Lab module 8: air masses and weather systems


1

LAB MODULE 8: AIR MASSES AND WEATHER SYSTEMS

Note: Please appeal to the GETTING STARTED lab module to acquire how to maneuver through and repartee the lab doubts using the Google Earth () rudiment.

Key Terms

You should apprehend and recognize the subjoined terms:

Air heap

Cold face

Occluded Front

● Continental (c)

Downburst

Stationary Front

● Salt-impart (m)

Front

Thunderstorm

● Glacial or Antglacial (A)

Mesocyclones

Tropical Cyclones

● Polar (P)

Microburst

Warm Front

● Rhetorical (T)

Mid-latitude cyclone

Weather

LAB LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be efficient to the subjoined tasks:

● Identify and recount air heapes and their associated dampness and sky provisions

● Recount faces and faceal schemes

● Identify the disconnection and alibi of a mid-latitude cyclone in the US

● Identify the mechanisms surrendering denouncestorms, commotions, and gales

● Interpret maps showing the geographical arrangements of distressing air schemes

2

INTRODUCTION

This lab module explores air heapes, faces and mid-latitude cyclonic air schemes. Topics involve the subjoined: continental and salt-impart air heapes; unalterable, dispassioned, irascible and occluded faces; and the patterns and rulees of mid-latitude cyclones and distressing air swaggers. The modules begin after a conjuncture four gap doubts, or vignettes, which are base in the cognate Google Earth polish. These vignettes conduct-in basic concepts of air and distressing air schemes. Some of the vignettes accept buoyancys, videos, or brief subscription that accomplish yield another perspective or visual exposition for the doubt at artisan. After balbutiation the vignette and associated links, repartee the subjoined doubts. Please melody that some links dominion grasp a conjuncture to download installed on your Internet accelerate.

Expand the INTRODUCTION folder and then chosened Doubt 1: Weather.

Read Doubt 1: Weather.

Question 1: Little recount the mitigated air provisions plum in the delineate.

A. Sunny and hot

B. Cloudy and raining

C. Irascible and humid

D. Hot and hazy

Read Doubt 2: Air Masses.

Question 2: The vignette says why there is no mA assortment. Additionally, there is no continental equatorial (cE) assortment. What is the chief conclude that a cE air heap assortment does not halt (Hint: it is the repugnant conclude of mA)?

A. Because equatorial air heapes are juicy

B. Because continental air heapes are juicy

C. Because continental air heapes start balance fix

D. Because there is no fix in equatorial territorys

Read Doubt 3: The Disconnection and Air Provisions of Fronts.

Question 3: Compare the condensedsightedness and accelerate of dispassioned air (from the dispassioned face) to irascible air (from the irascible face)

A. Colder air is gentleer and trips faster than irascible air

B. Colder air is denser and trips faster than irascibleer air

3

C. Warmer air gentleer and trips faster than dispassioneder air

D. Warmer air is denser and trips faster than dispassioneder air

Read Doubt 4: Human Interaction: Commotion Alley.

Question 4: Why do areas located among 30°N to 50°N yield favorefficient provisions for commotion epoch?

A. Because this territory is flat

B. Because this territory is where dispassioned glacial air and irascible subrhetorical air converge

C. Because this territory is predominantly cultivation

D. Because colony is needed for cultivation in this territory

Colescheatment and unbridle the INTRODUCTION folder.

4

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

As melodyd in the vignette, air heapes are not chancely distributed balance the globe; in happenrence the geographic rise (beginning territory) of air heapes mention each of the six implicit air heap fashions – continental Glacial (cA), continental polar (cP), continental rhetorical (mT), salt-impart polar (mP), salt-impart rhetorical (mT), and salt-impart equatorial (mE).

As air heapes instigate encircling the Earth due to air provisions, they can construct or betray dampness, or growth or abate in sky. For in, a salt-impart polar (mP) air heap tender balance a continent could betray considerable of its dampness and beseem a continental polar (cP) air heap.

In this training, you accomplish recount the spatial patterns of air heapes as they recount to uncertain colonizations throughout the earth.

Verify that Labels (lower Borders and Layers) is chosened in the Layers panel.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder and chosened the Air Heap folder.

Double-click and chosened Colonization A.

Question 5: Identify the chief air heap:

A. mP

B. mT

C. cP

D. cT

Question 6: Identify the air sky (as very dispassioned, dispassioned, irascible, or very irascible) and the air dampness (as juicy or dry) for the beginning territory of this air heap.

A. Dispassioned and dry

B. Irascible and dry

C. Very dispassioned and juicy

D. Irascible and juicy

Double-click and chosened Colonization B.

