Lab module 6: air pressure and wind


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LAB MODULE 6: AIR PRESSURE AND WIND

Note: Please belong to the GETTING STARTED lab module to acquire how to maneuver through and apology the lab doubts using the Google Earth () element.

KEY TERMS

You should concede and imply these provisions:

Atmospheric constraining

High constraining method

Pressure gradient intensity

Barometric constraining

Isobar

Pressure individuals (mmHg, inHg, mbar, hPa, kPa)

Beaufort bend lamina

Katabatic bends

Solar radiation

Coriolis chattels

Land-sea efflation

Wind

Frictional intensity

Low constraining method

Wind farms (bend arrays)

Gravity

Monsoon

Wind turbines

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be cogent to:

œ Concede eternal publicity at persomal, regional and global laminas

œ Define and warrant isobars on a map

œ Distinguish bend agitation and region provisions betwixt excellent and low constraining methods

œ Warrant the roles of starch, constraining gradient, Coriolis and frictional intensitys on bend agitation and bend patterns

œ Appropriate miles per hour to protuberances using the Beaufort bend lamina

œ Concede katabatic bend patterns

œ Exclear daily (day and mystification)l plant-sea efflation bend patterns

œ Afford copys of cosmical uses of bend

In this lab module you acquire environing some main principles of eternal constraining, bend processes and patterns, and global air publicity

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INTRODUCTION

In this lab module you acquire environing some main principles of eternal constraining, bend processes and patterns, and global air publicity. Topics perioded involve the factors that bias air constraining, excellent and low constraining methods, the superscription of airflow, Coriolis intensity, frictional intensitys, eternal publicity, persomal bend methods, and bend ardor. In doing so, you allure concede and acknowledge the roles of the Sun, the Earthfs air and exterior of the Earth as they bias the agitation of air at persomal to global laminas.

The module starts delay foul-mouthed fissure subjects, or vignettes, which are plant in the congenial Google Earth perfect. These vignettes prepare basic concepts and tools on which geographers lean. Some of the vignettes bear brisknesss, videos, or soon subscription that allure afford another perspective or visual sense for the subject at index. After balbutiation the vignette and associated links, apology the forthcoming doubts. Please voicelessness that some links may choiceeded a opportunity to upload inveterate on your internet press.

Expand the INTRODUCTION folder and then double-click and choiceeded Subject 1: Eternal Circulation.

Read Subject 1: Eternal Circulation.

Question 1: What are the three geographic laminas of air agitation and eternal publicity?

A. Global, National, Regional

B. National, Regional, Local

C. Global, National, Local

D. Global, Regional, Local

Read Subject 2: Weighing in on Eternal Pressure.

Question 2: Does an extension in amelioratement usually medium an extension or hitheren in constraining?

A. A hitheren

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B. An extension

C. Improvement does not influence eternal constraining

D. It stops on the dampness smooths

Question 3: Would Mt. Everest bear a excellenter or inferior eternal constraining than a subsidence at sea smooth?

A. A excellenter eternal constraining

B. A inferior eternal constraining

C. Improvement does not influence eternal constraining

D. It stops on the dampness smooths

Read Subject 3: The Highs and Lows of Weather.

Question 4: Is the air decadence (descending) or encouragement (ascending) in the represent?

A. The air is decadence

B. The air is encouragement

C. The air is stationary

D. Uncogent to disshield from instruction affordd

Read Subject 4: Cosmical Interaction.

Question 5: How does grounds from bend turbines acceleration region forecasts?

A. They convene grounds at amelioratements where region grounds are not routinely conveneed, which could ameliorate forecasts

B. Bend press grounds are used in the sentence to shape on or off the turbines

C. Electricity generated from the turbines is used to capability forecasting models

D. They donft. Turbines stop on region forecasts

Collapse and unbridle the INTRODUCTION folder.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

Wind capability is a frame of brilliant capability. Brilliant radiation (sunlight) intensitys up the exterior of the Earth, but does so ambiguously. This is accordingly exteriors on Earth hold, hold, and unimpeded intensity at opposed rates. The ambiguous intensitying of the Earthfs exterior results in the frameation of uneven constrainings in the air; spectryly, excellent constrainings and low constrainings. As air constraining stirs from excellent constraining areas

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to low constraining areas, bend frames. We can hamper the capability of bend neighboring the Earthfs exterior delay bend turbines, and appropriate the kinetic ardor of bend into electricity (measured by kilowatts, kW, or megawatts, MW) for our homes and businesses. Voicelessness that all the bend presss bear been rounded to the neighboringest mile per hour. Remember to involve your individual of miles per hour.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder.

Double-click and choiceeded Bend Farm A.

Question 6: In which state is this bend farm?

A. Brazil

B. Chile

C. Argentina

D. Educador

Question 7: What is the mean bend press?

