Lab module 8: air masses and weather systems


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LAB MODULE 8: AIR MASSES AND WEATHER SYSTEMS

Note: Please appeal to the GETTING STARTED lab module to attain how to maneuver through and counter-argument the lab inquirys using the Google Earth () truthor.

Key Terms

You should apprehend and recognize the subjoined terms:

Air body

Cold face

Occluded Front

● Continental (c)

Downburst

Stationary Front

● Salt-impart (m)

Front

Thunderstorm

● Wintry or Antwintry (A)

Mesocyclones

Tropical Cyclones

● Polar (P)

Microburst

Warm Front

● Metaphorical (T)

Mid-latitude cyclone

Weather

LAB LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be telling to the subjoined tasks:

● Identify and regive air bodyes and their associated dampness and clime stipulations

● Regive faces and faceal plans

● Identify the disconnection and nonresidence of a mid-latitude cyclone in the US

● Identify the mechanisms unresisting vociferatestorms, breezes, and breezes

● Interpret maps showing the geographical disposals of caustic sphere plans

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INTRODUCTION

This lab module explores air bodyes, faces and mid-latitude cyclonic sphere plans. Topics embrace the subjoined: continental and salt-impart air bodyes; immovable, self-possessed, fervid and occluded faces; and the patterns and planes of mid-latitude cyclones and caustic sphere insults. The modules rouse after a date disgusting aperture inquirys, or vignettes, which are build in the connected Google Earth improve. These vignettes usher-in basic concepts of sphere and caustic sphere plans. Some of the vignettes keep brisknesss, videos, or deficient catechism that obtain arrange another perspective or visual description for the inquiry at workman. After balbutiation the vignette and associated links, counter-argument the subjoined inquirys. Please still n ess that some links capacity catch a date to download fixed on your Internet despatch.

Expand the INTRODUCTION folder and then excellent Inquiry 1: Weather.

Read Inquiry 1: Weather.

Question 1: Briefly regive the relishly sphere stipulations incontrovertible in the delineate.

A. Sunny and hot

B. Cloudy and raining

C. Fervid and humid

D. Hot and hazy

Read Inquiry 2: Air Masses.

Question 2: The vignette declares why there is no mA assortment. Additionally, there is no continental equatorial (cE) assortment. What is the riseal debate that a cE air body assortment does not rest (Hint: it is the antagonistic debate of mA)?

A. Because equatorial air bodyes are lively

B. Because continental air bodyes are lively

C. Because continental air bodyes create aggravate plant

D. Because there is no plant in equatorial climes

Read Inquiry 3: The Disconnection and Sphere Stipulations of Fronts.

Question 3: Compare the hebetude and despatch of self-possessed air (from the self-possessed face) to fervid air (from the fervid face)

A. Colder air is unsteadyer and pilgrimages faster than fervid air

B. Colder air is denser and pilgrimages faster than fervider air

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C. Warmer air unsteadyer and pilgrimages faster than self-possesseder air

D. Warmer air is denser and pilgrimages faster than self-possesseder air

Read Inquiry 4: Human Interaction: Breeze Alley.

Question 4: Why do areas located betwixt 30°N to 50°N arrange favortelling stipulations for breeze breed?

A. Because this clime is flat

B. Because this clime is where self-possessed wintry air and fervid submetaphorical air converge

C. Because this clime is predominantly cultivation

D. Because colonization is needed for cultivation in this clime

Colelapsing and unrestrain the INTRODUCTION folder.

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GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

As still n essd in the vignette, air bodyes are not vaguely distributed despite the globe; in truth the geographic rise (rise clime) of air bodyes determine each of the six implicit air body stamps – continental Wintry (cA), continental polar (cP), continental metaphorical (mT), salt-impart polar (mP), salt-impart metaphorical (mT), and salt-impart equatorial (mE).

As air bodyes stir encircling the Earth due to sphere stipulations, they can bring-about or surrender dampness, or growth or deccontinuity in clime. For model, a salt-impart polar (mP) air body tender despite a continent could surrender fur of its dampness and befit a continental polar (cP) air body.

In this training, you obtain regive the spatial patterns of air bodyes as they recount to uncertain colonys throughout the globe.

Verify that Labels (inferior Borders and Layers) is excellented in the Layers panel.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder and excellent the Air Body folder.

Double-click and excellent Colony A.

Question 5: Identify the chief air body:

A. mP

B. mT

C. cP

D. cT

Question 6: Identify the air clime (as very self-possessed, self-possessed, fervid, or very fervid) and the air dampness (as lively or dry) for the rise clime of this air body.

A. Self-possessed and dry

B. Fervid and dry

C. Very self-possessed and lively

D. Fervid and lively

Double-click and excellent Colony B.

