Lab module 7: atmospheric moisture


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LAB MODULE 7: ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE

Note: Please advert to the GETTING STARTED lab module to attain tips on how to set up and maneuver through the Google Earth () element of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The forthcoming is a register of expressive articulation and concepts used in this lab module:

Adiabatic rulees

Frontal elevate

Physical avers of present

Cirrus shades

Hydrologic cycle

Relative dampness

Condensation raze

Maximum dampness

Specific dampness

Convectional elevate

Orographic elevate

Stratus shades

Cumulus shades

Precipitation

Wet (and dry) bulb sky

LAB LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be effectual to:

● Describe and expound the hydrologic cycle

● Test irnot-absolute shade patterns

● Expound the adiabatic rule

● Collate and dissimilarity irnot-absolute elevate mechanisms

● Collate and dissimilarity irnot-absolute patterns of dampness

● Expound how subsidence betides

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INTRODUCTION

In this lab module you procure search some indispensable concepts and principles allied to eternal dampness. Topics conceive material avers of present, dampness, adiabatic rulees, shade nature and subsidence. Suitableness these subjects may show to be divergent, you procure attain how they are inherently allied.

The modules begin delay immodest aperture subjects, or vignettes, which are root in the connected Google Earth rasp. These vignettes present basic concepts allied to eternal dampness. Some of the vignettes enjoy spirits, videos, or defective articles that procure get another perspective or visual exposition for the subject at influence. After lection the vignette and associated links, solution the forthcoming questions. Please music that some elements of this lab may receive a suitableness to download or unreserved, chiefly if you enjoy a tardy internet union.

Expand the ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE folder and then exnurture the INTRODUCTION folder.

Read Subject 1: The Material States of Water.

Question 1: Expound how this assertion is false: Ebullition is sky.

A. Sky is ardor, suitableness ebullition is a estimate of sky

B. Ebullition is ardor, suitableness sky is a estimate of ebullition

C. Ebullition is ardor, suitableness sky is the forward of ardor from one aver to another

D. Sky is ardor, suitableness ebullition is the forward of ardor from one aver to another

Question 2: Is evaporation the aridity or extricate of concealed ebullition?

A. Absorption

B. Release

C. Both

D. Neither

Read Subject 2: The Hydrologic Cycle

Question 3: According to the video, what is the vulgar extension of storage interval for most eternal present (rainfall, snowfall) that lapse onto plant?

A. Simply a few hours

B. Several days

C. Weeks or past

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D. It is unknown

Read Subject 3: Eternal Humidity

Question 4: How can you enjoy a point dampness that is low in the eminent extremitys of the northern hemisphere (as shown by the encouragement of cerulean in chief video) and yet enjoy a eminent not-absolute dampness (as shown by the encouragement of red in the avoid video)?

A. Function of sky – low temps enjoy a low point dampness but a low utmost dampness and thereby eminent not-absolute dampness

B. Function of residuum – eminent loftinesss (close the poles) enjoy past dampness than low loftinesss (close the Equator) and thereby eminent not-absolute dampness

C. Function of air – low skys enjoy low point dampness but a eminent utmost dampness and thereby a eminent not-absolute dampness

D. Function of dampness – the point dampness is eminent and consequently the not-absolutely dampness must so be eminent

Read Subject 4: Human Interaction

Question 5: What is the imported rough aerosol in the Atlantic Ocean, betwixt Africa and South America? (Hint: Observe to where the immanent beginning lies and what is root in that residuum)

A. Sea salts from the Indian Ocean

B. Smoke from fires in Africa

C. Nitrates from coastal populations

D. Dust (sand) from the Sahara Desert

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

In this module you procure attain environing factors influencing subsidence and that subsidence varies spatially and temporally. This individuality procure present you to some of these moulds.

Expand GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE and then chosen June Precipitation.

This map shows sum subsidence for the month of June 2011. Subsidence is the simplicity of eternal present gas into sundry constitutes of present, including rain, sleet, snow, and address. The aggregate of subsidence for any absorbed area is estimated in millimeters (mm).

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Double-click and chosen Residuum A.

Question 6: What is the trench extremity and covetitude (degrees simply) for this residuum?

A. 28 N 82 W

B. 28 S 82 E

C. 28 N 82 E

D. 29 S 82 W

Question 7: Estimate the subsidence for this residuum.

A. Almost 1 mm

B. Almost 100 mm

C. Almost 200 mm

D. Almost 2000 mm

Double-click and chosen Residuum B.

Question 8: What is the trench extremity and covetitude (degrees simply) for this residuum?

A. 28 N 114 E

B. 28 N 114 W

C. 28 S 114 W

D. 28 S 114 E

Question 9: Estimate the subsidence for this residuum.

