command controls the theater distribution system which includes transportation modes and transshipment

    and supply nodes. Nodes are locations within the distribution system where a movement requirement is

    originated and processed for onward movement.

    5-16. Reception is the initial step in RSOI and is defined as receiving units into the area of operation.
    Reception planning and execution is the responsibility of the commander assigned the responsibility for

    RSOI. Synchronizing transportation reception activities are critical to facilitating throughput at the ports of

    debarkation which involves mission command, movement control, and port operations. The sustainment

    brigade establishes theater gateway personnel accountability, performs departure/arrival airfield control

    group functions at the aerial port of debarkation, conducts motor transport operations and provides

    sustainment support for units supporting reception tasks.

    5-17. Staging is that part of the RSOI operation that reassembles and reunites unit personnel with their
    equipment and schedules unit movement to the tactical assembly area, secures or uploads unit basic loads,

    and provides life support to personnel. A staging base is a controlled area where unit reassembly may occur.

    There will be at least one staging base per seaport of debarkation /aerial port of debarkation pairing. The

    sustainment brigade provides supply, maintenance support and human resources support for units executing

    staging tasks. Units staging through a staging base will require some life support.

    5-18. Onward movement involves unit movement from ports to theater staging bases or forward to the
    tactical assembly area. The primary factors affecting onward movement are transportation capability and

    capacity, physical infrastructure, and protection. The sustainment brigade coordinates motor transport

    support for units without sufficient transportation lift to move themselves or mitigate degradation of tracked

    assets over long distances while conducting onward movement. Personnel and equipment reassembled as

    combat-ready units are moved to the tactical assembly area based on the JFC priorities.

    5-19. Integration is the synchronized transfer of capabilities into an operational commander’s force prior to
    mission execution. The transfer may require interaction and familiarization among units and that arriving

    units meet certain standards before being completely integrated into the combat plan.

    SUPPORT TO DECISIVE ACTION

    5-20. The sustainment brigade will support decisive action operations which are characterized by units
    conducting offense, defense and stability tasks simultaneously. The sustainment brigade plays an important

    role in providing maneuver forces with operational reach, prolonged endurance, and freedom of action.

    Sustainment brigade units will operate in and traverse through areas wherein the threat includes a variable

    mix of conventional military units, special operations forces, well-armed and highly motivated paramilitary

    Chapter 5

    5-4 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    forces, loosely organized irregular forces, and armed, organized criminal organizations, including terrorists.

    Supported units are confronting anti-access and area-denial threats which possess sophisticated and

    asymmetric capabilities. FM 3-94, Theater Army, Corps, and Division Operations, has more information on

    corps and division operations and operational environments.

    5-21. Leveraging host-nation support can be a critical enabler to operations if there is a constrained flow of
    forces into theater resulting in a delay of sustainment forces to the joint operational area. The degree to which

    a host nation can assist with logistics will depend on the operation’s circumstances and impacts how much

    the sustainment brigade may leverage local markets and work force. This information will be known when a

    thorough sustainment preparation of the operational environment is completed. Chapter 4 has more

    information about the sustainment preparation of the

    operational environment.

    PROTECTION

    5-22. Sustainment brigade and CSSB commanders ensure the protection tasks are integrated into all aspects
    of operations to safeguard personnel, systems, and physical assets. Personnel includes combatants and

    noncombatants (contractors, host nation support and refugees). Commanders and staffs synchronize,

    integrate, and organize capabilities and resources throughout the operations process in order to preserve

    combat power and mitigate the effects of threats and hazards. JP 3-0, Joint Operations, and ADRP 3-37,

    Protection, have more information about protection.

    5-23. Sustainment commanders plan for all the supporting tasks of the protection warfighting function but
    often focus on coordinating security operations conducted to protect friendly forces, installations, and routes

    in their assigned support area. Sustainment brigade and CSSB commanders dedicate assets to protection tasks

    and systems based on an analysis of the operational environment, the likelihood of threat action, and the

    relative value of friendly resources and populations. Criticality, vulnerability, and recoverability are some of

    the most significant considerations in determining protection priorities. The list below includes some of the

    activities sustainment commanders consider as protection priorities.

     Base and base camp defense.

     Critical asset security.

     Node protection.

     Response force operations. The sustainment brigade establishes a response force to protect the

    base it is occupying and coordinates for additional security.

     Lines of communication security. The sustainment brigade coordinates this with the terrain owner.

     Convoy security.

    5-24. Base camps may evolve from unit locations established during major combat or other military
    operations. These base camps may start out as a single unit or very small number of units that are capable of

    providing protection for their assets with organic and attached supporting capabilities. In these cases, the

    senior commander on site executes all base camp responsibilities in a dual-hatted role. As the base camp

    grows in size and complexity, specifically the number and variety of units and missions being supported, the

    assumed additional responsibilities can detract from the senior commander’s focus on the primary mission.

    5-25. As a base camp grows in size, a specialized base camp commander and staff may be required to
    minimize the demand on the senior tenant unit and free that commander from the details involved with

    managing a base camp. Units that will potentially perform this role include regional support groups,

    construction battalion maintenance units, and maneuver enhancement brigades.

    5-26. Although primarily aligned with the protection warfighting function, base defense is enabled by all of
    the warfighting functions. Base camp defense includes the activities needed to defeat Level I and Level II

    threats to a base camp or base cluster, and shape or delay Level III threats until they can be defeated by a

    tactical combat force or other available response forces that is part of the higher commander’s area security

    efforts. ATP 3-37.10, Base Camps, provides details about base camp operations, security and defense, and

    transfer and closure.

    5-27. In the sustainment brigade, the S-3 plans and SPO participate in the detailed planning and coordination
    for support operations. They ensure the logistics support plan and the protection plans are coordinated and

    The Employed Sustainment Brigade

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 5-5

    nested within the command and with higher headquarters plans. The published rules of engagement also

    shape how we protect the force.

    5-28. During execution, the S-3 current operations, the S-2 and the SPO mobility branch staff integrate their
    efforts to conduct cross boundary coordination for lines of communication. Convoys may include contracted

    drivers or contracted trucks with drivers. This adds an extra layer of complexity and coordination

    requirements for the current operations team.

    5-29. Sustainment brigade commanders consider how evolving relevant operational or mission variables
    affect force employment concepts and tactical actions that contribute to the brigade’s mission. Awareness of

    potential ground threats is especially critical in the area of sustainment operations in countering improvised

    explosive devices, military grade land mines and explosively formed penetrators. Lethal threats likewise are

    of concern to the convoy planner. Successful sustainment operations result from the fusion of current

    intelligence, Soldiers familiar with current tactics, techniques and procedures, standard operating procedures,

    and deliberate and careful use of counter improvised explosive devices enablers. See ATP 3-90.37,

    Countering Improvised Explosive Devices, for more information about countering improvised explosive

    devices.

    5-30. Sustainment brigade commanders and staffs should continue to refine their understanding of protection
    and their ability to prepare and execute protection plans. FM 3-21.8, The Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad,

    includes fundamental of tactics and essentials for developing site or protection plans. This manual also

    includes a chapter on defensive operations and an explanation of engagement area development.

    EMPLACING THE SUSTAINMENT BRIGADE

    5-31. The sustainment brigade will typically establish a base within its assigned support area to provide
    centralized control of operations. Decentralized execution of operations may be conducted within the base or

    at designated locations within its support area. Unless a sustainment brigade is direct support to a division,

    the area in which a sustainment brigade operates is different than divisional boundaries. For example, one

    sustainment brigade may provide support to more than one division (or major combat force) or, more than

    one sustainment brigade may provide support to a single division. The sustainment command remains a part

    of the coordination link for all support. Figure 5-2 on page 5-6 depicts an example of sustainment brigade

    emplacement.

    5-32. The maneuver enhancement brigade may be responsible for the terrain assignment and establishing
    secure movement corridors. The sustainment brigade base will be integrated into area terrain management

    and protection plans will be based on established command and support relationships and the physical space

    occupied. Within the support area, the sustainment brigade answers to the maneuver enhancement brigade,

    or the identified terrain owner, for protection, security, and related matters. See FM 3-81, Maneuver

    Enhancement Brigade, for more information about support area operations. The sustainment brigade’s

    assigned support area is determined by the physical array of forces, support requirements during progressive

    phases, proximity of sustainment capabilities, natural land boundaries, available road networks, and other

    considerations.

    5-33. Throughout operations, the sustainment brigade commander and staff consider the proximity of the
    sustainment brigade assets in relation to supported units. Proper proximity to the supported unit affects timely

    support and must be considered in terms of time and distance. There are many aspects of the operational

    environment that affect decisions on where to position units. Mission analysis is required to ensure prudent

    decisions are made on both the number and placement of sustainment units in relation to the supported

    organizations.

    5-34. Proximity of the sustainment brigade assets to supported unit is very important since they most often
    use area support as the method of support. Area support is a method of logistics, medical support, and

    personnel services in which support relationships are determined by the location of the units requiring support

    (ATP 4-90). It is a method in which general support is provided to units operating within an established

    geographic boundary. Sustainment units use this method to support units located in or passing through a

    specified geographic location.

    Chapter 5

    5-6 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    Figure 5-2. Sustainment brigade emplacement

    5-35. As supported units move about the area of operations, the CSSB or its subordinate units may have to
    relocate to remain an appropriate distance from supported units. The time it takes for support to reach the

    supported unit given the operational conditions at that time is the primary consideration for placement.

