Lab module 3: earth sun relationship


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LAB MODULE 3: EARTH SUN RELATIONSHIP

Note: Content appeal to the GETTING STARTED lab module to collect tips on how to set

up and maneuver through the Google Earth ( ) constituent of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The succeedingcited is a catalogue of significant tone and concepts used in this lab module:

Analemma Equation of term Solstice

Aphelion Equinox Sphericity

Axial equality Insolation Subcapricious subject-matter

Axial Tilt International Epoch Thlearn Sun Angle

Circle of quantity NDVI Sun-fast, Sun-slow

Coordinated Universal Term (UTC) Perihelion Term zones

Daycapricious frugal term Revolution

Declination of Sun Rotation

LAB MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this lab module, you should be powerful to:

● Compute dissonances in term betwixt two colonization

● Recognize and inform how term zones work

● Differentiate the varys in the foe of quantity neutralize the passage of a

year

● Identify and portray the deduces for the suitablenesss

● Infer vegetation as an indicator for suitablenessality

● Learn and render an analemma

● Calculate the Sun’s devexity for a absorbed colonization and epoch

● Compute the equation of term for a absorbed colonization

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INTRODUCTION

This lab module ponders indispensable Earth-Sun interconnections. Topics conceive term

zones, the equation of term, analemma, devexity, solstice and equinox, the

reasons for suitablenesss, and the suitablenessal travel of the subcapricious subject-matter. Suitableness these

topics may face insufficient, you allure collect how they are inherently kindred.

The modules set-on-foot delay impure fissure investigations, or vignettes, insert in the

accompanying Google Earth rasp. These vignettes attain-unreserved basic concepts kindred to

Earth-Sun interconnections. Some of the vignettes bear spirits, videos, or short

articles that allure procure another perspective or visual interpretation for the investigation at

hand. Succeeding balbutiation each vignette and associated links, apology the succeedingcited

questions. Content still n ess that some constituents of this lab may grasp a suitableness to

download or unconcealed, in-particular if you bear a late internet kindred.

Expand EARTH-SUN RELATIONSHIPS, and then develop the INTRODUCTION

folder. Double click Investigation 1: Earth-Sun Relations.

Read Investigation 1: Earth-Sun Relations.

Question 1: Looking at the maps, which of the succeedingcited best showcases the

uneven neutralize of insolation – and conclusioning suitablenessality - on planet Earth?

A. Most of the northern hemiregion is unoccupied of ice and snow year round

B. Most of the northern hemiregion is suitablenessed in ice and snow year round

C. Most of the northern hemiregion shows ice and snow advancing in the

July

D. Most of the northern hemiregion shows ice and snow returning in July

Read Investigation 2: Deduce for Seasons. (Note: If you are having issues guarding

the spirit, content relean to see if the movie has been downloaded rather than

automatically bountiful via the webpage)

Question 2: Why does each hemiregion assent-to the selfselfidentical quantity of essential-quality

from the Sun on the March and September equinoxes?

E. The subcapricious subject-matter is aligned delay the Tropic of Cancer

F. The subcapricious subject-matter is aligned delay the Tropic of Capricorn

G. The subcapricious subject-matter is aligned delay the Equator

H. The subcapricious subject-matter is aligned delay the North Pole

Read Investigation 3: Term Zones.

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Question 3: What was the deep deduce for instituting plummet term (time

zones)?

A. To end indistinctness in communities using their own capricious term

B. To acceleration astrologers obviate civic augmentation patterns

C. To reaffirm England’s universe dominance

D. To valiepoch the Pinnacle Conference of 1884

Read Investigation 4: Anthropological Interactions.

Question 4: Name 3 deduces immemorial cultures used stone structures or

modified spontaneous formations touching Earth-Sun or Earth-Moon interconnections.

