This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment.
As a group, examine a current area of health care research that is changing the way in which care is being delivered. Areas to consider may be technology, advancement of medical treatments, pharmacology advancement, HMIS, or gene research. Refer to the topic readings for additional ideas.
Create a 12-15-slide presentation with detailed speaker notes that addresses the following areas:
- The chosen area of health care research
- The potential ethical issues associated with this area of health care research
- The importance of clinical research and the Institutional Review Board when completing research
- The potential ethical issues surrounding the use of current and developing technology in health care research
Include at least three scholarly, peer-reviewed references from the GCU Library to support your positions.
While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
PHYSICIAN AID x
Submission Id: 03f50969-0ee3-4853-9290-b927396e39de
RUNNING HEAD: DEATH WITH DIGNITY 1
Death with Dignity 7
According to section two of the Death with Dignity Act of Oregon a person who qualifies to request for the death with dignity should be an adult who is capable and a resident of Oregon. The person should have been determined by an attending physician to be suffering from a terminal disease and must have voluntarily expressed his or her wish to die in a dignified manner (ORS 127.800 to 127.897). In the above case, Zachary Davis is a legal resident who has been living in Portland, Oregon for 20 years. He is also an adult aged 35 years old who was determined by his attending physician to be suffering from advanced glioblastoma multiforme brain cancer, one of the deadliest brain tumors with a very low survival rate. After surveying the six options given by the doctors, Zachary Davis willingly expresses the wish to participate in Physician Aid-In-Dying. With all the above incidences expressed by Zachary Davis and characteristics he qualifies to take part in the practice. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act (DWDA) requires the Oregon Health Authority (OHA) to collect information about patients and physicians who take part in the practice and publish an annual statistical report.
Mental health is a component that has been considered by the Death with Dignity Act – Oregon revised statute. In this case, if the opinion of the attending physician or psychiatrist suggests that the patient may be suffering from a psychological disorder or depression, causing impaired judgment then the patient will be referred for counseling process. No treatment to end his/her life shall be performed until the counseling physician determines that the patient no longer suffers from a psychological disorder or depression causing impaired judgment. Sometimes it is good to consider that a patient may be on medication and fatigued at the same time. A proper distinction must be made between the patient suffering from mental disorder and effects of illness and its treatment. In such a case, the patient’s medical records must be examined carefully.
Interviews may also be used to examine the exact state of a patient before conducting the treatment. Since most patients might be under critical conditions to allow them for interviews, with their permission, a member of the patient’s health care team may be interviewed. Caution must be keenly taken into consideration while using standardized test instruments to enable patients appreciate the process. During the interview you may gather information about factors concerning judgment., long-held values, family issues, financial issues and previous experience with patients who have undergone the same process. This will help much to determine whether a patient is suffering from any mental disorder or depression before the Death with Act process starts. The final report should carefully without alteration be handed over to the attending physician who should make prescriptions on whether the patient should undergo the process or not.
In my opinion, as the Death with Dignity Act gains momentum globally, the practice should not be enforced on patients without clear evaluation. Some factors which include; sufficient capacity, framework needed, regulations in place, patient’s willingness, mental disorder of the patient and physician in charge should be keenly taken into consideration before any decision is reached at. This would help the patient and his/her family enter into a satisfactory agreement to allow the patient to undergo the slowly dying process. Therefore, I support the legislation on a condition that the above factors are taken into consideration.
In most health care institutions surrogate consent statutes have been implemented to provide legal authority for health care decisions through a non-judicial rule of law in a case whereby no one has been appointed as the agent or guardian. Instead of dealing with defiant families or patients who are not in a condition to make decisions, surrogate consent has allowed physicians to seek for consultation from a designated individual who can express the incapacitated patient’s healthcare wishes and provide informed decision mind or refusal to proposed health care interventions. Most healthcare uses the hierarchy surrogate consent laws. Under this scheme, for decision-making, members of the close family fall within a priority list of potential surrogates who may qualify for the position. The members who qualify here may include a spouse, an adult child, an adult sibling or a parent.
To protect against the potential misuse or abuse of incapacitated adults, some health care institutions have adopted limitations on surrogate decision-making. They acquired procedural limitations requiring at least one witness be present whenever a surrogate grant, refuses or withdraws consent on behalf of the patient. The laws only permit surrogates to withhold life-sustaining treatment only if the patient has been certified to be in a terminal or permanently unconscious condition. In other circumstances, surrogates are bound to make decisions in accordance with a substituted judgment standard. Here the surrogate makes decisions according to the patient’s wishes even if the wishes may have not expressly conveyed. In some cases, surrogates may be unable to reach consensus regarding health care decisions. Most institutions have provided avenues for resolution of these differences.
Despite the many statutory improvements in the Death with Dignity Act, significant challenges still arise o be solved in the near future with the legislation. Clear outlines should be stipulated for individuals to understand well procedural requirements for one to be able to undergo the treatment. Patients and individuals close to patients should also be fully satisfied with the regulations in place, before consenting to the process. On the other hand, surrogate consent statutes may also need further evaluation before being allowed to consent to a health care decision. Some factors should be considered in determining surrogates to be appointed. These may include; whether specifying a priority order of surrogates can accurately reflect today’s family and cultural diversity, whether surrogates’ decisions accurately reflect the patient’s values and priorities and finally how-to device more meaningful decision-making processes for patients. Above all the attending physician may prescribe, but not administer medication to enable the person to hasten death in a humane and dignified manner.
American Public Health Association. APHA policy statement 81-23. Death with dignity. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1981. Available at: http://www.apha.org/advocacy/policy/policysearch/default.htm?id=995. Accessed November 29, 2008.
Cohen LM, McCue JD, Germain M, Kiellstrand CM. Dialysis discontinuation. A “good” death? Arch Intern Med. 1995; 155:42–47.
Dept. of Human Resources, Oregon Health Division, Center for Disease Prevention and Epidemiology. (2001). Oregons Death with dignity act: three years of legalized physician-assisted suicide. Salem, Or.
Furbish, L. K. (1995). Oregon Death with Dignity Act. Hartford: Connecticut General Assembly, Office of Legislative Research.
Matrise, L. M. (2008). Policy analysis of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act.
Payne SA, Langley-Evans A, Hillier R. Perceptions of a “good” death: a comparative study of the views of hospice staff and patients. Palliat Med. 1996; 10:307–312.
Pearlman R, Starks HE. Why do people seek physician-assisted death? In: Quill TE, Battin MP, eds. Physician-Assisted Dying. The Case for Palliative Care and Patient Choice. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2004:91–101.
Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. Strong Public Support for Right to Die. Jan. 5, 2006. Available at: http://people-press.org/report/266/strong-public-support-for-right-to-die. Accessed December 2, 2008.
Stewart AL, Teno J, Patrick DL, Lynn J. The concept of quality of life of dying persons in the context of health care. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1999; 17:93–108.
alternatives. The emphasis is not on deciding the ‘bes
dignity. While the advocates of the ‘sanctity-of-life’ mod
‘quality of life.’ The lack of some standard of qualit
of the term. That one’s heart is beating and that one
we judge a person’s deeds. The criminal law does not speak
victim. One would be appalled if a murderer argued
had occurred.” Similarly, we would
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