    Generally, the CSSB should be able to distribute commodities to supported units and return the same day.

    5-36. Continuous and effective threat activity may cause an inordinate increase in the time required to cover
    a relatively short distance over good roads. Conversely, a much greater distance may be covered over poor

    roads in a stable area with little to no threat activity. The distance between sustainment brigade’s supporting

    units will vary greatly as a result of factors at the time of operation. Consider the following factors when

    determining proximity of supported units:

     Threat order of battle and activity.

     Available road network and condition.

     Fuel consumption and en route fuel capability.

     Frequency of support missions.

     Close air support.

     Medical evacuation support.

     Route clearance support.

     Route security support.

     Weather.

    SUPPORTING THE FORCE

    5-37. Sustainment enables the tactical commander to maintain combat power. The sustainment brigade
    supports Army forces at the tactical and operational levels. Its focus is the continuous management and

    distribution of supplies, human resources support, financial management support, and allocation of

    maintenance to prolong supported commander’s operational endurance. These functions are generally

    categorized in to two missions; sustainment and theater distribution. A small scale or short duration operation

    may have a sustainment brigade task organized for sustainment and theater distribution. A sustainment

    brigade may be task organized to conduct only theater distribution operations.

    5-38. Sustainment brigades conducting sustainment are task organized with CSSBs that are further task
    organized with supply, services, transportation, and maintenance units. The brigade operates multi-class

    SSAs in accordance with sustainment command’s directives; provides field level maintenance support and

    field services; and replenishes the brigade support battalions and echelons above brigade units. Figure 5-3 is

    an example of a sustainment brigade task organized for sustainment tasks.

    The Employed Sustainment Brigade

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 5-7

    5-39. The notional sustainment brigade in figure 5-3 is task organized to support multiple BCTs and echelon
    above brigade units with replenishment of all classes of supply, field services and maintenance. This

    sustainment brigade also maintains visibility of the distribution system (including readiness of Army air and

    ground transport assets), reallocates resources to maintain optimal system performance and controls the

    common-user transportation assets as required.

    5-40. The CSSB in figure 5-3 are task organized to provide support to units operating in its assigned support
    area. One CSSB is task organized to provide direct support to a division. It is specifically organized with a

    multi-capable quartermaster supply company and a composite truck company. These companies provide

    water purification, petroleum storage, and troop transport to the BCT. This task organization complements

    the BSB capabilities and provides capabilities the BSB doesn’t have.

    Figure 5-3. Notional task organized sustainment brigade conducting sustainment operations

    5-41. There may be a requirement to conduct throughput distribution to a specific task force or small
    organization. The sustainment brigade may consider establishing a forward logistics element to support a

    unique requirement. A forward logistics element is comprised of task-organized multifunctional logistics

    assets designed to support fast-moving offensive operations in the early phases of decisive action (ATP 4-

    90).

    5-42. A sustainment brigade conducting theater distribution tasks is organized with CSSB that are further
    task organized with functional quartermaster and transportation units. The brigade is focused on receiving

    and distributing materiel to and from one node to another for further distribution. It is supply point to supply

    point with no direct replenishment to units. Figure 5-4 on page 5-8 is an example of a sustainment brigade

    task organized for theater distribution tasks.

    5-43. The notional sustainment brigade in figure 5-4 is task organized to establish and operate multimodal
    distribution hubs, synchronize multiple node operations (an SSA, an ammunition supply point, a centralized

    receiving and shipping point, and a convoy support center), maintain visibility of the

    distribution system

    (including readiness of Army air and ground transport assets), reallocate resources to maintain optimal system

    performance and control the common-user transportation assets as required. One CSSB is task organized to

    transship cargo, operate regional distribution hubs, including centralized receiving and shipping points.

    Chapter 5

    5-8 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    Figure 5-4. Notional task organized sustainment brigade conducting theater distribution
    operations

    5-44. As mission requirements change, the sustainment command could determine functional battalion
    headquarters are required. Functional Transportation and Quartermaster battalions are limited in their ability

    to control multi-functional sustainment units but may be appropriate in some operational environments.

    Planners must consider the decisive action tasks and projected duration of operations that equate to

    requirements over time and space to determine the appropriate unit mix. Commanders may augment a

    battalion staff with Soldiers who have functional expertise if required.

    5-45. Figure 5-5 depicts notional support operations in a developed joint operations area. In figure 5-5, the
    sustainment brigade that started the deployment supporting theater opening, was further task organized to

    conduct theater distribution.

    Support Operations

    5-46. The sustainment brigade support operations plans, coordinates and synchronizes sustainment
    operations. The sustainment brigade SPO conducts:

     Materiel management.

     Sustainment automation support.

     Distribution planning and integration.

     Transportation operations.

     Human resources operations.

     Operational contract support.

    Materiel Management

    5-47. Materiel management is directing, integrating, synchronizing, prioritizing, and optimizing the function
    of supply, to include maintenance and transportation functions that support supply, to provide uninterrupted

    support to the deployed force.

    5-48. Materiel management supports Army, joint, and allied forces enabling those forces to achieve their
    operational objectives. Materiel management is executed continuously, with or without automation, by the

    support operations within a sustainment headquarters during all phases of operations. Logisticians execute

    The Employed Sustainment Brigade

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 5-9

    materiel management tasks while integrating their efforts with national providers to ensure effective and

    accurate materiel support.

    Figure 5-5. Notional support operations in a developed

    joint operations area

    5-49. Materiel managers accomplish the following tasks:

     Direct, organize, supervise and control the function of logistics.

     Prioritize, integrate, and organize multiple logistics functions to achieve a single, coordinated

    outcome.

     Synchronize use of assets or commodity to achieve efficiency of resources.

    5-50. Activities supporting materiel management include the following but may expand based upon
    operational and mission variables.

     Asset reporting: Vertical and horizontal reporting of asset status. It is a critical component of asset

    visibility, requirements determination, and requirements validation. It occurs at all echelons with

    the frequency and commodities to be reported determined by the command.

     Asset visibility: Accounting, maintaining stock status, in-transit visibility, status reporting, and

    inventory actions. It provides the materiel manager with information on the location, quantity,

    condition, and movement of assets. This information improves a manager’s ability to make

    decisions on sources of support and prioritization.

     Disposal: Systematically removing materiel that is uneconomically repairable or obsolete. It is

    accomplished through the process of transferring, donating, selling, abandoning, or destroying

    materiel. It is normally directed through program management channels but may also be a

    command decision if the operational environment dictates.

     Distribution: Integrating the logistics functions of transportation and supply. It is dependent on

    movement control and other materiel management tasks.

     Funds management: Managing the obligation of funds in support of supply operations.

    Chapter 5

    5-10 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

     Maintenance: Repairing unserviceable components or equipment to bring the items back to an

    operational status.

     Procurement: Obtaining supplies to meet operational requirements. It includes the requisition

    process, cross leveling, and local purchase.

     Redistribution: Reallocating excess materiel to other locations in theater using all transportation

    assets available. Managers may use excess materiel in theater to fill shortages and meet operational

    requirements.

     Requirements determination: Determining and understanding a logistics requirement to support

    an operating force. It aids materiel managers in defining priorities of support. It is based upon

    requirements communicated by the operating forces and sustainment organizations supporting

    these forces. Requirements determination applies to supply, maintenance, transportation, and

    distribution.

     Requirements validation: Validating and prioritizing available logistics assets against an

    established requirement. Requirements validation is critical to avoid excess materiel and to avoid

    misuse of logistics transportation and maintenance assets. It ensures that no requests for logistics

    support are passed to a higher headquarters until it is determined on–hand assets are insufficient

    to meet the requirement. Requirements validation also includes establishing controlled rates of

    supply if necessary.

     Retrograde: Returning materiel from the owning/using unit back through the distribution system

    to the source of supply, directed ship to location and/or point of disposal. Material managers may

    use the retrograde process to redirect supplies and equipment to different locations to fill shortages

    and meet operational requirements. Retrograde of materiel is an Army logistics function of

    returning materiel from the owning or using unit back through the distribution system to the source

    of supply, directed ship-to location, or point of disposal (ATP 4-0.1).

     Stock control: Maintaining proper location and identification of materiel. Materiel managers need

    correct identification and location of materiel stored in warehouses to ensure the proper item of

    supply is issued to meet requirements. Unidentified, improperly cataloged items result in excess

    items being ordered by materiel managers.

     Supply: Providing all items necessary to equip, maintain, and operate a military command. It

    involves requesting, receiving, storing, issuing, maintaining, and establishing accountability of all

    classes of supplies required to execute a unit’s assigned mission.

     Supply planning: Forecasting and establishing supply stock levels at each support echelon to meet

    mission requirements. It is a translation of an operating force’s composition into specific supply

    requirements. Planning is conducted to ensure that adequate supplies and transportation assets are

    available.

     Warehousing: Organizing, sorting, and safeguarding materiel. Warehousing includes warehouse

    management, receiving, storing, issuing, securing, inventory management, and accounting for

    materiel. Warehousing does not imply the use of fixed facilities and can be performed in tents,

    containers, or an open area.

