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CJ598

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Week 1

Revising Your Problem Statement

Briefly explain the topic you are studying for your Capstone Project to your classmates. Since initially identifying your topic in CJ525 (Identifying the successes and challenges of the Human Trafficking Task Force in Phoenix, AZ. Phoenix Task Force), you have spent time developing your problem statement, reviewing the literature, and drafting your research project plan. Post the current version of your problem statement and answer the following questions:

·

How has your problem statement changed as a result of your continued efforts associated with developing your literature review?

· Does your problem statement effectively explain the who, what, where, when, and why of your proposed research? Explain your reasoning.

Include supporting citations from scholarly, peer-reviewed sources and provide the complete APA reference for each. In your response posts, provide your peers with suggestions for improvement in clarity and/or content. Keep in mind that a solid and well-articulated problem statement is critical for the success of your research proposal.

**Note: Continue to revise your problem statement based on feedback from peers and faculty. This will be part of your Final Project due in Unit 6.

Reminders for Problem Statement Requirements – Please Read!

Reminders for Problem Statement Requirements

· The problem statement must be 4-5 sentences in a SINGLE concise paragraph.

· It MUST include citations from sources to demonstrate that the problem exists, and that research is needed.

The Problem Statement Must Include:

· A concise summary of the major problem occurring in the study site and discussion of how the study will investigate the issue

· Answers the questions:

 

Why does this research need to be conducted and how will it be conducted?

· Explains how the study will address or research the problem

· Narrow the focus for the Literature Review to studies specifically related to the problem

· Aligns with the introduction and research hypothesis

· Provides a general map for your research design

Effective problem statements answer the following questions:

·

· Why is this problem important?

· Where is this problem occurring/ where would you physically have to go to collect the data?

· Who is being studied?

· What is being studied?

· When will it be studied?

· Specific: needs to be specific to a particular location where the issue is most problematic

· Measurable: the proposed study outcomes must address problem and be measurable

· Achievable: the proposed study must be able to be accomplished in period of about a year

· Realistic: the proposed study must address the problem using a feasible study design

· Time-bound: the proposed study must address the problem within a specific time-period

 

Helpful Resources

· William Trochim’s Knowledge Base – Problem Formulation: 

https://conjointly.com/kb/problem-formulation/

· Purdue Online Writing Lab – Problem Statements  

https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/subject_specific_writing/writing_in_the_purdue_surf_program/surf_workshop_resources_problem_statements/index.html

· USC’s Importance of the Problem Statement – 

https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/introduction/researchproblem

CJ598

Week 1 Assignment

Research Project Revision

In preparation for this assignment, 

look ahead to the requirements for the HM598 Research Project

. You should also review your instructor’s feedback based on your final submission of your Research Project in Unit 6 of CJ525.

Turn on 

Track Changes

 in Microsoft Word to edit your document and display the changes that you made. You will submit this assignment showing the edits you have made since CJ525 with Track Changes ON.

Edit your Research Project to integrate feedback from your CJ525 instructor and from information provided during the first unit in HM598. After addressing feedback, add the following additions to your research proposal:

· Add a section that discusses the issues related to organizational behavior and day-to-day management in your study setting;

· If you do not have it already, add/update a section that discusses the ethical considerations associated with your proposed study and the selected site; and

· Add a review of five additional peer-reviewed research studies to the Literature Review section of the project. 

Review the Volkema (2010) reading and determine which principle from each of the four sets (individual or collective, differentiation or integration, centralization or decentralization, and linear or nonlinear) characterize the organizational behavior in your study setting. For example, can your study site be characterized as having a centralized or decentralized administration? This is a characteristic that can have a distinct impact on data collection and interpretation. After identifying which of the organizational behavior principles apply to your study site, explain the organizational culture in your setting in terms of individuals, groups, leadership, management, goals and values. How might this organizational culture impact your proposed data collection process and the interpretation of the information collected?

Outline the steps that you would need to take to ensure that data collection was performed ethically and that human subjects would not be harmed in your proposed study. Be specific, explaining the protections that you would put in place to ensure their safety and how you would inform study subjects of their rights and these protections.

Finally, review an additional five peer-reviewed research studies on your topic and add the review of each to your Literature Review section. Do not use law review articles or non-peer-reviewed sources that do not report upon original research conducted by the authors. Work to locate recent studies (completed in the last five years) so that you can learn from the study results and use the information to inform your own data collection plan. Do not use sources more than 10 years from publication.

