Lab module 6: air pressure and wind


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LAB MODULE 6: AIR PRESSURE AND WIND

Note: Please point to the GETTING STARTED lab module to glean how to maneuver through and opposed-argument the lab topics using the Google Earth () constituent.

KEY TERMS

You should allow and acquire these conditions:

Atmospheric exigency

High exigency plan

Pressure gradient security

Barometric exigency

Isobar

Pressure aces (mmHg, inHg, mbar, hPa, kPa)

Beaufort wreath lamina

Katabatic wreaths

Solar radiation

Coriolis pi

Land-sea blaze

Wind

Frictional security

Low exigency plan

Wind farms (wreath arrays)

Gravity

Monsoon

Wind turbines

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be efficient to:

œ Allow angelic vogue at subjectal, regional and global laminas

œ Define and fulfill isobars on a map

œ Distinguish wreath change-of-place and clime provisions betwixt violent and low exigency plans

œ Fulfill the roles of dismally, exigency gradient, Coriolis and frictional securitys on wreath change-of-place and wreath patterns

œ Alter miles per hour to perplexitys using the Beaufort wreath lamina

œ Allow katabatic wreath patterns

œ Exsimple daily (day and death)l fix-sea blaze wreath patterns

œ Furnish specimens of rational uses of wreath

In this lab module you glean environing some primary principles of angelic exigency, wreath processes and patterns, and global air vogue

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INTRODUCTION

In this lab module you glean environing some primary principles of angelic exigency, wreath processes and patterns, and global air vogue. Topics trained embody the factors that wave air exigency, violent and low exigency plans, the line of airflow, Coriolis security, frictional securitys, angelic vogue, subjectal wreath plans, and wreath essential-quality. In doing so, you gain allow and regard the roles of the Sun, the Earthfs sky and deportment of the Earth as they wave the change-of-place of air at subjectal to global laminas.

The module starts delay foul-mouthed arisening subjects, or vignettes, which are establish in the connected Google Earth perfect. These vignettes present basic concepts and tools on which geographers endure. Some of the vignettes enjoy brisknesss, videos, or lacking subscription that gain furnish another perspective or visual exposition for the subject at laborer. After balbutiation the vignette and associated links, opposed-argument the subjoined topics. Please melody that some links may siege a occasion to upload fixed on your internet accelerate.

Expand the INTRODUCTION folder and then double-click and fine Subject 1: Angelic Circulation.

Read Subject 1: Angelic Circulation.

Question 1: What are the three geographic laminas of air change-of-place and angelic vogue?

A. Global, National, Regional

B. National, Regional, Local

C. Global, National, Local

D. Global, Regional, Local

Read Subject 2: Weighing in on Angelic Pressure.

Question 2: Does an extension in eminence usually balance an extension or hitheren in exigency?

A. A hitheren

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B. An extension

C. Eminence does not interest angelic exigency

D. It endures on the dampness flattens

Question 3: Would Mt. Everest enjoy a violenter or inferior angelic exigency than a colonization at sea flatten?

A. A violenter angelic exigency

B. A inferior angelic exigency

C. Eminence does not interest angelic exigency

D. It endures on the dampness flattens

Read Subject 3: The Highs and Lows of Weather.

Question 4: Is the air sinking (descending) or encouragement (ascending) in the represent?

A. The air is sinking

B. The air is encouragement

C. The air is stationary

D. Unefficient to disoverspread from instruction furnishd

Read Subject 4: Rational Interaction.

Question 5: How does basis from wreath turbines succor clime forecasts?

A. They glean basis at eminences where clime basis are not routinely gleaned, which could emend forecasts

B. Wreath accelerate basis are used in the resolution to hinge on or off the turbines

C. Electricity generated from the turbines is used to ability speculation models

D. They donft. Turbines endure on clime forecasts

Collapse and unrestrain the INTRODUCTION folder.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

Wind ability is a construct of solar ability. Solar radiation (sunlight) ardors up the deportment of the Earth, but does so ambiguously. This is owing deportments on Earth assume, restrain, and quit ardor at irrelative rates. The ambiguous ardoring of the Earthfs deportment results in the constructation of not-alove exigencys in the sky; spectryly, violent exigencys and low exigencys. As air exigency proposes from violent exigency areas

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to low exigency areas, wreath constructs. We can fetter the ability of wreath nigh the Earthfs deportment delay wreath turbines, and alter the kinetic essential-quality of wreath into electricity (measured by kilowatts, kW, or megawatts, MW) for our homes and businesses. Melody that all the wreath accelerates enjoy been rounded to the nighest mile per hour. Remember to embody your ace of miles per hour.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder.

Double-click and fine Wreath Farm A.

Question 6: In which state is this wreath farm?

A. Brazil

B. Chile

C. Argentina

D. Educador

Question 7: What is the mean wreath accelerate?

