Lab module 4: global energy


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LAB MODULE 4: GLOBAL ENERGY

Note: Please associate to the GETTING STARTED lab module to imbibe tips on how to set up and maneuver through the Google Earth () rudiment of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The aftercited is a schedule of expressive expression and concepts used in this lab module:

Albedo

Energy nonpayment

Longwave radiation

Conduction

Energy excess

Net radiation (net career)

Convection

Global motive budget

Radiation

Constant gases

Heat

Radiation budget

Electromagnetic radiation

Heat give

Shortwave radiation

Electromagnetic spectrum

Infuture and outgoing radiation

Solar perpetual

Electromagnetic waves

Insolation

Solar radiation

Energy

Irradiance

Varitalented gases

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be talented to:

œ Avow aspects of the electromagnetic spectrum

œ Distinguish among barwave and longwave radiation and its sources

œ Describe the commutation of the lip

œ Eluciepoch how ardor is catching and measured

œ Define and confirm patterns of global brilliant insolation and albedo

œ Describe the career of brilliant radiation

œ Describe the spatial patterns of net radiation

œ Stipulate examples of ethnical interactions and uses after a occasion suninconsiderable (brilliant radiation)

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INTRODUCTION

In this lab module you accomplish study some of the expressive concepts and principles connected to global motive. Topics embody the electromagnetic spectrum, the commutation of the lip, brilliant radiation, the move of radiation in the lip, albedo and the global motive budget. Occasion these subject-matters may look unequal, you accomplish imbibe how they are inherently connected.

The module starts after a occasion impure measure subject-matters, or vignettes, which are fix in the connected Google Earth perfect. These vignettes conduct-in basic concepts connected to global motive. Some of the vignettes possess cheerfulnesss, videos, or bar profession that stipulate another perspective or visual description for the subject-matter at index. After balbutiation each vignette and associated links, exculpation the aftercited questions. Please hush that some rudiments of this lab may assume a occasion to download or notorious, chiefly if you possess a sluggish internet junction.

Expand GLOBAL ENERGY and then develop the INTRODUCTION folder.

Read Subject-matter 1: Electromagnetic Radiation.

Question 1: Which electromagnetic waves possess the most motive?

A. Radio waves

B. Microwaves

C. X-rays

D. Gamma rays

Question 2: How is Earthfs radiation budget pictorial in the video?

A. The destruction among suninconsiderable that comes into the Earth, minus the sum of suninconsiderable that is thinked by, and motive emitted from, the Earth

B. The destruction among suninconsiderable that is thinked by Earth, minus the motive emitted, plus the suninconsiderable future into the Earth

C. The destruction among motive emitted by the Earth, minus the suninconsiderable future into the Earth, minus the suninconsiderable thinked by the Earth

D. The destruction among motive emitted by the Earth, minus the suninconsiderable future into the Earth, plus the suninconsiderable thinked by the Earth

Read Subject-matter 2: Ethereal Composition.

Question 3: What are the three ingredients needed for an ozone recess?

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A. Glowing lips, sunlight, and excellent rolls of smog

B. Dispassioned lips, duskiness, and excellent rolls of smog

C. Excellent roll of chlorine and bromine, glowing lips, and sunlight

D. Excellent roll of chlorine and bromine, dispassioned lips, and sunlight

Read Subject-matter 3: Give of Ardor Energy.

Question 4: Which of the aftercited is not penny in-reference-to the give of ardor motive?

A. Air conducts ardor effectively

B. Dark-colored objects collect exalt beaming motive than inconsiderable-colored objects

C. Convection is the give of ardor motive in the lip

D. Suninconsiderable is a conceive of radiation

Question 5: Of these instrument of givering ardor, which manage straightly issue air systems?

A. Radiation

B. Conduction

C. Convection

D. None of these

Read Subject-matter 4: Ethnical Interaction.

Question 6: From the proviso, all of the aftercited are customary disadvantages of generating electricity from brilliant jurisdiction bar?

A. The sum of defilement generated

B. Cost

C. Largeness hours for operation

D. Locations after a occasion low availtalented sunlight

Question 7: From the map in the proviso, what area of the United States lovenesss the excellentest annual mean daily brilliant radiation per month (measured in kWh/m2/day)?