    Materiel Management Responsibilities and Capabilities

    5-51. The TSC manages materiel, less class VIII, for all Army forces assigned or deployed within the
    assigned region. The medical logistics management center, a subordinate unit of the medical command

    (deployment support), provides centralized management of medical materiel and maintenance throughout a

    theater and is usually collocated with the sustainment command. TSC logisticians coordinate with the G-4 in

    their areas of operations for resource prioritization. The TSC also coordinates with the USAMC Army field

    support brigade to support national-level system and materiel requirements. The TSC issues directives to

    redistribute and surge logistics capabilities across the theater to fulfill requirements as needed.

    5-52. The ESC synchronizes the joint operational area distribution systems and provides distribution
    oversight and commodity management in the immediate AO. The ESC can locate requests in the supply

    system and coordinates distribution assets when appropriate to redirect essential items based on the priority

    of support.

    The Employed Sustainment Brigade

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 5-11

    5-53. Sustainment brigades execute materiel management as directed by the sustainment command. The
    sustainment brigade SPO coordinates with the sustainment command’s materiel managers for asset

    management, asset visibility, requirements determination, validation and prioritization, retrograde of

    materiel, maintenance management and distribution instructions.

    5-54. Sustainment brigade logisticians exercise executive, administrative and supervisory direction of class
    VII property accountability, maintenance readiness and general supplies, demand supported supplies and

    munitions. The sustainment brigade and the CSSB material management tasks also include maintaining

    oversight of and surveilling supply support activities and unit level supply operations. These tasks are

    accomplished at the sustainment brigade and CSSB headquarters.

    5-55. The sustainment brigade S-4 executes property accountability and class VII management for the
    headquarters and all assigned and attached units. The SPO is responsible for the remainder of the materiel

    management tasks.

    5-56. Sustainment brigade and subordinate CSSB support operations manage subordinate SSAs. Support
    operations officers apply critical thought to the data represented in the supporting automation systems and

    process it into usable information and actionable knowledge. Supporting automation systems use different

    terms to describe the following functions, but they all enable the support operations to prioritize, control,

    direct, and redirect materiel from the national providers to a supply activity supporting organizations at the

    point of need.

    5-57. The SPO ensures the supply support activities maintain items the supported force requires. They
    conduct requirements planning and review. There are multiple reports a materiel manager may request to

    determine the SSA performance level. Some reports are regulatory and the content and frequency are

    prescribed. Other reports are at the discretion of the materiel manager. Below are some of the materiel

    management tasks the sustainment brigade and CSSB support operations conduct.

     Review work at the SSA and subordinate support operations to ensure appropriate levels of

    effectiveness.

     Monitor subordinate SSA excess posture to ensure the excess is justified based on future

    operations or the SSA has requested disposition instructions.

     Monitor SSA to ensure reparables are being turned in within allotted timeframe.

     Monitor SSA overdue deliveries to ensure they are being resolved effectively and in a timely

    manner.

     Monitor SSA performance statistics to ensure appropriate supply performance and customer

    support.

     Review the zero balance report which provides on-hand, due-in, and due-out information on

    materials that are authorized to be stocked.

     Review purchase requests and orders.

    Retrograde of Materiel

    5-58. Retrograde of materiel is routinely accomplished by the SSAs. Large scale retrograde of materiel,
    which occurs as a result of theater closing, may require special teams or augmentation with functional experts.

    Appendix A has examples of special teams used to conduct retrograde of materiel. Retrograde of materiel

    includes the following tasks:

     Identify materiel.

     Sort materiel.

     Classify materiel.

     Demilitarize equipment (render militarily harmless).

     Ship.

    5-59. Theater planners identify SSAs to assist with retrograde of all equipment, material, and supplies in
    accordance with the theater plan. The SSAs plan, organize, facilitate, direct, control, and perform the

    necessary supply functions required for retrograde services. These functions include retrograde of equipment,

    supplies, scrap, and hazardous materials to final locations worldwide. During theater drawdown or closing,

    Chapter 5

    5-12 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    SSAs provide centralized locations to consolidate materiel for retrograde. Large scale retrograde of materiel

    may require additional capabilities.

    Material Readiness

    5-60. The support operations conducts maintenance management. They recommend emplacement of
    maintenance capability within the assigned support area. The SPO also analyzes maintenance capabilities

    and requirements to support operational requirements and synchronizes sustainment maintenance support.

    The staff monitors fleet readiness both internal and external to the sustainment brigade in order to advise the

    commander of maintenance trends. They also track high priority repair parts for commanders in the

    sustainment brigade’s assigned support area.

    Distribution Planning and Integration

    5-61. Distribution is the operational process of synchronizing all elements of the logistic system to deliver
    the “right things” to the “right place” at the “right time” to support the geographic combatant commander (JP

    4-0). See ATP 4-0.1, Army Theater Distribution, for more information about theater distribution.

    5-62. Logisticians performing distribution operations ensure systems and processes are in place to monitor
    the flow of materiel, equipment, and personnel. Logisticians continuously monitor supplies, equipment,

    personnel and movements. They are able to provide location of transportation assets and status of movement

    of critical supplies along main supply routes.

    5-63. Sustainment brigades provide physical distribution and distribution management of materiel as part of
    a theater-wide distribution process. The sustainment brigade operates and manages the operational to tactical

    portion of the theater distribution system. The distribution system includes all routes and modes of

    transportation as well as nodes of supply in the sustainment brigade assigned support area. Nodes of supply

    include ammunition supply points, SSA and transshipment points such as ports and centralized receiving and

    shipping points.

    5-64. The mobility branch constantly assesses the route capacity and mode capability to support distribution
    operations. The mobility branch coordinates with current operations to assess the distribution system for

    information on the threat, engineer support requirements and security requirements. The mobility branch also

    coordinates with the division G-4 sustainment cell division transportation officer.

    5-65. Coordination enables the sustainment brigade SPO to assess current and projected support capacity
    and quality; providing the sustainment brigade a heads up for planning and synchronization. The division

    sustainment cell assists the sustainment brigade by identifying and clarifying the division’s scheme of

    maneuver, main effort and supporting efforts. The division transportation officer is usually part of the division

    sustainment cell and provides guidance and coordinates transportation issues with other staff sections and

    commanders. The division transportation officer coordinates with the movement control battalion and teams

    and the CSSB or sustainment brigade SPO. ATP 4-16, Movement Control, provides more information about

    movement control operations and the division transportation officer.

    5-66. Theater distribution enables decisive action by building and sustaining combat power at critical times
    and places. The critical tasks for a sustainment brigade conducting theater distribution include:

     Establishing and operating multimodal distribution hubs.

     Synchronizing multiple node operations (inland terminals, convoy support centers).

     Maintaining visibility of the distribution system (including readiness of Army air and ground

    transport assets).

     Reallocating resources to maintain optimal system performance.

    5-67. The sustainment brigade moves materiel from an air or sea port of debarkation to the tactical level
    where force employment, emplacement, or commodity consumption occurs. They distribute materiel to

    brigade combat teams and echelons-above-brigade units as part of a theater-wide distribution process. The

    sustainment brigade conducting theater distribution controls the common-user transportation assets required

    to complete the delivery of materiel to the tactical level.

    The Employed Sustainment Brigade

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 5-13

    Distribution Integration

    5-68. The distribution integration branch integrates the distribution plan with current operations. This
    includes synchronizing and integrating other warfighting functions, such as electronic warfare, casualty

    evacuation, protection and fires. This transition is the point at which the S-3 current operations becomes

    responsible for controlling execution of the distribution operation. The S-3 current operations responds to

    requests for information concerning the order and maintains the order through fragmentary orders. The

    distribution integration branch refocuses its planning efforts on changes to the distribution plan generated by

    changes in the operational environment. The planning horizon for the distribution plan at the sustainment

    brigade is 72-120 hours.

    5-69. The distribution integration branch evaluates the distribution system using the following metrics;
    responsiveness, efficiency and robustness. Responsiveness is measured as the ability to meet supply

    requirements by the required delivery time and location in support of decisive action operations. Efficiency

    is measured as the ability to optimize the distribution system with the assets available to support mission

    requirements. Robustness is measured by the ability to continue to provide support to units in a changing

    operational environment.

    Transportation Operations

    5-70. The sustainment brigade’s mobility branch may develop a movement program for their transportation
    assets. The branch executes the sustainment command’s movement program. ATP 4-16, Movement Control,

    explains how to develop an integrated movement program. The mobility branch forecasts movement

    requirements for supplies, equipment and personnel in coordination with the materiel management and

    human resources operations branch. They determine transportation capabilities available by modes (air, land

    and water) and node to support movement requirements. This may include contracted or host nation

    transportation capabilities. The mobility branch balances transportation capabilities with movement

    requirements based on priority established by the supported command. This includes planning known,

    anticipated, and contingency transportation requirements.

    Human Resources Operations

    5-71. Human resources operations staff officers plan, coordinate, integrate, and manage the emplacement of
    subordinate HR elements in synchronization with the concept of support plans for casualty, personnel

    accountability and postal operations throughout the area of operation. The sustainment brigade human

    resources operations branch receives technical guidance from the human resources sustainment center and

    operational guidance from operational command’s G-1.

