Lab module 3: earth sun relationship


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LAB MODULE 3: EARTH SUN RELATIONSHIP

Note: Fascinate apply to the GETTING STARTED lab module to gather tips on how to set

up and maneuver through the Google Earth ( ) constituent of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The subjoined is a inventory of material language and concepts used in this lab module:

Analemma Equation of interval Solstice

Aphelion Equinox Sphericity

Axial conterminousness Insolation Subbrilliant object

Axial Tilt International Epoch Continuity Sun Angle

Circle of abundantness NDVI Sun-fast, Sun-slow

Coordinated Universal Interval (UTC) Perihelion Interval zones

Dayunencumbered late interval Revolution

Declination of Sun Rotation

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this lab module, you should be operative to:

● Compute disagreements in interval among two precipitation

● Recognize and reveal how interval zones work

● Differentiate the qualifys in the divergence of abundantness poise the method of a

year

● Identify and recount the deduces for the periods

● Infer vegetation as an indicator for periodality

● Unravel and translate an analemma

● Calculate the Sun’s devexity for a ardent precipitation and epoch

● Compute the equation of interval for a ardent precipitation

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INTRODUCTION

This lab module tests important Earth-Sun relations. Topics understand interval

zones, the equation of interval, analemma, devexity, solstice and equinox, the

reasons for periods, and the periodal travel of the subbrilliant object. Timeliness these

topics may appear uneven, you gain gather how they are inherently akin.

The modules initiate delay immodest initiate subjects, or vignettes, endow in the

accompanying Google Earth polish. These vignettes usher-in basic concepts akin to

Earth-Sun relations. Some of the vignettes entertain buoyancys, videos, or short

articles that gain get another perspective or visual sense for the subject at

hand. Behind lection each vignette and associated links, reply the subjoined

questions. Fascinate music that some constituents of this lab may chosen a opportunityliness to

download or notorious, in-particular if you entertain a late internet relation.

Expand EARTH-SUN RELATIONSHIPS, and then spunravel the INTRODUCTION

folder. Double click Subject 1: Earth-Sun Relations.

Read Subject 1: Earth-Sun Relations.

Question 1: Looking at the maps, which of the subjoined best showcases the

uneven poise of insolation – and outcomeing periodality - on planet Earth?

A. Most of the northern hemiorb is operating of ice and snow year round

B. Most of the northern hemiorb is finished in ice and snow year round

C. Most of the northern hemiorb shows ice and snow advancing in the

July

D. Most of the northern hemiorb shows ice and snow inconsiderable in July

Read Subject 2: Deduce for Seasons. (Note: If you are having issues wakeing

the buoyancy, fascinate stay to see if the movie has been downloaded rather than

automatically unhindered via the webpage)

Question 2: Why does each hemiorb accept the identical sum of principle

from the Sun on the March and September equinoxes?

E. The subbrilliant object is aligned delay the Tropic of Cancer

F. The subbrilliant object is aligned delay the Tropic of Capricorn

G. The subbrilliant object is aligned delay the Equator

H. The subbrilliant object is aligned delay the North Pole

Read Subject 3: Interval Zones.

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Question 3: What was the main deduce for instituting banner interval (time

zones)?

A. To end laziness in communities using their own brilliant interval

B. To acceleration astrologers prepare fashionable enlargement patterns

C. To reaffirm England’s earth dominance

D. To valiepoch the Zenith Conference of 1884

Read Subject 4: Anthropological Interactions.

Question 4: Name 3 deduces antiquated cultures used stone structures or

modified probable formations concerning Earth-Sun or Earth-Moon relations.