Be sure to write in a scholarly and objective tone, avoiding the use of first person, personal pronouns, contractions, and colloquial or conversational language. Use citations from scholarly, peer-reviewed sources throughout to support your content and credit sources of information and ideas.

Directions:

In addition to fulfilling the specifics of the assignment, a successful paper must also meet the following criteria:

· Include a cover page and references page in 10 – 12 point font (Arial, Courier, and Times New Roman are acceptable).

· Viewpoint and purpose should be clearly established and sustained.

· Assignment should follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.).

· Writing should be well ordered, logical and unified, as well as original and insightful.

· Your work should display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics.

· Appropriate citation style should be followed.

You should also make sure to:

· Include a title page with full name, class name, section number, and date.

· Include an introductory and concluding paragraph and demonstrate college-level communication through the composition of original materials in Standard English.

· Use examples to support your discussion.

· Cite all sources on a separate reference page at the end of your paper and cite within the body of your paper using APA format and citation style. For more information on APA guidelines, visit Academic Tools.

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11

Preliminary Applied Research Proposal

Unit 6 Assignment

Renee C. Bridgeman

Purdue University Global

CJ525: Applied Research in Criminal Justice

Professor Carolee Larsen

November 1, 2021

Preliminary Applied Research Proposal

Introduction

Human trafficking has become a major concern today, which entails the illegal trade of individuals and for exploitation or commercial gain. It can be considered modern-day slavery where force, fraud, or coercion obtain an individual for labor or commercial sex. As a result of these concerns, the United States of America established human trafficking taskforces to help address this issue. Human trafficking task forces are multidisciplinary teams that have been created to provide numerous services and resources to victims. These taskforces have the responsibility of investigating and prosecuting persons who engage in human trafficking. Phoenix, a city located in Arizona, has its own human trafficking task force, which aids in the fight against human trafficking. This task force has had several success stories on the issue of human trafficking, where they have saved numerous victims and prosecuted a large number of individuals who participate in human trafficking (Fordyce, 2012). Although they have numerous successes, this task force has to deal with several challenges in their line of work.

Problem Statement

The Human Trafficking Task Force in Phoenix, Arizona, has had numerous successes fighting against human trafficking. However, this task force has to deal with numerous challenges, making it difficult to fight human trafficking effectively and efficiently (Fordyce, 2012). The study subjects will be members of the human trafficking task force in Phoenix, Arizona, and the study aims to start from January 2022 to July 2022. Therefore it is important to identify these challenges and provide recommendations on how to address them.

Literature Review

Introduction

Human trafficking is a form of modern-day slavery where individuals coerce or compel individuals to provide labor services or engage in commercial sex activities. Human trafficking has become a major concern where millions of men, women, and children are trafficked globally. The United States is one of the countries which has several reported cases of human trafficking. The human trafficking task force was established in the United States to help investigate and stop incidents of human trafficking and ensure justice for human trafficking victims. Human trafficking task forces are multidisciplinary teams that have been created to provide numerous services and resources to victims. The human trafficking task force is also responsible for investigating and prosecuting the individuals who participate in human trafficking. The Ccity of Phoenix has its own human trafficking task force, which aids in the fight against human trafficking. Like all task forces in different states, it has had several success stories on the issue of human trafficking, where they have saved numerous victims and prosecuted a large number of individuals who participate in human trafficking. Although they have numerous successes, this task force has to deal with several challenges in their line of work. The purpose of this study is to determine the challenges that the Arizona Hhuman Ttrafficking Ttask Fforce is dealing with in the fight against human trafficking and the successes of this task force. This essay aims to carry out a literature review of studies that have been carried out on the challenges facing human trafficking.

Theoretical Considerations

Several assumptions are related to the challenges that the human trafficking task force has to deal with during its fight against human trafficking. The first assumption of the challenges that this task force has to deal with is insufficient funding to acquire the resources they need to succeed in their fight against human trafficking. The first hypothesis of the study is that human trafficking challenges are caused by insufficient funding and resources. The second assumption is that the challenges faced result from the lack of willingness of human trafficking victims to provide details on the perpetrators. The other assumptions made are poor investigation procedures, broad ambiguity concerning human trafficking, and poor coordination between the human trafficking agencies. The theory which will be used to explain the challenges that the human task force is dealing with is the critical theory. This theory focuses on reflective assessment and critique of the society and culture to identify the challenges within that society.