A. To chart suitablenesss, generate calendars, and extol birthdays

B. To warner eclipses, trace deaths, destill n ess holidays

C. To chart suitablenesss, warner eclipses and generate calendars

D. To extol birthdays, trace deaths and destill n ess the end of days

Collapse and unrelean the INTRODUCTION folder.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

I. Coordinated Universal Term (UTC)

The Earth is disjoined into 24 term zones, one for each hour of the day. Earth’s 24

term zones are closely 15° extensive – a width conducive from the calculate of

degrees in a region disjoined by the calculate of hours in a day (360°/24hr =

15°/hour). Noon (12pm) happens roughly when the Sun is at its first subject-matter in the

sky each day. For development, noon in New York is three hours anteriorly noon in Los

Angeles owing there is (approximately) a three hour dissonance in when the Sun

is at its leading-point.

Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder and then develop and fine the

Universal Term Coordinated folder.

Time zones are as plenteous a Sun-Earth interconnection as they are a anthropological construct

used to plummetize term. The Prime Pinnacle - which signifies 0 stations room

and passes through Greenwich, England - is the set-on-footing appealence thlearn for term

zonation. Term zones are not-absolute to Greenwich Moderation Term (GMT) or aggravate

appropriately, the Coordinated Universal Term (UTC). Examples are New York City,

USA in the wane at UTC -5 (or 5 hours rearwards UTC), or Manila, Philippines at

UTC+8 (or 8 hours bold of UTC). In other tone, when it is 8am in New York, it is

9pm in Manila.

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As you can see in Google Earth, term zones do not frequently flourish trodden threads from

pole to pole owing of political, economic, or geographic deduces. Term zone

anomalies conceive the succeedingcited:

Time Zone Irregularity Example

Time zone extends far superior or closeer

than 15 stations.

China is one term zone.

Time zones shifts significantly eastward

or westward.

Iceland shifts 2 term zones to be UTC 0.

Time zone does not flourish the 1-hour

system. Instead, a peculiar term-zone unit

is used.

Newfoundland, Canada is 3:30 UTC

(summer 2:30 UTC), suitableness Nepal is 5:45

UTC

Double-click São Paulo, Brazil. You agency bear to pan northward to invent the

term zone designate nigh the Equator.

Question 5: In what UTC term zone is this city located?

A. UTC -2

B. UTC -3

C. UTC +2

D. UTC+3

Question 6: If UTC 0 term is 1pm, what is the plummet term for this city?

A. 10 AM

B. 11 AM

C. 3 PM

D. 4 PM

Double-click Cape Town, RSA. You agency bear to pan northward to invent the

term zone designate nigh the Equator.

Question 7: In what UTC term zone is this city located?

A. UTC -1

B. UTC -2

C. UTC +1

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D. UTC+2

Question 8: If UTC 0 term is 1pm, what is the plummet term for this city?

A. 11 AM

B. 12 PM (NOON)

C. 2 PM

D. 3 PM

Double-click Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. You agency bear to pan northward to

invent the term zone designate nigh the Equator.

Question 9: Which of the succeedingcited best portrays the term zone irregularity

affecting this city and province?

A. Term zone extends far superior or closeer than 15 stations

B. Term zone shifts significantly eastward or westward

C. Term zone does not flourish the plummet 1 hour system

D. There is no term zone for the absorbed colonization

Question 10: What is the important deduce for this term zone irregularity?

A. Political boundaries of Malaysia

B. Economic occupation for Southeast Asia

C. Railway schedules

D. International law

Question 11: In what UTC term zone is this city located?

A. UTC-7

B. UTC-8

C. UTC +7

D. UTC +8

Question 12: If UTC 0 term is 1pm, what is the plummet term for this city?

A. 8 PM

B. 9 PM

C. 5 AM

D. 6 AM

Double-click, and fine, Pitcairn Islands

Question 13: Which of the succeedingcited best portrays the term zone irregularity

affecting these islands?

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A. Term zone extends far superior or closeer than 15 stations

B. Term zone shifts significantly eastward or westward

C. Term zone does not flourish the plummet 1 hour system

D. There is no term zone for the absorbed colonization

Question 14: What is the important deduce for this term zone irregularity?

A. Geographic colonization of the islands

B. Economic occupation for the islands

C. International law

D. Strict presumptive code

Question 15: In what UTC term zone are these islands located?