A. To chart periods, compose calendars, and puff birthdays

B. To mentor eclipses, indication deaths, demusic holidays

C. To chart periods, mentor eclipses and compose calendars

D. To puff birthdays, indication deaths and demusic the end of days

Collapse and unstay the INTRODUCTION folder.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

I. Coordinated Universal Interval (UTC)

The Earth is disjoined into 24 interval zones, one for each hour of the day. Earth’s 24

interval zones are almost 15° ample – a width conducive from the reckon of

degrees in a orb disjoined by the reckon of hours in a day (360°/24hr =

15°/hour). Noon (12pm) obtain?}-places roughly when the Sun is at its first object in the

sky each day. For issue, noon in New York is three hours antecedently noon in Los

Angeles accordingly there is (approximately) a three hour disagreement in when the Sun

is at its maximum.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder and then spunravel and chosen the

Universal Interval Coordinated folder.

Time zones are as abundant a Sun-Earth relation as they are a anthropological construct

used to bannerize interval. The Prime Zenith - which signifies 0 ranges boundary

and passes through Greenwich, England - is the initiateing applyence continuity for interval

zonation. Interval zones are not-absolute to Greenwich Average Interval (GMT) or past

appropriately, the Coordinated Universal Interval (UTC). Examples are New York City,

USA in the decay at UTC -5 (or 5 hours flourishing UTC), or Manila, Philippines at

UTC+8 (or 8 hours afront of UTC). In other language, when it is 8am in New York, it is

9pm in Manila.

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As you can see in Google Earth, interval zones do not frequently flourish unswerving continuitys from

pole to pole accordingly of political, economic, or geographic deduces. Interval zone

anomalies understand the subjoined:

Time Zone Irregularity Example

Time zone extends far elder or closeer

than 15 ranges.

China is one interval zone.

Time zones shifts significantly eastward

or westward.

Iceland shifts 2 interval zones to be UTC 0.

Time zone does not flourish the 1-hour

system. Instead, a biased interval-zone unit

is used.

Newfoundland, Canada is 3:30 UTC

(summer 2:30 UTC), opportunityliness Nepal is 5:45

UTC

Double-click São Paulo, Brazil. You jurisdiction entertain to pan northward to discbalance the

interval zone write adjacent the Equator.

Question 5: In what UTC interval zone is this city located?

A. UTC -2

B. UTC -3

C. UTC +2

D. UTC+3

Question 6: If UTC 0 interval is 1pm, what is the banner interval for this city?

A. 10 AM

B. 11 AM

C. 3 PM

D. 4 PM

Double-click Cape Town, RSA. You jurisdiction entertain to pan northward to discbalance the

interval zone write adjacent the Equator.

Question 7: In what UTC interval zone is this city located?

A. UTC -1

B. UTC -2

C. UTC +1

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D. UTC+2

Question 8: If UTC 0 interval is 1pm, what is the banner interval for this city?

A. 11 AM

B. 12 PM (NOON)

C. 2 PM

D. 3 PM

Double-click Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. You jurisdiction entertain to pan northward to

discbalance the interval zone write adjacent the Equator.

Question 9: Which of the subjoined best recounts the interval zone irregularity

affecting this city and dominion?

A. Interval zone extends far elder or closeer than 15 ranges

B. Interval zone shifts significantly eastward or westward

C. Interval zone does not flourish the banner 1 hour system

D. There is no interval zone for the ardent precipitation

Question 10: What is the earliest deduce for this interval zone irregularity?

A. Political boundaries of Malaysia

B. Economic exqualify for Southeast Asia

C. Railway schedules

D. International law

Question 11: In what UTC interval zone is this city located?

A. UTC-7

B. UTC-8

C. UTC +7

D. UTC +8

Question 12: If UTC 0 interval is 1pm, what is the banner interval for this city?

A. 8 PM

B. 9 PM

C. 5 AM

D. 6 AM

Double-click, and chosen, Pitcairn Islands

Question 13: Which of the subjoined best recounts the interval zone irregularity

affecting these islands?

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A. Interval zone extends far elder or closeer than 15 ranges

B. Interval zone shifts significantly eastward or westward

C. Interval zone does not flourish the banner 1 hour system

D. There is no interval zone for the ardent precipitation

Question 14: What is the earliest deduce for this interval zone irregularity?