Literature Review

Major Themes. Farrell et al.(2019) argue that one of the challenges that human trafficking taskforces have to deal with is the unwillingness of human trafficking victims to report their victimization or provide detail on their encounters with human trafficking. The majority of the human trafficking victims do not report their encounters, and the families of these victims also remain silent. The lack of cooperation from these makes it difficult for the human trafficking task force to identify the perpetrators of these crimes and hinders the investigation process. The argument is supported by the research conducted by Farrell & Pfeffer (2014). The authors argue that the victims of human trafficking are reluctant to provide details of their human trafficking encounters because they fear the police and their trafficker. Fordyce (2012) also agrees with the two research articles on the unwillingness of the victims to provide details about their encounters. Fordyce argues that it is difficult for the human trafficking task forces and other security agencies to identify human trafficking incidents because these victims are unlikely to identify themselves or provide details regarding their traffickers. Aronowitz (2010) argues that victims are unwilling to provide details about their victimization or cooperate with law enforcement officials if they have been identified or rescued

Lack of training is the other challenge that the human trafficking task force face. Farell et al. (2019) argue that officers lack the training to identify the incidents which involve human trafficking. Fordyce (2012) also argues that the lack of training is a human trafficking task force’s challenge. Fordyce argues that local and state law enforcement agencies require training on the laws governing human trafficking, the techniques they can use to identify human trafficking cases, and effective interviewing methods. However, to ensure that the training is successful, there must be coordination between law enforcement agencies, non-governmental organizations, and prosecutors.Fordyce (2012) argues that the other challenges that these task forces have to deal with are where victims are mistakenly identified as illegal immigrants and prostitutes, resulting in them being treated as criminal offenders instead of victims. Farrell & Pfeffer (2014) also argue that arresting human trafficking victims due to mistaken identity as immigrants or prostitutes has made it challenging to identify human trafficking victims.

The other challenge that taskforces have to deal with in their fight against human trafficking is the lack of resources. Fordyce (2012) argues that the lack of resources, such s the lack of officers to investigate human trafficking incidents or providers to provide victim assistance, is one of the challenges faced by these taskforces. Farell et al. (2019) also argue that the lack of outreach and partnerships to providers who offer their services to migrant persons or vulnerable communities has made it difficult for the human trafficking taskforces to identify victims of human trafficking. Outreaches and partnerships with the migrants and vulnerable communities are essential for these taskforces since it allows them to build cases of human trafficking and carry out the required investigations.The research by Farrell & Pfeffer (2014) argues that one of the challenges that the human trafficking task force has to deal with is broad public ambiguity concerning human trafficking. The study carried out in twelve counties in the United States determined that the local enforcement agencies are confused about what human trafficking is. The barriers can lead to unclear directions between lawmakers, the public, and the police leadership. The author also argues that the lack of investigative culture and an institutional structure that would allow the investigation of human trafficking is one of the challenges that human trafficking taskforces have to deal with during their investigation of human trafficking incidents. Warria et al.(2015) also argue that the challenge faced in the fight against human trafficking is the lack of clear definition in national legislation regarding identifying human trafficking victims.

Comparison and Contrast. The strength of the research article by Farell et al. (2019) is that the data was obtained from human trafficking incidents and conduction interviews. This approach made it possible for the authors to determine the challenges in the fight against human trafficking. There are no weaknesses in the methods used in the study by Farell et al. (2019). The strength of the methods by Farrell & Pfeffer (2014) is that it used data from the National Institute of Justice to determine challenges faced in the fight gains human trafficking. The weakness of the methods is that the authors used a limited sample data sample which can invalidate the research findings. Aronowitz (2012) and Waria et al. (2015) have no identifiable weaknesses and strengths.

Key Findings. The key findings by Farell et al., 2019 on the challenges facing the fight on human trafficking include the unwillingness of the human trafficking survivors to provide details, poor coordination among human trafficking agencies, and the challenge of differentiating individuals in sex work perpetrators from human trafficking victims. Farrell & Pfeffer’s (2014) findings are that the challenges faced include broad public ambiguity concerning human trafficking and the lack of investigative culture and institutional and institutional structure that would allow the investigation of human trafficking. The key finding of Fordyce, 2012 on challenges faced are mistaken identity, inadequate resources to handle human trafficking issues properly, and poor interviewing procedures used during investigations with human trafficking victims. The key findings of the article by Warria et al. (2015) include a lack of clear definition and unwillingness to share information. The article’s findings by Aronowitz, A. A. (2010) is that law enforcement officials mistake human trafficking victims for immigrants or prostitutes, resulting in them being treated as criminals. The articles by Farrell & Pfeffer (2014), Fordyce (2012), and Aronowitz (2010) have similar key findings on how the unwillingness of the victims to provide detail about their encounters is one of the challenges which human trafficking enforcement agencies have to deal with. The other similarity in key findings is the article by Farell et al. (2019) and Fordyce (2012), where both agree that the lack of training is one of the challenges that need to be addressed.