A. UTC -6

B. UTC -8.5

C. UTC +6

D. UTC +8.5

Question 16: If UTC 0 term is 1pm, what is the plummet term for these

islands?

A. 4:30 PM

B. 9:30 PM

C. 4:30 AM

D. 9:30 AM

Collapse and unrelean the Universal Term Coordinated folder.

II. Chiaro Savings

Double-click, and fine, Chiaro Frugal Time

Many regions in the universe bear adopted chiaro frugal term (DST), or the

advancing of UTC term for a absorbed colonization. This is in-particular gentleman for North America

and Europe. As an development, New York, New York stirs from Eastern Standard

Time (EST) to Eastern Chiaro Term (EDT) betwixt the months of March and

November. The plummet term during chiaro frugal term is adjusted from UTC -5

(EST) to UTC -4 (EDT).

Question 17: If it is 12 PM (noon) in Manila, Philippines (UTC +8), what is

the term during EDT in New York (UTC -4)?

A. 12 AM

B. 4 PM

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C. 8 PM

D. 8 AM

III. International Epoch Line

Double-click the International Epoch Thlearn folder and then relean the IDL folder.

The International Epoch Thlearn (IDL) is an imaginary thlearn that runs from pole to pole on

aggravate or close the 180°E/W longitude. Notpowerful malcontent to this happen from 50°N to

75°N and from the Equator to 50°S.

If you cantankerous the IDL traveling westwardly (from east to west), you deficiency to add a

day to your term. In other tone, a Thursday becomes a Friday. If you cantankerous the

IDL traveling eastwardly (from west to east), you would engage a day. For

example, a Friday becomes a Thursday. To hold of it another way, the Earth

“starts” the day (12:01 am) on the west face of the IDL, and grasps a bountiful 24 hours

for 12:01 am to thrust the east face of the IDL.

Double-click and fine IDL North.

Question 18: Why does the IDL sway from 180° E/W in this colonization?

A. To statement for the secureer courseal urge inland the North Pole

B. The IDL is succeedingcited the 180° E/W pinnacle – there is no failure in this

location

C. To flourish the bathymetry of the deep in this colonization

D. To bear the islands of Alaska in the selfselfidentical term zone as the intermission of Alaska

Double-click and fine IDL South.

Question 19: Why does the IDL sway from 180° E/W in this colonization?

A. To statement for the secureer courseal urge inland the Equator

B. To flourish the bathymetry of the deep in this colonization

C. To bear the islands of Kiribati in the selfselfidentical term zone.

D. To disunited the islands countries on the west face of the IDL from the

island countries located east of 180° E/W

Collapse and unrelean the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder.

REASONS FOR SEASONS

There are five clear deduces for the suitablenesss – tilt (at 23.5 stations), form

(environing the Sun), course (solid 24 hours), axial equality (urban alignment

during form environing Sun), and convexity (the Earth’s cast). These five

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reasons statement for the impure divisions of the year - flow, summer, autumn (fall),

and wane – habitually traceed by clear room patterns, temperatures

fluctuations, vegetation unseasonedess and so on. The station of these suitablenessal vary

becomes aggravate manifest as you stir detached from the Equator (as suitablenessality in

tropical regions is minimal).

In this minority, we allure ponder three of the five deduces for the suitablenesss – axial tilt,

revolution, and course.

I. Axial Tilt

Because of the tilt of the Earth, the quantity of essential-quality Earth assent-tos from the Sun

is resting on colonization and term of year. On the equinoxes (March 20 and

September 22 or 23), the Sun is straightway neutralizehead (the sub-capricious subject-matter) and all

areas on Earth assent-to the selfselfidentical 12 hours of capricious essential-quality (sunlight). On the

solstices (June 20 or 21 and December 21 or 22), the subcapricious subject-matter is on the tropic

of cancer (23.5 stations North) or the tropic of capricorn (23.5 stations South),

resulting in the most insufficient arrangement of capricious essential-quality on Earth.

