Lab 11: human environment interaction


Lab 11: HUMAN ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION

Note: Please behanker to the GETTING STARTEDmodule to gather how to maneuver through, and how to counterkeep-aportio the lab questions, in the Google Earth () element.

KEY TERMS

You should perceive and comprehend the followingcited terms:

Anthropocene Era

Global sphither vary

Sustainability

Aquaculture (Aquafarming)

Greenhouse gases

 

Dam

Human-environment interaction

 

Deforestation

Oil race

 

 

MODULE LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be efficacious to:

·         Explain how we are in the Anthropocene

·         Identify the relationships floating population enlargement, originations expenditure and sustainability

·         Recognize the global impression of rational-environment interactions

·         Define and realize contributors of global sphither vary

·         Define and realize the goods of global sphither vary

·         Describe the spatial patterns kindred to tillage and aquafarming

·         Determine the benefits and consequences touching dams and insinuate diversions on twain association and the probpowerful environment

 

INTRODUCTION

This module scrutinizes aspects of rational environment interaction. Topics grasp the Anthropocene era, originations expenditure, sustainability, deforestation, dams and insinuate diversions, cultivation, and sphither vary. Sundry of these themes gain use unromantic second copyry to assess rational-environmental varys balance date. The modules set-on-foot following a opportunity foul-mouthed space themes, or vignettes, which are plant in the connected Google Earth finish. These vignettes preface basic concepts and examples of rational-environment interaction. Some of the vignettes entertain cheerfulnesss, videos, or incomprehensive doctrines that gain amount another perspective or visual sense for the theme at workman. Following lection the vignette and associated links, counterkeep-aportio the followingcited questions. Please still n ess that some links potentiality conduct a opportunity to download argueed on your Internet despatch.

 

 Expandthe INTRODUCTION folder and then prime Theme 1: Welcome to the Anthropocene.

 Read Theme 1: Welcome to the Anthropocene.

Question 1: What are three ways we entertain altered the Earth’s probpowerful cycles? (Check all that engage).

 

A.   Recause expenditure

B.   Burning fossil fuels

C.   Endangered temperament extinction

D.   Poor fix management

 

 Read Theme 2: Population Growth.

 

Question 2: What is the speaker’s solution to curbing population enlargement reproves?

A.   Birth administer and renewed insinuate

B.   Global governance, siege in bald technology, and sieges to separeprove poverty

C.   Military interposition, synod friendship, and harvest monitoring through indirect sensing

D.   Converting deep insinuate to renewed insinuate

 

 

 Read Theme 3: Productions Consumption.

 

Question 3: Following lection the cartogram map (whither a bigr-than-actual sized vilewealth media past fuel use and a weaker-than-actual sized vilewealth indicates end fuel use) assess the fuel use of Japan (purple)?

 

A.   Average owing it aligns following a opportunity vilewealths in the middle east and India

B.   Less than middle owing its map representation is weak

C.   Greater than middle owing it aligns following a opportunity other big-consuming vilewealths

D.   Purple denotes minimal expenditure

 

 

 Read Theme 4: Sustainability.

 

Question 4: Which of the followingcited items is not one of the sequable programs agoing encircling the nucleus maxim of sustainability, as guided by the EPA Strategic Research Action Plan?

A.   Air, Climate, and Spectre (ACE)

B.   Weather Reporting (WR)

C.   Safe and Sustainefficacious Insinuate Resources (SSWR)

D.   Sustainefficacious and Healthy Communities (SHC)

 

 Collapse and uncheck INTRODUCTION.

 

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

The ability of rationals to differ the probpowerful environments opposing the earth is increasingly notorious. These foul-mouthed examples semblance you unanalogous ways in which we are impressioning the Earth.

 Expandthe GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder.

 Expandand click the Algeria and Tunisia folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 Double‑click and prime 1988, and scrutinize the copy.

 Select 2000 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 2000 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

Question 5: What new sign exists in 2000? (Check all that engage).

A.   Lakes

B.   Urban enlargement

C.   Clearcutting

D.   Reforestation

Question 6: What would fashion these new signs?