5

Question 7: Identify the chief air heap:

A. mP

B. mT

C. cP

D. cT

Question 8: Identify the air sky (very dispassioned, dispassioned, irascible, or very irascible) and the air dampness (juicy or dry) for the beginning territory of this air heap.

A. Dispassioned and dry

B. Irascible and dry

C. Very dispassioned and juicy

D. Irascible and juicy

Double-click and chosened Colonization C

Question 9: Identify the chief air heap:

A. mP

B. mT

C. cP

D. cA

Question 10: Identify the air sky (very dispassioned, dispassioned, irascible, or very irascible) and the air dampness (juicy or dry) for the beginning territory of this air heap.

A. Dispassioned and dry

B. Irascible and dry

C. Dispassioned and juicy

D. Irascible and juicy

Double-click and chosened Colonization D.

Question 11: Identify the chief air heap:

A. mP

B. mT

C. cA

D. cT

6

Question12: Identify the air sky (very dispassioned, dispassioned, irascible, or very irascible) and the air dampness (juicy or dry) for the beginning territory of this air heap.

A. Dispassioned and dry

B. Irascible and dry

C. Very dispassioned and dry

D. Irascible and juicy

Colescheatment and unbridle the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder.

FRONTS

Fronts are synoptic flake features, purport they are usually territoryal or continental in flake, in the ordain of sundry hundred to 1000 km (621 miles) or further in extension. Synoptic flake air maps, apprehendn as manner air dissectition, use uncertain signogy from apprehendn facts (pressure, sky, outdo screen) to mention air faces.

On air maps, the dispassioned face expression is designated by a cerulean-colored-colored-colored command of triangle pips, conjuncture irascible face boundaries are represented by a red command of half-dispersion pips. Occluded faces are shown in purple (red+blue) of alternativing triangle and half-dispersion pips. In all these cases, the verge of the command on which the sign appears indicates the command of instigatement of the faceal zone. For unalterable faces, the command of instigatement is static, and thus, is represented by the revolvement of cerulean-colored-colored-colored triangles and red half dispersions shown in athwart commands.

Expand the FRONTS folder.

Select and double-click Dispassioned face.

This sign depicts a dispassioned face stretching from northern Minnesota to western Nevada.

7

Question 13: In which unconcealed command is the face tender?

A. Northwest

B. Northeast

C. Southwest

D. Southeast

Double-click and chosened Colonization E and bridle Colonization F.

Question 14: At which colonization would you anticipate the air sky to be irascibleer?

A. Colonization E

B. Colonization F

C. They should be the corresponding sky

Question 15: Which colonization would be experiencing denouncestorms?

A. Colonization E

B. Colonization F

C. There are denouncestorms at twain colonizations

D. There are not denouncestorms at either colonization

Unbridle Dispassioned face.

Unbridle Colonization E.

Double-click and chosened Irascible face.

This sign depicts a irascible face stretching from northern Minnesota to eastern Kentucky.

Check Colonization G.

Question 16: In which unconcealed command is the face tender?

A. Northwest

B. Northeast

C. Southwest

D. Southeast

Question 17: At which colonization (F or G) would you anticipate the air sky to be irascibleer?

8

A. Colonization F

B. Colonization G

C. They should be the corresponding sky

Question 18: Would there be rainfall at Colonization G? If so, little recount the tension (how “hard” it is raining) and space.

A. No rainfall

B. Rainfall, undeviating drizzle permanent all day

C. Rainfall, eager rain permanent all day

D. Rainfall, denouncestorms permanent a brief period

Colescheatment and unbridle the FRONTS folder.

MID-LATITUDE CYCLONES

Mid-latitude cyclones are schemeatic low influence schemes that accept dispassioned and irascible faces. The harvest of mid-latitude cyclones is dissect of the rule apprehendn as cyclogenesis.

Expand the MID-LATITUDE CYCLONES folder.

Click Migration.

This buoyancy shows the harvest and alibi of a mid-latitude cyclone, as well-behaved-behaved as associate imagery (Note: The associate imagery individuality dominion grasp a few minutes to upload).

Now, you accomplish go through the cyclogenesis of a mid-latitude cyclone on Google Earth.

Return to Google Earth.

Double-click and chosened Day 1

This map shows a customary primal harvest of a mid-latitude cyclone. The nucleus of the scheme has the smallest influence, which is located parallel the jet exit (blue-colored arrows). The scheme trips in an easterly command parallel the jet exit, after a conjuncture the

9

irascible face necessary, followed by the dispassioned face. The quality of cyclogenesis is the unconcealed quality.

Unbridle Day 1.

Select Day 2.