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Question 7: Identify the chief air body:

A. mP

B. mT

C. cP

D. cT

Question 8: Identify the air clime (very self-possessed, self-possessed, fervid, or very fervid) and the air dampness (lively or dry) for the rise clime of this air body.

A. Self-possessed and dry

B. Fervid and dry

C. Very self-possessed and lively

D. Fervid and lively

Double-click and excellent Colony C

Question 9: Identify the chief air body:

A. mP

B. mT

C. cP

D. cA

Question 10: Identify the air clime (very self-possessed, self-possessed, fervid, or very fervid) and the air dampness (lively or dry) for the rise clime of this air body.

A. Self-possessed and dry

B. Fervid and dry

C. Self-possessed and lively

D. Fervid and lively

Double-click and excellent Colony D.

Question 11: Identify the chief air body:

A. mP

B. mT

C. cA

D. cT

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Question12: Identify the air clime (very self-possessed, self-possessed, fervid, or very fervid) and the air dampness (lively or dry) for the rise clime of this air body.

A. Self-possessed and dry

B. Fervid and dry

C. Very self-possessed and dry

D. Fervid and lively

Colelapsing and unrestrain the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder.

FRONTS

Fronts are synoptic layer features, aim they are usually climeal or continental in layer, in the enjoin of distinct hundred to 1000 km (621 miles) or further in protraction. Synoptic layer sphere maps, apprehendn as manner sphere separation, use uncertain figureogy from apprehendn axioms (pressure, clime, balanceshadow shield) to determine sphere faces.

On sphere maps, the self-possessed face date is named by a cerulean continuity of triangle pips, date fervid face boundaries are represented by a red continuity of half-dissipation pips. Occluded faces are shown in purple (red+blue) of alternativing triangle and half-dissipation pips. In all these cases, the margin of the continuity on which the figure appears indicates the bearing of stirment of the faceal zone. For immovable faces, the bearing of stirment is static, and thus, is represented by the shape of cerulean triangles and red half dissipations shown in despite bearings.

Expand the FRONTS folder.

Select and double-click Self-possessed face.

This figure depicts a self-possessed face stretching from northern Minnesota to western Nevada.

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Question 13: In which unconcealed bearing is the face tender?

A. Northwest

B. Northeast

C. Southwest

D. Southeast

Double-click and excellent Colony E and restrain Colony F.

Question 14: At which colony would you await the air clime to be fervider?

A. Colony E

B. Colony F

C. They should be the selfselfbase clime

Question 15: Which colony would be experiencing vociferatestorms?

A. Colony E

B. Colony F

C. There are vociferatestorms at twain colonys

D. There are not vociferatestorms at either colony

Unrestrain Self-possessed face.

Unrestrain Colony E.

Double-click and excellent Fervid face.

This figure depicts a fervid face stretching from northern Minnesota to eastern Kentucky.

Check Colony G.

Question 16: In which unconcealed bearing is the face tender?

A. Northwest

B. Northeast

C. Southwest

D. Southeast

Question 17: At which colony (F or G) would you await the air clime to be fervider?

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A. Colony F

B. Colony G

C. They should be the selfselfbase clime

Question 18: Would there be rainfall at Colony G? If so, briefly regive the concentration (how “hard” it is raining) and period.

A. No rainfall

B. Rainfall, constant drizzle durable all day

C. Rainfall, fervent rain durable all day

D. Rainfall, vociferatestorms durable a deficient period

Colelapsing and unrestrain the FRONTS folder.

MID-LATITUDE CYCLONES

Mid-latitude cyclones are unembarrassed low exigency plans that keep self-possessed and fervid faces. The fruit of mid-latitude cyclones is portio of the plan apprehendn as cyclogenesis.

Expand the MID-LATITUDE CYCLONES folder.

Click Migration.

This briskness shows the fruit and nonresidence of a mid-latitude cyclone, as polite as associate imagery (Note: The associate imagery individuality capacity catch a few minutes to upload).

Now, you obtain go through the cyclogenesis of a mid-latitude cyclone on Google Earth.

Return to Google Earth.

Double-click and excellent Day 1

This map shows a natural judicious fruit of a mid-latitude cyclone. The interior of the plan has the last exigency, which is located concurrently the jet exit (cerulean arrows). The plan pilgrimages in an easterly bearing concurrently the jet exit, after a date the

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fervid face necessary, followed by the self-possessed face. The extent of cyclogenesis is the disclosed extent.

Unrestrain Day 1.

Select Day 2.

The plan continues tender eastward concurrently the jet exit. The self-possessed face is pilgrimageing faster than the fervid face and the interspace betwixt the two faces is decreasing. After a date the interspace betwixt the faces proper smaller, cautiouser air rouses to drive the fervider air, and the fervider air begins to stir upwards. The extent of cyclogenesis is the aged extent.

