Lab module 4: global energy


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LAB MODULE 4: GLOBAL ENERGY

Note: Please allude to the GETTING STARTED lab module to imbibe tips on how to set up and maneuver through the Google Earth () content of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The subjoined is a roll of expressive expression and concepts used in this lab module:

Albedo

Energy failure

Longwave radiation

Conduction

Energy rest

Net radiation (net progression)

Convection

Global temper budget

Radiation

Constant gases

Heat

Radiation budget

Electromagnetic radiation

Heat remand

Shortwave radiation

Electromagnetic spectrum

Infuture and outgoing radiation

Solar penny

Electromagnetic waves

Insolation

Solar radiation

Energy

Irradiance

Variable gases

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be able to:

œ Allow aspects of the electromagnetic spectrum

œ Distinguish betwixt neighboringwave and longwave radiation and its sources

œ Describe the compromise of the air

œ Expound how intensity is pestilential and measured

œ Define and realize patterns of global brilliant insolation and albedo

œ Describe the progress of brilliant radiation

œ Describe the spatial patterns of net radiation

œ Prepare examples of appurtenancynal interactions and uses after a conjuncture suntrifling (brilliant radiation)

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INTRODUCTION

In this lab module you earn ponder some of the indispensable concepts and principles allied to global temper. Topics apprehend the electromagnetic spectrum, the compromise of the air, brilliant radiation, the motion of radiation in the air, albedo and the global temper budget. Conjuncture these subjects may appear ill-matched, you earn imbibe how they are inherently allied.

The module starts after a conjuncture lewd inauguration subjects, or vignettes, which are institute in the kindred Google Earth smooth. These vignettes make-known basic concepts allied to global temper. Some of the vignettes preserve brisknesss, videos, or neighboring subscription that prepare another perspective or visual exposition for the subject at index. After balbutiation each vignette and associated links, apology the subjoined questions. Please voicelessness that some contents of this lab may follow a conjuncture to download or unreserved, chiefly if you preserve a inactive internet unarm-an.

Expand GLOBAL ENERGY and then diffuse the INTRODUCTION folder.

Read Subject 1: Electromagnetic Radiation.

Question 1: Which electromagnetic waves preserve the most temper?

A. Radio waves

B. Microwaves

C. X-rays

D. Gamma rays

Question 2: How is Earthfs radiation budget described in the video?

A. The estrangement betwixt suntrifling that comes into the Earth, minus the correspondentity of suntrifling that is heeded by, and temper emitted from, the Earth

B. The estrangement betwixt suntrifling that is heeded by Earth, minus the temper emitted, plus the suntrifling future into the Earth

C. The estrangement betwixt temper emitted by the Earth, minus the suntrifling future into the Earth, minus the suntrifling heeded by the Earth

D. The estrangement betwixt temper emitted by the Earth, minus the suntrifling future into the Earth, plus the suntrifling heeded by the Earth

Read Subject 2: Heavenly Composition.

Question 3: What are the three ingredients needed for an ozone nook?

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A. Irascible airs, sunlight, and tall correspondentizes of smog

B. Dispassioned airs, death, and tall correspondentizes of smog

C. Tall correspondentize of chlorine and bromine, irascible airs, and sunlight

D. Tall correspondentize of chlorine and bromine, dispassioned airs, and sunlight

Read Subject 3: Remand of Intensity Energy.

Question 4: Which of the subjoined is not gentleman concerning the remand of intensity temper?

A. Air conducts intensity effectively

B. Dark-colored objects collect past beauteous temper than trifling-colored objects

C. Convection is the remand of intensity temper in the air

D. Suntrifling is a frame of radiation

Question 5: Of these resources of remandring intensity, which guard promptly product air systems?

A. Radiation

B. Conduction

C. Convection

D. None of these

Read Subject 4: Rational Interaction.

Question 6: From the stipulation, all of the subjoined are systematic disadvantages of generating electricity from brilliant government exclude?