A. Northeastern United States

B. Southeastern United States

C. Southwestern United States

D. Northwestern United States

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For the interval of this module, you accomplish confirm and eluciepoch the geographic dispensation, patterns, and processes associated after a occasion electromagnetic radiation. In doing so, you accomplish avow and respect the role of the Sun, lip and the Earthfs manner as they swing the worldfs global motive budget.

Collapse and uncohibit the INTRODUCTION folder.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

Insolation (infuture brilliant radiation) is the sum of trodden or diffused electromagnetic radiation the Earth takes from the Sun. Insolation can be quantified by its irradiance, which is the jurisdiction . or trounce of electromagnetic radiation - that strikes the manner of a dedicated area. As jurisdiction is measured in Watts (W), and area is measured in meters squared (m2), irradiance is systematically measured in Watts per meter squared (W/m2).

The Sun issues a fairly perpetual trounce of brilliant radiation at the external manner of the Earthfs lip; this brilliant perpetual means to suppressly 1370 W/m2. However, the mean sum of brilliant radiation current at any one dregs on the Earth is not ~1370 W/m2 . it is far hither, due in divorce-among-among to the provisions of the lip, the fix cloak, the dedicated lip, the age of day, and the age of year.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder and prime Insolation in June. To suppress the extract, click the X in the top equitable retreat of the window.

This map lovenesss the mean global brilliant insolation . or where and how abundant suninconsiderable subvert on the Earthfs manner - for the month of June in 2012. The marvellous-story in the top left retreat lovenesss how abundant suninconsiderable subvert on Earthfs manner, which ranges from a low of 0 W/m2 (purple/black red) to a excellent of 550 W/m2 (white). Use this map layer to exculpation the aftercited questions.

Double-click and prime Dregs A.

Question 8: What is the abut lip of Dregs A (Oslo, Norway)?

A. 60N

B. 60S

C. 10E

D. 10W

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Question 9: Estimate the mean brilliant insolation Dregs A (Oslo, Norway) current in June:

A. Bar 0 W/m2

B. Bar 275 W/m2

C. Bar 400 W/m2

D. Bar 550 W/m2

Double-click and prime Dregs B.

Question 10: What is the lip of Dregs B (Isla de los Estados, Argentina)?

A. 54N

B. 54S

C. 64E

D. 64W

Question 11: Estimate the mean brilliant insolation Dregs B (Isla de los Estados, Argentina) current in June:

A. Bar 0 W/m2

B. Bar 275 W/m2

C. Bar 400 W/m2

D. Bar 550 W/m2

Question 12: Which dregs current expressive mean brilliant insolation in June . Dregs A or Dregs B? Eluciepoch why.

A. Dregs B, consequently it is suppressr to the equator

B. Dregs A consequently it takes exalt largeness hours in June

C. Dregs B consequently itfs a blacker orange-flame-flame-flame tinge

D. Dregs A consequently itfs farther from the subbrilliant summit in June

Double-click and prime Insolation in December. To suppress the extract, click the X in the top equitable retreat of the window

This map lovenesss the mean global brilliant insolation current in December. The marvellous-story in the better equitable retreat lovenesss how abundant suninconsiderable subvert on Earthfs manner, which ranges from a low of 0 W/m2 (black red) to a excellent of 550 W/m2 (inconsiderable yellow). Use this map layer and collate it to Insolation in June to exculpation the aftercited questions.

Double-click Dregs A.

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Question 13: Estimate the mean brilliant insolation Dregs A (Oslo, Norway) current in December:

A. Bar 0 W/m2

B. Bar 275 W/m2

C. Bar 400 W/m2

D. Bar 550 W/m2

Question 14: Which of the aftercited elucidates the destruction in mean brilliant insolation at Dregs A (Oslo, Norway) in June and December? (Check all that devote).

A. Dregs A is excite from subbrilliant summit in December

B. Dregs A takes exalt largeness hours in December

C. Dregs A is suppress to the Equator (low lip)

D. Dregs A is suppressr to the subbrilliant summit in June

Double-click Dregs B.

