Lab 10_soil geography | Geography homework help


LAB 10: SOIL GEOGRAPHY

In this module, you accomplish test and interpret the geographic division, patterns, and processes associated delay Earth’s stains.

Note: Please associate to the GETTING STARTEDlab module to glean tips on how to set up and maneuver through the Google Earth ( ) constituent of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The subjoined is a inventory of symbolical words and concepts used in this lab module:

Cation-vary distance (CEC)

Particle bigness –sand, examine, remains

Soil feature

CLORPT

Pedogenic processes

Soil constitution

Diagnostic horizon

Pore distance

Soil solution

Eluviation

Soil speciousness – hue, rate, chroma

Soil Taxonomy

Humus

Soil consistence

Soil composition

Illuviation

Soil horizons - O, A, E, B, C, R

Transpiration

Inorganic symbolical (matter)

Soil dampness

 

Organic symbolical (matter)

Soil pH

 

 

LAB MODULES LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be operative to:

·         Identify the essential constituents of stain

·         Explain the constituents that bias the fruit of stain (CLORPT)

·         Identify stain enjoins and stain succession by symptom characteristics and residuum

·         Explain stain features and stain horizons

·         Recognize stains by composition and speciousness

·         Describe the geography of stains at sundry taxonomic equalizes

INTRODUCTION

This module examines the geography of stain. Topics comprise stain kinds, stain horizons, stain dampness, pH and speciousness. Opportunity these subject-matters may loveness to be ill-assorted, you accomplish glean how they are inherently cognate.

The modules set-on-foot delay five inauguration subject-matters, or vignettes, which are base in the cognate Google Earth finish. These vignettes begin basic concepts of the geography of stain. Some of the vignettes own animations, videos, or deficient subscription that accomplish afford another perspective or visual interpretation for the subject-matter at agency.  After balbutiation the vignette and associated concatenates, apology the subjoined questions. Please silence that some constituents of this lab may receive a opportunity to download or unconcealed, especially if you own a gradual internet union.

 Expand SOIL GEOGRAPHY and then amplify the INTRODUCTION folder.

 Read Subject-matter 1: The Earth’s Soils.

Question 1: Looking at the map, what is the stain dampness terminology used for climes delay proportionately vaporous weathers and well-arranged rainfall, where breathe-into moves down through the stain via stain pores, enjoy that of eastern USA, the United Kingdom, Norway, and eastern China?

a.       Udic

b.      Aridic

c.       Ustic

d.      Perudic

 

 Read Topic 2: Stain Forming Factors

Question 2: Which constituent – weather, organisms, succor, perpetrator symbolical, or opportunity – would concern most universally the stains in mountainous areas?

a.       climate

b.      organisms

c.       relief

d.      perpetrator symbolical

e.      time

 

 Read Topic 3: Stain Characteristics

Question 3: How are colloids salubrious to introduces (Hint: What can they do that aids introduces)?

a.       Colloids dismember stain breathe-into for introduce use

b.      Colloids inhinder keen ions that leach nutrients from stain

c.       Colloids cherish unconditionally abounding demeanors to entice nutrients

d.      Colloids rest stain nutrients for introduce use

 

 Read Topic 4: Stain Horizons

Question 4: The photo loveness lovenesss a weighty horizon of accumulated remainss, oxides, and organics. Does this stain profinish loveness a weighty O horizon, A horizon, E horizon, B horizon, or C horizon?

a.       0 horizon

b.      A horizon

c.       E horizon

d.      B horizon

e.      C horizon

 

 Read Topic 5: Stain Degradation

Question 5: Reading the map, what is the global condition of stain in South Africa, the inside clime of Madagascar, and the eldership of eastern China?

a.       Very elevated severity

b.      High severity

c.       Moderate severity

d.      Low severity

 

 Collapse and uncheck INTRODUCTION

 

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

In this minority, you accomplish test how stains are arranged at a global layer. Remember, layer is an symbolical concept in geography, accordingly some patterns can be seen solely at the global (coarse) layer and not at the persomal (fine) layer.

 

 Expand GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE and then click and picked, Soil Taxonomy Map.

Soils are unconcealedly systematizeified using their stain features and other substantial, chemical, and biological characteristics. How they are systematizeified, or clumped into categories, depends on the kind plan used. There are divers makeal stain kind plans in the cosmos-people, including kind plans from Canada, Russia, China, Germany, Australia, the United States, and the internationally makeal FAO Cosmos-people Reference Base for Stain Resources (WRB). For this minority, the stain enjoin nomenclature (how stains are denominated) is grounded on the United States kind plan notorious as the USDA Stain Taxonomy. The induced map plaster lovenesss feature geographic patterns of stain delay weather and succor that are clear at the global layer.

