The chief aim in this survey was to mensurate the quality of life ( QOL ) among the patients with diagnostic articulatio genus degenerative arthritis ( OA ) who go toing authorities primary wellness attention clinic. Other than that, this survey besides would wish to happen out the association between socio-demographic and medical position of patients with knee OA and their quality of life.
The survey aims should be specific, mensurable, accurate, dependable and seasonableness. In this survey, the aims were mentioned that the QOL is being measured specifically on patients with a certain type of arthritis. The QOL was measured by utilizing 36SF which had been validated in old survey ( Kosinski, 1999 ) . The survey was able to carry on from1st September 2003 boulder clay 30th April 2004. Therefore, this survey aims were suitably defined.
3. Theory used
There is no theory been mentioned in the survey. In this survey, the writers may utilize the quality of life theory. The theory is based on development towards felicity. In other words is, it is the ‘true being ‘ on the construct of human demands. The theory explains that if worlds take more duty for their ain life, they implement the good qualities into usage ; they will go free, happy, powerful and healthy. This is besides known as Maslow ‘s construct of self-actualization. It plays an of import map in modern medical specialty particularly in understanding the personal development holding chronic diseases..
In this survey, there was no mentioning of any hypothesis. However, the void hypothesis that can be suggested is that ‘Patient with articulatio genus OA go toing authorities primary wellness attention clinic has good quality of life in both physical and mental constituent ‘ , wheares the alternate hypothesis could be written as ‘Patient with articulatio genus OA go toing authorities primary wellness attention clinic has hapless quality of life in both physical and mental constituent ‘ .
5. Research design
This correlational design cross-sectional survey which was carried out from the 1st September 2003 boulder clay 30th April 2004. This survey qualifies as correlational because the informations collected provide themselves merely to readings about the grade of QOL to which the variables are related to each other. It would merely state us that there is a relationship between the OA conditions with HRQOT.
6. Sampling method
The sampling method used was claimed as cosmopolitan sampling, in which all patients with symptoms of articulatio genus OA who attended two different authorities wellness clinics in Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia were taken as sample. In position of the little graduated table survey which merely involved two authorities clinics, the entire patient with OA is besides little. To make a random trying would non be contributing in this instance.
Through out the eight months of informations aggregation, merely 213 patients with OA were been registered. The inclusion standards that was laid out – in which all 50 old ages old and above patients that were sing the outpatient authorities wellness clinic, would be the participants. However, the exclusions standards was besides laid that those who were illiterate, who were unable to reply the questionnaire, who needed infirmary admittance, and those who needed or those with stationariness or abnormalcy of the lower limb. With the inclusion and exclusion standards, the survey managed to hold 151 participants finishing the questionnaire. In this survey, there was no adverting on how the minimal sample size computation was done. However, for the 1s that were unable to gauge that correlativity, the research workers may be able to utilize a simple comparing of the two proportions as a trial for the footing of gauging the sample size. Using PASS 2000 package, the computation of sample size is- if the proportions of the 2 groups in this survey were expected to be 0.20 and 0.35 ( ? = .05 ; & A ; szlig ; = .20 [ 80 % power ] ) , the minimal sample size of 275 participants is needed ( Delucchi, 2004 ) .
8. Technique of informations aggregation
Techniques in data-collection allow consistently aggregation of information about objects of survey and the scenes which they occur. In this survey, informations on the medical features and socio-demographic of the participants were recorded but did non mentioned where they were recorded. The SF-36 signifier Malay linguistic communication version was either self-administered by the participants or being led face-to-face by an interviewer. Any respondents by household members or friends to the SF-36 signifier were non entertained. It participants unable to understand the questionnaire, the research worker would merely re-read the inquiries. The participants would reply the inquiry harmonizing to their apprehension. Administering written questionnaire is a less expensive informations aggregation technique and it can cut down prejudices due to give voicing inquiry otherwise by different respondents. It gives namelessness to the respondents and permits more honorable response. However, inquiries may be misunderstood by the respondents and every bit mentioned in the survey merely the literates were chosen as participants.
In this survey, SF-36 was used to mensurate the HRQOL. It is a 36-item instrument designed to measure basic wellness constructs. It is relevant to be used across disease, age and intervention groups. It has been validated and a dependable generic instrument that has been used comprehensively to mensurate HRQOL. The Malay version of SF-36 had been translated and validated. It was used in the Malayan National Quality of Life Survey 2000. It measured eight spheres which consisted of physical operation ( PF ) , role-physical ( RP ) , bodily hurting ( BP ) , general wellness ( GH ) , vitality/energy ( VT ) , societal operation ( SF ) , function emotional ( RE ) and mental wellness ( MH ) . The tonss on each sphere ranged from 0 ( lower limit ) to 100 ( upper limit ) . The higher the tonss, indicates the wellness constituents to be better. Since this instruments has been validated and been used in assorted surveies, it is appropriate to utilize it in this survey.
