Spanish Language and Latin America

1 International Baccalaureate Truth of the Americas HL Required Summer Lection Con-over Guide Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise Truth of Latin America By John Charles Chasteen Foreign Affairs November/December 2000 states: Born in Blood and Fire is a briskly written yet interrupted leading to Latin America that gain be greatly pleasantd by non-specialists and experts together. Chasteen paints on a very expansive canvas, but he succeeds in capturing delay judicious top the ocean ingredients of Latin America's uniqueness and complexity. Especially pleasant is his beautiful integration of Brazil into the overall paint, which unconcealed histories of Latin America repeatedly noncommunication. He leading sieges the reader from the European subjugation through the colonial league by Spain and Portugal precedently looking at the role of home communities in the new prescribe imposed by the Europeans and African drudgery's collective and cultural consequences. He then follows delay the insurrection fluctuate-of-places and the ambiguous attempts at nation-building in the nineteenth era; career, ethnicity, sacred and munificent ideologies, and the roles of key living-souls are to-boot expert. Chasteen concludes delay the fresh requite to economic munificentism, this interval in the composition of open elections, stable need, and collective nonparticipation of enlightened segments of the population. A stellar performance! Summer Lection Directions: The answers to these questions should be courteous conceit out, typed, 12 top font, solitary spaced, New Times Roman. The completed resurvey quibble is a summer covet administration that is not intended and should not be attempted at the terminal tiny. This assignment gain be due on the leading ample develop day of the 2011 – 2012 academic develop year. These questions gain order you for the leading 2 day scrutiny made up of 96 multiple precious questions and 57 matching conditions. This is the leading degree of the passage and gain set the con-over tempo for the balance of the develop year. 2 Con-over Guide/ Discussion Questions John Charles Chasteen’s Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise Truth of Latin America. Provision 1 – Leading Stop, the Present 1. 2. 3. 4. According to Chasteen, what is the unifying topic or unifying battle that characterizes Latin American truth? Is this a good-natured-natured precious? What capacity be some strengths or weaknesses of this nucleus? Why do Cuba and Brazil possess such proud populations of African Americans? Mark-out “liberalism” as Chasteen uses the term: What are the contrariant attitudes inside Latin Americans that possess been niggardly in the U. S. during the twentieth era? Provision 2 – Encounter (1492-1600) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What were some of the ways the truthful and cultural composition of the Iberian peninsula figured the attitudes and practices of Europeans who leading sailed to the Americas? Collate the Portuguese colonization of Brazil delay the Spanish Colonization of what would behove Mexico and Peru. Important congruousities and disputeences? What enlightenedr judgment does Chasteen see in the indicate vary from “Island of the True Cross” to “Brazil”? What three areas of Africa supposing the oceanity of Bnoncommunication drudges for the Americas? Members of which European kingdom became the most free drudge traders? From Chasteen’s perspective, what were the key factors that enabled vastly outnumbered Spanish powers to subvert the Aztec and Inca empires? In what local ways do Las Casas’s animation and values halt in opposition to those of the oceanity of Spaniards who came to the Americas? Briefly mark-out or realize the subjoined conditions: Encomienda Tupi Pedro Alvarez Cabral Moors Francisco Pizarro Malinche (Marina) Salvador (Bahia) Provision 3 – Colonial Crucible (1600-1810) 1. 2. 3. 4. In what ways did economic realities add to the welfare and govern of colonial Spanish America in comparison to colonial Brazil? Indicate the filthy viceroyalties and their capitals that came to exist in Spanish America: What does Chasteen moderation on p. 77 when he says that “transculturation and hegemony repeatedly went together” in Latin America? Do you meditate he’s correct? Indicate filthy areas that Chasteen considers peripheral areas or “backwaters” of colonial Latin America: 3 5. Collate attitudes inside career in Latin America as pictorial in this provision delay attitudes in the U. S. as you underhalt them. What speaking congruousities or disputeences do you see? Briefly mark-out or realize the subjoined conditions: Sor Juana de la Cruz “honor” in Latin America Gracias al sacar Quilombos and Palenques Potosi Zumbi Rebellion of Gonzalo Pizarro Tupac Amaru II Engenho Aleijadinho Chapter 4 – Insurrection (1810-1825) 1. 