Lab module 7: atmospheric moisture


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LAB MODULE 7: ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE

Note: Please apply to the GETTING STARTED lab module to collect tips on how to set up and maneuver through the Google Earth () rudiment of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The aftercited is a inventory of expressive expression and concepts used in this lab module:

Adiabatic wayes

Frontal establish

Physical recites of inspire

Cirrus darkens

Hydrologic cycle

Relative dampness

Condensation plane

Maximum dampness

Specific dampness

Convectional establish

Orographic establish

Stratus darkens

Cumulus darkens

Precipitation

Wet (and dry) bulb weather

LAB LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be operative to:

● Describe and illustreprimand the hydrologic cycle

● Warrant divergent darken signs

● Illustreprimand the adiabatic way

● Collate and dissimilarity divergent establish mechanisms

● Collate and dissimilarity divergent signs of dampness

● Illustreprimand how subsidence arises

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INTRODUCTION

In this lab module you accomplish explore some main concepts and principles connected to heavenly dampness. Topics compfuse substantial recites of inspire, dampness, adiabatic wayes, darken minority and subsidence. Timeliness these subjects may show to be ill-matched, you accomplish collect how they are inherently connected.

The modules set-out after a conjunctureliness impure beginning subjects, or vignettes, which are build in the connected Google Earth finish. These vignettes usher-in basic concepts connected to heavenly dampness. Some of the vignettes keep sprightlinesss, videos, or condensed articles that accomplish supply another perspective or visual sense for the subject at workman. After lection the vignette and associated links, response the aftercited questions. Please silence that some rudiments of this lab may follow a conjunctureliness to download or notorious, specially if you keep a lingering internet affinity.

Expand the ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE folder and then unfold the INTRODUCTION folder.

Read Subject 1: The Substantial States of Water.

Question 1: Illustreprimand how this declaration is false: Warmth is weather.

A. Weather is immateriality, conjunctureliness warmth is a estimate of weather

B. Warmth is immateriality, conjunctureliness weather is a estimate of warmth

C. Warmth is immateriality, conjunctureliness weather is the assign of immateriality from one recite to another

D. Weather is immateriality, conjunctureliness warmth is the assign of immateriality from one recite to another

Question 2: Is evaporation the parching or exempt of undeveloped warmth?

A. Absorption

B. Release

C. Both

D. Neither

Read Subject 2: The Hydrologic Cycle

Question 3: According to the video, what is the vulgar tediousness of storage conjuncture for most heavenly inspire (rainfall, snowfall) that droop onto locate?

A. Barely a few hours

B. Several days

C. Weeks or further

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D. It is unknown

Read Subject 3: Heavenly Humidity

Question 4: How can you keep a favoring dampness that is low in the excellent brinks of the northern hemisphere (as shown by the eminence of cerulean in primeval video) and yet keep a excellent referring-to dampness (as shown by the eminence of red in the remedy video)?

A. Function of weather – low temps keep a low favoring dampness but a low utmost dampness and thereby excellent referring-to dampness

B. Function of dregs – excellent verticalitys (adjacent the poles) keep further dampness than low verticalitys (adjacent the Equator) and thereby excellent referring-to dampness

C. Function of sky – low weathers keep low favoring dampness but a excellent utmost dampness and thereby a excellent referring-to dampness

D. Function of dampness – the favoring dampness is excellent and hence the referring-toly dampness must so be excellent

Read Subject 4: Human Interaction

Question 5: What is the earliest unpolished aerosol in the Atlantic Ocean, betwixt Africa and South America? (Hint: Seem to where the germinative derivation lies and what is build in that dregs)

A. Sea salts from the Indian Ocean

B. Smoke from fires in Africa

C. Nitrates from coastal populations

D. Dust (sand) from the Sahara Desert

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

In this module you accomplish collect about factors influencing subsidence and that subsidence varies spatially and temporally. This minority accomplish usher-in you to some of these specimens.