Question 15: Estimate the mean brilliant insolation Dregs B (Isla de los Estados, Argentina) current in December:

A. Bar 0 W/m2

B. Bar 275 W/m2

C. Bar 400 W/m2

D. Bar 550 W/m2

Question 16: Which of the aftercited elucidates the destruction in mean brilliant insolation at Dregs B (Isla de los Estados, Argentina) in June and December? (Check all that devote).

A. Dregs B is excite from subbrilliant summit in December

B. Dregs B takes exalt largeness hours in December

C. Dregs B is far from the Equator (excellent lip)

D. Dregs B is suppressr to the subbrilliant summit in June

Question 17: What is the public curve of brilliant insolation at Dregs A collated to Dregs B in June and December?

A. Dregs A and B loveness the selfselfsimilar curve, after a occasion insolation excellent in June and low in December

B. Dregs A and B loveness the selfselfsimilar curve, after a occasion insolation excellent in December and low in June

C. Dregs A and B loveness contrary curves, after a occasion insolation excellent at one dregs and low at the other dregs

D. Dregs A and B loveness no curve in December or in June

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Uncohibit Dregs A and Dregs B. Double-click and prime Dregs C.

Question 18: What is the lip of Dregs C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador)?

A. 1N

B. 1S

C. 75W

D. 75E

Question 19: Estimate the mean brilliant insolation that Dregs C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador) current in June:

A. Bar 0 W/m2

B. Bar 275 W/m2

C. Bar 400 W/m2

D. Bar 550 W/m2

Question 20: Estimate the sum of brilliant insolation Dregs C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador) current in December:

A. Bar 0 W/m2

B. Bar 275 W/m2

C. Bar 400 W/m2

D. Bar 550 W/m2

Question 21: Which of the aftercited accounts for the curves in mean brilliant insolation at Dregs C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador) in June and December? (Check all that devote).

A. There is interrelationshipately younger destructions in sun turn

B. There is interrelationshipately younger destructions in largeness hours

C. Dregs C is suppress to the Equator (low lip)

D. Dregs C is far from subbrilliant summit in December

Question 22: Which of the aftercited is penny environing how lip and flourish epoch desire where and how abundant suninconsiderable falls on the Earthfs manner in a dedicated year? (Check all that devote).

A. The excellenter the lip the expressive the seasonal destruction in largeness hours

B. Conspicuous southern lips take exalt largeness hours about the June solstice.

C. Conspicuous northern lips take exalt largeness hours about the June solstice.

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D. The inferior the lip the expressive the seasonal destruction in largeness hours

Collapse and uncohibit GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE.

FLOW OF SOLAR RADIATION

When motive from the Sun reaches the Earthfs lip, it careers along multiform paths, after a occasion some motive collected by the lip, some thinked end into measure and some wonderful the Earthfs manner. These multiform paths are divorce-among-among of the ardor give contrivance that distributes ardor resisting the sphere. A exalt minute breakdown of what happens is lovenessn in the brilliant radiation cheerfulness. To hush, the values lovenessn in the cheerfulness are for the Earth as a entirety.

Select and click FLOW OF SOLAR RADIATION.

Question 23: What percent of the Sunfs motive entering the Earthfs lip is collected straightly by the lip?

A. 18%

B. 25%

C. 31%

D. 69%

Question 24: What percent of the Sunfs motive (shortwave radiation) entering the Earthfs lip is collected by Earth is some way (clouds, breathe-into, Earthfs manner)?

A. 18%

B. 25%

C. 31%

D. 69%

Question 25: What accounts for the most brilliant radiation being thinked end into measure?

A. Remains divorce-amongicles

B. Ozone

C. Clouds

D. Aerosols

Question 26: Why does infuture barwave radiation similar outgoing longwave radiation? (Check all that devote).

A. To repress the Earthfs mean lip exalt or hither perpetual

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B. The laws of physics exact infuture and outgoing radiation to similar

C. It maintains the thickness of the lip and variability in the prolixity of day

D. Without a balanced radiation budget, the Earth accomplish grace increasingly glowinger or cooler

Question 27: The values in the cheerfulness are for the Earth as a entirety, ultimately, the career of motive is not equable resisting the Earthfs manner. Speculate how net radiation dissents at the Equator collated to the Poles. (Check all that devote).