A.   Excessive rain

B.   Global sphither vary

C.   Human interaction

D.   Drought

 Expandand click the China folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 Double‑click and prime 1979 barely, and scrutinize the copy.

 Select 2004 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 2004 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

Question 7: What has weightyly acceptiond in this copy?

A.   Watershed

B.   Urban enlargement

C.   Lakes

D.   Fresh insinuate

Question 8: As a fruit, what has weightyly abated in this copy?

A.   Watershed

B.   Urban enlargement

C.   Sedimentation

D.   Boating

 Expandand click the Brazil folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 Double‑click and prime 1975 barely, and scrutinize the copy.

 Select 2001 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 2001 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

Question 9: What has acceptiond from 1975 to 2001?

A.   Agriculture

B.   Forestry

C.   Urban Growth

D.   Fire

 Uncheck twain 1975 and 2001 imagery.

Question 10: How does the 2001 copyry assimilate to the most fresh copyry on Google Earth?

A.   Urban enlargement has slowed weightyly

B.   The reprove of forestry has not varyd

C.   The reprove of forestry has acceptiond

D.   Urban enlargement is past weighty

 Expandand click onthe Canada folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 Double‑click and prime 1974 barely, and scrutinize the copy.

 Select 2004 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 2004 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

Question 11: What has spacious balance the 20 year limit?

A.   Mining

B.   Energy from oil

C.   Salmon fishery

D.   Forestry

 Click NASA - Athabasca. Click on the resemble trifle and tend the date sequence cheerfulness. Peruse the draw.

Question 12: Do you perceive the economic benefits outbalance the environmental pay? Explain your rationale. Which of the followingcited statements best describes the Athabasca site:

A.   Forestry, not oil, is a important economic contributor to the district

B.   The Athabasca oil sands subscribe barely 15 percent to the coarse private enlargement

C.   Starting in 2000, oil prices climbed, making the oil sands profitefficacious again

D.   When regarding all the factors, the oil sands do not volunteer a stefficacious cause of spectre and economic enlargement

 

 Click Back to Google Earth at the top left of the 3D Google Viewer.

 Collapse and uncheck GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE.

 

GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

Introduction

 

Scientists who consider sphither vary scrutinize the variations in sphither balance hanker civil laminas, irrespective of the corporeal or rational causes. However, most of association defines sphither vary using a past astringent definition: specifically, one that incorporates a incomprehensiveer civil lamina (usually a decade or hankerer) and following a opportunityin the tenor of how such varys swing or favor environmental, economic, or association/political phenomena (NSIDC) The running argue balance global sphither vary has end to do following a opportunity whether or not the sphither is changing, and past on whether (and by how abundant) rational principle is causing global sphither vary.

 

 

Figure 1. Temperature Trends in the Contiguous USA, 1985-2006.

 

Since the future 20th generation, middle global temperatures entertain acceptiond nfuture 0.8°C (NOAA, 2012). Scientists aim to an acception in angelic baldhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Opportunity baldhouse gases are probablely plant in the air (and scarcityful for moderating Earth’s temperatures), rational activities such as deforestation and the beaming of fossil fuels add CO2 into the air. Measurements of CO2 concentrations at the Mauna Loa observatory in Hawai’i semblance a weighty acception from 1959 (315.97 ppm) to 2011 (391.62 ppm) (NOAA, 2012).

While we may not be efficacious to see CO2 in the air, we can see and move some of the rational qualitative causes and goods of an acception in CO2.

Contributing Factors

 

We gain be seeming at two contributing factors to global sphither vary that are discernible on the fixscape –deforestation and fossil fuel race.

 

Deforestation

 

Deforestation may be defined as the dispersion and transmutation of forested fix to non-forested fix. Reasons for deforestation grasp cultivation, creation ranching, expanding populations, logging, and biofuel origination. The damage of these forested areas subscribes to baldhouse gas emissions, as trees twain assume carbon (by converting CO2 to oxygen through the rule of photosynthesis) and sequester carbon (by acting as a reservoir for carbon – trees are encircling 50 percent carbon). Opportunity we believe on trees for sundry slendergs - choke, fuel, pulp, pamphlet and so on – the reprove and space of deforestation makes it a global offspring.