    Operational Contract Support

    5-72. The sustainment brigade SPO includes an operational contract support branch. This branch is described
    in chapter 1. The CSSB establishes contracting requirements through the sustainment brigade’s operational

    contract support section. The CSSB will oversee contract execution and provide input on quality to the

    sustainment brigade SPO.

    5-73. Contracts generated by Army field support battalion requirements may be executed in the sustainment
    brigade’s assigned area of support. Responsibilities for the contract depend on whether the contract is

    executed in the brigade’s assigned area of support for another unit or if the sustainment brigade is the

    supported unit. As related to contracted support, a supported unit is the organization that is the recipient, but

    not necessarily the requester of, contractor-provided support (JP 4-10). Responsibilities for contracting

    officer representative should be identified when the contract is established or changed.

    REDEPLOYMENT

    5-74. Redeployment is the transfer or rotation of forces and materiel to support another joint force
    commander’s operational requirements, or to return personnel, equipment, and materiel to the home and/or

    demobilization stations for reintegration and/or out processing (JP 3-35). Planning for redeployment should

    be considered early and continue throughout the operation. It is best accomplished in the same time-phased

    process in which deployment was accomplished. Redeployment processes are the same whether it is a

    Chapter 5

    5-14 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    company sized unit, BCT or redeployment as a result of theater closing. The sustainment tasks are also the

    same, just the scope and scale are different. ATP 3-35, Army Deployment and Redeployment, has more

    information about redeployment.

    5-75. Listed below are areas the sustainment brigade staff considers during their redeployment mission
    analysis:

     What equipment will redeploy with the unit? What equipment will remain in theater?

     How quickly does the unit require equipment to be at home station? When is the next deployment

    or unit training event planned? This information is considered as U.S. Army Military Surface

    Deployment and Distribution Command determines the method of movement; either port to door,

    door to door or port to port.

     What ports of debarkation will the unit use? Are the air and seaports close together?

     Is the unit responsible for closing or transferring any bases or outposts? There are more

    considerations for base closing tasks in this chapter and in Appendix A.

     Does the unit require a separate command post or task force to accomplish the redeployment? If

    this is a complex redeployment, the unit may establish a separate entity to continue the planning

    and execution of redeployment.

    5-76. The redeploying unit may stage at an intermediate staging base. Since forces and equipment are being
    staged in preparation to being assimilated back into their respective Services, activities are focused on

    assembling and processing personnel, turning in equipment and coordinating and reporting status to facilitate

    redeployment.

    THEATER CLOSING

    5-77. Theater closing is the process of redeploying Army forces and equipment from a theater, the drawdown
    and removal or disposition of Army non-unit equipment and materiel, and the transition of materiel and

    facilities back to host nation or civil authorities (ADP 4-0). Theater closing begins with the termination of

    operations. Operations are terminated when the desired military end state is reached. This represents a period

    in time or set of conditions beyond which the Commander in Chief does not require the military instrument

    of national power as the primary means to achieve remaining national objectives. The GCC proposes

    termination criteria.

    5-78. Termination criteria accounts for a wide variety of operational tasks that the joint force may need to
    accomplish, including disengagement, protection (including force health protection support to conduct

    retrograde cargo inspections and pest management operations), transition to post-conflict operations, and

    redeployment. Planning for the transition from sustained combat operations to the termination of operations,

    and then a complete handover to civil authority, begins during plan development and continues throughout

    all phases of a campaign or major operation.

    5-79. During theater closing the sustainment command coordinates with the JFC’s planning team.

    Sustainment decisions should always consider the eventuality of redeploying Army forces and equipment

    from a theater. The execution of theater closing tasks is synchronized with tactical commanders, base

    commanders and strategic partners, including supporting contractors. The notional sustainment brigade in

    figure 5-6 is responsible for tasks associated with theater closing.

    5-80. If the sustainment brigade is designated as the headquarters responsible for overseeing theater closing
    tasks, it will focus on redeployment, drawdown of non-unit materiel, and transitioning of materiel, facilities

    and capabilities to HN or civil authorities. As the sustainment brigade staff works the operation process, there

    are many things to consider including:

     What were the property accountability policies during the operation?

     How long was the operation?

     What classes of materiel are part of the retrograde of materiel?

     Does retrograde of materiel include containers? How many?

     Who else is conducting theater closing tasks?

    The Employed Sustainment Brigade

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 5-15

     Which strategic partners are identified (USAMC, DLA or U.S. Transportation Command

    [USTRANSCOM])?

     Are there clear lines of property accountability?

     Is the sustainment brigade responsible for theater closing tasks in their assigned support area,

    throughout the entire JOA, or some other geographic area?

     What is designated for foreign military sales?

     Has the GCC staff identified which real property transfers to local government?

    Figure 5-6. Notional task organized sustainment brigade conducting theater closing tasks

    5-81. The CSSB and its subordinate units, execute the redeployment plan as directed by the sustainment
    brigade. Planners in the sustainment brigade ensure there are dedicated units redeploying forces, equipment,

    and retrograde of materiel while another unit is focused on continued area support. Key functions during this

    phase are transportation support, staging and upload of strategic lift, movement control, maintenance and

    recovery support, and field services. Examples of teams organized to accomplish base closure and transfer,

    redistribution, retrograde, and disposal of materiel are outlined in appendix A.

    5-82. The notional sustainment brigade in figure 5-6 is assigned to the sustainment command and attached
    to the JFC. It has a general support relationship with units in its assigned support area. In the example, the

    sustainment brigade is task organized to evaluate and process unit turn-ins and facilitate Soldier and

    equipment movement to air and seaports of embarkation.

    5-83. Transitioning facilities to HN or civil authorities is another aspect of theater closing. Although basing
    is an engineer responsibility, a sustainment brigade could be assigned as the headquarters responsible for

    closing bases in a joint operational area. The sustainment brigade and the CSSB must be familiar with the

    engineering tasks associated with this process. An engineer, military, civilian or contractor, develops the plan

    to deconstruct a facility. An engineer supervises the actual deconstruction, but the headquarters must be

    familiar with and track mission execution. Refer to ATP 3-37.10, Base Camps, for more information.

    5-84. Strategic partners are critical to theater closing. The USAMC is responsible for pre-positioned materiel
    and theater provided equipment (TPE). The AFSB and the defense logistics agency are responsible for

    identifying where equipment requiring sustainment maintenance is shipped. The USAMC representative

    provides disposal codes and a DLA representative identifies locations where equipment and materiel are

    Chapter 5

    5-16 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    disposed. ATP 4-91, Army Field Support Brigade, has more information about national level provider

    functions and the responsible reset task force and redistribution property techniques. U.S. Army Military

    Surface Deployment and Distribution Command and Air Mobility Command provide specialized support for

    the port clearance function. They must be included in the retrograde planning and time phased planning of

    redeploying formations in order to ensure efficient and effective port activity execution.

    SUMMARY

    5-85. Sustainment brigade commanders and staffs operate as part of an interdependent joint force and may
    be required to provide common-user logistics support to another service or multinational force. The

    sustainment brigade is task organized with sustainment and logistics battalions to perform specified missions.

    The sustainment command is the coordination link for all support. The sustainment brigade most often has a

    general support relationship with supported units. When this is the case, area support is the method of support.

    Sustainment decisions should always consider the eventuality of redeploying Army forces and equipment

    from a theater. During theater closing the sustainment command works closely with the JFC’s planning team.

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 A-1

    Appendix A

    Teams Supporting Retrograde of Materiel

    This appendix lists examples of task organized teams performing retrograde of materiel

    tasks associated with theater closing. The teams enable base closure and transfer,

    redistribution, retrograde, and disposal of materiel. Retrograde of materiel teams are

    ad hoc. The number and types of teams are determined by mission and operational

    variable. The logistics unit sources these teams.

    RETROGRADE OF MATERIE

    L

    A-1. Retrograde of materiel is usually imagined as small, discreet actions conducted by an SSA. It may also
    be a more complex task involving multiple headquarters, the Department of State and other military and

    government agencies. Theater closing and base closing or transfer usually generate retrograde of materiel

    tasks.

    A-2. Tasks resulting from base closure are a mixture of engineer and sustainment responsibilities. They are
    also a mixture of Army, joint and government agency responsibilities. Logistics tasks include; inventory,

    identification, disposition and disposal or redistribution of equipment. Logistics personnel might also

    inventory existing containers, coordinate and provide transportation and materials handling equipment.

    A-3. It works best when a single headquarters synchronizes and directs recovery, redistribution, retrograde,
    and disposal of materiel which enables base closure and transfer. The headquarters develops plans that enable

    the operational scheme of maneuver and facilitate closure or transfer of bases that meet the JFC’s priorities.

    This is an integrated process that must be planned and monitored.

    A-4. The DOD and other government agencies make critical decisions for the disposition of materiel.
    Materiel includes: white equipment or non-standard equipment, contractor acquired, government owned

    equipment, foreign excess property, and TPE. TPE is sourced from Department of the Army directed stay

    behind equipment, brigade combat team equipment sets from USAMC prepositioned stocks, and other theater

    designated equipment. The intent of theater provided equipment is to control deployment and distribution

    costs while enhancing the readiness of deployed forces.