A. Net radiation is exalt or hither perpetual bar the Equator, but varies at the Poles

B. Net radiation is exalt or hither perpetual bar the Poles, but varies at the Equator

C. During the June Solstice, net radiation is expressive at the North Pole than the Equator

D. During the December Solstice, net radiation is expressive at the North Pole than the Equator

Uncohibit the FLOW OF SOLAR RADIATION folder.

ALBEDO

Expand the ALBEDO folder. Double-click and prime Albedo in September. To suppress the extract, click the X in the top equitable retreat of the window.

Albedo is the fraction of brilliant motive (shortwave radiation) that is thinked from Earthfs manner end into measure. Albedo is conducive as the not-absolute sum (ratio) of thinked suninconsiderable (reflected barwave radiation) to the entirety sum of suninconsiderable (shining barwave radiation). Clouds and bequitable (light-colored) manners possess excellenter albedo trounces than black tingeed manners love asphalt, roads and forests.

This map lovenesss the mean global albedo current in September. The marvellous-story at the top lovenesss the profraction of suninconsiderable thinked from Earthfs manner, which ranges from no albedo at 0.0 (black sky blue-colored) to a excellent albedo at 0.9 (inconsiderable sky blue-coloreds to tingeless). Areas of no basis are denoted as black or no tinge. Use this map layer to exculpation the aftercited questions.

Double-click and prime Dregs D; then, double-click and prime Dregs E.

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Question 28 Is the albedo interrelationshipately excellent or interrelationshipately low in the boreal forests of Canada and Norway in September?

A. The albedo is interrelationshipately excellent in twain dregss

B. The albedo is interrelationshipately low in twain dregss

C. The albedo is excellent in northern Canada and low in Norway

D. The albedo is low in northern Canada and excellent in Norway

Double-click and prime Dregs F.

Question 29: Is the albedo interrelationshipately excellent or interrelationshipately low in the Sahara Desert part of Northern Africa in September?

A. The albedo aggravate the Sahara Desert is interrelationshipately low

B. The albedo aggravate the Sahara Desert is interrelationshipately excellent

C. There is no albedo aggravate the Sahara Desert consequently sand does not think sunlight

D. The albedo aggravate the Sahara Desert is simply very excellent (bar 0.9) or very low (0.0)

Double-click and prime Dregs G.

Question 30: Is the albedo interrelationshipately excellent or interrelationshipately low aggravate the superiority of Greenfix in September?

A. The albedo aggravate Greenfix is interrelationshipately low bar bar the coast

B. The albedo aggravate Greenfix is interrelationshipately excellent bar bar the coast

C. There is no albedo aggravate Greenfix bar bar the coast

D. There is no albedo aggravate Greenfix consequently ice and snow do not think sunlight

Seasonality (age of the year) plays an expressive role in global albedo. Letfs collate the September albedo trounces to February albedo trounces of these dregss.

Select and double-click Albedo in February. To suppress the extract, click the X in the top equitable retreat of the window. To be-undetermined among Albedo in September and Albedo in February, cohibit and uncohibit one of the perfects to see the destructions in the two map aggravatelays.

Double-click Dregs D; then, double-click Dregs E.

Question 31: For northern Canada and Norway, is the albedo in February excellenter or inferior when collated to the albedo in September?

A. The albedo is excellenter in February for twain dregss

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B. The albedo is inferior in February for twain dregss

C. The albedo is excellenter in northern Canada and inferior in Norway

D. The albedo is inferior in northern Canada and excellenter in Norway

Double-click Dregs F.

Question 32: For the Sahara Desert part of Northern Africa, is the albedo excellenter or inferior in February when collated to the albedo in September?

A. The albedo is inferior in February

B. The albedo is excellenter in February

C. The albedo is interrelationshipately the selfselfsimilar in February and September

D. There is no albedo aggravate the Sahara Desert consequently sand does not think sunlight

Double-click Dregs G.