Summary and Conclusion

The literature review highlighted several challenges that law enforcement agencies that fight against human traffickings, such as the human trafficking task force, have to deal with. These challenges include the unwillingness of the victims to self-report or provide details about their incident, lack of training, ambiguous definition of human trafficking, lack of resources, and treating victims as criminals. What is not known from the literature review on my topic is the successes of the Arizona human trafficking taskforces. The literature review has only addressed the challenges facing these agencies. There are no controversies or conflicting findings in the reviewed literature. The drawn conclusion is that the unwillingness of the victims to provide details on their encounters is one of the leading challenges that the task force has to address. One of the questions that need to be addressed is; what strategies can the task force use to ensure the cooperation of the victims to provide details of their human trafficking encounters?

Research Design

Research Purpose

The purpose of the study is to identify the challenges that the Arizona Human Trafficking Task Force faces. It also aims to provide recommendations for establishing policies that will help address the task force’s challenges. The last purpose of this research is to identify the successes of the Arizona Human Trafficking Task Force

Study Variables and Conceptual Definitions

The study’s independent variables include tasks including communication between the task force members, allocated resources, coordination between security agencies, interviewing techniques, the willingness of victims to provide details, and lack of public education in identifying human trafficking victims. The dependent variable for the study is the success of the human trafficking task force in prosecuting, investigating, and identifying victims and perpetrators of human trafficking and the challenges that the Phoenix Human Trafficking Taskforce is facing (Farrell et al., 2019).

Research Hypothesis

There are two hypotheses that have been identified for this study. The first hypothesis of the study is that human trafficking challenges are caused by insufficient funding and resources. The second hypothesis is that the challenges faced result from the lack of willingness of human trafficking victims to provide details.

Research Goals

The first goal of the research is to identify the challenges that the Arizona human task force is dealing with within seven months. The second goal is to identify the successes that the Arizona Human Trafficking Task Force has had within seven months

Data Approach

The research method that I will use for my study is qualitative research. Qualitative research entails collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data that is non-numerical such as videos or texts, to understand a phenomenon, the opinions of people, or their experiences. I will use this approach in my research because it will give me an in-depth insight into the challenges that the Arizona Human Trafficking Taskforce is facing and the successes that they have had in the fight against human trafficking. The qualitative research approach will also help me generate new research ideas. I will obtain data for my study through interviews, surveys, group discussions, and observations, which will help me meet the research goals (Lim et al., 2019). The qualitative approach will allow me to understand the experiences of the Arizona human trafficking task force members in their day-to-day lives. The qualitative research will also entail a systematic review of articles highlighting the challenges facing human trafficking taskforces. The research articles used in the study will be qualitative studies that have been obtained from the past five years. I will use the systematic qualitative review because it brings together research evidence that I will use to meet my study’s aim and find the answers to my research questions. The systematic review will help uncover a new understanding of the findings of the surveys, interviews, group discussions, and observations. I will use qualitative research because it saves money, and data can be collected quickly. The other reason I selected this research method is that it is flexible. It will allow me to follow up on any answers to the research question to generate the depth and complexity of the data I will collect. The depth and complexity of the data will increase the validity and reliability of the study results. The qualitative research method will allow me to collect detail-oriented data, which will provide sufficient details to meet the aim of the study and address the study’s research questions.

Ethical Considerations

Several ethical considerations will take into place when conducting my research. I will ensure that my research is carried out ethically by ensuring that the participants are not subjected to any harm in any way. Secondly, I will ensure that I respect the dignity of the participants of the study. I will also ensure that I have obtained informed consent before they participate in the study and that the privacy and confidentiality of the participants are maintained (Resnik, 2018). I will also ensure that the study is ethical by avoiding any exaggerations and deception about the study’s aims and objectives. I will also ensure that any conflicts that might exist in the study are declared. I will ensure that the human subjects in my study are not harmed by ensuring their privacy and confidentiality. If their identity is identified, their lives will be at risk because the human traffickers will want to silence them. I will ensure confidentiality by keeping the clients confidential and ensuring that their identity is not revealed. I will also protect personally identifiable information in a secured database and ensure the persons who access this data have obtained informed consent from the participants.