Expand GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE and then fine June Precipitation.

This map shows whole subsidence for the month of June 2011. Subsidence is the simplicity of heavenly inspire mist into manifold conceives of inspire, including rain, sleet, snow, and welcome. The sum of subsidence for any ardent area is estimated in millimeters (mm).

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Double-click and fine Dregs A.

Question 6: What is the bcommand brink and desireitude (degrees barely) for this dregs?

A. 28 N 82 W

B. 28 S 82 E

C. 28 N 82 E

D. 29 S 82 W

Question 7: Estimate the subsidence for this dregs.

A. Closely 1 mm

B. Closely 100 mm

C. Closely 200 mm

D. Closely 2000 mm

Double-click and fine Dregs B.

Question 8: What is the bcommand brink and desireitude (degrees barely) for this dregs?

A. 28 N 114 E

B. 28 N 114 W

C. 28 S 114 W

D. 28 S 114 E

Question 9: Estimate the subsidence for this dregs.

A. Closely 1 mm

B. Closely 100 mm

C. Closely 200 mm

D. Closely 2000 mm

Question 10: Does brink dramatize a conspicuous role in subsidence differences in these two ins in June?

A. Yes, brink is a main argue for subsidence differences betwixt Locations A and B

B. No, there are other geographic factors that recital for the differences betwixt Locations A and B

Select December Precipitation, and then double-click anew on Dregs A.

Question 11: Estimate the subsidence for Dregs A.

A. Closely 1 mm

B. Closely 10 mm

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C. Closely 200 mm

D. Closely 2000 mm

Question 12: Does Dregs A keep twain a wet conjuncture and a dry conjuncture?

A. Very slight - there is further subsidence in wane than summer

B. Very slight - there is further subsidence in summer than wane

C. Not slight - there seems to be barely a wet conjuncture (overhead 60mm) year-round

D. Not slight - there seems to be barely a dry conjuncture (adown 60 mm) year-round

Double-click and fine Dregs C.

Question 13: What is the brink (degrees barely) for this dregs?

A. 4 N 114 E

B. 4 S 114 W

C. 4 N 114 W

D. 4 S 114 E

Toggle betwixt June Subsidence and December Precipitation.

Question 14: Does Dregs C keep twain a wet conjuncture and a dry conjuncture?

A. Very slight - there is further subsidence in wane than summer

B. Very slight - there is further subsidence in summer than wane

C. Not slight - there seems to be barely a wet conjuncture (overhead 60mm) year-round

D. Not slight - there seems to be barely a dry conjuncture (adown 60 mm) year-round

Question 15: Does brink dramatize a conspicuous role in subsidence? (Hint: seem at the balanceall subsidence bend across the Earth at this bcommand brink)

A. Yes, brink is a main argue for the subsidence specimen of Dregs C

B. No, there are other geographic factors that recital for the subsidence at Locations C

Collapse and uncheck GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE.

HUMIDITY

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We collected from Subject 3 in the Introduction minority the three signs of dampness: utmost, favoring and referring-to dampness. When we talk colloquially about dampness, we are usually applyring to referring-to dampness. For in, on some hot summer days, the air may impress viscous and we say the (relative) dampness is excellent. Conversely, on apathetic wane days, the air may impress dry and we say the (relative) dampness is low.

We can use a lowly show denominated sling psychrometer to estimate the dry bulb weather and the wet bulb weather. The dry bulb weather is the ambient air weather, and is estimated using a established thermometer. The wet bulb weather, ultimately, is the weather estimated by envelope the end of a thermometer in a wet cotton sleeve and then unsteady it encircling to melt some inspire from the sleeve. Since evaporation is a subsidence way, the wet bulb thermometer accomplish archives a inferior lection than the dry bulb thermometer as desire as the surrounding air is not saturated. By comparing the weather betwixt the two thermometer lections, and then seeming up the values in Toperative 1, we can designate (sometimes by way of interpolation) the referring-to dampness.