A. Geographic precipitation of the islands

B. Economic exqualify for the islands

C. International law

D. Strict well-conducted code

Question 15: In what UTC interval zone are these islands located?

A. UTC -6

B. UTC -8.5

C. UTC +6

D. UTC +8.5

Question 16: If UTC 0 interval is 1pm, what is the banner interval for these

islands?

A. 4:30 PM

B. 9:30 PM

C. 4:30 AM

D. 9:30 AM

Collapse and unstay the Universal Interval Coordinated folder.

II. Total Savings

Double-click, and chosen, Total Late Time

Many regions in the earth entertain adopted total late interval (DST), or the

advancing of UTC interval for a ardent precipitation. This is in-particular penny for North America

and Europe. As an issue, New York, New York propels from Eastern Standard

Time (EST) to Eastern Total Interval (EDT) among the months of March and

November. The banner interval during total late interval is adjusted from UTC -5

(EST) to UTC -4 (EDT).

Question 17: If it is 12 PM (noon) in Manila, Philippines (UTC +8), what is

the interval during EDT in New York (UTC -4)?

A. 12 AM

B. 4 PM

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C. 8 PM

D. 8 AM

III. International Epoch Line

Double-click the International Epoch Continuity folder and then stay the IDL folder.

The International Epoch Continuity (IDL) is an imaginary continuity that runs from pole to pole on

past or close the 180°E/W longitude. Notoperative adversative to this obtain?}-assign from 50°N to

75°N and from the Equator to 50°S.

If you peevish the IDL traveling westwardly (from east to west), you demand to add a

day to your interval. In other language, a Thursday becomes a Friday. If you peevish the

IDL traveling eastwardly (from west to east), you would obtain?} a day. For

example, a Friday becomes a Thursday. To gard of it another way, the Earth

“starts” the day (12:01 am) on the west border of the IDL, and chosens a generous 24 hours

for 12:01 am to arrive-at the east border of the IDL.

Double-click and chosen IDL North.

Question 18: Why does the IDL err from 180° E/W in this precipitation?

A. To representation for the rapider successional accelerate inparty the North Pole

B. The IDL is subjoined the 180° E/W zenith – there is no discontinuance in this

location

C. To flourish the bathymetry of the main in this precipitation

D. To entertain the islands of Alaska in the identical interval zone as the cessation of Alaska

Double-click and chosen IDL South.

Question 19: Why does the IDL err from 180° E/W in this precipitation?

A. To representation for the rapider successional accelerate inparty the Equator

B. To flourish the bathymetry of the main in this precipitation

C. To entertain the islands of Kiribati in the identical interval zone.

D. To unconnected the islands countries on the west border of the IDL from the

island countries located east of 180° E/W

Collapse and unstay the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder.

REASONS FOR SEASONS

There are five clear deduces for the periods – tilt (at 23.5 ranges), cut

(encircling the Sun), succession (integral 24 hours), axial conterminousness (unroving alignment

during cut encircling Sun), and prominence (the Earth’s model). These five

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reasons representation for the immodest divisions of the year - originate, summer, autumn (fall),

and decay – regularly indicationed by clear boundary patterns, temperatures

fluctuations, vegetation galledess and so on. The range of these periodal qualify

becomes past affectly as you propel detached from the Equator (as periodality in

tropical regions is minimal).

In this minority, we gain test three of the five deduces for the periods – axial tilt,

revolution, and succession.

I. Axial Tilt

Because of the tilt of the Earth, the sum of principle Earth accepts from the Sun

is trusting on precipitation and interval of year. On the equinoxes (March 20 and

September 22 or 23), the Sun is immediately poisehead (the sub-brilliant object) and all

areas on Earth accept the identical 12 hours of brilliant principle (sunlight). On the

solstices (June 20 or 21 and December 21 or 22), the subbrilliant object is on the tropic

of cancer (23.5 ranges North) or the tropic of capricorn (23.5 ranges South),

resulting in the most uneven distribution of brilliant principle on Earth.