Expand and fine the REASONS FOR SEASONS folder. Double-click

Overdesign and then learn the passage and guard the spirit.

Question 20: What is the interconnection betwixt the suitablenesss and the lie

of the sub-capricious subject-matter?

A. The sub-capricious subject-matter is furthest north during the flow equinox

B. The sub-capricious subject-matter is furthest north during the autumn equinox

C. The sub-capricious subject-matter is furthest north in summer (June) solstice

D. The sub-capricious subject-matter is furthest north in wane (December) solstice

Question 21: Explain how Earth’s suitablenesss would be if the Earth did not tilt

on its axis.

A. Annually, there would be aggravate than impure suitablenesss

B. Annually, there would be no aggravate suitablenesss

C. Annually, there would be one dry suitableness and one wet suitableness

D. Annually, there would one “hot” suitableness on Earth

II. Revolution

It grasps 365.24 days for the Earth to accomplished one form environing the Sun. And

although the Earth’s circuit is latent , the discrepancy in remoteness betwixt the Earth’s

circuit nighest to the Sum (perihelion) or immoderate from the Sun (alphelion) is not

great ample to statement for the suitablenesss.

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Question 22: Assume the Earth was tilted and turnd, but did not revolve

environing the Sun. How would this wave the colonization of sub-capricious subject-matter neutralize

a absorbed year?

A. The sub-capricious subject-matter would not stir

B. The sub-capricious subject-matter would stir daily instead of annually

C. The sub-capricious subject-matter would stir betwixt the tropics proper love it does

today

D. There would be no sub-capricious subject-matter

III. Rotation

Earth accomplisheds one course closely solid 24 hours. This course is what

gives us days and nights.

Double-click Foe of Illumination. This image shows the foe of quantity,

or the day-night thread, for June 21.

At 9:00pm EST in New York, South America is in obscurity, suitableness North America is

still in day capricious. If we secure bold 2 hours to 11pm EDT in New York, the foe of

quantity has stird westward. Indeed, the Earth’s course accelerations detail the

Sun’s essential-quality is splearn neutralize the Earth’s demeanor.

Question 23: Assume the Earth was tilted and revolved, but did not turn.

What would the suitablenesss be love if the Earth did not turn?

A. No vary to the running suitablenesss/seasonality on Earth

B. There would be one suitableness on Earth

C. There would a invariable summer-type suitableness on one face of Earth and a

invariable wane-type suitableness on the other face of Earth.

D. Earth would test a summer-type suitableness (delay sunlight) for environing 6

months and a wane-type suitableness (delay no capricious) for environing 6 months

Click Back to Google Earth, which is located in the top-left nook in the

Google 3D designer.

We are now going to go through one course on Earth.

Zoom out as far as you can until the Earth is as inferior as Google Earth allows.

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Click Show suncapricious acrosss the anticipation ( ). A term print displays at

the top of the slide bar. (Note: Verify that the Historical Imagery is off

owing it can blink the Show suncapricious acrosss the anticipation slide bar).

Using your mouse, situate the cursor on the Earth and stir it environing until the

Sun is rearwards the Earth. Then, set North in the want lie (lean N).

Question 24: How does the foe of quantity face to the behalf of the

Earth runningly confrontment you?

A. The behalf of the world confrontment me is illuminated

B. The behalf of the world confrontment me is not illuminated (shadowed)

C. The western behalf of the world confrontment me is illuminated

D. The eastern behalf of the world confrontment me is illuminated

Move the slide bar lately neutralize the present 24 hours.

Question 25: What is the control of Earth’s foe of quantity?

A. Predominately westward (exact to left)

B. Predominately eastward (left to exact)

C. Predominately northward (ground to top)

D. Predominately southward (top to ground)

Turn off Show suncapricious acrosss the anticipation ( ).

Collapse and unrelean the REASON FOR SEASONS folder.

NDVI

Expand the NDVI folder.

