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Everyday we choose one financial decision over another. Should we buy a cup of coffee or should we save that money? What is the personal and financial cost to us? In this assignment you determine the time value of money and examine opportunity cost, among other fundamentals of economics and finance.
Review your Week 2 Learning Activities.
Complete the 

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Time Value of Money, Opportunity Cost, and Income Taxes Worksheet

.

Time Value of Money, Opportunity Cost, and Income Taxes Worksheet

Scenario 1: Time Value of Money / Cash Management

Product

s

1. Use this simple savings calculator to complete Scenario 1:

https://www.thecalculatorsite.com/finance/calculators/compoundinterestcalculator.php

. You will enter the Initial Amount of Savings (Present Value),

Annual Interest Rate

(Rate of Return), and Number of Periods/Years into the calculator. The calculator will compute the Future Values.

In this scenario you will look at the impact of interest rates on your savings. Suppose that you have $2,000 of savings. You don’t anticipate needing to dip into these funds in the next five years. Based on the information provided in the table, calculate the future value (FV) of $2,000 at the end of years 1 and 5 if it were to be completely invested in each of the different cash management products.   

Enter your answers in the indicated cells of the table below. The

Restrictions/Fees on Product Usage

column relates to question 2 of Scenario 1.

  
Product
Annual Interest Rate
Restrictions/Fees on Product Usage

FV at end of Year 1

FV at end of Year 5

 

Checking Account

0.00%

· No   minimum

· No   limit on withdrawals

Answer:

Calculator   Inputs:

Initial   Amount:

Annual   Interest Rate (compounded quarterly): 

Number   of Years:

Answer:

Calculator Inputs:

Initial   Amount:
Annual   Interest Rate (compounded quarterly): 
Number   of Years:
 

Savings Account

1.50%

· No   minimum

· Limited   to 3 withdrawals per month

Answer:
Calculator Inputs:
Initial   Amount:
Annual   Interest Rate (compounded quarterly): 
Number   of Years:

Answer:   

Calculator Inputs:
Initial   Amount:
Annual   Interest Rate (compounded quarterly): 
Number   of Years:
 

Certificate of Deposit (CD)

5%

· $500   minimum balance

· Early   withdrawal penalty: 180 days of interest plus $25 

Answer:   
Calculator   Inputs:
Initial   Amount:
Annual   Interest Rate (compounded quarterly): 
Number   of Years:
Answer:   
Calculator Inputs:
Initial   Amount:
Annual   Interest Rate (compounded quarterly): 
Number   of Years:
  

2. Based on your calculations and on all you have learned this week, how would you choose to save your $2,000? Consider things such as rate of return, inflation, taxes, liquidity, safety, restrictions, and fees, and explain the rationale for your decision. Respond in at least 50 words.  

Scenario 2: Time Value of Money / Compounding Interest 

3. Use this simple savings calculator to complete Scenario 2: https://www.thecalculatorsite.com/finance/calculators/compoundinterestcalculator.php. You will enter the Initial Amount of Savings (Present Value), Annual Interest Rate (Rate of Return), Interest Compounded, and Number of Periods/Years into the calculator. The calculator will compute the Future Values.

 

In this scenario you will start with a big deposit and see how interest, compounding, and time will change the balance over time. Suppose that you inherit $10,000 from your late uncle. You save this money and do not deposit any more money to the account. Determine how much money you would have at the end of each of the periods for each of the scenarios in the table below, assuming that you don’t make any withdrawals from the account over the period.

Enter your answers in the indicated cells of the table below:

  
Annual Interest Rate

Interest Compounded 

FV at the end of Year 5

FV at the end of Year 10

FV at the end of Year 30

 

2.00%

Annually

Answer:

Enter   your inputs:

Initial   Amount: 

Annual   Interest Rate: 

Compounded:   

Number   of Years: 

Answer:
Enter   your inputs:
Initial   Amount: 
Annual   Interest Rate: 
Compounded:   
Number   of Years: 
Answer:
Enter   your inputs:
Initial   Amount: 
Annual   Interest Rate: 
Compounded:   
Number   of Years: 
 
2.00%

Quarterly

Answer:   
Enter   your inputs:
Initial   Amount: 
Annual   Interest Rate: 
Compounded:   

Number   of Years:  

Answer:   
Enter   your inputs:
Initial   Amount: 
Annual   Interest Rate: 
Compounded:   
Number   of Years: 
Answer:
Enter   your inputs:
Initial   Amount: 
Annual   Interest Rate: 
Compounded:   
Number   of Years: 
 