For in:

1. Assume that the dry bulb weather is 26°C, and the wet bulb weather is 16°C.

2. After a conjunctureliness these two weathers, use the aftercited conceiveula to estimate the wet bulb degradation by subtracting the wet bulb weather from the dry bulb weather: 26°C – 16°C = 10°C

3. Apply to Toperative 1 to designate the referring-to dampness; in this subject, the referring-to dampness (RH) is 34 percent (34%).

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Toperative 1. Toperative 1. Referring-to Humidity, Wet-Dry Bulb Method (Source: Adapted from the NOAA Referring-to Dampness and Dew Subject-matter board).

Expand the HUMIDITY folder.

Watch the videos beneathneathneath HUMIDITY and in importation after a conjunctureliness Toperative 1, designate the referring-to dampness for the aftercited dregss.

Click Mariposa Grove and archives the wet and dry bulb weathers.

Question 16: What is the referring-to dampness at Mariposa Grove?

Dry Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb Degradation (Dry-Wet), (˚C)

Relative Dampness (%)

Note to Editor: Use drop-down choices for each box. Choices as follows:

List of germinative responses for Dry Bulb: 23.5°C, 16.5°C, 20°C, 27°C,

List of germinative responses for Wet Bulb: 19°C, 19.5°C, 10°C, 15°C,

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List of germinative responses for Wet Bulb Depression: 10°C, 8°C, 4°C, 1.5°C

List of germinative responses for Wet Bulb Depression: 24%, 19%, 27%, 20%

Click California Central Valley and archives the wet and dry bulb weathers.

Question 17: What is the referring-to dampness harmonious beyond of Fresno?

Dry Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb Degradation (Dry-Wet), (˚C)

Relative Dampness (%)

Note to Editor: Use drop-down choices for each box. Choices as follows:

List of germinative responses for Dry Bulb: 23.5°C, 16.5°C, 20°C, 27°C

List of germinative responses for Wet Bulb: 19°C, 19.5°C, 10°C, 15°C

List of germinative responses for Wet Bulb Depression: 10°C, 8°C, 4°C, 1.5°C

List of germinative responses for Wet Bulb Depression: 46%, 42%, 53%, 45%

Click Redwood Forest and archives the wet and dry bulb weathers.

Question 18: What is the referring-to dampness in the redwood forest?

Dry Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb Degradation (Dry-Wet), (˚C)

Relative Dampness (%)

Note to Editor: Use drop-down choices for each box. Choices as follows:

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List of germinative responses for Dry Bulb: 23.5°C, 16.5°C, 20°C, 27°C

List of germinative responses for Wet Bulb: 19°C, 19.5°C, 10°C, 15°C

List of germinative responses for Wet Bulb Depression: 10°C, 8°C, 4°C, 1.5°C

List of germinative responses for Wet Bulb Depression: 60.5%, 68%, 68.75%, 69.5%,

Click Monterey Bay, CA and archives the wet and dry bulb weathers.

Question 19: What is the referring-to dampness at the seashore at Monterey Bay?

Dry Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb Degradation (Dry-Wet), (˚C)

Relative Dampness (%)

Note to Editor: Use drop-down choices for each box. Choices as follows:

List of germinative responses for Dry Bulb: 23.5°C, 16.5°C, 20°C, 27°C, 15°C

List of germinative responses for Dry Bulb: 19°C, 19.5°C, 10°C, 15°C, 27°C

List of germinative responses for Wet Bulb Depression: 10°C, 8°C, 5.5°C, 4°C, 1.5°C

List of germinative responses for Wet Bulb Depression: 80%, 81.75%, 84.5%, 85.25%, 91%

Collapse and uncheck HUMIDITY.

ADIABATIC PROCESS

As a bundle of air (so unconcealed as a fervent) fuses, the exigency wanes (the bundle unfolds) and it cools. This way is unconcealed as adiabatic subsidence.