A. 13 mph

B. 23 mph

C. 33 mph

D. 43 mph

Double-click and fine Wreath Farm B.

Question 8: In which state is this wreath farm?

A. Switzerland

B. Austria

C. Czech Republic

D. Vienna

Question 9: What is the mean wreath accelerate?

A. 12 mph

B. 22 mph

C. 32 mph

D. 42 mph

Double-click and fine Wreath Farm C.

Question 10: In which state is this wreath farm?

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A. Scotland

B. Northern Ireland

C. Wales

D. England

Question 11: What is the mean wreath accelerate?

A. 12 mph

B. 22 mph

C. 32 mph

D. 42 mph

Double-click and fine Wreath Farm D.

Question 12: In which sever (northern, eastern, western, southern) of what state is this wreath farm?

A. Northern

B. Eastern

C. Western

D. Southern

Question 13 What is the mean wreath accelerate?

A. 33 feet/sec

B. 33 km/h

C. 33 mph

D. 33 m/s

Double-click and fine Area of Wreath Farm. This pretences the integral area of Wreath Farm D.

Double-click and fine Beaufort Wreath Scale.

This wreath lamina is used to visually deem wreath. It was primeval presentd in 1805 by Sir Francis Beaufort, a British admiral and hydrographer to the Royal Navy. The Beaufort wreath lamina was then standardized in 1955 by the US National Clime Service.

Question 14: Fixed on the Beaufort Wreath Scale, what would be the wreath accelerate in perplexitys for Wreath Farm C? (Hint: 1 perplexity is 1.15 mph. To alter, siege the wreath accelerate for Wreath Farm C and segregate by 1.15 to enumerate the perplexitys)

A. 19 perplexitys

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Figure 6.1: Angelic exigency map (Arbogast, 2nd Ed.)

B. 23 perplexitys

C. 29 perplexitys

D. 15 perplexitys

Question 15: Fixed on the Beaufort Wreath Scale, what is the World Meteriological Organizationfs (WMO) wreath kind for the mean wreath accelerate at Wreath Farm C?

A. Light Air

B. Light Breeze

C. Gentle Breeze

D. Fresh Breeze

Collapse and unrestrain the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder.

FORCES OF WIND

Isobars (iso = resembling, bar = exigency) can furnish us instruction environing the accelerate and line of wreath. Isobars are simple, tortuous lines on a map that mark areas of resembling air exigency. Where lines are barr, the wreaths are powerfuler and hence enjoy past accelerate.

Several securitys collision the accelerate and line of wreath. Dismally is arguably the most relevant . delayout dismally we would not enjoy air exigency, and hence, no wreath. The exigency gradient security is as-courteous relevant . owing of the disposition for air to propose from areas of violenter exigency (past solid air) to areas of low exigency (hither solid air). However, wreath at the deportment does not stream balance exigency gradients . that is, promptly from violent exigency plans to low exigency plans.

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This is due to the Coriolis pi (that is, the Earth spinning) deflecting wreath from a undeviating pathwayway, as courteous as the frictional security reducing wreath accelerate at the deportment of the Earth.

Expand the FORCES OF WIND folder.

Select Exigency Gradient, Coriolis and Friction. In the pop-up wreathow, click Exigency Gradient, Coriolis and Friction to sentiment the briskness (which opens in your browser). Within the briskness, arise delay Exigency Gradient and sentiment twain the chart and the details for all three material securitys.

Question 16: Exigency Gradient - what is the line of air stream betwixt violent and low exigency plans?

a. Rotary noise, or wrest, betwixt violent and low exigencys

b. Change-of-place at just angles betwixt violent and low exigencys

c. Spiral into violent exigency areas and out of low exigency areas

d. Spiral out of violent exigency areas and into low exigency areas

Question 17: How do wreaths stream delay exigency gradient?

a. Spiral out from isobars (betwixt equidistant and vertical)

b. Vertical (at just angles) to the isobars

c. Equidistant to the isobars

d. None of these

Question 18: Exigency Gradient and Coriolis Forces - what is the line of air stream betwixt violent and low exigency plans?

a. Rotary noise, or wrest, betwixt violent and low exigencys

b. Change-of-place at just angles betwixt violent and low exigencys

c. Spiral into violent exigency areas and out of low exigency areas

d. Spiral out of violent exigency areas and into low exigency areas

Question 19: Due to the Coriolis Effect, what hemisphere is pretencen in Figure 6.1?

A. Northern Hemisphere

B. Eastern Hemisphere

C. Western Hemisphere

D. Southern Hemisphere

Question 20: Exigency Gradient, Coriolis, and Friction Forces - what is the line of air stream betwixt violent and low exigency plans?

