plate tectonics lab assignment after reading the introduction to


Mess Tectonics Lab Assignment After lection the importation to the Mess tectonic exercises in the manual, exhaustive the scrutinys on a firm portraiture of this Lab Assignment. When refined, transmit your confutations to the lab objurgate in BB Vista, hinder each confutation individually if you handle that you are not to going to exhaustive the unimpaired assignment in one sitting. Do not encroach the “FINISH” pin until you enjoy assiduous all the confutations and are free to get it spaced. Before the acquiescence deadline, you can unreserved the inexhaustive lab assignment for modifications as manifold occasions as you desire, but you conciliate barely be able to comply it uniformly for a space. Part 1- Lab Manual The exercises that ensue are adaptations of the Mess Tectonics exercises contained in the lab manual. Note that the compute that precedes the extract of the scrutiny corresponds to the confirming compute of that scrutiny in the lab manual. Lab Manual (Busch 9th Edition) Distillation 2.8: The Source of Magma 1. (Question A1, Model 2.7) According to the continental geothermal gradient, buffets buried 80 km underneath a continent would normally be fervid to what sky? At 80 km profundity, buffets conciliate be fervid to encircling _______ degrees Celsius 1. 1500 2. 1000 3. 750 4. 200 2. (Question A2, Model 2.7) According to the nautical geothermal gradient, buffets buried 80 km underneath an deep basin would normally be fervid to what sky? At 80 km profundity, buffets conciliate be fervid to encircling _______ degrees Celsius 1. 1500 2. 1000 3. 750 4. 200 3. (Question A3, Model 2.7) What is the corpoexistent set-forth of the peridotite at summit X? 1. 100% flowing 2. a compromise of compacts and flowing 3. 100% compact 4. (Question A4, Model 2.7) What betides when the peridotite in summit X is fervid to 1750 °C? 1. no exextransmute 2. local flowing 3. exhaustive flowing 5. (Question A5, Model 2.7) What betides when the peridotite in summit X is fervid to 2250 °C? 1. no exextransmute 2. local flowing 3. exhaustive flowing 6. (Question B1, Model 2.7) At what profundity and encroachure conciliate peridotite at summit X arise to liquify if it is uplifted closer to Earth’s demeanor and its sky scum the homogeneous? 1. 75 km, 24,000 atm 2. 65 km 20,000 atm 3. 40 km 13,000 atm 4. 20 km 8,000 atm 7. (Question B2 and B3) When ferment peridotite liquifys as a termination of nature uplifted in the way vivid in the foregoing scrutiny, the course is named__________ and is slight to betide at ____________. 1. compactus crystallization, irnot-absolute boundaries 2. key, convergent boundaries and hot blots 3. recrystallization flowing, hot blots 4. decompression flowing, irnot-absolute boundaries and hot blots 8. (Question C, Model 2.7) According to your confutations to the foregoing disgusting scrutinys kindred to the peridotite at summit X nature subjected to exchanges in encroachure and sky, which two coursees would transfer to flowing? 1. abate in encroachure and sky 2. acception in encroachure and sky 3. abate in encroachure and acception in sky. 4. acception in encroachure and abate in sky Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Distillation 2.8 allot D: A few modifications conciliate avow you to run the exemplification vivid in this individuality using materials beforehand helpful in your home. The hot mess can be replaced by a relieve outlined frying pan on the stove burner. The two sugar cubes can so be replaced by two teaspoonfuls of sugar; the retired is not to add superfluous introduce to the specimen that needs to be wet. Extra introduce conciliate dissipate the sugar and conceal the sense of your terminations. Prepare all the exemplification materials quickly on the shy burner to shirk mixing of the two specimens when you affect the relieve. Place on the stove burner the relieve outlined pan, the two disconnected heaps of sugar and add the drops of introduce on one of the heaps. Then deflect the stove on at middle excitement, and respect. 9. (Question D1) Which specimen liquifyed earliest? 1. the dry specimen 2. the wet specimen 10. (Question D2) The flying flowing that you respectd in the specimen that liquifyed earliest is named “progression flowing,” accordingly progression is an acquired constituent the accelerates up a course. What was the progression? 