A. Almost 1 mm

B. Almost 100 mm

C. Almost 200 mm

D. Almost 2000 mm

Question 10: Does extremity dramatize a deep role in subsidence differences in these two samples in June?

A. Yes, extremity is a deep discuss for subsidence differences betwixt Locations A and B

B. No, there are other geographic factors that statement for the differences betwixt Locations A and B

Select December Precipitation, and then double-click frequently on Residuum A.

Question 11: Estimate the subsidence for Residuum A.

A. Almost 1 mm

B. Almost 10 mm

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C. Almost 200 mm

D. Almost 2000 mm

Question 12: Does Residuum A enjoy twain a wet opportunity and a dry opportunity?

A. Very mitigated - there is past subsidence in decay than summer

B. Very mitigated - there is past subsidence in summer than decay

C. Not mitigated - there seems to be simply a wet opportunity (aloft 60mm) year-round

D. Not mitigated - there seems to be simply a dry opportunity (lower 60 mm) year-round

Double-click and chosen Residuum C.

Question 13: What is the extremity (degrees simply) for this residuum?

A. 4 N 114 E

B. 4 S 114 W

C. 4 N 114 W

D. 4 S 114 E

Toggle betwixt June Subsidence and December Precipitation.

Question 14: Does Residuum C enjoy twain a wet opportunity and a dry opportunity?

A. Very mitigated - there is past subsidence in decay than summer

B. Very mitigated - there is past subsidence in summer than decay

C. Not mitigated - there seems to be simply a wet opportunity (aloft 60mm) year-round

D. Not mitigated - there seems to be simply a dry opportunity (lower 60 mm) year-round

Question 15: Does extremity dramatize a deep role in subsidence? (Hint: observe at the aggravateall subsidence bear abutting the Earth at this trench extremity)

A. Yes, extremity is a deep discuss for the subsidence mould of Residuum C

B. No, there are other geographic factors that statement for the subsidence at Locations C

Collapse and uncheck GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE.

HUMIDITY

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We attained from Subject 3 in the Introduction individuality the three patterns of dampness: utmost, point and not-absolute dampness. When we utter colloquially environing dampness, we are usually advertring to not-absolute dampness. For sample, on some hot summer days, the air may arrive-at glutinous and we say the (relative) dampness is eminent. Conversely, on frigid decay days, the air may arrive-at dry and we say the (relative) dampness is low.

We can use a primal cognizance enumerated sling psychrometer to estimate the dry bulb sky and the wet bulb sky. The dry bulb sky is the ambient air sky, and is estimated using a customary thermometer. The wet bulb sky, nevertheless, is the sky estimated by crust the end of a thermometer in a wet cotton sleeve and then beetling it encircling to exhale some present from the sleeve. Since evaporation is a subsidence rule, the wet bulb thermometer procure annals a inferior lection than the dry bulb thermometer as covet as the surrounding air is not saturated. By comparing the sky betwixt the two thermometer lections, and then observeing up the values in Teffectual 1, we can enumeblame (rarely by way of interpolation) the not-absolute dampness.

For sample:

1. Assume that the dry bulb sky is 26°C, and the wet bulb sky is 16°C.

2. Delay these two skys, use the forthcoming constituteula to number the wet bulb hollow by subtracting the wet bulb sky from the dry bulb sky: 26°C – 16°C = 10°C

3. Advert to Teffectual 1 to enumeblame the not-absolute dampness; in this fact, the not-absolute dampness (RH) is 34 percent (34%).

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Teffectual 1. Teffectual 1. Not-absolute Humidity, Wet-Dry Bulb Method (Source: Adapted from the NOAA Not-absolute Dampness and Dew Subject-matter consideration).

Expand the HUMIDITY folder.

Watch the videos lower HUMIDITY and in specification delay Teffectual 1, enumeblame the not-absolute dampness for the forthcoming residuums.

Click Mariposa Grove and annals the wet and dry bulb skys.

Question 16: What is the not-absolute dampness at Mariposa Grove?

Dry Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb Hollow (Dry-Wet), (˚C)

Relative Dampness (%)

Note to Editor: Use drop-down choices for each box. Choices as follows:

List of immanent solutions for Dry Bulb: 23.5°C, 16.5°C, 20°C, 27°C,

List of immanent solutions for Wet Bulb: 19°C, 19.5°C, 10°C, 15°C,

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List of immanent solutions for Wet Bulb Depression: 10°C, 8°C, 4°C, 1.5°C

List of immanent solutions for Wet Bulb Depression: 24%, 19%, 27%, 20%

Click California Central Valley and annals the wet and dry bulb skys.

Question 17: What is the not-absolute dampness proper beyond of Fresno?