Unrestrain Day 2.

Select Day 3.

Now, the self-possessed face has caught up after a date the fervid face and frames an occluded face. The fervider air is now aggravate (aggravate the manner) and colonization may happen. This extent of cyclogenesis is the occluded extent.

Question 19: In which bearing is the air circulation in a clearing mid-latitude cyclone?

A. Upwards

B. Downwards

C. Clockwise

D. Counter clockwise

Question 20: Where is the rise of the self-possessed air body and fervid air body in these models?

A. Self-possessed from Canada; fervid from Eastern US

B. Self-possessed from Western US; fervid from Eastern US

C. Self-possessed from Canada; fervid from excavation of Mexico

D. Self-possessed from Western US; fervid from Pacific Ocean

Question 21: Why does the self-possessed face stir faster than the fervid face?

A. Because the self-possessed air is unsteadyer and stirs faster.

B. Because the fervid air is denser and stirs further reluctantly.

C. Because the self-possessed air is denser and stirs faster.

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D. Because the fervid air is unsteadyer and stirs further reluctantly.

Question 22: What stamp of sphere do we see during the occluded face?

A. Clime eminence, no rainfall

B. Clime eminence, varitelling (unsteady to afflictive) rainfall

C. Clime mislaying, no rainfall

D. Clime mislaying, varitelling (unsteady to afflictive) rainfall

Question 23: Where does the heaviest rainfall happen - concurrently the self-possessed face or the fervid face?

A. Self-possessed face

B. Fervid face.

C. Rainfall is correspondent concurrently twain faces.

D. There is no rainfall concurrently either face.

Colelapsing and unrestrain the MID-LATITUDE CYCLONES folder.

THUNDERSTORMS AND TORNADOS

Thunderstorms

Thunderstorms are frameed when parcels of unsttelling (warm, lively) air are lifted acommander and uprightly from the foundation. Lifting mechanisms embrace convective lifting from the uncorrespondent ferviding of the foundation, orographic lifting from air impenetrable aggravate a mountain or base terrain, or faceal lifting from the necessary aspect of a self-possessed or fervid face. Rapid ascension of unsttelling air creates stanch updrafts (upward tender air) and fervent adiabatic cautiousing (that is, cautiousing after a dateout interacting after a date the excluded air). When the updrafts stretch the apex ascent (usually in the troposphere, or aggravate 12 km (40,000 feet) from the Earth’s manner), they fluctuate bearing and befit downdrafts, and aggravatewhelm.

Typical vociferatestorms keep inconclusive updrafts and inconclusive downdrafts. Thunderstorms that consequence glimmer floods keep stanch updrafts but inconclusive downdrafts. Thunderstorms that consequence downbursts (or microbursts) of downward, unanalogous air keep inconclusive updrafts but stanch downdrafts. When stanch updrafts and down drafts are give caustic vociferatestorms apprehendn as supercells are frameed. Associated after a date these vociferatestorms are the anvil shaped cumulonimbus balanceshadows, afflictive rains or accost, thinferior and unsteadyning, gusts of coil, mesocyclones (stanch upproper updrafts that hang and frame a babel of air), and casually breezees.

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Expand the THUNDERSTORMS AND TORNADOS folder.

Click Thunderstorms.

Question 24: At what extent(s) does updraft clear?

A. Cumulus extent

B. Developmental extent

C. Aged extent

D. Dissipation extent

Question 25: At what extent(s) does the clime cautious and stabilize?

A. Cumulus extent

B. Developmental extent

C. Aged extent

D. Dissipation extent

Tornadoes

Tornadoes frame as a consequence of stanch updrafts combined after a date coil skim (the dissimilitude in coil bearing and despatch after a date ascent). The co-operation fluctuates the recurrence of air from a insipid axis to a upproper axis. When the funnel stretches the foundation, it has evolved into a breeze.

Click Breeze Formation for the briskness of the disconnection of a breeze and manner categorizing breezees using the Enhanced Fujita Scale.

Question 26: What does an area seem relish when it is hit by a EF2 breeze?

A. Roofs stripped, variable homes flipped aggravate, coilows broken

B. Large trees uprooted, variable homes destroyed, roofs ripped off houses

C. Siding stripped, Shingles peeled off roofs, tree branches broken

D. Distinct hurt to shopping interiors, cars thrown about

Question 27: What does an area seem relish when it is hit by a EF4 breeze?

A. Roofs stripped, variable homes flipped aggravate, coilows broken

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B. Large trees uprooted, variable homes destroyed, roofs ripped off houses

C. Siding stripped, Shingles peeled off roofs, tree branches broken

D. Devastating hurt, cars thrown about

Select Breeze Tracks and Icons.

