On provisional and differential diagnoses the symptoms on the two seem to be similar though there is a single diagnosis that is more accurate to enhance treatment. A “provisional diagnosis” implies that that the medic is not 100 percent accurate of analysis since additional info is required. With a “provisional diagnosis”, the medic come up with a guess based on educated concerning the maximum possible diagnosis. A
“differential diagnosis” implies that there is an additional likelihood for the diagnosis. The medicare supposed to differentiate between the two to decide the real diagnosis and suitable plan for treatment. A provisional diagnosis means that your doctor is not 100% sure of a diagnosis because more information is needed. With a provisional diagnosis, your doctor makes an educated guess about the most likely diagnosis. (provisional and differential diagnosis)
After hearing the cases concerning Ricardo, it was difficult to be in a position to have a fully concluded treatment plan based on the symptoms that he had. To add on, he didn’t have any medical history. Based on the provisional diagnosis, Ricardo was likely to be suffering from either tonsillitis or Strep throat. These two diseases have a thin line of differentiation since the show almost similar signs and symptoms. On close examination of the two possible diseases, it was noted that strep throat had some “Red and swollen tonsils, sometimes with white patches or streaks of pus”. In tonsillitis, such symptoms were not available.
On differentia diagnosis, the disease was strep throat. This is because, despite some of the additional symptoms that are associated with this disease, they are the exact symptoms that were explained or studied from what Ricardo was suffering from. Strep throat is caused by a bacteria are bacteria called “Streptococcus pyogenes”, also recognized as a “group A streptococcus”. These bacteria are extremely contagious. They are capable of spread via “airborne droplets” the moment that someone with the contagion sneezes or coughs, or via shared drinks or food. This can also pick up the bacteria from a handle or any surface and shift them to the mouth, noses, or eyes.
Provisional and Differential diagnosis Differences (n.d.). https://www.verywellmind.com/provisional-diagnosis-vs-differential-diagnosis-1067284
Public Policy Theories in Education Policy Making.
One of the essential public policy across all the states in the world pertains to education and ensuring that all levels of education starting from elementary going to secondary as well as higher education are adequately analyzed, and Strategic policies enacted. Providing accessible, affordable, high-quality education across all levels among all citizens is one of the significant public policies that each country needs to prioritize effectively and avail the necessary resources required to ensure successful adoption of the respective education policies in the various states. The situation is no different in the United States, and public policies pertaining to education have been effectively put in place by the government. The main concern being in the enactment of the procedures relating to making higher education in the country more accessible, ensuring diversity in the learning institutions as well as ensuring that information technology is effectively adopted in the education sector. To ensure that these education policies have been well developed and implemented by the government, various public systems ranging from political to rational theories have been used in the making if these education policies in the country (Hauptman, 2020).
The use of political theory in the implementation process of the education policy has resulted in the introduction of a top-down regulation or perspective. Different scholars and policy implementors will look at the education policy implementation process to be an iterative political process whereby the various actors have a significant influence on the outcomes and output of the policy. In the political policy perspective, effective implementation of the education policy will arrive through the existence of committed implementors, active political support for the education policy to be implemented, policy coherence as well as the existence of stable socioeconomic factors.
This educational policy will be affected by the political climate in the country to be successfully implemented down to the local level educational institutions. Therefore in the education policy implementation process by the government, there is a need for policymakers to be aware of the political economy of the reform. They should also be mindful of the limited public budgets as well as resistance by the interest groups, and these policymakers need to find ways to bypass these factors to implement the education policy effectively. There is a need for the education policymakers to effectively involve the various education lobby groups and other education interest groups in the implementation process of the policy since these groups will majorly influence the general public on the decision to take regarding the education policy. These groups may collectively influence the public to reject or accept this policy. Additionally, to ensure effective policy implementation, the policymakers need to integrate the principal stakeholders in the implementation process adequately. The principal shareholders e.g., regional decision-makers, teachers, district as well as school leaders need therefore to be accordingly informed of the need to adopt new and complex educational reforms, benefits associated with this educational reform and also be informed of the contents of this complex educational policy and be allowed to make the necessary recommendations by the policymakers (Viennet & Pont, 2017).
The level of the political policy theory in the development phase of the education policy can be measured by the political level of involvement in this policy development process. However, the political theory adoption in the development phase of the education policy isn’t very comprehensive as compared to its participation in the implementation process of the education policy. The political policy theory states that all cooperation activities, negotiation as well as conflicts arising in the use and production and distribution of resources via interaction of the formal and informal institutions as well as through distribution of private and public power all contribute to politics. The political policy theory negatively affects the development process of the education policy, especially in developing countries. This is seen in the sense that politics will significantly shape the nature of the education reforms and the targeted batch of individuals to be affected by the educational reforms. The development process of this policy will, therefore, depend significantly on the various politically-shaped interests e.g., what the different stakeholders feel, the pressure exerted either directly or indirectly by these stakeholders, as well as the level of involvement of formal and informal institutions.