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Conversely, as a bundle of air descends, its exigency acceptions (the bundle compresses) and it warms. This way is unconcealed as adiabatic warming. These modifys in weather are a issue of modifys in exigency after a conjuncturelinessin the air bundle itself, after a conjunctureliness an unfolding bundle promoting a wane in weather (cooling) and a compressing air bundle promoting an acception in weather (warming).

When the referring-to dampness (RH) of a amelioration bundle of air is close than 100% (sense it is not saturated), the bundle cools at the dry adiabatic reprimand (DAR), which is borderly 1°C/100m. Likewise, a descconclusion air bundle that is not saturated warms at the similar DAR.

For in, deem a amelioration bundle of air after a conjunctureliness a weather of 15˚C and an RH of 60%. If the bundle fuses 400 meters in verticality, its weather accomplish be 11˚C. In other expression, the air bundle cools 1˚C for whole 100m acception in verticality, thereby subsidence 4˚C.

Thing are divergent, ultimately, if the RH of an air bundle is 100% (i.e. the air bundle is saturated). When the RH is 100%, the air bundle cools at the wet adiabatic reprimand (WAR), which is borderly 0.5°C/100m. The WAR is not as huge as the DAR consequently undeveloped warmth of simplicity (the immateriality when inspire mist condenses to a fluent) is exemptd.

For in, the weather of a amelioration saturated bundle of air is 18°C. If this bundle continues to fuse another 1000 meters in verticality, its weather accomplish be 13°C. In other expression, the air bundle cools 0.5˚C for whole 100m acception in verticality, thereby subsidence 5˚C.

Click ADIABATIC PROCESSES to wait the video.

For the aftercited questions, use the aftercited air bundle conditions:

An unsaturated bundle of air after a conjunctureliness a weather of 20˚C fuses 1200m to the simplicity plane and then continues to fuse saturated for another 600m.

Question 20: What is the weather of the bundle when it befits saturated?

A. 32˚C

B. 8˚C

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C. 5˚C

D. 14˚C

Question 21: What is the weather of the bundle when it stops amelioration?

A. 32˚C

B. 8˚C

C. 5˚C

D. 14˚C

The unsaturated air bundle then descends 1800m end to its derivational verticality.

Question 22: What is the weather of the bundle once it has descended to its derivational verticality?

A. 40˚C

B. 23˚C

C. 14˚C

D. 20˚C

Question 23: When the air bundle consummates its suiboard at its derivational verticality, how does this conclusion weather collate to the set-outing weather?

A. Warmer

B. Cooler

C. Same

D. Varioperative (warmer or cooler)

Uncheck ADIABATIC PROCESSES.

CLOUD CLASSIFICATION

Scientists assort darkens according to their conceive and verticality. There are three darken classes accounted on conceive: cirrus, cumulus and stratus.

● Cirrus darkens are wispy, flimsy darkens interposed of ice crystals.

● Cumulus darkens keep unconnected puffy shapes after a conjunctureliness downright bases conceiveed at the simplicity plane.

● Stratus darkens are white equivocation love darkens envelope most of the sky.

Clouds are further classified according to their verticality.

● Excellent darkens are build balance 6km (20,000 ft.) in the atmosphere

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● Average darkens are betwixt 2.5km and 6km (6,500 ft. to 20,000 ft.).

● Low darkens are those close than 2.5km.

Click CLOUD CLASSIFICATION.

Use the sprightliness to warrant characteristics of darken signs and to consummate the toperative adown. The primeval one has been effected for you as an in

Cloud sign

Form

(pick-out from wispy, puffy, patchy, or equivocation)

Altitude

(pick-out from excellent, average or low)

Rain

(pick-out yes or no)

Altostratus

Sheet

Middle

No

24. Altocumulus

25. Cirrocumulus

26. Cirrus

27. Cumulonimbus

28. Cumulus

29. Stratocumulus

30. Stratus

Note to Editor: Q24-Q30 balancehead should be drop-down choices for each box. Choices are located beneathneathneath Form, Altitude, and Rain

Uncheck CLOUD CLASSIFICATION.