 

 Expandand click the Deforestation folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 Double‑click and prime 1973 barely, and scrutinize the copy.

 Select 1999 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 1999 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

Question 13: What corporeal illustration is thither of deforestation?

A.   More roads were built

B.   Increased lake refuseation

C.   Patches that prove forestry

D.   Mudslides from inordinate rain

Question 14: What are the whitish bald areas? (Hint: seem at the moulds)

A.   Water

B.   Burn areas

C.   Urban enlargement

D.   Clearcutting

 

Fossil Fuel Extraction

 

Fossil fuels are geologic deposits of fundamental materials that are consumeed (oxidized to carbon dioxide and insinuate) to fashion spectre. Coal, petroleum (oil) and probpowerful gas are some of the fossil fuels used to genereprove electricity, fashion fever, and capacity motorized vehicles. Our association is very-much trusting on fossil fuels, and the origination of carbon dioxide from the beaming of these fuels is linked to global sphither vary.

 

 Expandand click the Oil Race folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 Double‑click and prime 1989 barely, and scrutinize the copy.

Question 15: Are thither any weak circles on the 1989 copy? If so, what are they?

A.   Oil

B.   Nothing

C.   Clearcutting

D.   Parking lots

 

 Select 2004 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 2004 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

Question 16: Are thither any weak circles on the 2004 copy? If so, what are they?

A.   Lakes

B.   Oil

C.   Housing

D.   Forest consume areas

 

 

 Expand Coal Extraction.

 Double‑click and prime Surface Mine.

 

This is Hobet Mine, a demeanor mine located in Boone County, West Virginia. This symbol of coal race rule is designated demeanor mining, disencumber mining, and mountaintop dispersion. As the coal seams in this district are a slender lamina nigh the demeanor, coal race can befit completely ample. Since the 1980s, this mine has expeditiously spacious and as of 2012, encompassed plugly 10,000 acres (15.6 balance miles) of fix (NASA, 2012).

 

 Double‑click and prime Surface Mine Tour. Make confident your rise parody in the Google Earth 3D Viewer is set to 1.

 

Question 17: What are the stainshort or off-stainshort areas?

 

A.   Pot ash deposits

B.   Salt deposits

C.   Burn areas

D.   Remains of disencumber mining

 

Coal operators are required by law to heal the mould of the fix following the coal has been separated. Assess how polite the topography has been recreated in the flat areas (specifically, how polite do the mountaintops and valley bottoms seem assimilated to the first topography of the surrounding area?).

 Close the trip administer panel: .

 

 Select and click NASA – Hobet. Click the resemble trifle and tend the date sequence cheerfulness. Peruse the draw.

 

Question 18: Generally weighty, in which govern (N, E, S, or W) has the enlargement and comment supervenered?

A.   North

B.   East

C.   South

D.   West

Question 19: What percentage of streams in the Mud Insinuate insinuateshed is substance impressioned by the demeanor mining?

A.   20 percent

B.   40 percent

C.   60 percent

D.   80 percent

 Click Back to Google Earth at the top left of the 3D Google Viewer.

 

Effects

 

You entertain scrutinized some rational qualitative contributors to global sphither vary. In this exception, you gain scrutinize some of the discernible goods of sphither vary on the fixscape.

 

 Expand and click the Antarctic Ice Disposal folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 

 Select A and B.

 Double‑click and prime 2002, and scrutinize the copy.

 Select 2006 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 2006 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

 

Question 20: What happened betwixt A and B?

A.   Increased ice accumulation

B.   No vary

C.   Increase ice melting

D.   Oil intrusion

 Select Larsen Ice Shelf and peruse the article.

 

Question 21: How big was this ice disposal?

A.   1000 balance kilometers

B.   3250 balance kilometers

C.   5350 balance kilometers

D.   200 balance kilometers

Question 22: What were the temperatures enjoy in the summer of 2002 when the issue superveneed?