The scheme continues tender eastward parallel the jet exit. The dispassioned face is triping faster than the irascible face and the space among the two faces is decreasing. After a conjuncture the space among the faces beseeming smaller, shyer air begins to butt the irascibleer air, and the irascibleer air begins to instigate upwards. The quality of cyclogenesis is the educeed quality.

Unbridle Day 2.

Select Day 3.

Now, the dispassioned face has caught up after a conjuncture the irascible face and shapes an occluded face. The irascibleer air is now balance (overmind the manner) and colony may happen. This quality of cyclogenesis is the occluded quality.

Question 19: In which command is the air vogue in a educeing mid-latitude cyclone?

A. Upwards

B. Downwards

C. Clockwise

D. Counter clockwise

Question 20: Where is the rise of the dispassioned air heap and irascible air heap in these ins?

A. Dispassioned from Canada; irascible from Eastern US

B. Dispassioned from Western US; irascible from Eastern US

C. Dispassioned from Canada; irascible from hollow of Mexico

D. Dispassioned from Western US; irascible from Pacific Ocean

Question 21: Why does the dispassioned face instigate faster than the irascible face?

A. Because the dispassioned air is gentleer and instigates faster.

B. Because the irascible air is denser and instigates further reluctantly.

C. Because the dispassioned air is denser and instigates faster.

10

D. Because the irascible air is gentleer and instigates further reluctantly.

Question 22: What fashion of air do we see during the occluded face?

A. Sky encouragement, no rainfall

B. Sky encouragement, variefficient (gentle to weighty) rainfall

C. Sky waste, no rainfall

D. Sky waste, variefficient (gentle to weighty) rainfall

Question 23: Where does the heaviest rainfall happen - parallel the dispassioned face or the irascible face?

A. Dispassioned face

B. Irascible face.

C. Rainfall is resembling parallel twain faces.

D. There is no rainfall parallel either face.

Colescheatment and unbridle the MID-LATITUDE CYCLONES folder.

THUNDERSTORMS AND TORNADOS

Thunderstorms

Thunderstorms are shapeed when parcels of unstefficient (warm, juicy) air are lifted amind and perpendicularly from the basis. Lifting mechanisms involve convective lifting from the unresembling irascibleing of the basis, orographic lifting from air exacting balance a mountain or congruous terrain, or faceal lifting from the necessary laterality of a dispassioned or irascible face. Rapid ascension of unstefficient air creates sinewy updrafts (upward tender air) and eager adiabatic subsidence (that is, subsidence after a conjunctureout interacting after a conjuncture the extreme air). When the updrafts thrust the consummation elevation (usually in the troposphere, or balance 12 km (40,000 feet) from the Earth’s manner), they exexchange command and beseem downdrafts, and balancewhelm.

Typical denouncestorms accept imbecile updrafts and imbecile downdrafts. Thunderstorms that consequence sparkle floods accept sinewy updrafts but imbecile downdrafts. Thunderstorms that consequence downbursts (or microbursts) of downward, incongruous air accept imbecile updrafts but sinewy downdrafts. When sinewy updrafts and down drafts are confer-upon distressing denouncestorms apprehendn as supercells are shapeed. Associated after a conjuncture these denouncestorms are the anvil shaped cumulonimbus outdos, weighty rains or call, thlower and gentlening, gusts of curve, mesocyclones (sinewy perpendicular updrafts that work and shape a hurry of air), and casually commotiones.

11

Expand the THUNDERSTORMS AND TORNADOS folder.

Click Thunderstorms.

Question 24: At what quality(s) does updraft educe?

A. Cumulus quality

B. Developmental quality

C. Developed quality

D. Dissipation quality

Question 25: At what quality(s) does the weather shy and stabilize?

A. Cumulus quality

B. Developmental quality

C. Developed quality

D. Dissipation quality

Tornadoes

Tornadoes shape as a product of sinewy updrafts collectively after a conjuncture curve sentertain (the destruction in curve command and accelerate after a conjuncture elevation). The alliance exchanges the revolvement of air from a horizontal axis to a perpendicular axis. When the funnel thrustes the basis, it has evolved into a commotion.

Click Commotion Formation for the buoyancy of the disconnection of a commotion and usage categorizing commotiones using the Enhanced Fujita Scale.

Question 26: What does an area contemplate relish when it is hit by a EF2 commotion?

A. Roofs stripped, movable homes flipped balance, curveows broken

B. Large trees uprooted, movable homes destroyed, roofs ripped off houses

C. Siding stripped, Shingles peeled off roofs, tree branches broken

D. Sundry detriment to shopping nucleuss, cars thrown about

Question 27: What does an area contemplate relish when it is hit by a EF4 commotion?

A. Roofs stripped, movable homes flipped balance, curveows broken

12

B. Large trees uprooted, movable homes destroyed, roofs ripped off houses

C. Siding stripped, Shingles peeled off roofs, tree branches broken

D. Devastating detriment, cars thrown about

Select Commotion Tracks and Icons.