The survey showed that taken as a whole mean tonss were supra 50.00 in all facets of QOL. There was comparatively lower mark in the spheres related to the physical wellness position as compared to the mental wellness position.
The research workers besides run other analysis with the available informations and found that:
a. a important negative correlativity between PF and age
b. the males had better mark in bulk of the QOL facets, peculiarly in the PF
c. patients with no formal instruction scored better in mental wellness constituent particularly in VT and RE.
d. patients with co-morbidities shown to hit less than those without co-morbidity in most of the QOL domains particularly in SF.
e. The continuance of articulatio genus hurting is negatively correlated with all the QOL facets except RE, and it besides showed to be significantly negative correlated with the RP sphere.
f. patients with higher BMI scored lower QOL in SF.
g. PF tonss was significantly association with age and gender.
h. VT and RE tonss were important association with instruction degrees.
Basically, the research workers would wish to reply to the aims that to mensurate the QOL among the patients with diagnostic articulatio genuss OA who go toing authorities primary wellness attention clinic and it showed that the average mark of all the facets of QOL that being studied was above 50.00. Research workers besides had find out some dealingss between the ‘patients with articulatio genus OA ‘ , their socio-demographic and medical position and their quality of life. However, the associations were non portrayed in a table signifier so that the reader would hold a better perceptual experience on the vicarship analysis findings.
The decision in this survey answered the aim of the survey indirectly. It should province that the average mark of all the sphere in QOL was above 50.00 and may advert that the patients had comparatively hapless quality of life in the physical wellness constituents but less on the mental wellness. The research workers mentioned two of import forecasters of hapless PF in patient with articulatio genus OA which is female gender and older age, but did non demo how the forecasters were established. The research workers besides claimed that higher BMI patients suffered more hurting – which merely show relationship.
The reading of informations was non clearly showed in this survey. The statistical analysis method mentioned was appropriate harmonizing to the variables and the aims. However, it is hard to construe the information when the overall bivariate analysis findings were non shown in the literature. The research workers merely mentioned the important findings.
This survey was carried out to the patient with articulatio genus OA who attended the authorities wellness clinic. Therefore, it can non be inferred to the general population. This is besides suggested by the research workers that a big graduated table community based survey should be conducted to understand more QOL factors impacting OA patients.
The questionnaire was in Malay linguistic communication merely. This is bias towards other patient in different ethnicity. There should be validated multiple linguistic communications questionnaires to be used in this survey. By utilizing questionnaire as instrument of the survey, it had limited the participants to the literates. It would be appropriate to used mix technique to garner more diverse informations.
14. Ethical consideration
In this survey, there is no mentioning of consent taken from the patients either verbal or written consent. The research workers of this survey may hold asked for consent but non mentioned here. Harmonizing to a codification of ethical rules by the American Psychological Association, for research workers who deals with human topics have to guarantee that research workers obtain informed consent from all topics, guarantee that topics are protected from injury and uncomfortableness, guarantee that all experimental informations are treated confidentially and eventually, the research workers have to explicate the experiment together with the consequences of the survey to the topics.
15. Strengths of the Study
15.1 Correlational design
The major advantage of this design is that it is typically easy to carry on. This is because it gives associations between studied variables and may propose the possibility of cause. If the two variables are causally related, they must be correlated. So by demoing correlativity, it can be a utile first measure toward showing causing.
15.2 Instrument used
The SF-36 signifier which was used in this survey had been validated and dependable to mensurate HRQOL in diverse groups. Malaysia with 15 other states had participated in interpreting and accommodating SF-36 signifier to analyze HRQOL through the International Quality of Life Assessment Project. Therefore, the findings in the survey can be used to mensurate and compare with surveies done in other states.
15.3 The innovator survey
This is the first published HRQOL survey in patients with diagnostic articulatio genuss OA who attended the authorities wellness clinics done in Malaysia. It can be used as the base of farther surveies spread outing in deepness the QOL in patients with chronic diseases.
16. Failing of the Study
16.1 Correlational design
The major disadvantage of this design is that it does non give clear input on the existent ground for the associations. It has less control over the variables and the environments and this caused trouble to give alternate accounts. It can non govern out immaterial variables as the causative factors of what is being observed. In this design, when two things are correlated, it does non give chance to straight deduce causing.
16.2 Instrument used
Although the SF-36 signifier is validated, it is merely in Malay linguistic communication signifier. It had limited the patients that able to take part in this survey.
16.3 Unable to deduce findings to the population.
The sample size in this survey is unequal for it to be inferred to the population.
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more