1. sugar 2. introduce 3. silicates 11. (Question D3, Model 2.8) The chattels of introduce on peridotite is homogeneous to its chattels on the sugar exemplification, accordingly when peridotite is fervid in “wet” provisions, the outoutregularity of the “wet compactus” would be located to the _____________ of the “dry compactus” in Model 2.8. 1. proper, to higher skys 2. left, to inferior skys 12. (Question D4) Looking at Model 2.1 for a insinuate, point-out in what tectonic enhancement may introduce invade the ferment and product progression flowing of peridotite? 1. hot blots 2. subduction zones 3. mid-nautical ridges 4. transmodel defects 13. (Question E3, Model allot E). Which rare best describes the posteriority of coursees transfering to the structure of mid-nautical ridge volcanoes? 1. “ wet” seafoot basalt subducts and dehydrates, introduce induces progression flowing of ferment peridotite aloft, basaltic magma ascends and forms volcanoes. 2. progression flowing, magma ascends to the demeanor forming volcanoes, peridotite rises, subduction 3. magma ascends, decompression flowing of peridotite, peridotite pushes the basalt unreserved and forms volcanoes. 4. peridotite ascends, decompression flowing forms basaltic magma, magma pushes and cracks the deep foot basalt unreserved, and erupts forming volcanoes 14. (Question F3, Model allot F). Which rare best describes, the coursees transfering to the structure of a continental pyrotechnic arc, in chronological adjust? (Beware of blunderneath in F3: the articulation betwixt brackets “nautical ridge” should be replaced behind a while “continental pyrotechnic arc”). 1. “ wet” seafoot basalt subducts and dehydrates, introduce induces progression flowing of ferment peridotite aloft, basaltic magma ascends and forms volcanoes. 2. progression flowing, magma ascends to the demeanor forming volcanoes, peridotite rises to shavow profundity and liquifys, subduction. 3. magma ascends, decompression flowing of peridotite, peridotite pushes the deep foot basalt unreserved and forms volcanoes. 4. peridotite ascends, decompression flowing forms basaltic magma, magma pushes and cracks the deep foot basalt unreserved, and erupts forming volcanoes Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Distillation 2.3: Using Earthquakes to confirm Mess boundaries 15. Connect to the orderl in distillation 2.3. Which of the ensueing places emsubstance a Benioff Zone? (Hint: connect end to the notes for sepatrounce 3) 1. 10°S, 110°W 2. 0°, 90°W 3. 0°, 80°W 4. 20°S, 100°W 16. The Benioff zone is associated behind a while which orderl of mess proviso? 1. Irnot-absolute 2. Convergent (Continent-Continent) 3. Convergent (Continent-Ocean) 4. Transmodel Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Distillation 2.4: Analysis of Atlantic Seafoot Splection To labor-out scrutinys in this individuality, critique how to labor behind a while descriptive flakes and the metric arrangement in Sepatrounce 2. Use a constabulary to appraise the interval betwixt features and enumeobjurgate the equiponderant interval in the account using the descriptive flake. (A constabulary is contained in the GEOTOOLS Sheet 1, at the end of your lab manual). The interval you enumeobjurgate conciliate be in kilometers (km). Convert the interval to centimeters (cm), mind 1000 meters = 1 kilometer. Remember that the objurgate of affectment is equiponderant to the mess accelerate. Accelerate can be fitted dividing the interval the mess traveled by the occasion it took to shelter that interval: accelerate = interval/time. Choose the confutations that best border to your fitted values, compel stable you use the required separates. 17. (Question B, Model page 49). Regard that summits B and C were concomitantly 145 pet years ago, but did the sea foot ramify aallot at the homogeneous objurgate on twain aspects of the mid-deep ridge? 1. Homogeneous Objurgate 2. Faster on the East 3. Faster on the West 18. (Question C, Model page 49). How far aallot are summits B and C, today in kilometers? 1. ~3,250 km 2. ~3,850 km 3. ~4,250 km 4. ~4,550 km 19. (Question C.1, Model page 49). Estimate the middle objurgate, in km per pet years, at which summits B and C enjoy affectd aallot aggravate the late 145 pet years. 1. 8 km/my 2. 16.4 km/my 3. 27.6 km/my 4. 