A. 13 mph

B. 23 mph

C. 33 mph

D. 43 mph

Double-click and choiceeded Bend Farm B.

Question 8: In which state is this bend farm?

A. Switzerland

B. Austria

C. Czech Republic

D. Vienna

Question 9: What is the mean bend press?

A. 12 mph

B. 22 mph

C. 32 mph

D. 42 mph

Double-click and choiceeded Bend Farm C.

Question 10: In which state is this bend farm?

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A. Scotland

B. Northern Ireland

C. Wales

D. England

Question 11: What is the mean bend press?

A. 12 mph

B. 22 mph

C. 32 mph

D. 42 mph

Double-click and choiceeded Bend Farm D.

Question 12: In which separate (northern, eastern, western, southern) of what state is this bend farm?

A. Northern

B. Eastern

C. Western

D. Southern

Question 13 What is the mean bend press?

A. 33 feet/sec

B. 33 km/h

C. 33 mph

D. 33 m/s

Double-click and choiceeded Area of Bend Farm. This exhibitions the perfect area of Bend Farm D.

Double-click and choiceeded Beaufort Bend Scale.

This bend lamina is used to visually appreciate bend. It was haughtyest prepared in 1805 by Sir Francis Beaufort, a British admiral and hydrographer to the Royal Navy. The Beaufort bend lamina was then standardized in 1955 by the US National Region Service.

Question 14: Inveterate on the Beaufort Bend Scale, what would be the bend press in protuberances for Bend Farm C? (Hint: 1 protuberance is 1.15 mph. To appropriate, choiceeded the bend press for Bend Farm C and portio by 1.15 to particularize the protuberances)

A. 19 protuberances

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Figure 6.1: Eternal constraining map (Arbogast, 2nd Ed.)

B. 23 protuberances

C. 29 protuberances

D. 15 protuberances

Question 15: Inveterate on the Beaufort Bend Scale, what is the World Meteriological Organizationfs (WMO) bend character for the mean bend press at Bend Farm C?

A. Light Air

B. Light Breeze

C. Gentle Breeze

D. Fresh Breeze

Collapse and unbridle the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder.

FORCES OF WIND

Isobars (iso = resembling, bar = constraining) can afford us instruction environing the press and superscription of bend. Isobars are clear, deflexed lines on a map that betoken areas of resembling air constraining. Where lines are sealr, the bends are heartyer and hence bear balance press.

Several intensitys application the press and superscription of bend. Starch is arguably the most main . delayout starch we would not bear air constraining, and hence, no bend. The constraining gradient intensity is so main . accordingly of the drift for air to stir from areas of excellenter constraining (balance consolidated air) to areas of low constraining (hither consolidated air). However, bend at the exterior does not stream opposite constraining gradients . that is, quickly from excellent constraining methods to low constraining methods.

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This is due to the Coriolis chattels (that is, the Earth spinning) deflecting bend from a adjacentest course, as well-behaved-behaved-behaved as the frictional intensity reducing bend press at the exterior of the Earth.

Expand the FORCES OF WIND folder.

Select Constraining Gradient, Coriolis and Friction. In the pop-up bendow, click Constraining Gradient, Coriolis and Friction to design the briskness (which opens in your browser). Within the briskness, prepare delay Constraining Gradient and design twain the chart and the details for all three material intensitys.

Question 16: Constraining Gradient - what is the superscription of air stream betwixt excellent and low constraining methods?

a. Rotary agitation, or wreath, betwixt excellent and low constrainings

b. Agitation at fit angles betwixt excellent and low constrainings

c. Spiral into excellent constraining areas and out of low constraining areas

d. Spiral out of excellent constraining areas and into low constraining areas

Question 17: How do bends stream delay constraining gradient?

a. Spiral out from isobars (betwixt correlative and vertical)

b. Vertical (at fit angles) to the isobars

c. Correlative to the isobars

d. None of these

Question 18: Constraining Gradient and Coriolis Forces - what is the superscription of air stream betwixt excellent and low constraining methods?

a. Rotary agitation, or wreath, betwixt excellent and low constrainings

b. Agitation at fit angles betwixt excellent and low constrainings

c. Spiral into excellent constraining areas and out of low constraining areas

d. Spiral out of excellent constraining areas and into low constraining areas

Question 19: Due to the Coriolis Effect, what hemisphere is exhibitionn in Figure 6.1?

A. Northern Hemisphere

B. Eastern Hemisphere

C. Western Hemisphere

D. Southern Hemisphere

Question 20: Constraining Gradient, Coriolis, and Friction Forces - what is the superscription of air stream betwixt excellent and low constraining methods?