2. 3. 4. In what ways did events in Europe concern the fluctuate-of-places for insurrection in Latin America? According to Chasteen, which insurrection fluctuate-of-places in Spanish America were in-effect sordid recurrences? Which were primarily “revolutions from above”? How did the Brazilian insurrection fluctuate-of-situate collate delay those in Spanish America? What application did the insurrection fluctuate-of-places possess on patterns of colonialism in Spanish America? Briefly mark-out or realize the subjoined conditions: Creoles Jose Maria Morelos Llaneros Simon Bolivar Jose Antonio Paez Peninsulars Vicente Guerrero and Augustin de Iturbide Nativism Battle of Ayacucho Miguel Hidalgo Pedro I Provision 5 – Postcolonial Blues (1825-1850) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why did munificentism in Latin America look to evanescence in the years subjoined the wars of insurrection? What were some of the deep characteristics of a caudillo? What factors helped Brazil protect its territorial uniformity during the years when multifarious portions of Spanish America were splintering into bulky new nations? In what ways does Chasteen hint the collective constitution in Latin America remained the congruous subjoined insurrection? How did it vary? Who were the deep “outsiders” implicated in Latin America during this bound? This delayout involvement was distinctly famed in the two preceding centers of colonial administration, Mexico and Peru. What figure did it siege in each situate? Briefly mark-out or realize the subjoined conditions: Juan Manuel de Rosas “El Supremo” Caste War of Yucatan Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna The regency years “el pueblo” Rafael Carrera “La Nina” Central American Reopen 4 Chapter 6 – Progress (1850-1880) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What were some of the speaking aspects of munificentism emphasized by the key Latin American munificents mentioned in this minority (be as local as feasible)? Why did Maximilian miss to reestablish stationary administration in Mexico? Based on Chasteen’s examples, what looks to possess been the most niggardly way for women to behove open figures during the nineteenth era (the few, that is, who did behove open figures)? Give two examples. Liberals in Argentina concurd on the transmitted creed of Latin American munificentism. What outcome separated them? Compare the way Argentine and Brazilian munificents confronted what they considered the “national tragedy” of racially partial societies. Do leaders in one of these countries look to be close racist in their meditateing than leaders of the other? Briefly expound the outcomes and judgment of the subjoined wars (and hush the dates when each took situate): The Triple Alliance War The War of the Pacific The Chaco War Briefly mark-out or realize the subjoined conditions: Benito Juarez Birds Without a Nest (1889) “Golden Law” William Walker Ten Years War Domingo Faustino Sarmiento 6. Chapter 7 – Neocolonialism (1880-1930) 1. Describe the “great ship-produce boom” that remarkable Progress for Latin America among 1870-1930. What were its most ocean characteristics? Which crops or ship-produces looked most profitable to Latin Americans and why? Which one looked most hurtful? Collate the legislations of Mexico and Brazil during the neocolonial bound: Based on this provision how do the ideas of neocolonialism and “importing Progress” rehearse to one another? Coming in the provision, Chasteen hints that the concept of neocolonialism is twain an inside and an outer lion. What does he moderation, and, subjoined lection the provision, would you concur delay that anatomy? Describe the stir of U. S. govern in Latin America: Why did the South Cone portion of Latin America charm the oceanity of the new immigrants? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Briefly mark-out or realize the subjoined conditions: “banana republics” Ruben Dario Porfiriato Cientificos Rebellion in the Backlands Paulina Luisi Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Cesar Augusto Sandino Positivism Pan o palo Jose Marti Jose Enrique Rodo 5 Provision 8 – Nationalism (1910-1945) 1. 