A. The correspondentity of soilure generated

B. Cost

C. Considerableness hours for operation

D. Locations after a conjuncture low helpful sunlight

Question 7: From the map in the stipulation, what area of the United States pretences the tallest annual mean daily brilliant radiation per month (measured in kWh/m2/day)?

A. Northeastern United States

B. Southeastern United States

C. Southwestern United States

D. Northwestern United States

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For the peace of this module, you earn realize and expound the geographic arrangement, patterns, and processes associated after a conjuncture electromagnetic radiation. In doing so, you earn allow and respect the role of the Sun, air and the Earthfs manner as they swing the worldfs global temper budget.

Collapse and uncurb the INTRODUCTION folder.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

Insolation (infuture brilliant radiation) is the correspondentity of plain or diffused electromagnetic radiation the Earth entertains from the Sun. Insolation can be quantified by its irradiance, which is the government . or reprimand of electromagnetic radiation - that strikes the manner of a dedicated area. As government is measured in Watts (W), and area is measured in meters squared (m2), irradiance is uniformly measured in Watts per meter squared (W/m2).

The Sun products a fairly penny reprimand of brilliant radiation at the external manner of the Earthfs air; this brilliant penny means to borderly 1370 W/m2. However, the mean correspondentity of brilliant radiation common at any one residuum on the Earth is not ~1370 W/m2 . it is far short, due in segregate to the stipulations of the air, the fix meet, the dedicated extremity, the age of day, and the age of year.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder and prime Insolation in June. To cease the extract, click the X in the top proper retreat of the window.

This map pretences the mean global brilliant insolation . or where and how fur suntrifling level on the Earthfs manner - for the month of June in 2012. The myth in the top left retreat pretences how fur suntrifling level on Earthfs manner, which ranges from a low of 0 W/m2 (purple/sombre red) to a tall of 550 W/m2 (white). Use this map flake to apology the subjoined questions.

Double-click and prime Residuum A.

Question 8: What is the border extremity of Residuum A (Oslo, Norway)?

A. 60N

B. 60S

C. 10E

D. 10W

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Question 9: Estimate the mean brilliant insolation Residuum A (Oslo, Norway) common in June:

A. Neighboring 0 W/m2

B. Neighboring 275 W/m2

C. Neighboring 400 W/m2

D. Neighboring 550 W/m2

Double-click and prime Residuum B.

Question 10: What is the extremity of Residuum B (Isla de los Estados, Argentina)?

A. 54N

B. 54S

C. 64E

D. 64W

Question 11: Estimate the mean brilliant insolation Residuum B (Isla de los Estados, Argentina) common in June:

A. Neighboring 0 W/m2

B. Neighboring 275 W/m2

C. Neighboring 400 W/m2

D. Neighboring 550 W/m2

Question 12: Which residuum common senior mean brilliant insolation in June . Residuum A or Residuum B? Expound why.

A. Residuum B, consequently it is ceaser to the equator

B. Residuum A consequently it entertains past considerableness hours in June

C. Residuum B consequently itfs a sombreer ochreous garbling

D. Residuum A consequently itfs farther from the subbrilliant sharp-end in June

Double-click and prime Insolation in December. To cease the extract, click the X in the top proper retreat of the window

This map pretences the mean global brilliant insolation common in December. The myth in the conspicuous proper retreat pretences how fur suntrifling level on Earthfs manner, which ranges from a low of 0 W/m2 (sombre red) to a tall of 550 W/m2 (trifling yellow). Use this map flake and parallel it to Insolation in June to apology the subjoined questions.

Double-click Residuum A.

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Question 13: Estimate the mean brilliant insolation Residuum A (Oslo, Norway) common in December:

A. Neighboring 0 W/m2

B. Neighboring 275 W/m2

C. Neighboring 400 W/m2

D. Neighboring 550 W/m2

Question 14: Which of the subjoined expounds the estrangement in mean brilliant insolation at Residuum A (Oslo, Norway) in June and December? (Check all that devote).

A. Residuum A is advance from subbrilliant sharp-end in December

B. Residuum A entertains past considerableness hours in December

C. Residuum A is cease to the Equator (low extremity)

D. Residuum A is ceaser to the subbrilliant sharp-end in June

Double-click Residuum B.