    A-5. Actions including foreign excess personal property and foreign excess real property are complicated
    processes involving the Office of the Staff Judge Advocate, Department of State, engineers, including the

    environmental engineers, and the host nation government. Disposition decisions about foreign excess

    property take at least 180 days. Sustainment brigades deploying on short term deployments should start

    asking for foreign excess property guidance as soon as they receive deployment notification. Once in theater,

    the S-3 planner should start redeployment planning immediately. This is especially important if the

    sustainment brigade is the senior logistics command in the JOA.

    A-6. Retrograde of materiel missions are usually contract intensive. Sustainment units conducting
    retrograde of materiel in conjunction with theater closing or base closing must be prepared for a significant

    amount of contractor interaction. Prior to deployment, units must have CORs trained and certified. This is so

    that the unit arrives to theater with CORs prepared to take additional training required by the JOA contracting

    entity and to develop a contract management plan.

    A-7. Logisticians must have a working knowledge of organizations that are critical to a successful retrograde
    of materiel mission. The logistician should know what they do, where they are located, and how to leverage

    their capabilities to facilitate a smooth operation. These partners include military forces, U.S. government

    agencies and departments, and elements of the private sector with which Army forces plan, coordinate,

    synchronize, and integrate. A headquarters overseeing a retrograde of materiel mission must include

    appropriate partners throughout the planning and execution process.

    Appendix A

    A-2 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    PARTNERS

    A-8. The information below augments the strategic partner summaries in chapter one. It provides
    logisticians a summary of the most likely organizations a unit may coordinate with to execute retrograde of

    materiel. Smaller, shorter operations may not require involvement from all organizations listed. The

    supporting sustainment command or the ASCC may be used as the conduit to these organizations. Liaisons

    from supporting organization may be located with the senior sustainment headquarters or with the senior

    operational headquarters.

    DEPARTMENT OF STATE

    A-9. The Department of State chief of mission, usually the U.S. ambassador, and the corresponding country
    team are normally in charge of diplomatic-military activities in a country abroad. The chief of mission and

    the country team may have complementary activities (employing the diplomatic instrument) that do not entail

    control of military forces, which remain under command authority of the GCC. The geographic combatant

    commander and subordinate JFCs must work with U.S. chiefs of mission, Department of State, and other

    departments and agencies to best integrate military actions during retrograde of materiel operations.

    UNITED STATES TRANSPORTATION COMMAND

    A-10. United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) is a functional combatant command and
    provides transportation capabilities through its three Service component commands: Air Mobility Command,

    Military Sealift Command, and U.S. Army Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command.

    A-11. USTRANSCOM is the single manager for defense transportation and exercises control of strategic
    movement through its Service transportation component commands. United States Transportation Command

    is the DOD distribution process owner. The distribution process owner’s role is to oversee the overall

    effectiveness, efficiency, and alignment of DOD-wide distribution activities, including force projection,

    sustainment, and redeployment/retrograde operations. USTRANSCOM is also responsible for synchronizing

    planning for global distribution operations and will do so in coordination with other combatant commands,

    the Services, and, as directed, appropriate government agencies. For more information about defense

    transportation resources, see JP 4-01, The Defense Transportation System.

    DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY

    A-12. The DLA Disposition Services disposes of excess property received from the military services. The
    inventory changes daily and includes thousands of items: from air conditioners to vehicles, clothing to

    computers, and much more. Property is first offered for reutilization within the DOD, transfer to other federal

    agencies, or donation to state and local governments and other qualified organizations. DLA Disposition

    Services also supports disaster relief at home, and foreign humanitarian assistance and foreign military sales

    programs. DLA Disposition Services supports the retrograde of materiel mission with the following tasks:

     Sells DOD surplus property.

     Disposes of hazardous property for DOD activities.

     Identifies equipment and property demilitarization requirements and takes appropriate action.

    HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY G-4

    A-13. Headquarters Department of the Army G-4 is one of the organizations establishing policy for
    retrograde of materiel. The G-4 will dictate priorities and funding for disposition of equipment moving out

    of theater. The G-4 policies and the GCC policies and guidance must be coordinated so that the desired end

    state is realized. Consistent and timely guidance enables the lead headquarters to develop a plan for an

    efficient retrograde of materiel operation.

    U.S. ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND

    A-14. In addition to the description provided in chapter 1, USAMC maintains the Army’s prepositioned
    stocks, both on land and afloat. The command is also the Department of Defense Executive Agent for the

    Teams Supporting Retrograde of Materiel

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 A-3

    chemical weapons stockpile and for conventional ammunition. USAMC manages the multi-billion dollar

    business of selling Army equipment and services to friends and allies of the United States and negotiates and

    implements agreements for co-production of U.S. weapons systems by foreign nations.

    A-15. Logisticians interact with USAMC for class VII reallocation and redistribution. Using joint and
    Department of the Army policy and JFC guidance, USAMC determines the shipping destination for

    retrograded items. USAMC and its subordinate agencies work with joint and Army logistics staffs to

    synchronize the movement of items out of theater. USAMC subordinate organizations responsible for

    executing sustainment in support of the warfighter are listed below.

    Army Sustainment Command

    A-16. The Army Sustainment Command provides logistics from the strategic through tactical level by
    synchronizing acquisition, logistics, and technology support. The Army Sustainment Command is designed

    to support the operational Army in the continental United States and deployed. It is responsible for integrating

    logistics support with strategic partners and links the national sustainment base with the expeditionary Army.

    Major mission areas include systems support contracting services, logistics synchronization in support of

    Army Force Generation, Army prepositioned stocks, materiel management, and LOGCAP. Mission

    execution is through a global network of organizations to include a distribution management center, Army

    field support brigades (AFSBs), Army field support battalions, and brigade logistics support teams.

    A-17. The ASC works closely with DOD strategic partners, specifically USTRANSCOM and DLA to ensure
    the Army national sustainment base is properly integrated into joint logistics and that the national supply

    system effectively supports deployed Army forces.

    Army Field Support Brigade (AFSB)

    A-18. The Army field support brigade is a small, mission focused, highly modular organization built around
    a tailored table of organization and equipment and an augmentation table of distribution and allowances

    structure. The Army field support brigade is assigned to the U.S. Army Materiel Command’s Army

    Sustainment Command. Army field support brigades leverage USAMC national-level provider capabilities

    and assist in the coordination of national level sustainment support to the operational Army. Each Army field

    support brigade can request assistance and support from USAMC and the Assistant Secretary of the Army

    for Acquisition, Logistics and Technology to meet specific mission requirements. When deployed in support

    of contingency operations, and when directed by their higher echelon, the Army field support brigade will

    normally be placed under the operational control of the supported theater Army commander. This operational

    control authority is normally delegated to the sustainment command as appropriate. For more information

    about the Army field support brigade see ATP 4-91, Army Field Support Brigade.

    Army Expeditionary Contracting Command

    A-19. The Army Expeditionary Contracting Command is a subordinate command of the U.S. Army
    Contracting Command. Expeditionary Contracting Command Soldiers, civilians and contractors provide the

    Army with contracting support for U.S. Army service component commanders in support of Army, joint, and

    installation operations outside the continental United States. It includes contracting support brigades,

    contracting battalions, and contracting teams that provide expeditionary contracting support to Army and

    joint forces.

    Contracting Support Brigade

    A-20. Contracting support brigades are commands assigned to the expeditionary contracting command for
    operations outside the continental United States. The contracting support brigade’s commander is the Army’s

    primary theater strategic and operational level contracting support advisor. Army theater support contracting

    organizations are commanded by the contracting support brigade.

    A-21. The contracting support brigade executes theater support contracting actions in support of deployed
    Army forces, and commands and coordinates other common contracting actions as directed by the supported

    commander. Contracting support brigades are more than just a contracting services provider; they provide

    key operational contract support capabilities to include contracting support planning assistance, contracting

    Appendix A

    A-4 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    oversight and fraud, waste and abuse prevention. See ATP 4-92, Contracting Support to Unified Land

    Operations for more information about the contracting support brigade.

    Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP)

    A-22. LOGCAP is a U.S. Army regulatory program designed to support preplanned sustainment support
    during peacetime and execution of that support through task orders for deployed forces performing combatant

    command directed missions. Use of contractors in a theater of operations allows the release of military units

    for other missions or to fill support shortfalls.

    A-23. LOGCAP supports scalable, ready, and responsible logistics and base support services by integrating
    contracted private sector capabilities to fulfill the operational commander’s requirements. Operational

    commanders identify their requirements and request LOGCAP to meet mission needs. The LOGCAP

    program management office is the focal point for overseeing the program in coordination with requiring

    activities, contracting activities, contingency contract administration service activities, and compliance

    organizations. Operational commanders determine the type, duration, and conditions for LOGCAP services

    in a contingency.

    TEAMS

    A-24. One way to accomplish theater or base closing retrograde of materiel tasks is to organize the workload
    into phases accomplished by teams. Retrograde of materiel teams are formed from unit assets. Specialty

    teams may be coordinated to handle ammunition, medical equipment and supplies or hazardous materiel. A

    unit may request specific capabilities such as engineer or environmental specialist, but the unit should be

    prepared to man these teams themselves.

    A-25. The teams listed below are examples of teams used in previous operations. Mission and operational
    variables will determine if, what type and how many retrograde of materiel teams a unit forms. More specific

    examples of team composition and tasks are included in Center for Army Lessons Learned special studies

    and handbooks and Army Sustainment, March-April 2015 edition, “CMRE 17th CSSB Closes Out Historic

    Chapter” feature articles. The examples below are the most frequently assembled teams.