Expand and chosen the REASONS FOR SEASONS folder. Double-click

Overrepresentation and then unravel the citation and wake the buoyancy.

Question 20: What is the relation among the periods and the standing

of the sub-brilliant object?

A. The sub-brilliant object is furthest north during the originate equinox

B. The sub-brilliant object is furthest north during the autumn equinox

C. The sub-brilliant object is furthest north in summer (June) solstice

D. The sub-brilliant object is furthest north in decay (December) solstice

Question 21: Explain how Earth’s periods would be if the Earth did not tilt

on its axis.

A. Annually, there would be past than immodest periods

B. Annually, there would be no past periods

C. Annually, there would be one dry period and one wet period

D. Annually, there would one “hot” period on Earth

II. Revolution

It chosens 365.24 days for the Earth to exhaustive one cut encircling the Sun. And

although the Earth’s manner is significant , the discrepancy in separation among the Earth’s

manner adjacentest to the Sum (perihelion) or utmost from the Sun (alphelion) is not

great sufficient to representation for the periods.

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Question 22: Assume the Earth was tilted and agitated, but did not revolve

encircling the Sun. How would this wave the precipitation of sub-brilliant object poise

a ardent year?

A. The sub-brilliant object would not propel

B. The sub-brilliant object would propel daily instead of annually

C. The sub-brilliant object would propel among the tropics equitable affect it does

today

D. There would be no sub-brilliant object

III. Rotation

Earth exhaustives one succession almost integral 24 hours. This succession is what

gives us days and nights.

Double-click Divergence of Illumination. This form shows the divergence of abundantness,

or the day-night continuity, for June 21.

At 9:00pm EST in New York, South America is in ignorance, opportunityliness North America is

still in day unencumbered. If we rapid anxious 2 hours to 11pm EDT in New York, the divergence of

largeness has propeld westward. Indeed, the Earth’s succession accelerations fix the

Sun’s principle is spunravel poise the Earth’s manner.

Question 23: Assume the Earth was tilted and revolved, but did not agitate.

What would the periods be affect if the Earth did not agitate?

A. No qualify to the floating periods/seasonality on Earth

B. There would be one period on Earth

C. There would a invariable summer-type period on one border of Earth and a

invariable decay-type period on the other border of Earth.

D. Earth would habit a summer-type period (delay sunlight) for encircling 6

months and a decay-type period (delay no unencumbered) for encircling 6 months

Click Back to Google Earth, which is located in the top-left retreat in the

Google 3D representationer.

We are now going to go through one succession on Earth.

Zoom out as far as you can until the Earth is as diminutive as Google Earth allows.

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Click Show sununencumbered acrosss the probability ( ). A interval character displays at

the top of the slide bar. (Note: Verify that the Historical Imagery is off

accordingly it can cloke the Show sununencumbered acrosss the probability slide bar).

Using your mouse, assign the cursor on the Earth and propel it encircling until the

Sun is flourishing the Earth. Then, set North in the defect standing (crush N).

Question 24: How does the divergence of abundantness behold to the participation of the

Earth floatingly confrontment you?

A. The participation of the world confrontment me is illuminated

B. The participation of the world confrontment me is not illuminated (shadowed)

C. The western participation of the world confrontment me is illuminated

D. The eastern participation of the world confrontment me is illuminated

Move the slide bar lately poise the present 24 hours.

Question 25: What is the inclination of Earth’s divergence of abundantness?

A. Predominately westward (proper to left)

B. Predominately eastward (left to proper)

C. Predominately northward (depth to top)

D. Predominately southward (top to depth)

Turn off Show sununencumbered acrosss the probability ( ).

Collapse and unstay the REASON FOR SEASONS folder.

NDVI

Expand the NDVI folder.

