Understanding Nutrition

??? ???? ?????? ?????? Al-Quds University Body Fluid Lab. Report Chemical Establishment of Urine Skilful By : Lucia Principles Benedict's Criterion for Reducing Sugars Urinary sugars when boiled in Benedict's reagent subject copper sulphate to a reddish cuprous oxide dive in hot alkaline average, the eagerness of which is proportional to the total of sugar give in the urine. The outcomes are reported as 1+,2+, etc. being upon the colour and eagerness of the cuprous oxide dive. turbidimetric regularity protein in urine Quantitative Tests for 24-Hour Specimens. Trichloroacetic aculeated (TCA) criterion. The abstracted of TCA to a urine pattern dives the protein in a minute deprivation that is quantified spectrophotometrically at 420 nm (nanometers) by comparison succeeding a while a similarly treated gauge. Passion and acetic aculeated regularity Passion criterion: Fixed on the rule of passion coagulation and location of proteins. If any broadness shows, add 2 drops of 33% acetic aculeated. (Acidification is certain accordingly in alkaline average passioning may dive phosphates). If the dive is due to proteins, it obtain growth on aculeatedification and if it is due to phosphates, it obtain disband again. Sulphosalicylic aculeated regularity Urine Protein Sulfosalicylic Aculeated Location Criterion (SSA) Principle: Three percent (3%) Sulfosalicylic Aculeated (SSA reagent) is ascititious to a diminutive and similar body of open urine. The aculeatedification causes location of protein in the pattern (seen as increasing broadness), which is subjectively graded as delineate,1+, 2+, 3+ or 4+. Bence Jones protein Bence Jones reaction involves passioning urine to 140°F (60°C). At this temperature, the Bence Jones proteins obtain spoil. The spoiling disappears if the urine is advance passioned to boiling and reappears when the urine is cooled. Other spoiling procedures using salts, aculeateds, and other chemicals are to-boot used to expose these proteins. These types of criterion obtain divulge whether or not Bence Jones proteins are give, but not how considerable is give. Hemosiderin Hemosiderin tarnish is used to betray the intercourse of sinewy storage granules designated hemosiderin by inappreciable establishment of urine residuum. Granules of hemosiderin tarnish bluish when potassium ferrocyanide is ascititious to the pattern. The Prussian bluish tarnish may to-boot be used to warrant siderocytes (iron-containing red respect cells [RBCs]) in peripheral respect. The intercourse of siderocytes in circulating RBCs is irregular. Urobilinogen This criterion is fixed on a mitigated Ehrlich reaction in which p-diethylaminobenzaldehyde reacts succeeding a while urobilinogen in a strongly aculeated average. Colors rank from vain pink to crystalline magenta. Results * Benedict's Criterion outcome for cup # G3 : 4+ Brown garbling show. * Turbidimetric regularity outcome for cup of 24-hrs urine: Tube| Absorbance| Test+test-blank| 0. 058| Standard+steep utter| 0. 010| Calculation : Total protein (mg/dl)=At/Ast ? conc. St 0. 058/0. 010 ? 100=580 mg/dl Total protien(mg/24 hrs) =urine protein (mg/dl)? urine body(ml)/100 = 580? 2000/100)=11600 mg /dl Normal values :0-150 mg/24 hrs * Passion and acetic aculeated regularity and Sulphosalicylic aculeated regularity for cup # P4: 4+ location showed. * Bence Jones protein for cup # P4 : Open succeeding 15 min of boiling so denying for Bence Jones protein. * Hemosiderin outcomes :Few Hemosiderin granules was seen beneath Microscope * Urobilinogen outcome for cup # G3:Negative outcome (no showance of red garbling). Interpretation Benedict's Criterion for Reducing Sugars Normal urine does not comprise any reducing sugar. If protein is give in liberal totals, it may clash succeeding a while the location of the cuprous oxide. To conquer this completion, dive the proteins using 3% SSA refine using a Whatman refine brochure and use the depurate to criterion the total of sugar give. As a tendency repress value, gauges compriseing unconcealed totals of glucose are skilful in saturated benzoic aculeated and one of the gauges is used every day to curb the reliability of the patient’s outcomes. The gauge outcomes may be transformed in the subjoined semi-quantitative way. turbidimetric regularity protein in urine For turbidimetric regularitys, there were no presumable completions of proportionately impairment between civilized albumin and serum-fixed materials and urines used in this examine. Perhaps this was accordingly all materials were unconfirmed in 9 g/L saline: turbidimetric regularitys generally bear from demand of gauges and patterns to create dives identically,and location may not befall at low protein attentions in urines of eminent ionic force. Passion and acetic aculeated regularity This criterion is perceptive ample to expose protein down to a attention of 2-3 mg%. If an alkaline urine is boiled, the protein may be converted into the so- designated "alkaline metaprotein", which is not numerous by passion. Therefore it is constantly improve to aculeatedify the urine antecedently doing this criterion. If too considerable acetic aculeated is ascititious, the protein may be converted to the so-designated "acid metaprotein", which is to-boot not numerous by passion. Therefore the urine should be simply mildly aculeatedic. Sulphosalicylic aculeated regularity The sulphosalicylic aculeated regularity obtain not expose protein in a normal urine, but obtain be perceptive ample to expose protein give down to 20mg%. As a tendency repress value, a 22g/dl albumin reresolution can be unconfirmed uprightly succeeding a while 0. 9 g/dl sodium chloride to get gauges compriseing 20, 50, 200, 500 and 2500 mg/dl proteins. These gauges are unwavering for one month when stored at 2-80C. Bence Jones protein Monoclonal vain manacle proteinuria (Bence Jones proteinuria) is seen in patients succeeding a while vain manacle myeloma, in closely 50% of those succeeding a while IgG and IgA myeloma, and in some patients succeeding a while other lymphoproliferative disorders (eg, macroglobulinaemia) and plasma cell dyscrasias (amyloid). Entire paraprotein molecules may to-boot be exposeed in serum. Urine protein dipsticks do not expose Bence-Jones protein. Hemosiderin Hemosiderin is give in diseases involving a penny siderosis of sort parenchyma (hemochromatosis). It is to-boot give 2-3 days succeeding an intelligent hemolytic result that produces hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria. Hemosiderin granules are base in uninjured renal tubular epithelial cells or sometimes in casts and may to-boot be seen extracellularly. Urobilinogen Interpretation of outcomes obtain be upon separate factors: the variability of garbling perception; the intercourse or scantiness of inhibitory factors; the intercourse or scantiness of inhibitory factors typically base in urine, the restricted priggishness or the pH; and the vaining conditions beneath which the emanation is used.