Question 15: Estimate the mean brilliant insolation Residuum B (Isla de los Estados, Argentina) common in December:

A. Neighboring 0 W/m2

B. Neighboring 275 W/m2

C. Neighboring 400 W/m2

D. Neighboring 550 W/m2

Question 16: Which of the subjoined expounds the estrangement in mean brilliant insolation at Residuum B (Isla de los Estados, Argentina) in June and December? (Check all that devote).

A. Residuum B is advance from subbrilliant sharp-end in December

B. Residuum B entertains past considerableness hours in December

C. Residuum B is far from the Equator (tall extremity)

D. Residuum B is ceaser to the subbrilliant sharp-end in June

Question 17: What is the unconcealed incline of brilliant insolation at Residuum A paralleld to Residuum B in June and December?

A. Residuum A and B pretence the selfselfidentical incline, after a conjuncture insolation tall in June and low in December

B. Residuum A and B pretence the selfselfidentical incline, after a conjuncture insolation tall in December and low in June

C. Residuum A and B pretence irreconcilable inclines, after a conjuncture insolation tall at one residuum and low at the other residuum

D. Residuum A and B pretence no incline in December or in June

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Uncurb Residuum A and Residuum B. Double-click and prime Residuum C.

Question 18: What is the extremity of Residuum C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador)?

A. 1N

B. 1S

C. 75W

D. 75E

Question 19: Estimate the mean brilliant insolation that Residuum C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador) common in June:

A. Neighboring 0 W/m2

B. Neighboring 275 W/m2

C. Neighboring 400 W/m2

D. Neighboring 550 W/m2

Question 20: Estimate the correspondentity of brilliant insolation Residuum C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador) common in December:

A. Neighboring 0 W/m2

B. Neighboring 275 W/m2

C. Neighboring 400 W/m2

D. Neighboring 550 W/m2

Question 21: Which of the subjoined accounts for the inclines in mean brilliant insolation at Residuum C (Yasuni National Park, Ecuador) in June and December? (Check all that devote).

A. There is rateately inferior estrangements in sun turn

B. There is rateately inferior estrangements in considerableness hours

C. Residuum C is cease to the Equator (low extremity)

D. Residuum C is far from subbrilliant sharp-end in December

Question 22: Which of the subjoined is gentleman environing how extremity and flourish determination pretend where and how fur suntrifling falls on the Earthfs manner in a dedicated year? (Check all that devote).

A. The taller the extremity the senior the seasonal estrangement in considerableness hours

B. Upper southern extremitys entertain past considerableness hours about the June solstice.

C. Upper northern extremitys entertain past considerableness hours about the June solstice.

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D. The inferior the extremity the senior the seasonal estrangement in considerableness hours

Collapse and uncurb GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE.

FLOW OF SOLAR RADIATION

When temper from the Sun reaches the Earthfs air, it progresss along diverse paths, after a conjuncture some temper collected by the air, some heeded tail into boundlessness and some wonderful the Earthfs manner. These diverse paths are segregate of the intensity remand agency that distributes intensity despite the globe. A past minute breakdown of what happens is pretencen in the brilliant radiation briskness. To voicelessness, the values pretencen in the briskness are for the Earth as a gross.

Select and click FLOW OF SOLAR RADIATION.

Question 23: What percent of the Sunfs temper entering the Earthfs air is collected promptly by the air?

A. 18%

B. 25%

C. 31%

D. 69%

Question 24: What percent of the Sunfs temper (shortwave radiation) entering the Earthfs air is collected by Earth is some way (clouds, insinuate, Earthfs manner)?

A. 18%

B. 25%

C. 31%

D. 69%

Question 25: What accounts for the most brilliant radiation life heeded tail into boundlessness?

A. Dust segregateicles

B. Ozone

C. Clouds

D. Aerosols

Question 26: Why does infuture neighboringwave radiation correspondent outgoing longwave radiation? (Check all that devote).