8.00%

Annually   

Answer:
Enter   your inputs:
Initial   Amount: 
Annual   Interest Rate: 
Compounded:   
Number   of Years: 
Answer:
Enter   your inputs:
Initial   Amount: 
Annual   Interest Rate: 
Compounded:   
Number   of Years: 
Answer:
Enter   your inputs:
Initial   Amount: 
Annual   Interest Rate: 
Compounded:   
Number   of Years: 
 
8.00%
Quarterly
Answer:
Enter   your inputs:
Initial   Amount: 
Annual   Interest Rate: 
Compounded:   
Number   of Years: 
Answer:
Enter   your inputs:
Initial   Amount: 
Annual   Interest Rate: 
Compounded:   
Number   of Years: 
Answer:
Enter   your inputs:
Initial   Amount: 
Annual   Interest Rate: 
Compounded:   
Number   of Years: 

4. Based on your calculations above, explain in your own words the impact of compounding interest. 

  

Scenario 3: Cost of Credit / Opportunity Cost / Trade-Offs 

5. In this scenario you will calculate the monthly payment and total interest paid on a car loan. Suppose that you need $15,000 to buy a used vehicle to get back and forth to work and school. You have $7,500 in a money market fund earning 1.00% per year, but you are not sure you want to use any or all of that money.  

Using the tables in Exhibit 1-D, located on pp. 42-43 in the Ch. 1 Appendix of Focus on Personal Finance, determine the total amount of payment due at the end of each year, and divide by 12 to estimate the monthly payment for each of the following loan scenarios. Also, calculate the total amount of interest you would pay over the life of each loan. Be sure to show your work for opportunities to earn partial credit, where applicable. 

For example, if you have the correct formula but put a decimal in the wrong spot you could earn partial credit. The first row in the table has been completed to demonstrate you how work can be shown.

  

Loan Amount 

Interest Rate 

Term 

Monthly Loan Payment = Amount Borrowed divided by “Table Factor in Exhibit 1-D”   divided by 12  

Total Amount of Interest = (Monthly Loan Payment * Term * 12) – Loan   Amount 

 

$7,500 

6% 

3 years 

Example:

7500/2.673=2,805.84

2,805.84/12= 233.82

Example:

(233.82*3*12) – 7,500= 917.52

 
$7,500 
6% 

5 years 

 

$10,000 

6% 
5 years 

 

$15,000 

6% 
5 years 

6. Based on the above calculations, the price of the car, and the money available in a money market fund, which loan option would you suggest to someone purchasing a vehicle? Please explain the rationale and considerations for your decision. 

7. In your own words, how would you summarize “opportunity cost”? How does the concept of opportunity cost apply to this decision? Explain in a brief paragraph.


 

Income Taxes 

Each year you will need to file a federal income tax return by April 15th. While you may use software or a tax preparation professional to help you complete your return, there are still some terms of which you should have a basic understanding. Respond to the following to demonstrate your understanding. Each response should be at least 50 words.    

8. Explain the differences between taxable income and adjusted gross income.  

9. In your own words, define tax deduction, exemption, and tax credit. 

TimeValue of Money, Opportunity Cost, and Income Taxes Worksheet

Scenario 1: Time Value of Money / Cash Management Products

1. Use this simple savings calculator to complete Scenario 1:

https://www.thecalculatorsite.com/finance/calculators/compoundinterestcalculator.php

. You will enter the Initial Amount of Savings (Present Value), Annual Interest Rate (Rate of Return), and Number of Periods/Years into the calculator. The calculator will compute the Future Values.

In this scenario you will look at the impact of interest rates on your savings. Suppose that you have $2,000 of savings.

 

You don’t anticipate needing to dip into these funds in the next five years. Based on the information provided in the table, calculate the future value (FV) of $2,000 at the end of years 1 and 5 if it were to be completely invested in each of the different cash management products.  

Enter your answers in the indicated cells of the table below. The Restrictions/Fees on Product Usage column relates to question 2 of Scenario 1.

Answer:
Calculator Inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate (compounded quarterly):
Number of Years:

Answer:
Calculator Inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate (compounded quarterly):
Number of Years:

Product

Annual Interest Rate

Restrictions/Fees on Product Usage

FV at end of Year 1

FV at end of Year 5

Checking Account

0.00%

· No minimum

· No limit on withdrawals

Answer:

Calculator Inputs:

Initial Amount:

Annual Interest Rate (compounded quarterly):

Number of Years:

Answer:

Calculator Inputs:

Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate (compounded quarterly):
Number of Years:

Savings Account

1.50%

· No minimum

· Limited to 3 withdrawals per month

Answer:

Calculator Inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate (compounded quarterly):
Number of Years:

Certificate of Deposit (CD)

5%

· $500 minimum balance

· Early withdrawal penalty: 180 days of interest plus $25

Answer:

Calculator Inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate (compounded quarterly):
Number of Years:

2. Based on your calculations and on all you have learned this week, how would you choose to save your $2,000? Consider things such as rate of return, inflation, taxes, liquidity, safety, restrictions, and fees, and explain the rationale for your decision. Respond in at least 50 words.  