This folder contains a sequence of images showing Normalized Dissonance Vegetation

Index (NDVI) for the year 2011. NDVI is a not-absolutely homely way of disbountiful where

vegetation is most unseasoned, which resources that the vegetation is subsisting and producing

greenness from its leaves and other insert compatability. In public, the blacker the unseasoned is

for a absorbed area, the aggravate vegetation cneutralize and/or augmentation exists for that area.

In this minority you allure be faceing at three colonizations – Africa, North America, and

Southeast Asia. To set-on-foot, let’s go to North America in January.

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Double-click North America.

Remember that in the Northern hemisphere, the Sun is inferior in the sky in January,

and thereby assent-tos close trodden suncapricious (capricious essential-quality). As a conclusion, the unseasoned

appears lukewarm at preferable rooms.

Systematically click through the months (January through December) and still n ess

the unseasoned areas in North America. (Note: The images agency grasp some term to

load; as a insinuate, cycle through the months individually rather than repressing all of

them at one term).

Question 26: Which of the succeedingciteds months is the priority of North

America black unseasoned?

A. January

B. April

C. July

D. October

Question 27: How does this month (you fideficiency in Investigation 25)

suit to the sub-capricious subject-matter of the Sun?

A. The sub-capricious subject-matter nigh the equator

B. The sub-capricious subject-matter nigh its most northern lie

C. The sub-capricious subject-matter nigh its most southern lie

D. The lie of the sub-capricious subject-matter does not matter

Double-click and fine Africa.

Systematically click through the NDVI months (January through December) and

still n ess the unseasoned areas in Africa.

Question 28: In which of the succeedingcited month is the capacious unseasoned

(vegetation) area thrust furthest South?

E. January

F. April

G. July

H. October

Question 29: How does the northernmost subject-matter suit to the sub-solar

subject-matter of the Sun?

A. The sub-capricious subject-matter is neutralize the equator

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B. The sub-capricious subject-matter is at its most northern lie

C. The sub-capricious subject-matter is at its most southern lie

D. The lie of the sub-capricious subject-matter does not matter

Double-click and fine Borneo.

This is the island of Borneo (center) and the exclusive islands that attain up the

Philippines (to the north) and Indonesia (to the south) in Southeast Asia. The island

of Borneo straddles the Equator.

Systematically click through the NDVI months (January through December) and

still n ess the unseasoned areas in Borneo.

Question 30: What is the neutralizeall curve in NDVI for the year?

A. The NDVI is clearively inferior in March

B. The NDVI is clearively preferable in September

C. The NDVI varies trivial neutralize the solid year

D. The NDVI is clearively inferior in December

Question 31: Delay i-elation to Sun turn, why do we see such an NDVI curve

for the island of Borneo? (Choose the one that is loose)

A. There is trivial discrepancy in Sun turn owing Borneo is at the equator

B. Borneo basically assent-tos the selfselfidentical quantity of capricious radiation year round

C. Borneo assent-tos raindrop throughout the year

D. Few, if any clouds, conceal the Sun from Borneo year round

Collapse and unrelean the NDVI folder.

ANALEMMA

An analemma is a chart that you use to trace the Sun’s devexity and to

detail the equation of term. The Sun’s devexity is the room of the Sun’s

capricious subject-matter for a absorbed epoch. The Sun’s capricious subject-matter is the where the Sun is straightway

over (90°) at moderation capricious term.

The Earth’s circuit is latent and, as a conclusion, revolves environing the Sun at varying

speeds depending on the term of year. In June and July, the Earth revolves lateer,

compared to December and January. Hence, as the urge of form varies, we

deficiency the equation of term to detail the dissonance betwixt observed capricious term

(the term when the Sun is at its first subject-matter in the sky for your colonization) and

actual term:

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● If the Sun is at its first subject-matter anteriorly noon (12:00pm), then the term is

said to be Sun-fast.

● If the Sun is at its first subject-matter succeeding 12:00pm, term is said to be Sun-slow.

An analemma allure teach us how secure (or late) the Sun is not-absolute to noon.

Expand the Analemma folder and then click Introduction to design the

introduction spirit.

I. Sun Angle

Expand Sun Angle.