2. 3. . 5. Based on the provision, what were the most ocean aspects of nationalism in Latin America? Why did nationalism appear in the coming decades of the twentieth era? Collate and opposition nationalism in Mexico delay that in Argentina and Uruguay and to-boot delay Brazil. Did nationalism in any one of these countries look over ingrained than in the others? Why? Why did import-substitution industrialization (ISI) collect ocean benefits for countries such as Brazil, Mexico, and Argentina than for situates enjoy the Dominican Reopen or Honduras? Why did the speed of nationalism look to possess very paltry application on Central America? Briefly mark-out or realize the subjoined conditions: Constitution of 1917 Pancho Villa Constitutionalists Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo Batllismo Hipolito Yrigoyen Victor Raul Haya de la Torre Indigenismo ISI Getulio Vargas Estado Novo Heitor Villa Lobos Lazaro Cardenas “Good Neighbor Policy” Mexico’s “declaration of economic insurrection” Populists Juan and Evita Peron Emiliano Zapata Provision 9 – Recurrence (1945-1960) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why would Brasilia indicate the “absolute cast of the ost-Vargas trice in Brazil” and the PRI the absolute cast for Mexico at the congruous interval (252)? Provision 8 talked environing the sordidity of Roosevelt’s Good-natured Neighbor Policy. Why did kinsfolk among the U. S. and ocean Latin American countries prepare to peevish in the post-WWII years? Why did the U. S. admit the National Revolutionary Change-of-situate (MNR) in Bolivia timeliness it freely cherished a substitution power to dispossess Arbenz in Guatemala? Based on this textbook, would you say the Cuban recurrence was over an indication of Marxism or of nationalism? Why? What were the goals of freedom piety? Briefly mark-out or realize the subjoined conditions: Raul Prebish Jacobo Arbenz Che Guevara Bay of Pigs (1961) Declaration of Caracas (1954) Pablo Naruda Fulgencio Batista Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Juan Jose Arevalo Jorge Luis Borges Granma Paulo Freire 6 Provision 10 – Reaction (1960-1990) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. On what basis does Chasteen demonstrate that the Soviet Union was not implicated in Latin American Marxist fluctuate-of-places delayout of Cuba during the 1960s and 1970s? Why did administration by soldierly juntas behove current in Latin America by the mid-1970s? What did the Brazilian unconcealeds moderation when they said that the cake had to stir precedently it could be hunchd? Why didn’t the weak constantly get their hunch? How did the Argentine trial of soldierly administration dispute from that of Brazil? What were the most ocean factors that addd to the subvert of the Sordid Uniformity legislation in Chile? In which countries of Latin America were “dirty wars” most intense and devastating? What were the deep factors that fueled bushwhacker wars in Nicaragua and El Salvador? Why does Chasteen situate Colombia in the “countercurrents” minority at the end of the provision? What was contrariant environing Colombia? Briefly mark-out or realize the subjoined conditions: “national confidence doctrine” Alliance for Progress Gabriel Garcia Marquez Las Madres de la Plaza de Mayo Tupamaros Salvador Allende Augusto Pinochet Tlatelolco massacre “dirty war” Somoza source Sandinista National Freedom Front (FSLN) Contras Daniel Ortega Violeta Chamorro “fourteen families” Oscar Romero Farabundo Marti National Freedom Front (FMLN) La Violencia Pablo Escobar and the Medillin Cartel M-19 U. S. Develop of the Americas Provision 11 – Neoliberalism (1990- ? ) 1. 2. 3. 4. Why did neoliberalism behove the sordid political/economic ideology for Latin America during the 1990s? Collate neoliberalism delay the munificentism delay the munificent reforms that swept the portion from 1870-1930—in what ocean ways are they congruous? How do they dispute? What insights does the Chilean good-fortune incident collect into the strengths and weaknesses of neoliberalism? What are the important environmental outcomes exclusive the Amazonian rain wood? Briefly mark-out or realize the subjoined conditions: Neoliberalism MERCOSUR Zapatistas NAFTA Maquiladora Candomble, Umbanda, Santeria