Scenario 2: Time Value of Money / Compounding Interest 

3. Use this simple savings calculator to complete Scenario 2:
https://www.thecalculatorsite.com/finance/calculators/compoundinterestcalculator.php
. You will enter the Initial Amount of Savings (Present Value), Annual Interest Rate (Rate of Return), Interest Compounded, and Number of Periods/Years into the calculator. The calculator will compute the Future Values.

In this scenario you will start with a big deposit and see how interest, compounding, and time will change the balance over time. Suppose that you inherit $10,000 from your late uncle. You save this money and do not deposit any more money to the account. Determine how much money you would have at the end of each of the periods for each of the scenarios in the table below, assuming that you don’t make any withdrawals from the account over the period.

Enter your answers in the indicated cells of the table below:

Answer:

Enter your inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate:
Compounded:
Number of Years:

2.00%

Answer:

Enter your inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate:
Compounded:
Number of Years:

Answer:

Enter your inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate:
Compounded:
Number of Years:

Answer:

Enter your inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate:
Compounded:
Number of Years:

8.00%

Quarterly

Answer:

Enter your inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate:
Compounded:
Number of Years:

Answer:

Enter your inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate:
Compounded:
Number of Years:

Answer:

Enter your inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate:
Compounded:
Number of Years:

 Annual Interest Rate

Interest Compounded

FV at the end of Year 5

FV at the end of Year 10

FV at the end of Year 30

2.00%

Annually

Answer:

Enter your inputs:

Initial Amount:

Annual Interest Rate:

Compounded:

Number of Years:

Answer:

Enter your inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate:
Compounded:
Number of Years:

Quarterly

Answer:
 
Enter your inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate:
Compounded:

Number of Years:

Answer:
 
Enter your inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate:
Compounded:
Number of Years:

Answer:
 
Enter your inputs:
Initial Amount:
Annual Interest Rate:
Compounded:
Number of Years:

8.00%

Annually

4. Based on your calculations above, explain in your own words the impact of compounding interest. 

Scenario 3: Cost of Credit / Opportunity Cost / Trade-Offs 

 

5. In this scenario you will calculate the monthly payment and total interest paid on a car loan. Suppose that you need $15,000 to buy a used vehicle to get back and forth to work and school. You have $7,500 in a money market fund earning 1.00% per year, but you are not sure you want to use any or all of that money. 

Using the tables in Exhibit 1-D, located on pp. 42-43 in the Ch. 1 Appendix of Focus on Personal Finance, determine the total amount of payment due at the end of each year, and divide by 12 to estimate the monthly payment for each of the following loan scenarios. Also, calculate the total amount of interest you would pay over the life of each loan. Be sure to show your work for opportunities to earn partial credit, where applicable. 

For example, if you have the correct formula but put a decimal in the wrong spot you could earn partial credit. The first row in the table has been completed to demonstrate you how work can be shown.

Loan Amount 

Interest Rate 

Term 

Monthly Loan Payment = Amount Borrowed divided by “Table Factor in Exhibit 1-D” divided by 12  

Total Amount of Interest = (Monthly Loan Payment * Term * 12) – Loan Amount 

$7,500 

6% 

3 years 

Example:
7500/2.673=2,805.84
2,805.84/12= 233.82

Example:
(233.82*3*12) – 7,500= 917.52

$7,500 

6%

5 years 

$10,000 

6%

5 years 

$15,000 

6%

5 years 

 

6. Based on the above calculations, the price of the car, and the money available in a money market fund, which loan option would you suggest to someone purchasing a vehicle? Please explain the rationale and considerations for your decision. 

7. In your own words, how would you summarize “opportunity cost”? How does the concept of opportunity cost apply to this decision? Explain in a brief paragraph.

Income Taxes  

 

Each year you will need to file a federal income tax return by April 15th. While you may use software or a tax preparation professional to help you complete your return, there are still some terms of which you should have a basic understanding. Respond to the following to demonstrate your understanding. Each response should be at least 50 words.    

8. Explain the differences between taxable income and adjusted gross income.  

9. In your own words, define tax deduction, exemption, and tax credit. 

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