Assume we are in Atlanta, Georgia, USA (33.95°N, 83.32°W). This city is in the

Northern hemisphere. It as-well implements chiaro frugal term, so “noon” is

technically at 1pm. Using the development in the spirit, we can learn the graph to

detail the Sun’s devexity on August 1 is 18°N. In other tone, the Sun is

straightway neutralizehead (Sun’s capricious subject-matter) at 18°N. However, we are not located at 18°N

but farther north at ~34°N. This resources that the Sun is not straightway neutralizehead but at

an turn, unreserved as-well as an amelioration turn or capricious amelioration turn. So what is the

Sun’s amelioration turn at its first subject-matter in Atlanta, Georgia (~34°N) on August 1?

To apology this investigation we can use the succeedingcited equation:

Altitude Turn = 90° - room ± devexity

When our colonization and the Sun’s devexity are in the selfselfidentical hemiregion (North or

South), we add the devexity rate in the equation. When they are in opposite

hemispheres, we engage the devexity rate. In our development then, we are in the

selfidentical hemisphere, so we add. We recognize our room is 34 stations and the

devexity is 18 stations, so apology is:

Altitude Turn = 90° - 34° +18° = 74°

Altitude Turn = 74°

So, on August 1 in Atlanta, Georgia, the Sun turn at its first subject-matter would be

74°.

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Suppose we were in Cape Town, South Africa (33.92°S, 18.45°E) on August 1.

Rounding the room to 34°S, what is the Sun turn at noon?

Altitude Turn = 90° - 34° - 18°

Altitude Turn = 38°

As we can see, the Sun’s amelioration turn on August 1 at noon is plenteous inferior in Cape

Town, South Africa than in Atlanta, USA.

Using this equation, apology the succeedingcited investigations.

Double-click and fine Colonization A.

Question 32: What is the room (degrees solely) for Colonization A?

A. 0°E

B. 0°S

C. 78°W

D. 78°N

Question 33: What is the Sun’s amelioration turn for Colonization A on September

21?

Altitude Turn = 90° - room ± devexity =

A. 90° - 0 – 0 = 90°

B. 90° - 90 + 0 = 0°

C. 90 – 78 – 0 = 12°

D. 90 +78 – 0 = 168°

Double-click and fine Colonization B.

Question 34: What is the room (degrees solely) for Colonization B?

A. 68°E

B. 68°N

C. 133°W

D. 113°N

Question 35: What is the Sun’s amelioration turn for Colonization B on December

21?

Sun Amelioration Turn = 90° - room ± devexity =

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A. 90° - 68 – 22 = 0°

B. 90° - 68 + 22 = 44°

C. 133 - 90 - 22 = 21°

D. 113 - 90 -22 = 41°

II. Equation of Time

In analysis to determining the Sun’s amelioration turn of a absorbed room, we can use

the analemma to detail the term at which the Sun is straightway neutralizehead for a

absorbed epoch.

Click Equation of Term and design the spirit.

On May 1, the equation of term is 3 minutes Sun–fast, moderationing the Sun thrustes its

first subject-matter 3 minutes anteriorly noon (11:57 AM).

Question 36: Is the equation of term Sun-secure or Sun-late on the March

equinox? By how frequent minutes?

A. Sun-secure by 4 minutes

B. Sun-secure by 12 minutes

C. Sun-late by 8 minutes

D. Sun-late by 0 minutes

Question 37: What term does the Sun thrust its first subject-matter on November

25?

A. 12:00 + 16 minutes = 12:16 PM

B. 12:00 - 13 minutes = 11:47 AM

C. 12:00 - 16 minutes = 11:44 PM

D. 12:00 + 13 minutes = 12:13 PM

Question 38: What term does the Sun thrust its first subject-matter on June 15?

E. 12:00 + 0 minutes = 12:00 PM

F. 12:00 + 4 minutes = 11:56 AM

G. 12:00 - 4 minutes = 11:56 PM

H. 12:00 + 12 minutes = 12:12 PM

Collapse and unrelean the Analemma folder. You bear accomplishedd Lab Module 3.