There will be a significant influence by the existent political parties and leaders in the development process of these educational reforms, especially in developing countries. The results will be the creation of personalistic, weak patrimonial, and corruptive educational reforms as a result of the use of the political policy theory. On the other hand, implementing the elite public policy theory in the development phase of the education policy in states will also result in adverse effects. This is in the sense that the elite theory will propose that only a small group of privileged personnel be involved in the policy development process, and this will shut all doors in incorporating various personnel with different credentials to take part in the policymaking and development process. The result will be that this elite capture will result in the creation of a pervasive, individualistic condescending educational reform that will only focus on the needs of the chosen few, and this will be hugely inefficient. Adopting both elite and political policies of public policy will result in the development of an educational plan which is patronizing and which will be based on expanding educational coverage. E.g., building more schools or employing more teachers: rather than developing an educational policy that will aim at fixing the existing inefficiencies in the education system since the latter education policy will reduce the number of resources allocated to the underperforming principal stakeholders (Kingdon et al., 2014).
In terms of the stakeholder’s views regarding the best theory to use in the development of the education policy, different education system stakeholders have mixed feelings and reactions regarding the best public policy theory to implement. The disparity of opinion will arise as a result of the different levels of involvement of the stakeholders in the implementation of the education system, with some of them being principle stakeholders and others holding the title for mere formality. For those stakeholders holding some of the most power in the current society and whose opinions and actions will exert massive influences will propose the integration of the elite theory in the development process of the education policy. Upon adoption of this theory, these principal stakeholders are assured of their involvement in the development of the education policy. They will play an active role in developing the education policy, which will significantly reflect elite values and prefer the status quo to the radical changes.
On the other hand, stakeholders with little to no influence in the society and the education reform will prefer the integration o the group theory in the development process of the education policy. These stakeholders will be willing to from various groups, and each group will try to influence public policy through policy formulation. These stakeholders will, therefore, view forming influential groups to be the much-needed remedy to creating policies that are inclusive and polices which will speak for the greater mass and which will help a large number of individuals in society. The concept of pluralism will be very much considered. Therefore no group will assert dominance or monopoly over the other in the development process of the education policy, and this is an essential aspect (Anyebe, 2018).
Gretell Alfonso- Discussion 1 Acute Fever
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Acute Fever Case Study
Ricardo’s signs and symptoms of fever, sore throat, trouble swallowing, inflamed lymph nodes and tonsils with one containing white exudate makes me suspect as a nurse practitioner that he could possibly have 3 possible diagnosis. My differential diagnosis at this moment would be strep throat, infectious mononucleosis, and tonsillitis. As a future Nurse Practitioner I would say that my provisional diagnosis is strep throat due to the irritated tonsils with the white exudate which indicates to me that this is a bacterial infection, however the only test that could rule out if this is a viral or bacterial infection would be the strep throat exam which is called QuickRead Go (Stefaniuk, E., Bosacka, K., Wanke-rytt, M., & Hryniewicz, W. 2017). The fact that he has given me more detail about his sexual preference and that he has sexual intercourse with different women arises the possibility that this could also be infectious mononucleosis aside from the fact that it also makes me suspect STD’s on Ricardo. It has been studied recently that through kissing and saliva neisseria ghonorrhea is transferred from person to person (Hook, E. W., & Bernstein, K. 2019). My next step would be to explain to Ricardo what are the possible diagnosis, explain why and order tests labs. I would also get verbal consent to test him for STD’s as it is a concerning part of this visit. I would order a strep throat test also rule out my other possible diagnosis for Ricardo. Even though I don’t have access to Ricardo’s medical history since he is. from Brazil, as a nurse practitioner I am able to use resources available to understand what is exactly going on in Ricardo’s body which is showing off these symptoms that indicate infection. In conclusion, Ricardo will eventually be treated with appropriate medication once a diagnosis is confirmed.
Stefaniuk, E., Bosacka, K., Wanke-rytt, M., & Hryniewicz, W. (2017). The use of rapid test QuikRead go® strep A in bacterial
pharyngotonsillitis diagnosing and therapeutic decisions. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 36(10), 1733-
Hook, E. W., & Bernstein, K. (2019). Kissing, saliva exchange, and transmission of neisseria gonorrhoeae. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 19(10),
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Anyebe, A. A. (2018, January). Open Access Publications | Best Scientific Journals Online.
Hauptman, A. M. (2020). Critical public policy issues in the united states.
Kingdon, G. G., Aslam, M., Little, A., & Parton, B. (2014, April). EPPI-Centre Home.
Viennet, R., & Pont, B. (2017, December 13). Education policy implementation: A literature review and a proposed framework. OECD iLibrary.
Rosie Jean Louis:
Discussion 1(Second Entry)
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The health maintenance is essential is Ricardo having sore throat and fever. The possible health maintenance for Ricardo is the NP using their skills and knowledge to prevent the disease. The NP may examine the correct medical, immunizations, nutrition, dietary, and safety of Ricardo’s illness. Screening the symptomatic disease is useful to be sure of the possibilities of sore throat disease. Before screening it is best to identify the risk factors of the illness, and risk factors may be based on gender, lifestyle, age, and ethnicity of Ricardo. Ricardo’s sister can give whereabouts the health risks of family history.
Kucuk, A., Erol, M. F., Senel, S., Eroler, E., Yumun, H. A., Uslu, A. U., and Solak, Y. (2016). The role of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio to leverage the differential diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever attack and acute appendicitis. The Korean Journal of internal medicine, 31(2), 386.
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