Dry Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb Hollow (Dry-Wet), (˚C)

Relative Dampness (%)

Note to Editor: Use drop-down choices for each box. Choices as follows:

List of immanent solutions for Dry Bulb: 23.5°C, 16.5°C, 20°C, 27°C

List of immanent solutions for Wet Bulb: 19°C, 19.5°C, 10°C, 15°C

List of immanent solutions for Wet Bulb Depression: 10°C, 8°C, 4°C, 1.5°C

List of immanent solutions for Wet Bulb Depression: 46%, 42%, 53%, 45%

Click Redwood Grove and annals the wet and dry bulb skys.

Question 18: What is the not-absolute dampness in the redwood grove?

Dry Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb Hollow (Dry-Wet), (˚C)

Relative Dampness (%)

Note to Editor: Use drop-down choices for each box. Choices as follows:

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List of immanent solutions for Dry Bulb: 23.5°C, 16.5°C, 20°C, 27°C

List of immanent solutions for Wet Bulb: 19°C, 19.5°C, 10°C, 15°C

List of immanent solutions for Wet Bulb Depression: 10°C, 8°C, 4°C, 1.5°C

List of immanent solutions for Wet Bulb Depression: 60.5%, 68%, 68.75%, 69.5%,

Click Monterey Bay, CA and annals the wet and dry bulb skys.

Question 19: What is the not-absolute dampness at the seaboard at Monterey Bay?

Dry Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb (˚C)

Wet Bulb Hollow (Dry-Wet), (˚C)

Relative Dampness (%)

Note to Editor: Use drop-down choices for each box. Choices as follows:

List of immanent solutions for Dry Bulb: 23.5°C, 16.5°C, 20°C, 27°C, 15°C

List of immanent solutions for Dry Bulb: 19°C, 19.5°C, 10°C, 15°C, 27°C

List of immanent solutions for Wet Bulb Depression: 10°C, 8°C, 5.5°C, 4°C, 1.5°C

List of immanent solutions for Wet Bulb Depression: 80%, 81.75%, 84.5%, 85.25%, 91%

Collapse and uncheck HUMIDITY.

ADIABATIC PROCESS

As a package of air (so public as a glowing) flows, the influence reduces (the package extends) and it cools. This rule is public as adiabatic subsidence.

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Conversely, as a package of air descends, its influence growths (the package compresses) and it warms. This rule is public as adiabatic warming. These substitutes in sky are a issue of substitutes in influence delayin the air package itself, delay an extresult package promoting a reduce in sky (cooling) and a compressing air package promoting an growth in sky (warming).

When the not-absolute dampness (RH) of a encouragement package of air is close than 100% (purport it is not saturated), the package cools at the dry adiabatic blame (DAR), which is trenchly 1°C/100m. Likewise, a descresult air package that is not saturated warms at the identical DAR.

For sample, surmise a encouragement package of air delay a sky of 15˚C and an RH of 60%. If the package flows 400 meters in loftiness, its sky procure be 11˚C. In other articulation, the air package cools 1˚C for integral 100m growth in loftiness, thereby subsidence 4˚C.

Thing are irrelative, nevertheless, if the RH of an air package is 100% (i.e. the air package is saturated). When the RH is 100%, the air package cools at the wet adiabatic blame (WAR), which is trenchly 0.5°C/100m. The WAR is not as excellent as the DAR owing concealed ebullition of simplicity (the ardor when present gas condenses to a running) is extricated.

For sample, the sky of a encouragement saturated package of air is 18°C. If this package continues to flow another 1000 meters in loftiness, its sky procure be 13°C. In other articulation, the air package cools 0.5˚C for integral 100m growth in loftiness, thereby subsidence 5˚C.

Click ADIABATIC PROCESSES to wake the video.

For the forthcoming questions, use the forthcoming air package conditions:

An unsaturated package of air delay a sky of 20˚C flows 1200m to the simplicity raze and then continues to flow saturated for another 600m.

Question 20: What is the sky of the package when it beseems saturated?

A. 32˚C

B. 8˚C

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C. 5˚C

D. 14˚C

Question 21: What is the sky of the package when it stops encouragement?

A. 32˚C

B. 8˚C

C. 5˚C

D. 14˚C

The unsaturated air package then descends 1800m tail to its beginningal loftiness.

Question 22: What is the sky of the package unintermittently it has descended to its beginningal loftiness?

A. 40˚C

B. 23˚C

C. 14˚C

D. 20˚C

Question 23: When the air package adequates its elegant at its beginningal loftiness, how does this result sky collate to the begining sky?

A. Warmer

B. Cooler

C. Same

D. Varieffectual (warmer or cooler)

Uncheck ADIABATIC PROCESSES.

CLOUD CLASSIFICATION

Scientists dispose shades according to their constitute and loftiness. There are three shade classes established on constitute: cirrus, cumulus and stratus.

● Cirrus shades are wispy, lean shades interposed of ice crystals.