    BASE CLOSURE ASSISTANCE TEAM

    A-26. Base closure assistance teams establish a plan for bases to meet closure or transfer dates. This team
    assists, advises, and provides technical assistance for personal and real property disposition. The team and

    the base owner jointly inventory personal property and structures. All recoverable assets are identified during

    the initial assessment. The retrograde of materiel teams and the construction management team develop and

    execute a detailed base transfer and retrograde of materiel plan. The team assists the base owners with

    document submittal to appropriate U.S. organization.

    A-27. In some cases, facilities and real estate returned to HN or civil authorities will be treated, cleared and
    inspected to ensure environmental standards are met as established by either the HN or U.S. regulatory

    guidance. Advance planning will identify this requirement and allow the lead headquarters to coordinate for

    people with required skills. Tasks included as part of base closure are, removing equipment, rolling stock

    and non-rolling-stock equipment, as well as either complete or partial removal of facilities before handover.

    A-28. A task organized sustainment brigade will not have the capabilities required to close or transfer a base
    or outpost. Capabilities required to close or transfer a base include construction and environmental

    engineering, accountability, supply and information technology. One way to organize base closing tasks is

    using a base closure assistance team. Base closure or transfer tasks include:

     Determine accurate planning factors and scopes of work.

     Site surveys.

     Topographic charts and maps.

     Design plans for vertical construction.

     Soil compaction testing.

     Prepare critical path logic nodes for engineer projects.

    Teams Supporting Retrograde of Materiel

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 A-5

    A-29. Units also have a requirement to reduce harmful impacts on the environment prior to base closure or
    transfer. This requires an environmental site closure survey and a corrective action plan. Corrective actions

    may be accomplished by government or contract personnel.

    A-30. Large quantities of materiel are processed by a mobile team consisting of representatives of the unit,
    USAMC, Engineers, DLA Disposition and potentially customs. Smaller quantities of materiel could be

    shipped to a central location for disposition determination and action. ATP 3-37.10, Base Camps, includes a

    description of base transfer and closure.

    RETROGRADE OF MATERIEL TEAMS

    A-31. The teams are listed in alphabetical order. All of the teams below include a mix of military and civilian
    personnel and contractors. The sustainment brigade may also create teams to facilitate identifying and sorting

    specific classes of supply such as, medical or ammunition.

    A-32. Automation facilitates many retrograde of materiel tasks. TPE planner is a USAMC web-based
    automation tool to facilitate rapid disposition of non-mission essential theater provided equipment. It is used

    to expedite turn-in of excess and facilitate retrograde of theater provided equipment. The TPE Planner is

    placed in brigade-level units to assist with processing, recovery, and redistribution of excess theater provided

    equipment. Theater provided equipment planner:

     Provides immediate visibility of lateral transfer and turn-in actions at each level of the disposition

    process.

     Assists units in receiving disposition orders.

     Provides units disposition instructions.

     Relieves units of non-mission essential equipment accountability.

    A-33. More specific examples of team composition and tasks are included in ATP 4-91, Army Field Support
    Brigade, in handbooks published by the Center for Army Lessons Learned and in Army professional bulletins

    and journals.

    Ammunition Abatement Teams

    A-34. The ammunition abatement teams visually inspect all materiel for class V material prior to shipping
    and demilitarization. This ensures all class V related items are removed from equipment before the materiel

    is processed through the redistribution property assistance team.

    Forward Retrograde Element

    A-35. The forward retrograde elements maximize the recovery, redistribution, retrograde, and disposal of
    materiel at large or central base camps. The purpose of the forward retrograde elements is to provide materiel

    interdiction and determine serviceability and disposition of materiel. They are similar to the materiel

    redistribution teams. Forward retrograde elements provide another layer of screening enabling on-site

    disposition eliminating the costs and security effort of road transport to the retrograde sort yards.

    Materiel Redistribution Team

    A-36. Materiel redistribution teams sort through materiel on-site and identify, segregate, and prepare for
    shipment excess, non-mission essential equipment and materiel. The teams assist units by identifying,

    sorting, and shipping excess materiel of all classes of supply to the retrograde sort yards. These teams reduce

    processing time at the retrograde sort locations and prevent shipping disposable and scrap materiel.

    Mobile Container Assistance Team

    A-37. The mobile container assistance team inventories, inspects, and identifies containers and container
    discrepancies in the Integrated Booking System Container Management Module. The team ensures proper

    processing and accountability of containers. This team works closely with the base closure assistance team.

    The mobile container assistance team may be used to train and certify container control officers.

    Appendix A

    A-6 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    Redistribution Property Assistance Team

    A-38. The redistribution property assistance team is an ad hoc USAMC organization formed when Class VII
    retrograde of materiel requirements exceed the supporting sustainment command’s supply support activity

    capability. Redistribution property assistance team operations serve to facilitate the rapid return or

    redistribution of property to Army units. The redistribution property assistance team is attached to the AFSB

    and facilitates the expedient turn-in of all excess class VII TPE, improves property accountability of

    retrograde equipment from theater, and enables asset visibility of the received equipment during transit to

    sources of repair. More information about redistribution property assistance teams is available in ATP 4-91,

    Army Field Support Brigade.

    Retrograde Sort Yard

    A-39. The retrograde sort yard teams sort, identify, and record excess non-mission essential equipment and
    materiel (serviceable or unserviceable) in order to establish accountability and return supplies back into the

    Army supply system. Retrograde sort yard personnel manage all the materiel sent from the materiel

    redistribution teams, the forward retrograde elements and the units assigned to the base. These yards have

    material handling equipment and transportation assets to receive materiel and containers as they arrive or are

    shipped for final disposal.

    ASSESSMENT

    A-40. Before beginning the retrograde of materiel operation, the commander must establish an assessment
    plan. This plan should include input from all organizations involved in the operation. The plan will establish

    timelines and goals and a measurement for success. The commander’s visualization forms the basis for the

    commander’s personal assessment of progress. Use assessment and supporting data to provide feedback to

    improve support effectiveness and efficiency and to optimize operations.

    A-41. Assessment is continuous; it precedes and guides every operation and concludes each operation or
    phase of an operation. Throughout the retrograde of materiel operation, sustainment brigade leaders integrate

    their own assessments with those of the higher command element and other government or HN organizations

    involved. Primary tools for assessing progress of the operation include the operation order, the common

    operational picture, personal observations, and the assessment plan.

    SUMMARY

    A-42. The retrograde of materiel operation usually requires the support of Army, joint and other government
    agencies. A sustainment brigade or a CSSB may conduct retrograde of materiel operations. The framework

    for retrograde of materiel should be in place before any unit deploys to a JOA. The best way to accomplish

    retrograde of materiel is to organize the workload into phases accomplished by teams. The assessment plan

    must be coordinated with all organizations involved with the retrograde of materiel operation. Assessment is

    continuous; it precedes and guides every operations process activity and concludes each operation or phase

    of an operation.

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 Glossary-1

    Glossary

    The glossary lists acronyms and abbreviations and terms with Army or joint

    definitions, and other selected terms. Where Army and joint definitions are different,

    (Army) follows the term. Terms for which ATP 4-93 is the proponent (authority)

    manual are marked with an asterisk (*). The proponent manual for other terms is listed

    in parentheses after the definition.

    SECTION I – ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

    ABN airborne

    ADP Army doctrine publication

    ADRP Army doctrine reference publication

    AFMAN Air Force manual

    AFSB Army field support brigade

    AG adjutant general

    AO area of operations

    AOR area of responsibility

    ASCC Army Service component command

    ATP Army techniques publication

    BCT brigade combat team

    BSB brigade support battalion

    COR contracting officer representative

    CP command post

    CSM command sergeant major

    CSSB combat sustainment support battalion

    DLA Defense Logistics Agency

    DOD Department of Defense

    ESC expeditionary sustainment command

    FM field manual

    G-1 assistant chief of staff, personnel

    G-4 assistant chief of staff, logistics

    GCC geographic combatant commander

    HHC headquarters and headquarters company

    HN host nation

    HNS host nation support

    JFC joint force commander

    JOA joint operations area

    JP joint publication

    LOGCAP logistics civil augmentation program

    MCRP Marine Corps reference publication

    MDMP military decisionmaking process

    NCO noncommissioned officer

    Glossary

    Glossary-2 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    NTTP Navy tactics, techniques, and procedures

    OPLAN operation plan

    OPORD operation order

    RSOI reception, staging, onward movement, and integration

    S-1 battalion or brigade personnel staff officer

    S-2 battalion or brigade intelligence staff officer

    S-3 battalion or brigade operations staff officer

    S-4 battalion or brigade logistics staff officer

    S-6 battalion or brigade signal staff officer

    S-8 battalion or brigade financial management staff officer

    S-9 battalion or brigade civil affairs operations staff officer

    SASMO Sustainment Automation Support Management Office

    SO special operations

    SOP standard operating procedures

    SPO support operations

    SSA supply support activity

    STB special troops battalion

    TPE theater provided equipment

    TSC theater sustainment command

    UMT unit ministry team

    U.S. United States

    USC United States Code

    USAMC United States Army Materiel Command

    USTRANSCOM United States Transportation Command

    XO executive officer

    SECTION II – TERMS

    ARFOR

    The Army component and senior Army headquarters of all Army forces assigned or attached to a

    combatant command, subordinate joint force command, joint functional command, or multinational

    command. (FM 3-94)

    base cluster

    (DOD) In base defense operations, a collection of bases, geographically grouped for mutual protection

    and ease of command and control. (JP 3-10)

    base defense

    (DOD) The local military measures, both normal and emergency, required to nullify or reduce the

    effectiveness of enemy attacks on, or sabotage of, a base, to ensure that the maximum capacity of its

    facilities is available to U.S. forces. (JP 3-10)

    commander’s critical information requirement

    (DOD) An information requirement identified by the commander as being critical to facilitating timely

    decision making. Also called CCIR. (JP 3-0)

    Glossary

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 Glossary-3

    common-user land transport

    (DOD) Point-to-point land transportation service operated by a single Service for common use by two

    or more Services. Also called CULT. (JP 4-01.5)

    distribution system

    (DOD) That complex of facilities, installations, methods, and procedures designed to receive, store,

    maintain, distribute, and control the flow of military materiel between the point of receipt into the

    military system and the point of issue to using activities and units. (JP 4-09)

    executive agent

    (DOD) A term used to indicate a delegation of authority by the Secretary of Defense or Deputy

    Secretary of Defense to a subordinate to act on behalf of the Secretary of Defense. Also called EA.