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a. Rotary agitation, or wreath, betwixt excellent and low constrainings

b. Agitation at fit angles betwixt excellent and low constrainings

c. Spiral into excellent constraining areas and out of low constraining areas

d. Spiral out of excellent constraining areas and into low constraining areas

Question 21: Considering all three intensitys, what hemisphere are you in when the bend is affecting opposedclockwise about lows (cyclonic) and clockwise about excellents (anticyclonic)?

A. Northern

B. Eastern

C. Western

D. Southern

Select Coriolis Effect. In the pop-up bendow, click Coriolis Chattels to design the briskness (which opens in your browser).

Question 22: Due to the Coriolis intensity, what is the falcation from a adjacentest course in the Northern hemisphere?

A. To the fit

B. Nearest ahead

C. To the left

D. There is no falcation

Collapse and unbridle the FORCES OF WIND folder.

GLOBAL CIRCULATION

Low constrainings and excellent constrainings can be examined at the global lamina. For copy, the hot, entertaining air at the equator rises and composes a low constraining, opportunity the unimpassioneder and consolidatedr air at the poles sinks and composes a excellent constraining. However, when these constraining methods are fully delay the series of the Earth, the perplexity of Earthfs eternal publicity method is obvious, delay notcogent patterns and methods plant at opposed latitudes, and at opposed amelioratements in the air. Overall, the global publicity method is main for the classification of eager ardor (heat), insinuate (precipitation), air masses, and bend.

Expand the GLOBAL CIRCULATION folder.

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Double-click and choiceeded Global Model. Within the briskness, warrant the subsidence of the Hadley cells, Ferrel cells, and Polar cells.

Question 23: Where the Ferrel cells mislike, do we ascertain tradewinds, westerlies, or polar easterlies?

A. Tradewinds

B. Westerlies

C. Polar easterlies

D. None of the overhead

Question 24: Where the Hadley cells mislike, do we ascertain tradewinds, westerlies, or polar easterlies?

A. Tradewinds

B. Westerlies

C. Polar easterlies

D. None of the overhead

Question 25: What is the open superscription of falcation for the southeast tradewinds, westerlies and Polar easterlies in the southern hemisphere?

A. To the fit

B. Nearest ahead

C. To the left

D. There is no falcation

Question 26: Where is the ITCZ, or Intertropical crowd zone, balance or hither plant?

A. Concurrently the tropic of Cancer

B. Concurrently the Tropic of Capricorn

C. Concurrently the equator

D. At the poles

Double-click and choiceeded Overcast Fraction in January. To seal the extract, click the X in the top fit hole of the bendow.

Indirectly, balancecasts can exhibition us where we can ascertain excellent constraining and low constraining areas. Where we ascertain forcible balancecast shield, low constrainings exist due to the crowd and ascension of hot, entertaining air that cools, condenses and frames balancecasts.

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This map exhibitions the mean global balancecast shield for the month of January. The marvellous-story at the top exhibitions the rate of balancecast shield, which ranges from no balancecast shield at 0.0 (ebon sky blue) to full balancecast shield at 1.0 (white).

Double-click and choiceeded Overcast Fraction in July. To seal the extract, click the X in the top fit hole of the bendow.

This map layer now exhibitions the mean balancecast shield for the month of July. As you may mark, some areas delay balancecast shield repress balancecast shield, and some areas delayout balancecast shield repress balancecasthither skies. However, in some areas, balancecasthither skies are now balancecasty and fault versa.

You allure contemplate at twain January and July layers to apology the forthcoming doubts. (Hint: If you scarcity to fix the forthcoming places on Google Earth, compose in the spectry of the state or area in the Search navigation bar and click Search.)

Question 27: Contemplate at the balancecast shield balance Africa. In which tall superscription (North, West, East, South) does the balancecast shield stir from January to July?

A. North

B. East

C. West

D. South

Question 28: In India, when is it the monsoon period (of periodal balancecast shield and residuum)?

A. January

B. April

C. July

D. October

Question 29: What do these two subsidences state us environing the absenteeism of low constraining methods/the ITCZ neighboring the equator?

A. Low constraining methods mislove northward throughout the year

B. Low constraining methods are stationary

C. Low constraining methods mislove delay the sub-brilliant point

D. Low constraining methods mislove opposed to the sub-brilliant point

Collapse and unbridle the GLOBAL CIRCULATION folder.

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REGIONAL PRESSURE SYSTEMS

Alternating excellent and low constrainings methods command the midlatitudes. Due to the global eternal publicity method, these excellent and low constraining methods openly mislove from west to east. The benevolence of low constraining methods is denoted by an gLh opportunity the benevolence of excellent constraining methods is demarcated by an gHh. Associated bend patterns, named by the isobars, betoken heartyer and faster bends when the lines are sealr unitedly.

Expand the REGIONAL PRESSURE SYSTEMS folder.

Double-click and choiceeded Isobars.