A. To preserve the Earthfs mean air past or short penny

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B. The laws of physics exact infuture and outgoing radiation to correspondent

C. It maintains the obesity of the air and variability in the tediousness of day

D. Without a balanced radiation budget, the Earth earn grace increasingly irascibleer or cooler

Question 27: The values in the briskness are for the Earth as a gross, at-last, the progress of temper is not smooth despite the Earthfs manner. Speculate how net radiation dissents at the Equator paralleld to the Poles. (Check all that devote).

A. Net radiation is past or short penny neighboring the Equator, but varies at the Poles

B. Net radiation is past or short penny neighboring the Poles, but varies at the Equator

C. During the June Solstice, net radiation is senior at the North Pole than the Equator

D. During the December Solstice, net radiation is senior at the North Pole than the Equator

Uncurb the FLOW OF SOLAR RADIATION folder.

ALBEDO

Expand the ALBEDO folder. Double-click and prime Albedo in September. To cease the extract, click the X in the top proper retreat of the window.

Albedo is the share of brilliant temper (shortwave radiation) that is heeded from Earthfs manner tail into boundlessness. Albedo is conducive as the not-absolute correspondentity (ratio) of heeded suntrifling (reflected neighboringwave radiation) to the completion correspondentity of suntrifling (pellucid neighboringwave radiation). Clouds and bproper (light-colored) manners preserve taller albedo reprimands than sombre garblinged manners enjoy asphalt, roads and forests.

This map pretences the mean global albedo common in September. The myth at the top pretences the proshare of suntrifling heeded from Earthfs manner, which ranges from no albedo at 0.0 (sombre cerulean) to a tall albedo at 0.9 (trifling ceruleans to garblingless). Areas of no postulates are denoted as sombre or no garbling. Use this map flake to apology the subjoined questions.

Double-click and prime Residuum D; then, double-click and prime Residuum E.

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Question 28 Is the albedo rateately tall or rateately low in the boreal forests of Canada and Norway in September?

A. The albedo is rateately tall in twain residuums

B. The albedo is rateately low in twain residuums

C. The albedo is tall in northern Canada and low in Norway

D. The albedo is low in northern Canada and tall in Norway

Double-click and prime Residuum F.

Question 29: Is the albedo rateately tall or rateately low in the Sahara Desert part of Northern Africa in September?

A. The albedo balance the Sahara Desert is rateately low

B. The albedo balance the Sahara Desert is rateately tall

C. There is no albedo balance the Sahara Desert consequently sand does not heed sunlight

D. The albedo balance the Sahara Desert is solely very tall (neighboring 0.9) or very low (0.0)

Double-click and prime Residuum G.

Question 30: Is the albedo rateately tall or rateately low balance the bulk of Greenfix in September?

A. The albedo balance Greenfix is rateately low exclude neighboring the coast

B. The albedo balance Greenfix is rateately tall exclude neighboring the coast

C. There is no albedo balance Greenfix exclude neighboring the coast

D. There is no albedo balance Greenfix consequently ice and snow do not heed sunlight

Seasonality (age of the year) plays an expressive role in global albedo. Letfs parallel the September albedo reprimands to February albedo reprimands of these residuums.

Select and double-click Albedo in February. To cease the extract, click the X in the top proper retreat of the window. To hesitate betwixt Albedo in September and Albedo in February, curb and uncurb one of the smooths to see the estrangements in the two map balancelays.

Double-click Residuum D; then, double-click Residuum E.

Question 31: For northern Canada and Norway, is the albedo in February taller or inferior when paralleld to the albedo in September?

A. The albedo is taller in February for twain residuums

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B. The albedo is inferior in February for twain residuums

C. The albedo is taller in northern Canada and inferior in Norway

D. The albedo is inferior in northern Canada and taller in Norway

Double-click Residuum F.

Question 32: For the Sahara Desert part of Northern Africa, is the albedo taller or inferior in February when paralleld to the albedo in September?

A. The albedo is inferior in February

B. The albedo is taller in February

C. The albedo is rateately the selfselfidentical in February and September

D. There is no albedo balance the Sahara Desert consequently sand does not heed sunlight

Double-click Residuum G.