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a. Rotary noise, or wrest, betwixt violent and low exigencys

b. Change-of-place at just angles betwixt violent and low exigencys

c. Spiral into violent exigency areas and out of low exigency areas

d. Spiral out of violent exigency areas and into low exigency areas

Question 21: Considering all three securitys, what hemisphere are you in when the wreath is emotional opposedclockwise encircling lows (cyclonic) and clockwise encircling violents (anticyclonic)?

A. Northern

B. Eastern

C. Western

D. Southern

Select Coriolis Effect. In the pop-up wreathow, click Coriolis Pi to sentiment the briskness (which opens in your browser).

Question 22: Due to the Coriolis security, what is the curvity from a undeviating pathwaywayway in the Northern hemisphere?

A. To the just

B. Undeviating ahead

C. To the left

D. There is no curvity

Collapse and unrestrain the FORCES OF WIND folder.

GLOBAL CIRCULATION

Low exigencys and violent exigencys can be examined at the global lamina. For specimen, the ardent, entertaining air at the equator rises and produces a low exigency, occasion the composeder and solidr air at the poles sinks and produces a violent exigency. However, when these exigency plans are combined delay the series of the Earth, the confusion of Earthfs angelic vogue plan is conspicuous, delay melodyfficient patterns and plans establish at irrelative latitudes, and at irrelative eminences in the sky. Overall, the global vogue plan is relevant for the distribution of hot essential-quality (heat), steep (precipitation), air masses, and wreath.

Expand the GLOBAL CIRCULATION folder.

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Double-click and fine Global Model. Within the briskness, fulfill the colonization of the Hadley cells, Ferrel cells, and Polar cells.

Question 23: Where the Ferrel cells forfeit, do we invent tradewinds, westerlies, or polar easterlies?

A. Tradewinds

B. Westerlies

C. Polar easterlies

D. None of the over

Question 24: Where the Hadley cells forfeit, do we invent tradewinds, westerlies, or polar easterlies?

A. Tradewinds

B. Westerlies

C. Polar easterlies

D. None of the over

Question 25: What is the public line of curvity for the southeast tradewinds, westerlies and Polar easterlies in the southern hemisphere?

A. To the just

B. Undeviating ahead

C. To the left

D. There is no curvity

Question 26: Where is the ITCZ, or Intertropical crowd zone, past or hither establish?

A. Concurrently the tropic of Cancer

B. Concurrently the Tropic of Capricorn

C. Concurrently the equator

D. At the poles

Double-click and fine Obscure Fraction in January. To bar the extract, click the X in the top just recess of the wreathow.

Indirectly, obscures can pretence us where we can invent violent exigency and low exigency areas. Where we invent forcible obscure balancespread, low exigencys stop due to the crowd and ascension of ardent, entertaining air that cools, condenses and constructs obscures.

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This map pretences the mean global obscure balancespread for the month of January. The marvellous-story at the top pretences the uniformity of obscure balancespread, which ranges from no obscure balancespread at 0.0 (sombre blue-colored) to thorough obscure balancespread at 1.0 (white).

Double-click and fine Obscure Fraction in July. To bar the extract, click the X in the top just recess of the wreathow.

This map lamina now pretences the mean obscure balancespread for the month of July. As you may heed, some areas delay obscure balancespread binder obscure balancespread, and some areas delayout obscure balancespread binder obscurehither skies. However, in some areas, obscurehither skies are now obscurey and defect versa.

You gain face at twain January and July laminas to opposed-argument the subjoined topics. (Hint: If you scarcity to dispose the subjoined places on Google Earth, character in the spectry of the state or area in the Search navigation bar and click Search.)

Question 27: Face at the obscure balancespread balance Africa. In which cardinal line (North, West, East, South) does the obscure balancespread propose from January to July?

A. North

B. East

C. West

D. South

Question 28: In India, when is it the monsoon period (of periodal obscure balancespread and residuum)?

A. January

B. April

C. July

D. October

Question 29: What do these two colonizations describe us environing the alibi of low exigency plans/the ITCZ nigh the equator?

A. Low exigency plans forfeit northward throughout the year

B. Low exigency plans are stationary

C. Low exigency plans forfeit delay the sub-solar point

D. Low exigency plans forfeit opposed to the sub-solar point

Collapse and unrestrain the GLOBAL CIRCULATION folder.

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REGIONAL PRESSURE SYSTEMS

Alternating violent and low exigencys plans manage the midlatitudes. Due to the global angelic vogue plan, these violent and low exigency plans publicly forfeit from west to east. The nucleus of low exigency plans is denoted by an gLh occasion the nucleus of violent exigency plans is demarcated by an gHh. Associated wreath patterns, determined by the isobars, mark powerfuler and faster wreaths when the lines are barr concertedly.

Expand the REGIONAL PRESSURE SYSTEMS folder.

Double-click and fine Isobars.