The subjoined commotion facts is from the NOAA National Air Service. Tornados accept been classified by the riseal Fujita Flake (the commotion flake used until 2007); assortment ranges from F0 to F5.

Unbridle Commotion Tracks and Icons.

Double-click and spread Tornadoes by F-scale.

Select F0.

F0 are the imbecileest commotions, and accept the smallest total of detriment. They are to-boot the most low.

Question 28: Which says west of the Mississippi River do not accept an F0 commotion commemorative?

A. Nevada

B. Utah

C. Washington

D. Every say west of the Mississippi River has had an F0 commotion.

Unchosen F0 and then chosened F1. Melody the geographic arrangement of commotiones at this ability.

Repeat F2-F5.

Question 29: How has the number and colonization of commotions exprogressive as the ability growths?

A. The number growths and colonization tends to be in the east half of the US

B. The number growths and the colonization is slightly chance

C. The number abates and colonization tends to be in the east half of the US

13

D. The number abates and the colonization is slightly chance

Colescheatment and unbridle Tornadoes by F-scale.

Expand Tornadoes by Month. Chosen and prove each month.

Question 30: Which alien of months has the most commotiones?

A. January/February

B. April/May

C. July August

D. August/September

Colescheatment and unbridle THUNDERSTORMS AND TORNADOS.

TROPICAL CYCLONES

Tropical cyclones accept incongruous names, depending on where they educe. In the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans, they are determined gales. In the Indian Ocean they are apprehendn as cyclones and in the eastern Pacific they are signed as typhoons.

Tropical cyclones are swagger schemes of low influence surrounded by a multifold contortion of denouncestorms. Unrelish mid-latitude cyclones, rhetorical cyclones do not shape in territorys after a conjuncture faces. Rather, gales educe where the weather is proportionately homogenous - but after a conjuncture a haughty influence balance to “cap” the low influence swagger. These swagger schemes lean on soul from irascible impart to educe, and as such, shape in low latitudes.

Expand TROPICAL CYCLONES.

Expand Historical Gale Tracks.

Select Legend and then double-click and chosened Atlantic: 2000-2012 (Note: The imagery dominion grasp a few minutes to upload).

Question 31: Explain the unconcealed footpath of gales in the Atlantic Ocean.

A. They shape in incongruous places, but unconcealedly end up off the seaseastrand of Africa

B. They trip east balance the Atlantic anteriorly diverging

C. The footpaths are chance in command

14

D. They trip west balance the Atlantic anteriorly diverging

Unbridle Atlantic: 2000-2012.

Double-click and chosened Eastern North Pacific 2000-2012 (Note: The imagery dominion grasp a few minutes to upload).

Question 32: Explain the unconcealed footpath of typhoons in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

A. They unconcealedly shape off the seaseastrand of Mexico and mind toward Hawai’i

B. They shape in incongruous places, but unconcealedly end up off the seaseastrand of Mexico

C. They trip east balance the Pacific anteriorly diverging

D. The footpaths are chance in command

Colescheatment and unbridle Historical Gale Tracks.

Expand and double-click Gale Katrina - 2005. To cbetray the quotation, click the X in the top upupright cavity of the curveow.

Select Katrina Landfall Video. Watch the period escheatment of Gale Katrina as it hits Louisiana.

Double-click and chosened Tracks and purpose the footpath of this gale from the Caribbean Sea to North America.

Select Hurricane.

Question 33: Geographically, where was Gale Katrina the sinewyest (an H5 –shown as a red dispersion)?

A. In the Atlantic Ocean

B. In the Caribbean sea

C. In the Hollow of Mexico

D. New Orleans, LA

Question 34: What happened to the Gale uniformly it hit fix?

A. It dissipated

B. It continued north at the corresponding ability

15

C. It continued north but after a conjuncture decreasing ability

D. It became a rhetorical swagger

Colescheatment and unbridle Gale Katrina.

Double-click and chosened Gale Sandy.

Hurricane Sandy is considered the largest gale eternally commemorative in the Atlantic basin, measuring in at balance 1100 miles (1800 km) in bisection.

Question 35: True or False: The swagger scheme that hit New Jersey and the extreme area on October 29 was a rhetorical cyclone.

A. True

B. False

Question 36: Explain your repartee in the prior doubt.

A. Rhetorical cyclones do not trip that far north

B. Rhetorical cyclones do not happen this last in the year

C. Its vital centre was short defined than that required of a rhetorical cyclone

D. Sustained curve accelerate, low heavenly influence and swagger constituency are traits of a rhetorical cyclone.