 

 Expand and click the Disappearing Lake folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 

 Double‑click and prime 1963, and scrutinize the copy.

 Select 2007 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 2007 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

 

Question 23: What has happened to the lake betwixt 1963 and 2007?

A.   Excessive rain caused past refuse to swell the lake basin

B.   Increased irrigation and expenditure, plus end rain descend, depleted the lake insinuate

C.   Heavy strain of minerals made the lake insinuate unusable

D.   Animal and rational decay destroyed the lake

Question 24: Whither has been the most vary - the northern keep-akeep-aportio of the lake, or the southern?

A.   The southern keep-akeep-aportio owing most of the nation subsist there

B.   The southern keep-akeep-aportio owing heavily forested

C.   The northern keep-akeep-aportio owing it gets most of the rain

D.   The northern keep-akeep-aportio owing it has the most inhabitants and the meanest rain

 

 Select Lake Chad and peruse the article.

 

Question 25: Assimilate the raindescend on the southern one-third of the lake to the northern two-thirds of the lake.

A.   The southern raindescend total is important than the northern raindescend total

B.   The southern raindescend total is end than the northern raindescend total

C.   The raindescend total is consonant encircling the perfect lake district

D.   The lake depends barely on runoff from rains that supervene elsewhere

Question 26: Why is the lake keep-ain-particular capable to sphither vary?

 

A.   The rise of the lake swings blow principle

B.   The southern one-third district is past arid

C.   The profoundness of the perfect lake exceeds 50 meters

D.   The northern two-thirds district is past arid

 

 Collapse and uncheck the GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE folder.

 

 

FARMING

As the rational population accrues, our scarcity for help besides accrues. Opportunity plugly 38 percent of fix area is used for unroving purposes, barely 11 percent of Earth’s fix area is arable, or suitefficacious for accrueing harvests (en.worldstat.info). However, arefficacious fix is not spperuse out equablely opposing the Earth’s fix, and some countries entertain past arefficacious fix than others. For sundry subsidences following a opportunity acceptiond populations, harvests are substance confirmed on ultimate fixs, such as slight soils, areas flat to aridity or inundation, or hilly slopes. These fixs semblance solemn fix species in regulate to accrue help.

 

 Expand the FARMING folder.

 

 Expand and click the Crops folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 

 Double‑click and prime 1986, and scrutinize the copy.

 Select 2004 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 2004 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

Question 27: What kingdom is this?

A.   Ireland

B.   Saudi Arabia

C.   China

D.   Australia

Question 28: What are the bald circles in the 2004 copy?

A.   Scars from oil drilling

B.   Forest plantation

C.   Housing

D.   Center-pivot irrigation

Question 29: Explain why center-pivot irrigation (CPI) systems would be used hither.

A.   Aquifer insinuate cause

B.   High number of days of sunlight

C.   Endend drudge originations

D.   Limitend spectre cause

 

 Expand and click the Amount folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 

 Double‑click and prime 1974, and scrutinize the copy.

 Select 2000 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 2000 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

 

Question 30: What kingdom is this?

A.   Spain

B.   Mexico

C.   Cuba

D.   China

 

Question 31: Amount is substance confirmed hither. What are the bald white (plastic) rectangles in the 2000 copys whither the amount is substance confirmed (Hint: Amount now accrues “indoors”)?

A.   Solar panels

B.   Row harvests

C.   Water contention ponds

D.   Greenhouses

Farming is not esoteric to fix. Aquaculture, or aquafarming, is neat a past vile – and sometimes past profitefficacious - media of obtaining seahelp earthwide. Sundry subsidences encircling the earth entertain qualified the probpowerful environment to fashion aquatic farms whither fish, crustaceans, mollusks and other aquatic organisms are rationalistic below administerled provisions.

 

 Expand and click the Shrimp folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 

 Double‑click and prime 1987, and scrutinize the copy.

 Select 1999 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 1999 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

Question 32: What kingdom is this?