● Cumulus shades enjoy independent puffy shapes delay tame bases constituteed at the simplicity raze.

● Stratus shades are frosty equivocation love shades crust most of the sky.

Clouds are excite classified according to their loftiness.

● Eminent shades are root aggravate 6km (20,000 ft.) in the atmosphere

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● Intermediate shades are betwixt 2.5km and 6km (6,500 ft. to 20,000 ft.).

● Low shades are those close than 2.5km.

Click CLOUD CLASSIFICATION.

Use the spirit to test characteristics of shade patterns and to adequate the teffectual lower. The chief one has been manufactured for you as an sample

Cloud pattern

Form

(excellent from wispy, puffy, patchy, or equivocation)

Altitude

(excellent from eminent, intermediate or low)

Rain

(excellent yes or no)

Altostratus

Sheet

Middle

No

24. Altocumulus

25. Cirrocumulus

26. Cirrus

27. Cumulonimbus

28. Cumulus

29. Stratocumulus

30. Stratus

Note to Editor: Q24-Q30 aloft should be drop-down choices for each box. Choices are located lower Form, Altitude, and Rain

Uncheck CLOUD CLASSIFICATION.

PRECIPITATION PROCESSES

Introduction

When present gas in the air is cooled to its saturation subject-matter, present droplets or ice crystals constitute. Unintermittently the present droplets or ice crystals beseem enlightened abundance to lapse lower the soundness of starch, subsidence betides. In arrange for this betide, air must flow such that ample simplicity receives attribute. This required lifting of an air package vulgarly happens in one of manifold ways, including convectional elevate, orographic elevate, frontal elevate, and convergent (cyclonic) elevate. We procure caggravate the chief two in this module as they showfact the rulees associated delay adiabatic subsidence. To music, geography dramatizes an expressive role in subsidence (or failure thereof), as actual geographic areas are past eager to profit a point pattern of elevate.

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Convectional elevate

Convectional elevate betides when a package of air delayin a enlightenedr steffectual air body is ebullitioned by the hot reason and flows. When this package flows aloft the simplicity raze, cumulus shades nurture to constitute. In manifold facts these shades procure result acovet delay the wriggle and factually scatter, pliant no rain. But in some facts the air is unsteffectual and tenacious convectional elevate betides. Cumulonimbus shades frequently constitute, pliant rainlapse and in past sarcastic facts, thunderstorms enlarge. Suitableness convectional elevate and associated subsidence can betide almost anywhere aggravate plant, there are actual attributes where this elevate is past vulgar. For sample, the Excellent Plains district in the United States vulgarly experiences this pattern of elevate during the summer months, which profits rainstorms in the afternoon. Equatorial districts where brilliant insolation is intense are subjected to subsidence from prevalent elevate.

Click Convectional Rainlapse and wake the video.

Question 31: True or False: Convectional elevate goes through the rule of adiabatic subsidence.

A. True

B. False

Orographic elevate

Orographic elevate is caused by mountains which soundness an air package upwards as the air flows. As the package flows, the air influence reduces, causing the package to exnurture and the air sky to reduce. When the package reaches the simplicity raze, shades constitute, and in some facts, subsidence betides. After the package has cleared the mountains, it descends and the air is housed, imported to an growth in sky. This drier, warmer package creates a rainshadow on the leeward plane of mountain ranges. This pattern of rainlapse is vulgar acovet the mountain ranges close the Pacific Ocean as courteous as sea islands such as Hawai’i and New Zealand.

Click Orographic Processes and wake the video on Orographic Uplift. After wakeing the video, expound the forthcoming scenarios:

Question

Initial (Start) Temperatur

Final (End)

Temperature

Did it Rain?

(yes or no)

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e

32. Scenario 2

33. Scenario 7

34. Scenario 9

Question 35: How does a rain fact substitute the decisive sky from the moderate sky?

A. Increases

B. Decreases

C. Stays the identical

D. Varieffectual (increases or reduces)

Question 36: Does is rain on the wriggleward or leeward plane?

A. Windward

B. Leeward

Question 37: What is the not-absolute dampness when it rains?

A. 0 percent

B. 50 percent

C. 100 percent

D. Variable

Double-click and chosen Residuum D.

Question 38: This residuum is on the ________ of the Cascade Mountains.

A. Windward plane

B. Leeward plane

C. Convergent plane

D. Frontal plane

Double-click and chosen Residuum E.

Question 39: What is another indicate for the dry area root encircling Residuum E?

A. Windward

B. Rainshadow

C. Orographic

D. Convective

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Double-click and chosen Residuum F.

Question 40: What pattern of adiabatic elevate would transfer to subsidence at Residuum F?

A. Divergent

B. Frontal

C. Orographic

D. Convectional

Collapse and uncheck the PRECIPITATION PROCESSES folder. You enjoy adequated Lab Module 7.