PRECIPITATION PROCESSES

Introduction

When inspire mist in the air is cooled to its saturation subject-matter, inspire droplets or ice crystals conceive. Once the inspire droplets or ice crystals befit comprehensive ample to droop beneathneathneath the vigor of starch, subsidence arises. In command for this arise, air must fuse such that qualified simplicity follows locate. This required lifting of an air bundle vulgarly happens in one of manifold ways, including convectional establish, orographic establish, frontal establish, and convergent (cyclonic) establish. We accomplish cbalance the primeval two in this module as they showsubject the wayes associated after a conjunctureliness adiabatic subsidence. To silence, geography dramatizes an expressive role in subsidence (or after a whiledrawal thereof), as true geographic areas are further eager to yield a feature sign of establish.

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Convectional establish

Convectional establish arises when a bundle of air after a conjuncturelinessin a comprehensiver stoperative air heap is warmthed by the hot account and fuses. When this bundle fuses balancehead the simplicity plane, cumulus darkens keep to conceive. In manifold subjects these darkens accomplish aim adesire after a conjunctureliness the twist and thus-far scatter, pliant no rain. But in some subjects the air is unstoperative and hale convectional establish arises. Cumulonimbus darkens frequently conceive, pliant raindroop and in further violent subjects, thunderstorms lay-open. Timeliness convectional establish and associated subsidence can arun approximately anywhere balance locate, there are true locates where this establish is further vulgar. For in, the Huge Plains part in the United States vulgarly experiences this sign of establish during the summer months, which yields rainstorms in the afternoon. Equatorial parts where solar insolation is solemn are subjected to subsidence from ordinary establish.

Click Convectional Raindroop and wait the video.

Question 31: True or False: Convectional establish goes through the way of adiabatic subsidence.

A. True

B. False

Orographic establish

Orographic establish is caused by mountains which vigor an air bundle upwards as the air flows. As the bundle fuses, the air exigency wanes, causing the bundle to unfold and the air weather to wane. When the bundle reaches the simplicity plane, darkens conceive, and in some subjects, subsidence arises. After the bundle has cleared the mountains, it descends and the air is sheltered, redundant to an acception in weather. This drier, warmer bundle creates a rainshadow on the leeward plane of mountain ranges. This sign of raindroop is vulgar adesire the mountain ranges adjacent the Pacific Ocean as courteous as neptunan islands such as Hawai’i and New Zealand.

Click Orographic Processes and wait the video on Orographic Uplift. After waiting the video, illustreprimand the aftercited scenarios:

Question

Initial (Start) Temperatur

Final (End)

Temperature

Did it Rain?

(yes or no)

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e

32. Scenario 2

33. Scenario 7

34. Scenario 9

Question 35: How does a rain fact modify the definite weather from the judicious weather?

A. Increases

B. Decreases

C. Stays the similar

D. Varioperative (increases or wanes)

Question 36: Does is rain on the twistward or leeward plane?

A. Windward

B. Leeward

Question 37: What is the referring-to dampness when it rains?

A. 0 percent

B. 50 percent

C. 100 percent

D. Variable

Double-click and fine Dregs D.

Question 38: This dregs is on the ________ of the Cascade Mountains.

A. Windward plane

B. Leeward plane

C. Convergent plane

D. Frontal plane

Double-click and fine Dregs E.

Question 39: What is another designate for the dry area build encircling Dregs E?

A. Windward

B. Rainshadow

C. Orographic

D. Convective

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Double-click and fine Dregs F.

Question 40: What sign of adiabatic establish would direct to subsidence at Dregs F?

A. Divergent

B. Frontal

C. Orographic

D. Convectional

Collapse and uncheck the PRECIPITATION PROCESSES folder. You keep consummated Lab Module 7.