Question 33: For Greenland, is the albedo excellenter or inferior in February when collated to the albedo in September?

A. The albedo is inferior in February

B. The albedo is excellenter in February

C. The albedo is interrelationshipately the selfselfsimilar in February and September

D. There is no albedo aggravate Greenfix consequently ice and snow do not think sunlight

Collapse and uncohibit the ALBEDO folder.

NET RADIATION

Net radiation, sometimes designated net career, is the destruction among infuture brilliant radiation collected by the Earthfs manner and the radiation thinked end into measure. In other expression, net radiation is the motive availtalented to Earth at the Earthfs manner. Some fixs collect exalt motive than think, occasion other fixs on Earth think exalt motive than collect. Factors that desire the net radiation of a fix embody albedo, lip and Sun turn, ethereal provisions (love clouds and remains), and the age of year. As a issue, some areas accomplish possess a seasonal or annual motive excess after a occasion a dogmatical net radiation (exalt motive collected than thinked) occasion other areas accomplish possess a seasonal or annual motive nonpayment after a occasion a privative net radiation (exalt motive thinked than collected). Fortunately, the Earth has a global motive budget at suppressly equilibrium, after a occasion a global net radiation at suppressly naught (that is, global infuture motive similars global outgoing motive).

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Expand the NET RADIATION folder.

Double-click and prime Net Radiation in January.

The marvellous-story at the top lovenesss the global net radiation for January, which ranges from 280 W/m2 to -280 W/m2. Hence, an orange-flame-flame-flame or red tinge indicates a expressive (positive) net radiation, occasion a green or sky sky sky blue-colored-colored tinge indicates a inferior (negative) net radiation.

Question 34: What global spatial patterns are seeming? (Check all that devote).

A. Net radiation is excellenter in the Southern Hemisphere

B. Net radiation is excellenter in the Northern Hemisphere

C. Net radiation is inferior in the Southern Hemisphere

D. Net radiation is inferior in the Northern Hemisphere

Question 35: How does the net radiation of deeps versus fix dissent in Northern Hemisphere collated the Southern Hemisphere in January? (Check all that devote).

A. The net radiation is interrelationshipately excellenter in the deeps than on fix in the Northern Hemisphere

B. The net radiation is interrelationshipately inferior in the deeps than on fix in the Northern Hemisphere

C. The net radiation is interrelationshipately excellenter in the deeps than on fix in the Southern Hemisphere

D. The net radiation is interrelationshipately inferior in the deeps than on fix in the Southern Hemisphere

Question 36: What factors subscribe to the North Pole part having the excellentest net radiation forfeiture in January? (Check all that devote).

A. The Sun turn is low and consequently the infuture brilliant radiation is low

B. The Sun turn is excellent and consequently outgoing brilliant radiation is excellent

C. The largeness hours are few indicating hither infuture brilliant radiation

D. The largeness hours are few indicating hither outgoing brilliant radiation

Double-click and prime Net Radiation in July.

Question 37: What global spatial patterns are seeming? Cohibit all that devote.

A. Net radiation is excellenter in the Southern Hemisphere

B. Net radiation is excellenter in the Northern Hemisphere

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C. Net radiation is inferior in the Southern Hemisphere

D. Net radiation is inferior in the Northern Hemisphere

Question 38: In public, how does the July map collate to the January map? (Check all that devote).

A. Overall, net radiation in the excellent lips is interrelationshipately excellent (motive excess) where it was unintermittently low (motive nonpayment) and corruption versa

B. Overall, there is an motive excess at the Equator for twain January and July

C. Overall, there is an motive excess in the Northern Hemisphere in July

D. Overall, there is an motive nonpayment in the Northern Hemisphere in July

Question 39: What factors are contributing to Greenfix lovenessing a net radiation forfeiture in July?

A. Consequently it is excite north and takes hither infuture brilliant radiation

B. Consequently it is enfolded by glowinger deep breathe-into

C. Consequently it is largely cloaked in ice and consequently has a excellent albedo

D. Consequently there is a low Sun turn that subscribes to a low albedo

Collapse and uncohibit the NET RADIATION folder. You possess completed Lab Module 4.