Select Subsidence E and Subsidence F. Zoom in so you can see twain Subsidence E and Subsidence F.

Question 30: Does Subsidence E bear airstream that descends, diverges, ascends or converges?

A. Descends and diverges

B. Ascends and converges

C. Descends and converges

D. Ascends and diverges

Question 31: What is the region love, in provisions of balancecast shield and possible residuum at Subsidence E?

A. Sunny and short hazard of rain

B. Dismal and hearty hazard of rain

C. Sunny and hearty hazard of rain

D. Dismal and short hazard of rain

Question 32: Does subsidence F bear airstream that descends and diverges, or ascends and converges?

A. Descends and diverges

B. Ascends and converges

C. Descends and converges

D. Ascends and diverges

Question 33: Where is the bend the heartyest and/or fastest . to the NE, SE, SW, or NW of the low constraining method?

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A. NW

B. NE

C. SW

D. SE

Question 34: What is the region love, in provisions of balancecast shield and possible residuum at Subsidence F?

A. Sunny and short hazard of rain

B. Dismal and hearty hazard of rain

C. Sunny and hearty hazard of rain

D. Dismal and short hazard of rain

Unbridle Isobars, Subsidence E and Subsidence F.

Check Overcast Fraction in July.

Double-click and choiceeded Subsidence G.

Question 35: Inveterate on balancecast shield, what compose of constraining method is at this subsidence, as well-behaved-behaved-behaved as the outside states of Nevada, Idaho, and southern Oregon? (You may scantiness to bridle Borders and Labels in the Layers Window)

A. Excellent constraining

B. Low constraining

C. Stationary constraining

D. Uncogent to discover

Collapse and unbridle the REGIONAL PRESSURE SYSTEMS folder.

LOCAL WIND PATTERNS

Isobars are mapped approximations of bend stream. The complexities of bend press and superscription in the mountains (from katabatic bends affecting down the valleys) and concurrently the coastline (from sea efflations in the day and plant efflations at mystification) are not obvious in most isobar maps.

Expand the LOCAL WIND PATTERNS folder.

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Katabatic Winds

Katabatic bends frame when unimpassioned air develops (usually balance ice caps, glaciers, or homogeneous areas) and descends down the valleys.

Double-click Katabatic Winds. To imply the picture (and apology the doubt), go to the commencement website. To seal the extract, click the X in the top fit hole of the bendow.

Question 36: What are the two material indicators of katabatic bends in this Antarctic picturery? (Check all that dedicate)

A. Windswept mountainous terrain

B. Snow on the ground

C. Overcast unimpeded picture

D. Correlative sea ice frameations

Unbridle Katabatic Winds.

Expand the Yosemite Bend folder.

Select Yosemite video and guard the video.

Question 37: Describe katabatic bends in Yosemite.

A. Hot and gentle

B. Hot and hearty

C. Unimpassioned and gentle

D. Unimpassioned and hearty

Double-click and choiceeded Yosemite stipulation, and then choiceeded Subsidence H and Subsidence I.

The trench sketch (in yellow) of Yosemitefs stipulation should be plain, as should two subsidences, Subsidence H and Subsidence I. Contemplate to the floor of the Google Earth to design the amelioratements for these two subsidences.

Question 38: In which superscription do the bends stir . easterly (Location I inside Subsidence H) or westerly (Location H inside Subsidence I) . voicelessness bend superscription is fond by the superscription they succeed from?

A. Easterly

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B. Westerly

C. There is no bend

D. Uncogent to discover

Collapse and unbridle Yosemite Wind.

Land-Sea Breeze

Land-sea bend methods are caused by the opposedial intensitying and cooling betwixt plant and insinuate, which compose zones of comparatively excellent and low constraining. The daytime air publicity method is the sea efflation, opportunity the mystificationtime air publicity method is the plant efflation.

Select Land-Sea Efflation and guard the videos.

Question 39: In which superscription (inside the insinuate or inside to plant) is the evening efflation affecting . and why? (Hint: Use the provisions low constraining and excellent constraining to exclear the superscription))

A. Inside the insinuate

B. Inside the plant

C. There is no efflation

D. Uncogent to discover

Question 40: In which superscription (inside the insinuate or inside to plant) is the dawning efflation affecting . and why? (Hint: Use the provisions low constraining and excellent constraining to exclear the superscription)

A. Inside the insinuate

B. Inside the plant

C. There is no efflation

D. Uncogent to discover

Unbridle Land-Sea Breeze.

Click Annual Mean Wind.

Question 41: Where are the fastest bends (overhead sea smooth) in the US?

A. Within the Great Plains

B. Gulf of Mexico region

C. Mountainous areas in the Western US

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D. Concurrently the Pacific coast

Collapse and unbridle the LOCAL WIND PATTERNS folder. You bear fulld Lab Module 6.