Conclusion

This study is exploratory research that aims to explore the successes of the Phoenix Human Trafficking Taskforce and the challenges the task force is dealing with when investigating and prosecuting cases of human trafficking. The study’s aim and purpose will be achieved through the use of the qualitative research approach. I will use this approach in my research because it will give me an in-depth insight into the challenges that the Arizona Human Trafficking Taskforce is facing and the successes that they have had in the fight against human trafficking. The research is important because it will identify the challenges that human trafficking taskforces have to deal with in their pursuit of justice for human trafficking victims and bring the culprits to justice. Suppose the purpose of the study is accomplished. In that case, it will help develop recommendations that will inform the united states, federal, and state governments on how they can address these challenges, which will improve the efficiency and effectiveness of these task forces.

References

Aronowitz, A. A. (2010). Overcoming the challenges to accurately measuring the phenomenon of human trafficking. Revue internationale de droit pénal, 81(3), 493-511.

Farrell, A., Dank, M., de Vries, I., Kafafian, M., Hughes, A., & Lockwood, S. (2019). Failing victims? Challenges of the police response to human trafficking. Criminology & Public Policy, 18(3), 649-673.

Farrell, A., & Pfeffer, R. (2014). Policing human trafficking: Cultural blinders and organizational barriers. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 653(1), 46-64.

Fordyce, E. M. (2012). Identifying the unknown: Challenges and solutions to US human trafficking investigations. PublicINReview, 1(1), 23-32.

Lim, S., Smith, C. A., Costello, M. F., MacMillan, F., Moran, L., & Ee, C. (2019). Barriers and facilitators to weight management in overweight and obese women living in Australia with PCOS: a qualitative study. BMC endocrine disorders, 19(1), 1-9.

Resnik, D. B. (2018). The ethics of research with human subjects: Protecting people, advancing science, promoting trust (Vol. 74). Springer.

Warria, A., Nel, H., & Triegaardt, J. (2015). Challenges in identification of child victims of transnational trafficking. Practice, 27(5), 315-333.

Respond Kindly to Student #1 (Nathan Trotter)

My research proposal will focus on the use of social media during disasters by Colorado emergency management. My current problem statement is:

“The study is aimed to evaluate the results of three studies regarding the use of social media during emergencies. Two of the three studies will be specific to emergency management programs that have utilized social media in Colorado. The results of those studies will be evaluated. The timeframe of the current study will include the periods in which social media use during emergencies was studied in each of the three source studies.”

My problem statement has evolved from being very simple and broad and seemed to only restate the general aim of the proposal. According to Denscombe (2019), problem statements should give a brief background to readers but quickly become focused in detail. My problem statement could be improved by being more specific on the 5 w’s. I could identify specifically which emergency management departments and be more focused on details in other areas as well.

References:

Denscombe, M. (2019). Ebook: Research Proposals 2e (2nd Edition). McGraw-Hill UK. 

https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/books/9780335248308

Respond Kindly to Student #2 (Blake Carter)

My topic has to deal with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs). However, more specifically it is about their use when it comes to border security. My problem statement is the following:

The proposed study will examine the use of UAVs along the Mexico–United States border by collecting data from the USBP operating in the Yuma Sector in Arizona. The objective is to determine if UAVs could contribute to safer and more efficient patrolling for Border Patrol Agents. The study is projected to begin in January of 2022 and be concluded in June of 2022.

In my view, my problem statement identifies the five Ws when it comes to research. The who consists of the USBP and the Border Patrol Agents. The what is in regard to UAVS. The where is the Yuma Sector in Arizona. When is from January of 2022 to June of 2022 and lastly why is to see if the UAVs can contribute to safer and more efficient patrolling for Border Patrol Agents.

However, my original problem statement is lacking in two areas. First, it requires citations and secondly there needs to be an actual problem that needs to be solved. I believe this can be remedied by adding the following:

The United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) has expressed interest in the use of UAVs for homeland security purposes. The CBP often cites the great boons UAVs have provided (Barry, 2013, p. 71), however independent research into the subject has shown the opposite (p. 77). The proposed study will examine the use of UAVs along the Mexico–United States border by collecting data from the United States Border Patrol operating in the Yuma Sector in Arizona. The objective is to determine if UAVs could contribute to safer and more efficient patrolling for Border Patrol Agents. The study is projected to begin in January of 2022 and be concluded in June of 2022.

Reference

Barry, T. (2013). Drones over homeland: Expansion of scope and lag in governance. Brown Journal of World Affairs, 65-80.

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