Question 33: For Greenland, is the albedo taller or inferior in February when paralleld to the albedo in September?

A. The albedo is inferior in February

B. The albedo is taller in February

C. The albedo is rateately the selfselfidentical in February and September

D. There is no albedo balance Greenfix consequently ice and snow do not heed sunlight

Collapse and uncurb the ALBEDO folder.

NET RADIATION

Net radiation, rarely determined net progression, is the estrangement betwixt infuture brilliant radiation collected by the Earthfs manner and the radiation heeded tail into boundlessness. In other expression, net radiation is the temper helpful to Earth at the Earthfs manner. Some attributes collect past temper than heed, conjuncture other attributes on Earth heed past temper than collect. Factors that pretend the net radiation of a attribute apprehend albedo, extremity and Sun turn, heavenly stipulations (enjoy clouds and dust), and the age of year. As a outcome, some areas earn preserve a seasonal or annual temper rest after a conjuncture a absolute net radiation (past temper collected than heeded) conjuncture other areas earn preserve a seasonal or annual temper failure after a conjuncture a privative net radiation (past temper heeded than collected). Fortunately, the Earth has a global temper budget at borderly makeweight, after a conjuncture a global net radiation at borderly naught (that is, global infuture temper correspondents global outgoing temper).

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Expand the NET RADIATION folder.

Double-click and prime Net Radiation in January.

The myth at the top pretences the global net radiation for January, which ranges from 280 W/m2 to -280 W/m2. Hence, an ochreous or red garbling indicates a senior (positive) net radiation, conjuncture a fresh or cerulean garbling indicates a inferior (negative) net radiation.

Question 34: What global spatial patterns are notorious? (Check all that devote).

A. Net radiation is taller in the Southern Hemisphere

B. Net radiation is taller in the Northern Hemisphere

C. Net radiation is inferior in the Southern Hemisphere

D. Net radiation is inferior in the Northern Hemisphere

Question 35: How does the net radiation of mains versus fix dissent in Northern Hemisphere paralleld the Southern Hemisphere in January? (Check all that devote).

A. The net radiation is rateately taller in the mains than on fix in the Northern Hemisphere

B. The net radiation is rateately inferior in the mains than on fix in the Northern Hemisphere

C. The net radiation is rateately taller in the mains than on fix in the Southern Hemisphere

D. The net radiation is rateately inferior in the mains than on fix in the Southern Hemisphere

Question 36: What factors assist to the North Pole part having the tallest net radiation damage in January? (Check all that devote).

A. The Sun turn is low and hence the infuture brilliant radiation is low

B. The Sun turn is tall and hence outgoing brilliant radiation is tall

C. The considerableness hours are few indicating short infuture brilliant radiation

D. The considerableness hours are few indicating short outgoing brilliant radiation

Double-click and prime Net Radiation in July.

Question 37: What global spatial patterns are notorious? Curb all that devote.

A. Net radiation is taller in the Southern Hemisphere

B. Net radiation is taller in the Northern Hemisphere

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C. Net radiation is inferior in the Southern Hemisphere

D. Net radiation is inferior in the Northern Hemisphere

Question 38: In unconcealed, how does the July map parallel to the January map? (Check all that devote).

A. Overall, net radiation in the tall extremitys is rateately tall (temper rest) where it was uniformly low (temper failure) and defect versa

B. Overall, there is an temper rest at the Equator for twain January and July

C. Overall, there is an temper rest in the Northern Hemisphere in July

D. Overall, there is an temper failure in the Northern Hemisphere in July

Question 39: What factors are contributing to Greenfix pretenceing a net radiation damage in July?

A. Consequently it is advance north and entertains short infuture brilliant radiation

B. Consequently it is encircled by irascibleer main insinuate

C. Consequently it is abundantly meeted in ice and hence has a tall albedo

D. Consequently there is a low Sun turn that assists to a low albedo

Collapse and uncurb the NET RADIATION folder. You preserve completed Lab Module 4.