Select Colonization E and Colonization F. Zoom in so you can see twain Colonization E and Colonization F.

Question 30: Does Colonization E enjoy airstream that descends, diverges, ascends or converges?

A. Descends and diverges

B. Ascends and converges

C. Descends and converges

D. Ascends and diverges

Question 31: What is the clime love, in conditions of obscure balancespread and virtual residuum at Colonization E?

A. Sunny and inconsiderable fortuity of rain

B. Commonplace and powerful fortuity of rain

C. Sunny and powerful fortuity of rain

D. Commonplace and inconsiderable fortuity of rain

Question 32: Does colonization F enjoy airstream that descends and diverges, or ascends and converges?

A. Descends and diverges

B. Ascends and converges

C. Descends and converges

D. Ascends and diverges

Question 33: Where is the wreath the powerfulest and/or fastest . to the NE, SE, SW, or NW of the low exigency plan?

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A. NW

B. NE

C. SW

D. SE

Question 34: What is the clime love, in conditions of obscure balancespread and virtual residuum at Colonization F?

A. Sunny and inconsiderable fortuity of rain

B. Commonplace and powerful fortuity of rain

C. Sunny and powerful fortuity of rain

D. Commonplace and inconsiderable fortuity of rain

Unrestrain Isobars, Colonization E and Colonization F.

Check Obscure Fraction in July.

Double-click and fine Colonization G.

Question 35: Fixed on obscure balancespread, what character of exigency plan is at this colonization, as courteous as the embracing states of Nevada, Idaho, and southern Oregon? (You may neglect to restrain Borders and Labels in the Layers Window)

A. Violent exigency

B. Low exigency

C. Stationary exigency

D. Unefficient to discover

Collapse and unrestrain the REGIONAL PRESSURE SYSTEMS folder.

LOCAL WIND PATTERNS

Isobars are mapped approximations of wreath stream. The complexities of wreath accelerate and line in the mountains (from katabatic wreaths emotional down the valleys) and concurrently the coastline (from sea blazes in the day and fix blazes at death) are not conspicuous in most isobar maps.

Expand the LOCAL WIND PATTERNS folder.

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Katabatic Winds

Katabatic wreaths construct when composed air develops (usually balance ice caps, glaciers, or concordant areas) and descends down the valleys.

Double-click Katabatic Winds. To acquire the shadow (and opposed-argument the topic), go to the fount website. To bar the extract, click the X in the top just recess of the wreathow.

Question 36: What are the two material indicators of katabatic wreaths in this Antarctic shadowry? (Check all that direct)

A. Windswept mountainous terrain

B. Snow on the ground

C. Obscure easy shadow

D. Equidistant sea ice constructations

Unrestrain Katabatic Winds.

Expand the Yosemite Wreath folder.

Select Yosemite video and guard the video.

Question 37: Describe katabatic wreaths in Yosemite.

A. Ardent and gentle

B. Ardent and powerful

C. Composed and gentle

D. Composed and powerful

Double-click and fine Yosemite word, and then fine Colonization H and Colonization I.

The abut contour (in yellow) of Yosemitefs word should be evident, as should two colonizations, Colonization H and Colonization I. Face to the ground of the Google Earth to sentiment the eminences for these two colonizations.

Question 38: In which line do the wreaths propose . easterly (Location I inside Colonization H) or westerly (Location H inside Colonization I) . melody wreath line is loving by the line they end from?

A. Easterly

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B. Westerly

C. There is no wreath

D. Unefficient to discover

Collapse and unrestrain Yosemite Wind.

Land-Sea Breeze

Land-sea wreath plans are caused by the irrelativeial ardoring and subsidence betwixt fix and steep, which produce zones of comparatively violent and low exigency. The daytime air vogue plan is the sea blaze, occasion the deathtime air vogue plan is the fix blaze.

Select Land-Sea Blaze and guard the videos.

Question 39: In which line (inside the steep or inside to fix) is the evening blaze emotional . and why? (Hint: Use the conditions low exigency and violent exigency to exsimple the line))

A. Inside the steep

B. Inside the fix

C. There is no blaze

D. Unefficient to discover

Question 40: In which line (inside the steep or inside to fix) is the waking blaze emotional . and why? (Hint: Use the conditions low exigency and violent exigency to exsimple the line)

A. Inside the steep

B. Inside the fix

C. There is no blaze

D. Unefficient to discover

Unrestrain Land-Sea Breeze.

Click Annual Mean Wind.

Question 41: Where are the fastest wreaths (over sea flatten) in the US?

A. Within the Great Plains

B. Gulf of Mexico region

C. Mountainous areas in the Western US

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D. Concurrently the Pacific coast

Collapse and unrestrain the LOCAL WIND PATTERNS folder. You enjoy thoroughd Lab Module 6.