    (JP 1)

    inform and influence activities

    The integration of designated information-related capabilities in order to synchronize themes,

    messages, and actions with operations to inform United States and global audiences, influence foreign

    audiences, and affect adversary and enemy decisionmaking. (ADRP 3-0)

    joint operations area

    (DOD) An area of land, sea, and airspace, defined by a geographic combatant commander or

    subordinate unified commander, in which a JFC (normally a joint task force commander) conducts

    military operations to accomplish a specific mission. Also called JOA. (JP 3-0)

    knowledge management

    The process of enabling knowledge flow to enhance shared understanding, learning, and decision

    making. (ADRP 6-0)

    priority intelligence requirement

    (DOD) An intelligence requirement, stated as a priority for intelligence support, that the commander

    and staff need to understand the adversary or other aspects of the operational environment. Also called

    PIR. (JP 2-01)

    *support operations

    The staff function of planning, coordinating, and synchronizing sustainment in support of units

    conducting decisive action in an area of operations.

    termination criteria

    (DOD) The specified standards approved by the President and/or the Secretary of Defense that must be

    met before a joint operation can be concluded. (JP 3-0)

    theater of operations

    (DOD) An operational area defined by the geographic combatant commander for the conduct or

    support of specific military operations. (JP 3-0)

    throughput

    (DOD) 1. In transportation, the average quantity of cargo and passengers that can pass through a port

    on a daily basis from arrival at the port to loading onto a ship or plane, or from the discharge from a

    ship or plane to the exit (clearance) from the port complex. (JP 4-01.5)

    throughput distribution

    A method of distribution which bypasses one or more intermediate supply echelons in the supply

    system to avoid multiple handling. (ATP 4-11)

    This page intentionally left blank.

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 References-1

    References

    REQUIRED PUBLICATIONS
    These documents must be available to intended users of this publication.

    ADRP 1-02, Terms and Military Symbols, 7 December 2015.

    FM 6-0, Commander and Staff Organization and Operations, 5 May 2014.

    JP 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 15 February 2016.

    RELATED PUBLICATIONS
    These documents contain relevant supplemental information

    JOINT PUBLICATIONS

    Most joint publications are available on: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jointpub.htm

    JP 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, 25 March 2013.

    JP 2-01, Joint and National Intelligence Support to Military Operations, 05 January 2012.

    JP 3-0, Joint Operations, 11 August 2011.

    JP 3-08, Interorganizational Coordination During Joint Operations, 24 June 2011.

    JP 3-10, Joint Security Operations in Theater, 13 November 2014.

    JP 3-16, Multinational Operations, 16 July 2013.

    JP 3-35, Deployment and Redeployment Operations, 31 January 2013.

    JP 4-0, Joint Logistics, 16 October 2013.

    JP 4-01, The Defense Transportation System, 06 June 2013.

    JP 4-01.5, Joint Terminal Operations, 02 November 2015.

    JP 4-08, Logistics in Support of Multinational Operations, 21 February 2013.

    JP 4-09, Distribution Operations, 19 December 2013.

    JP 4-10, Operational Contract Support, 16 July 2014.

    ARMY PUBLICATIONS

    Most Army doctrinal publications are available online: http://www.apd.army.mil/

    ADP 1-01, Doctrine Primer, 2 September 2014.

    ADP 4-0, Sustainment, 31 July 2012.

    ADP 5-0, The Operations Process, 17 May 2012.

    ADP 6-0, Mission Command, 17 May 2012.

    ADRP 1-03, The Army Universal Task List, 02 October 2015.

    ADRP 2-0, Intelligence, 31 August 2012.

    ADRP 3-0, Unified Land Operations, 16 May 2012.

    ADRP 3-37, Protection, 31 August 2012.

    ADRP 3-90, Offense and Defense, 31 August 2012.

    ADRP 4-0, Sustainment, 31 July 2012.

    ADRP 5-0, The Operations Process, 17 May 2012.

    ADRP 6-0, Mission Command, 17 May 2012.

    ATP 1-0.1, G-1/AG and S-1 Operations, 23 March 2015.

    ATP 1-05.01, Religious Support And The Operations Process, 12 May 2014.

    ATP 3-05.40, Special Operations Sustainment, 3 May 2013.

    http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jointpub.htm

    http://www.apd.army.mil/

    References

    References-2 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    ATP 3-35, Army Deployment and Redeployment, 23 March 2015.

    ATP 3-37.10/MCRP 3-17.7N, Base Camps, 26 April 2013.

    ATP 3-90.37, Countering Improvised Explosive Devices, 29 July 2014.

    ATP 3-90.90, Army Tactical Standard Operating Procedures, 1 November 2011.

    ATP 4-0.1, Army Theater Distribution, 29 October 2014.

    ATP 4-0.6, Techniques for Sustainment Information Systems Support, 5 April 2013.

    ATP 4-02.1, Army Medical Logistics, 29 October 2015.

    ATP 4-02.3, Army Health System Support To Maneuver Forces, 9 June 2014.

    ATP 4-02.55, Army Health System Support Planning, 16 September 2015.

    ATP 4-10/MCRP 4-11H/NTTP 4-09.1/AFMAN 10-409-O, Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and

    Procedures for Operational Contract Support, 18 February 2016.

    ATP 4-11, Army Motor Transport Operations, 5 July 2013.

    ATP 4-16, Movement Control, 5 April 2013.

    ATP 4-33, Maintenance Operations, 14 April 2014.

    ATP 4-35, Munitions Operations and Distribution Techniques, 5 September 2014.

    ATP 4-42, General Supply and Field Services Operations, 14 July 2014.

    ATP 4-43, Petroleum Supply Operations, 06 August 2015.

    ATP 4-44/MCRP 3-17.7Q, Water Support Operations, 2 Oct 2015.

    ATP 4-45, Force Provider Operations, 24 November 2014.

    ATP 4-48, Aerial Delivery, 23 June 2014.

    ATP 4-90, Brigade Support Battalion, 2 April 2014.

    ATP 4-91, Army Field Support Brigade, 15 December 2011.

    ATP 4-92, Contracting Support to Unified Land Operations, 15 October 2014.

    ATP 4-94, Theater Sustainment Command, 28 June 2013.

    ATP 6-01.1, Techniques for Effective Knowledge Management, 6 March 2015.

    FM 1-0, Human Resources Support, 1 April 2014.

    FM 1-04, Legal Support to the Operational Army, 18 March 2013.

    FM 1-05, Religious Support, 5 October 2012.

    FM 1-06, Financial Management Operations, 15 April 2014.

    FM 3-13, Inform and Influence Activities, 25 January 2013.

    FM 3-21.8, The Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad, 28 March 2007.

    FM 3-55, Information Collection, 3 May 2013.

    FM 3-57, Civil Affairs Operations, 31 October 2011.

    FM 3-61, Public Affairs Operations, 1 April 2014.

    FM 3-81, Maneuver Enhancement Brigade, 21 April 2014.

    FM 3-94, Theater Army, Corps, and Division Operations, 21 April 2014.

    FM 4-95, Logistics Operations, 1 April 2014.

    FM 6-02, Signal Support to Operations, 22 January 2014.

    FM 6-99, U. S. Army Report and Message Formats, 19 August 2013.

    FM 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, 18 July 1956.

    OTHER PUBLICATIONS

    Unless otherwise indicated, web sites were last accessed on 5 January 2016.

    10 USC, Armed Forces. Available online: http://uscode.house.gov/browse/&editions=prelim.

    32 USC, National Guard. Available online: http://uscode.house.gov/browse/&editions=prelim.

    http://uscode.house.gov/browse/&editions=prelim

    http://uscode.house.gov/browse/&editions=prelim

    References

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 References-3

    ALP 4.2, Land Forces Logistic Doctrine, 8 December 2015. Available online:

    https://nso.nato.int/protected. Request an access password at http://nso.nato.int/nso/.

    PRESCRIBED FORMS
    None

    REFERENCED FORMS
    Unless otherwise indicated, DA forms are available on the Army Publishing Directorate (APD) web

    site: www.apd.army.mil.

    DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms.

    WEB SITES
    Unless otherwise indicated, web sites were last accessed on 5 January 2016.

    Baker, Fred W. III, ed. “CMRE 17th CSSB Closes Out Historic Chapter.” Army Sustainment 47, no. 2

    (March-April 2015): 22-39. Available online: http://www.army.mil/ArmySustainment.

    Center for Army Lessons Learned at https://call2.army.mil.

    Combined Arms Support Command (CASCOM) Sustainment Unit One Stop

    http://www.cascom.army.mil/g_staff/g3/SUOS/index.htm.

    Defense Logistics Agency at https://www.dla.mil.

    Operational Logistics Planner at http://www.cascom.army.mil/g_staff/g3/SUOS/index.htm. Select any

    unit and then sustainment estimation tools.

    Program Executive Office Command Control Communications-Tactical (PEO-C3T). “Command Post

    Handbook.” Army Training Network. Last modified 7 March 2013. Accessed January 5,

    2016. https://atn.army.mil.

    https://nso.nato.int/protected

    http://nso.nato.int/nso/

    http://www.apd.army.mil/

    http://www.army.mil/ArmySustainment

    https://call2.army.mil/

    http://www.cascom.army.mil/g_staff/g3/SUOS/index.htm

    https://www.dla.mil/

    http://www.cascom.army.mil/g_staff/g3/SUOS/index.htm

    https://atn.army.mil/

    This page intentionally left blank.

    11 April 2016 ATP 4-93 Index-1

    Index

    Entries are listed by paragraph number unless indicated otherwise.

    B

    battle rhythm, 4-65–4-66
    and meetings, 4-72
    and reports, 4-77

    brigade combat team (BCT),
    brigade support battalion
    (BSB), 1-31–1-32
    sustainment support, 5-38–5-

    40
    task organized combat

    sustainment support
    battalion (CSSB), 3-6,3-12,
    5-40

    brigade support battalion (BSB),
    brigade combat team (BCT), 1-
    31–1-32

    C

    capabilities, combat sustainment
    support battalion (CSSB), 3-1–
    3-4
    special troops battalion (STB),

    2-1–2-5
    sustainment brigade, 1-1–1-8

    combat sustainment support
    battalion (CSSB), capabilities,
    3-1–3-4
    command post, 4-32
    command relationship, 3-5
    functional cells, 4-48–4-54
    integrating cells, 4-55–4-59
    organization, 3-11–3-33
    relationships, 3-5–3-10
    staff, 3-17–3-33
    task organized to support

    brigade combat team (BCT),
    3-6, 3-12, 5-40

    combat sustainment support
    battalion (CSSB) support
    operations staff, distribution, 3-
    26–3-32

    command and support,
    relationship, 1-11–1-13

    command post (CP), 4-28–4-34
    sustainment brigade, 1-6, 4-

    30–4-31

    command post (CP) cells, 4-34
    see functional cells,
    see integrating cells,

    command relationship, combat
    sustainment support battalion
    (CSSB), 3-5

    special troops battalion (STB),
    2-4

    sustainment brigade, 1-14–1-
    24

    with multinational forces, 1-

    47

    D

    direct support, as a support
    relationship, 1-26

    distribution, and theater opening,
    5-9–5-13
    combat sustainment support

    battalion (CSSB) staff, 3-26–
    3-32

    planning and integration, 5-61–
    5-69

    sustainment brigade staff, 1-
    75–1-82

    theater distribution tasks, 5-42
    throughput distribution, 5-14

    distribution plan, 4-103

    division, 1-24

    E

    emplacing, sustainment brigade,
    5-31–5-36

    expeditionary sustainment
    command (ESC), 1-20–1-23
    see sustainment command,

    F

    forward logistics element (FLE), 5-

    41

    functional cells, combat
    sustainment support battalion
    (CSSB), 4-48–4-54
    sustainment brigade, 4-35–4-

    41
    I

    integrating cells, combat
    sustainment support battalion
    (CSSB), 4-55–4-59
    sustainment brigade, 4-42–4-

    47

    intermediate staging base (ISB),
    5-4–5-6
    redeployment, 5-76

    J

    joint operations, sustainment
    brigade, 5-1–5-8

    L

    location of units, and support
    relationship, 5-31–5-36

    M

    materiel management, support
    operations (SPO) staff, 5-46–5-
    50

    materiel management
    responsibilities, 5-51–5-57

    meetings, battle rhythm, 4-72

    mission command, 1-9, 1-16, 2-7,
    3-13, 4-1,

    mission command systems, 4-17–
    4-27

    mission command tasks, 4-2–4-6

    multinational forces, command
    relationship, 1-47

    O

    operational contract support, 5-
    72–5-73, 1-3, 1-45, 1-87–1-88,
    2-25,

    operations process, sustainment
    brigade, 4-84–4-119

    organization, combat sustainment
    support battalion (CSSB), 3-11–
    3-33

    P

    planning and integration,
    distribution, 5-61–5-69

    protection, sustainment brigade,
    1-7, 5-22–5-30

    protection cell, see functional
    cells, 4-39, 4-52

    R

    reception, staging, onward
    movement, and integration,
    sustainment brigade, 5-16–5-18

    redeployment, 5-74–5-76
    and theater closing, 5-77–5-81
    intermediate staging base

    (ISB), 5-75

    relationship, combat sustainment
    support battalion (CSSB), 3-5–
    3-10
    command and support, 1-11–

    1-13
    see command relationship,

    Index

    Index-2 ATP 4-93 11 April 2016

    see support relationship,

    reports, 4-74–4-79
    battle rhythm, 4-77

    retrograde of materiel, 5-58–5-59
    theater closing, 5-80–5-81

    S

    special troops battalion (STB),
    battalion staff, 2-12–2-16
    capabilities, 2-1–2-5
    command relationship, 2-4
    support relationship, 2-4–2-5

    staff, combat sustainment support
    battalion (CSSB), 3-17–3-33
    special troops battalion (STB),

    2-12–2-16
    sustainment brigade, 1-56–1-

    101

    standard operating procedures, 4-

    83

    support operations (SPO) staff,
    materiel management, 5-46–5-
    50

    support relationship, and location
    of units, 5-31–5-36
    direct support, 1-26
    special troops battalion (STB),

    2-4–2-5
    sustainment brigade, 1-25–1-

    26
    task organization, 4-92–4-93

    support to decisive action,
    sustainment brigade, 5-20–5-21

    supporting the force, sustainment
    brigade, 5-37–5-38

    sustainment brigade, and the
    operations process, 4-84–4-119
    capabilities, 1-1–1-8
    command post (CP), 1-6, 4-

    30–4-31
    command relationships, 1-14–

    1-24
    emplacing, 5-31–5-36
    functional cells, 4-35–4-41
    integrating cells, 4-42–4-47
    joint operations, 5-1–5-8
    protection, 1-7, 5-22–5-30
    reception, staging, onward

    movement, and integration,
    5-16–5-18

    staff, 1-56–1-101
    support relationship, 1-26–1-55
    support relationships, 1-26–1-

    55
    support to decisive action, 5-

    20–5-21
    supporting the force, 5-37–5-

    38,
    theater closing, 5-79–5-83
    theater distribution, 5-42–5-

    45

    theater opening, 5-11–5-13

    sustainment brigade staff,
    distribution, 1-75–1-82
    support operations (SPO), 1-

    75–1-89

    sustainment command, 1-20–1-23

    see expeditionary sustainment
    command (ESC),

    see theater sustainment

    command (TSC),

    sustainment support, brigade
    combat team, 5-38–5-40

    T

    task organization, support
    relationship, 4-92–4-93

    theater closing, redeployment, 5-
    77–5-81
    retrograde of materiel, 5-80–5-

    81
    sustainment brigade, 5-79–5-

    83

    theater distribution, 5-66
    sustainment brigade, 5-42–5-

    45

    theater distribution tasks,
    distribution, 5-42

    theater opening, distribution, 5-9–
    5-13
    sustainment brigade, 5-11–5-

    13

    theater sustainment command, 1-
    20–1-23, 5-7, 5-51,
    see sustainment command,

    throughput distribution,
    distribution, 5-14

    By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

    MARK A. MILLEY
    General, United States Army

    Chief of Staff

    Official:

    GERALD B. O’KEEFE
    Administrative Assistant to the

    Secretary of the Army
    1609901

    DISTRIBUTION:
    Active Army, Army National Guard, and United States Army Reserve: Distributed in electronic media
    only (EMO).

    ATP 4-93
    11 April 2016

    PIN: 103623-000

    • Cover
    • Contents
      Preface
      Introduction

    • Chapter 1 – Sustainment Brigade Capabilities, Functions and Organization
    • Chapter 2 – Special Troops Battalion Capabilities and Organization
    • Chapter 3 – Combat Sustainment Support Battalion Capabilities and Organization
    • Chapter 4 – Mission Command
    • Chapter 5 – The Employed Sustainment Brigade
    • Appendix A – Teams Supporting Retrograde of Materiel
    • Glossary
      References
      Index

    Calculator

    Calculate the price of your paper

    Total price:$26
    Our features

    We've got everything to become your favourite writing service

    Need a better grade?
    We've got you covered.

    Order your paper