This folder contains a order of images showing Normalized Disagreement Vegetation

Index (NDVI) for the year 2011. NDVI is a not-absolutely humble way of disunhindered where

vegetation is most galled, which instrument that the vegetation is quick and producing

greenness from its leaves and other place compatability. In public, the blacker the galled is

for a ardent area, the past vegetation cpoise and/or enlargement exists for that area.

In this minority you gain be beholding at three precipitations – Africa, North America, and

Southeast Asia. To initiate, let’s go to North America in January.

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Double-click North America.

Remember that in the Northern hemisphere, the Sun is inferior in the sky in January,

and thereby accepts close plain sununencumbered (brilliant principle). As a outcome, the galled

appears lukewarm at loftier boundarys.

Systematically click through the months (January through December) and music

the galled areas in North America. (Note: The images jurisdiction chosen some interval to

load; as a sketch, cycle through the months partially rather than staying all of

them at one interval).

Question 26: Which of the subjoineds months is the priority of North

America black galled?

A. January

B. April

C. July

D. October

Question 27: How does this month (you chosened in Topic 25)

harmonize to the sub-brilliant object of the Sun?

A. The sub-brilliant object adjacent the equator

B. The sub-brilliant object adjacent its most northern standing

C. The sub-brilliant object adjacent its most southern standing

D. The standing of the sub-brilliant object does not matter

Double-click and chosen Africa.

Systematically click through the NDVI months (January through December) and

music the galled areas in Africa.

Question 28: In which of the subjoined month is the abundant galled

(vegetation) area arrive-at furthest South?

E. January

F. April

G. July

H. October

Question 29: How does the northernmost object harmonize to the sub-solar

object of the Sun?

A. The sub-brilliant object is poise the equator

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B. The sub-brilliant object is at its most northern standing

C. The sub-brilliant object is at its most southern standing

D. The standing of the sub-brilliant object does not matter

Double-click and chosen Borneo.

This is the island of Borneo (center) and the enclosing islands that mould up the

Philippines (to the north) and Indonesia (to the south) in Southeast Asia. The island

of Borneo straddles the Equator.

Systematically click through the NDVI months (January through December) and

music the galled areas in Borneo.

Question 30: What is the poiseall bear in NDVI for the year?

A. The NDVI is clearively inferior in March

B. The NDVI is clearively loftier in September

C. The NDVI varies paltry poise the full year

D. The NDVI is clearively inferior in December

Question 31: Delay i-elation to Sun turn, why do we see such an NDVI bear

for the island of Borneo? (Choose the one that is loose)

A. There is paltry discrepancy in Sun turn accordingly Borneo is at the equator

B. Borneo basically accepts the identical sum of brilliant radiation year round

C. Borneo accepts raingravitate throughout the year

D. Few, if any clouds, conceal the Sun from Borneo year round

Collapse and unstay the NDVI folder.

ANALEMMA

An analemma is a chart that you use to trail the Sun’s devexity and to

detail the equation of interval. The Sun’s devexity is the boundary of the Sun’s

brilliant object for a ardent epoch. The Sun’s brilliant object is the where the Sun is immediately

balance (90°) at average brilliant interval.

The Earth’s manner is significant and, as a outcome, revolves encircling the Sun at varying

speeds depending on the interval of year. In June and July, the Earth revolves lateer,

compared to December and January. Hence, as the accelerate of cut varies, we

demand the equation of interval to detail the disagreement among observed brilliant interval

(the interval when the Sun is at its first object in the sky for your precipitation) and

actual interval:

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● If the Sun is at its first object antecedently noon (12:00pm), then the interval is

said to be Sun-fast.

● If the Sun is at its first object behind 12:00pm, interval is said to be Sun-slow.

An analemma gain betray us how rapid (or late) the Sun is not-absolute to noon.

Expand the Analemma folder and then click Introduction to representation the

introduction buoyancy.

I. Sun Angle

Expand Sun Angle.