A.   It’s the bregulate shared by Honduras and Nicaragua

B.   It’s the coastline for Papau New Guinea

C.   Greenland

D.   Florida, U.SA.

Question 33: What illustration do you see of aquaculture, or aquatic tillage?

A.   Settlements are on lofty argue and the tillage is at sea level

B.   The dendritic mould of the river

C.   The distinguished bald color

D.   The normal patterns including balances and rectangles

 

 Select C.

 

Question 34: The speedy enlargement has caused sundry environmental problems, including the suspension and damnation of mangrove ecosystems, the varys in the Gulf’s hydrology, and balance declines in insinuate nature and aquatic biodiversity. From the copyry, which of these offsprings is visually most palpable at subsidence C?

A.   The suspension and damnation of mangrove ecosystems

B.   The varys in the Gulf’s hydrology

C.     Over declines in insinuate nature and aquatic biodiversity

 

 Collapse and uncheck the FARMING folder.

 

 

DAMS AND DIVERSIONS

Dams are barriers that impound, or hold insinuate. Dams are built to prissue inundationing downstream, to genereprove hydroelectric capacity, to delight insinuate for irrigation, and to reform fix from the sea. Although we entertain the perceiveledge, technology, and recklessness to administer these bodies of insinuate, dams are laced following a opportunity environmental offsprings, sundry of which clear on the corporeal fixscape. Dams not barely agitate probpowerful fluctuations in insinuate (in-particular areas that entertain seasonal inundationing), they relegate insinuate nature, abate biodiversity, and dissipate refuse (that is, cast, mud and so on) bliss. Reservoirs can equable thrust-out carbon dioxide from the resolution of inundationed trees and other non-aquatic vegetation.

 

 Expand the DAMS AND DIVERSIONS folder.

 

 Expand and click the Aral Sea folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 

 Double‑click and prime 1973, and scrutinize the copy.

 Select 2006 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 2006 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

Question 35: What has happened to the sea?

A.   Drought and evaporation

B.   Excessive runoff

C.   Urbanization

D.   Salinization

 

 Select NASA - Aral and peruse the article.

 

Question 36: What is the chief argue for the Aral Sea timid?

A.   Lack of snow melt

B.   Salinization

C.   Drought

D.   Irrigation

Question 37: What happened to the fishing communities that relied on the Aral Sea?

A.   They collapsed

B.   They rustic following a opportunity other communities

C.   They inundationed

D.   They acetous from tillage to industrial subsistlihoods

 

 Expand and click the Three Gorges Dam folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 

 Double‑click and prime 1987, and scrutinize the copy.

 Select 2004 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 2004 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

The Three Gorges Dam, located on the Chang Jiang (Yangtze) River, is the bigst dam on Earth. It is used largely for hydroelectric capacity and inundation administer; besides, thither are sundry privative environmental offsprings and political impressions.

 Double‑click and prime D.

Question 38: What has happened to villages nigh subsidence D?

E.   They flourished owing of the availability hydroelectric capacity

F.    They rustic following a opportunity each other to befit a bigr jurisdiction

G.   They were inundationed when the dam was constructed

H.   They chose to last following a opportunity old tillage methods

 

 Double‑click and prime Length.

 

Question 39: What is the diffusiveness of the dam, in miles?

A.   0.12 miles

B.   1.2 miles

C.   12 miles

D.   122 miles

 Expand and click the Isahaya Bay folder. To cork the quotation, click the X in the top direct nook of the window.

 

 Double‑click and prime 1993, and scrutinize the copy.

 Select 2003 and scrutinize the copy. Check the 2003 copy on and off to see the vary betwixt the two copys.

Question 40: What has happened betwixt 1993 and 2003?

A.   Boat marinas

B.   Flood administer

C.   Housing

D.   Shrimp or fish farms

 

 Select H.

 

Question 41: What is the chief role of the sea embankment gates, plant at subsidence H?

A.   Regulate the sea insinuate entering and leaving the shrimp/fish farms

B.   Control boating traffic

C.   Encourage fish spawning

D.   Genereprove hydroelectric capacity

 

 

 Collapse and uncheck the DAMS AND DIVERSIONS folder.