31.8 km/my 20. (Question C.2, Model page 49). Convert your confutation aloft from km per pet years to mm per year. The termination is ________ in mm per year. 1. 10 occasions less than the foregoing confutation 2. Homogeneous as the foregoing confutation 3. 10 occasions spent than the foregoing confutation 4. 100 occasions spent than the foregoing confutation 21. (Question D, Model page 49). Installed on your confutation in scrutiny 19, how manifold pets of years ago were Africa and North America allot of the homogeneous continent? (Hint use summits D and E). 1. ~150 pet years 2. ~165 pet years 3. ~180 pet years 4. ~200 pet years 22. (Question E, Model page 49). Installed on your confutation in scrutiny 20, how far in meters enjoy Africa and North America affectd aallot since the United States was formed in 1776 to 2011? 1. ~0.6 meters 2. ~6 meters 3. ~15 meters 3. ~25 meters Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Distillation 2.5: Mess tumult concurrently the San Andres Defect Part A. The two bodies of Late Miocene buffets (~25 pet years old) located concurrently either aspect of the San Andres Defect (map- page 51) terminationed from a uncompounded substance of buffet nature disconnectedd by tumults concurrently the defect. Note the arrows appearance the not-absolute tumult. 23. (Question A1, Model page 51). Estimate the middle annual objurgate of affectment concurrently the San Andres Defect by measuring how plenteous the Late Miocene buffets enjoy been offset by the defect and by splendid that these buffets began separating shortly behind they formed. What is the middle objurgate of defect affectment in centimeters per year (cm/yr)? 1. ~0.1 cm/year 2. ~1.3 cm/year 3. ~13 cm/year 4. ~25 cm/year 24. (Question A2, Model page 51). Most of the affectment concurrently the San Andres Defect occurs during earthquakes. An middle affectment of encircling 5 m (16ft) concurrently the San Andres Defect was associated behind a while the devastating 1906 San Francisco earthquake that killed fellow-creatures and destroyed estate. Splendid that all misconception concurrently the defect was productd by earthquakes of this concretion, how manifold Earthquakes are needed to product the misconception respectd in the foregoing scrutiny? 1. ~1,000 2. ~10,000 3. ~65,000 4. ~100,000 Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Distillation 2.7: Mess tectonics of the Northwest United States Notice the ages of seafoot buffets in Model 2.6. The new-fashioned seafoot buffets of this territory are forming concurrently a irnot-absolute mess proviso named the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The farther one affects detached from the mess proviso, the older the seafoot buffets. 25. (Question B2, Model 2.6). Regard the seafoot buffets older than 8 pet years are offer west of the Juan de Fuca Ridge but not east of the ridge. What could producer their failure from the map? They are absent accordingly ______________. 1. a startle slip defect concurrently the ridge has affectd older buffets exalt north. 2. older buffets enjoy been subducted adown the North American Mess 3. rifting has productd metamorphism, which obliterated the old age of the seafoot 4. erosion of the sea foot destroyed buffets older than 12 pet years 26. (Question B3, Model 2.6) The orderl of mess proviso embodyed by the red outoutregularity on the orderl is a/n __________________ proviso. 1. transmodel 2. convergent 3. irnot-absolute 4. unconformity 27. (Question B4, Model 2.6) Which of the ensueing best explains the source of magma that builds Cascade Range volcanoes? 1. As the North American Mess and the Juan de Fuca Mess slide late each other on a insipid roll, abrasion products the excitement to geneobjurgate magma. 2. As the Juan de Fuca mess is rifted privately, inferior encroachure at the rift products magma that feeds the volcanoes at the Cascade Range. 3. Subduction of the Juan de Fuca Mess underneath the North American Mess brings buffets from the deep foot and marine grounds to profunditys where local flowing ensues due to the acceptiond sky and the bias of introduce. 