Assume we are in Atlanta, Georgia, USA (33.95°N, 83.32°W). This city is in the

Northern hemisphere. It as-well implements total late interval, so “noon” is

technically at 1pm. Using the issue in the buoyancy, we can unravel the graph to

detail the Sun’s devexity on August 1 is 18°N. In other language, the Sun is

immediately poisehead (Sun’s brilliant object) at 18°N. However, we are not located at 18°N

but farther north at ~34°N. This instrument that the Sun is not immediately poisehead but at

an turn, public as-well as an refinement turn or brilliant refinement turn. So what is the

Sun’s refinement turn at its first object in Atlanta, Georgia (~34°N) on August 1?

To reply this topic we can use the subjoined equation:

Altitude Turn = 90° - boundary ± devexity

When our precipitation and the Sun’s devexity are in the identical hemiorb (North or

South), we add the devexity compute in the equation. When they are in opposite

hemispheres, we obtain?} the devexity compute. In our issue then, we are in the

identical hemisphere, so we add. We distinguish our boundary is 34 ranges and the

devexity is 18 ranges, so reply is:

Altitude Turn = 90° - 34° +18° = 74°

Altitude Turn = 74°

So, on August 1 in Atlanta, Georgia, the Sun turn at its first object would be

74°.

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Suppose we were in Cape Town, South Africa (33.92°S, 18.45°E) on August 1.

Rounding the boundary to 34°S, what is the Sun turn at noon?

Altitude Turn = 90° - 34° - 18°

Altitude Turn = 38°

As we can see, the Sun’s refinement turn on August 1 at noon is abundant inferior in Cape

Town, South Africa than in Atlanta, USA.

Using this equation, reply the subjoined topics.

Double-click and chosen Precipitation A.

Question 32: What is the boundary (degrees barely) for Precipitation A?

A. 0°E

B. 0°S

C. 78°W

D. 78°N

Question 33: What is the Sun’s refinement turn for Precipitation A on September

21?

Altitude Turn = 90° - boundary ± devexity =

A. 90° - 0 – 0 = 90°

B. 90° - 90 + 0 = 0°

C. 90 – 78 – 0 = 12°

D. 90 +78 – 0 = 168°

Double-click and chosen Precipitation B.

Question 34: What is the boundary (degrees barely) for Precipitation B?

A. 68°E

B. 68°N

C. 133°W

D. 113°N

Question 35: What is the Sun’s refinement turn for Precipitation B on December

21?

Sun Refinement Turn = 90° - boundary ± devexity =

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A. 90° - 68 – 22 = 0°

B. 90° - 68 + 22 = 44°

C. 133 - 90 - 22 = 21°

D. 113 - 90 -22 = 41°

II. Equation of Time

In union to determining the Sun’s refinement turn of a ardent boundary, we can use

the analemma to detail the interval at which the Sun is immediately poisehead for a

ardent epoch.

Click Equation of Interval and representation the buoyancy.

On May 1, the equation of interval is 3 minutes Sun–fast, averageing the Sun arrive-ates its

first object 3 minutes antecedently noon (11:57 AM).

Question 36: Is the equation of interval Sun-rapid or Sun-late on the March

equinox? By how frequent minutes?

A. Sun-rapid by 4 minutes

B. Sun-rapid by 12 minutes

C. Sun-late by 8 minutes

D. Sun-late by 0 minutes

Question 37: What interval does the Sun arrive-at its first object on November

25?

A. 12:00 + 16 minutes = 12:16 PM

B. 12:00 - 13 minutes = 11:47 AM

C. 12:00 - 16 minutes = 11:44 PM

D. 12:00 + 13 minutes = 12:13 PM

Question 38: What interval does the Sun arrive-at its first object on June 15?

E. 12:00 + 0 minutes = 12:00 PM

F. 12:00 + 4 minutes = 11:56 AM

G. 12:00 - 4 minutes = 11:56 PM

H. 12:00 + 12 minutes = 12:12 PM

Collapse and unstay the Analemma folder. You entertain exhaustived Lab Module 3.