The subjoined breeze axioms is from the NOAA National Sphere Service. Tornados keep been classified by the riseal Fujita Layer (the breeze layer used until 2007); assortment ranges from F0 to F5.

Unrestrain Breeze Tracks and Icons.

Double-click and enlarge Tornadoes by F-scale.

Select F0.

F0 are the inconclusiveest breezes, and keep the smallest equality of hurt. They are too the most base.

Question 28: Which declares west of the Mississippi River do not keep an F0 breeze narrative?

A. Nevada

B. Utah

C. Washington

D. Every declare west of the Mississippi River has had an F0 breeze.

Unexcellent F0 and then excellent F1. Still n ess the geographic disposal of breezees at this power.

Repeat F2-F5.

Question 29: How has the quantity and colony of breezes fluctuated as the power growths?

A. The quantity growths and colony tends to be in the east half of the US

B. The quantity growths and the colony is partially vague

C. The quantity declines and colony tends to be in the east half of the US

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D. The quantity declines and the colony is partially vague

Colelapsing and unrestrain Tornadoes by F-scale.

Expand Tornadoes by Month. Excellent and scrutinize each month.

Question 30: Which couple of months has the most breezees?

A. January/February

B. April/May

C. July August

D. August/September

Colelapsing and unrestrain THUNDERSTORMS AND TORNADOS.

TROPICAL CYCLONES

Tropical cyclones keep unanalogous names, depending on where they clear. In the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans, they are denominated breezes. In the Indian Ocean they are apprehendn as cyclones and in the eastern Pacific they are attested as typhoons.

Tropical cyclones are insult plans of low exigency encircled by a involved contortion of vociferatestorms. Unrelish mid-latitude cyclones, metaphorical cyclones do not frame in climes after a date faces. Rather, breezes clear where the clime is relatively homogenous - but after a date a elevated exigency aggravate to “cap” the low exigency insult. These insult plans rely on ardor from fervid impart to clear, and as such, frame in low latitudes.

Expand TROPICAL CYCLONES.

Expand Historical Breeze Tracks.

Select Legend and then double-click and excellent Atlantic: 2000-2012 (Note: The imagery capacity catch a few minutes to upload).

Question 31: Explain the unconcealed method of breezes in the Atlantic Ocean.

A. They frame in unanalogous places, but unconcealedly end up off the shore of Africa

B. They pilgrimage east despite the Atlantic precedently diverging

C. The methods are vague in bearing

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D. They pilgrimage west despite the Atlantic precedently diverging

Unrestrain Atlantic: 2000-2012.

Double-click and excellent Eastern North Pacific 2000-2012 (Note: The imagery capacity catch a few minutes to upload).

Question 32: Explain the unconcealed method of typhoons in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

A. They unconcealedly frame off the shore of Mexico and commander toward Hawai’i

B. They frame in unanalogous places, but unconcealedly end up off the shore of Mexico

C. They pilgrimage east despite the Pacific precedently diverging

D. The methods are vague in bearing

Colelapsing and unrestrain Historical Breeze Tracks.

Expand and double-click Breeze Katrina - 2005. To csurrender the extract, click the X in the top proper nook of the coilow.

Select Katrina Landfall Video. Watch the date elapsing of Breeze Katrina as it hits Louisiana.

Double-click and excellent Tracks and opinion the method of this breeze from the Caribbean Sea to North America.

Select Hurricane.

Question 33: Geographically, where was Breeze Katrina the stanchest (an H5 –shown as a red dissipation)?

A. In the Atlantic Ocean

B. In the Caribbean sea

C. In the Excavation of Mexico

D. New Orleans, LA

Question 34: What happened to the Breeze once it hit plant?

A. It dissipated

B. It continued north at the selfselfbase power

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C. It continued north but after a date decreasing power

D. It became a metaphorical insult

Colelapsing and unrestrain Breeze Katrina.

Double-click and excellent Breeze Sandy.

Hurricane Sandy is considered the largest breeze constantly narrative in the Atlantic basin, measuring in at aggravate 1100 miles (1800 km) in transversion.

Question 35: True or False: The insult plan that hit New Jersey and the excluded area on October 29 was a metaphorical cyclone.

A. True

B. False

Question 36: Explain your counter-argument in the antecedent inquiry.

A. Metaphorical cyclones do not pilgrimage that far north

B. Metaphorical cyclones do not happen this last in the year

C. Its vital heart was close defined than that required of a metaphorical cyclone

D. Sustained coil despatch, low seraphic exigency and insult construction are traits of a metaphorical cyclone.