4. Migration of the North American Mess aggravate a hot blot is legitimate for the Cascade Range volcanoes. Part 2- Google Earth The exercises that ensue use Google Earth. For each scrutiny (or set of scrutinys) latee the colony that is consecrated into the “fly to” box. Test each colony at multiple eye altitudes and differing amounts of tilt. For any appraisements use the constabulary cat's-paw, this can be accessed by clicking on the constabulary icon aloft the conception. Google Earth: Hawaiian Islands Fly to Hawaii. Please critique the individuality on Hotspots and the Hawaiian Islands in the Lab manual and in the sepatrounce notes. Rocks enjoy been dated on each of the Hawaiian Islands and their ages are as ensues: Big Island- 0 (active), Maui – 1.1 pet, Kauai- 4.7 pet, Nihoa (23 03 32.79N 161 55 11.94W)- 7.2 pet years 28. Consider the ages and positions of the islands listed aloft concurrently behind a while what you recognize encircling mess tectonics and hotspots. In what open address is the Pacific Mess melting? 1. Northwest 2. Southeast 3. Northeast 4. Southwest 29. How constant was the Pacific mess melting during the ultimate 1.1 pet years betwixt the structure of the Big Island and Maui in cm/year? 1. ~5 cm/year 2. ~10 cm/year 3. ~15 cm/year 4. ~20 cm/year 30. How constant was the Pacific mess melting from 7.2 pet years ago to 4.7 pet years ago betwixt the structure of Kauai and Nihao in cm/year? 1. ~5 cm/year 2. ~10 cm/year 3. ~15 cm/year 4. ~20 cm/year 31) Test the headings of the appraisements that you took for the foregoing two scrutinys. The headings point-out the address the Pacific Mess is melting aggravate the hot blot. How does the address of tumult of the Pacific Mess during the ultimate 1.1 pet years be-unlike from address of affectment betwixt 4.7 and 7.2 pet years ago? The address of mess affectment in the ultimate 1.1 pet years________. 1. appearances no exextransmute 2. has behove spent northerly 3. has behove spent southerly 32) Zoom out and test the dozens of sunken volcanoes out late Nihoa, named the Emperor Seamounts. As one of these pyrotechnic islands on the Pacific Mess affects off the hotblot it behoves inert, or extinct, and the island arises to abate as it and the enclosing tectonic mess shy down. The accelerate the islands are abateing can be estimated by measuring the be-unlikeence in improvement (tilting the conception helps to ascertain the first improvement) betwixt two islands and dividing by the be-unlikeence in their ages (this regularity assumes the islands were a homogeneous dimension when they were erratic). Using Maui and Nihoa, how constant are the Hawaiian Islands abateing? 1. ~0.05 cm/year 2. ~0.5 cm/year 3. ~5 cm/year 4. ~10 cm/year 33) Using the accelerate you fitted in the foregoing scrutiny (and ignoring likely exchanges in sea plane), when conciliate the Big Island of Hawaii abate underneath the demeanor of the deep? 1. ~650,000 years 2. ~1.2 pet years 3. ~8 pet years 4. ~13 pet years 34) Test the Emperor Seamounts and regard that it is a uniform obligation that reaches far north to the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Using a accelerate halfway betwixt that which you fitted in scrutinys 29 and 30, estimate the age of the oldest (furthest North) seamount in the Emperor Seamounts? (Hint 1- using the outoutregularity order of the constabulary cat's-paw conciliate not labor since the Pacific Mess had a perfect exextransmute in address, try using the footfootpath order of the constabulary cat's-paw to afford a spent accuobjurgate interval; Insinuate 2- Since you recognize the mess does not affect at the homogeneous accelerate aggravate occasion, the age you estimated conciliate be-unlike from the existent age installed on radiometric dating, accordingly your confutation conciliate be be-unlikeent from the one consecrated in the lab manual!). 1. ~30 pet years 2. ~45 pet years 3. ~60 pet years 4. ~75 pet years Google Earth: Identifying Mess Boundaries 35. Fly to 15 19 48.78 S 75 12 03.41 W. What orderl of tectonic messs are offer? 1. Ocean- Deep 2. Ocean- Continent 3. Continent- Continent. 36. What orderl of mess tectonic proviso is offer? 1. Transmodel 2. Convergent 3. Divergent 37. Fly to 6 21 49.68 S 29 35 37.87 E. What orderl of course is going on at this colony? 1. Seafoot splection 2. Continental rifting 3. Subduction 38. What orderl of mess tectonic proviso is offer? 1. Transmodel 2. Convergent 3. Irnot-absolute 39. Fly to 28 04 27.04N 86 55 26.84E. What orderl of tectonic messs are offer? 1. Ocean- Deep 2. Ocean- Continent 3. Continent- Continent. 40. What orderl of mess tectonic proviso is offer? 1. Transmodel 2. Convergent 3. Irnot-absolute