 Double‑click and picked Atlanta. When you come-to at your goal, prefer the dominant stain enjoin for the city. Repeat this for the fostering questions in this minority.

 

Question 6:  What is the prevailing stain enjoin for Atlanta, Georgia, USA and the enclosing clime?

a.      Ultisols

b.      Vertisols

c.       Spodosols

d.      Oxisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.      Andisols

h.      Aridisols

i.        Mollisols

j.        Alfisols

k.      Inceptisols

l.        Entisols

 Double‑click and picked Bhopal

Question 7:  What is the prevailing stain enjoin for Bhopal, India and the enclosing clime?

a.      Ultisols

b.      Vertisols

c.       Spodosols

d.      Oxisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.      Andisols

h.      Aridisols

i.        Mollisols

j.        Alfisols

k.       Inceptisols

l.        Entisols

 Double‑click and picked Hamar

Question 8:  What is the prevailing stain enjoin for Hamar, Norway and the enclosing clime?

a.      Ultisols

b.      Vertisols

c.       Spodosols

d.      Oxisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.      Andisols

h.      Aridisols

i.        Mollisols

j.        Alfisols

k.       Inceptisols

l.        Entisols

 Double‑click and picked Yaounde

Question 9:  What is the prevailing stain enjoin for Yaounde, Cameroon and the enclosing clime?

a.      Ultisols

b.      Vertisols

c.       Spodosols

d.      Oxisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.      Andisols

h.      Aridisols

i.        Mollisols

j.        Alfisols

k.       Inceptisols

l.        Entisols

 Double‑click and picked Sarawak

Question 10: Sarawak is a Malaysian recite located on the Island of Borneo.  The prevailing stain enjoin for most of Sarawak is the corresponding as which of the subjoined residuums?

a.      Yaounde, Cameroon

b.      Hamar, Norway

c.       Bhopal, India

d.      Atlanta, Georgia

 Collapse and uncheck GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

SOIL ORDER

Physical, chemical, and other undishonorable properties aid assort stains at all equalizes of taxonomy. Soils are systematizeified from the elevatedest equalize, the stain enjoin, down to the diminutiveest equalize, the stain succession. The equalizes betwixt stain enjoin and stain succession are stain suborder, big clump, subgroup, and families. The USDA Stain Taxonomy recognizes 12 stain enjoins, 64 suborders, balance 300 big clumps, and balance 20,000 stain succession.

The stain enjoin equalize is symbolical at the macro (global) layer, or when unconcealed descriptions of stain are insufficiencyed. The stain succession equalize is symbolical at the micro (local) layer, or when unfair stain descriptions are insufficiencyed. At the persomal layer, stains are very multifarious and can disagree significantly delayin a proportionately diminutive area due to sundry environmental constituents. These constituents can comprise the steepness of the terrain, the bigness and despatch of streams, the suitable introduces or crops that advance on it, the archearchesymbol of perpetrator symbolical (rocks) underneath it, the age of the stain, and stain disturbance (for sample, spirit).

Continue practicing your identification of stain enjoins at a global layer.

 Expand SOIL ORDER and then click and picked Identification. If you insufficiency aid delay identification, click and picked Information. This concatenate receives you to The Twelve Stain Command of Stain Taxonomy web page hosted by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. You can use this to aid you test stains 1 through 12.

Question 11: Soil 1:

Question 12: Soil 2:

Question 13: Soil 3:

Question 14: Soil 4:

Question 15: Soil 5:

Question 16: Soil 6:

Question 17: Soil 7:

Question 18: Soil 8:

Question 19: Soil 9:

Question 20: Soil 10:

Question 21: Soil 11:

Question 22: Soil 12:

<Question 11-22: Pull from the subjoined inventory>

a.       Alfisols

b.      Andisols

c.       Aridisols

d.      Entisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.       Inceptisols

h.      Mollisols

i.         Oxisols

j.        Spodosols

k.       Ultisols

l.         Vertisols

 

SOIL PROFILE

The USDA Stain Taxonomy uses speciousness, composition, constitution, and other stain properties of a stain feature, measured from the demeanor down to two meters profoundness (NCRS). Unarranged the stain feature, stain horizons are symbolical in the identification of the stain enjoin and inferior taxonomic equalizes. Stain horizons at the demeanor are sometimes notorious as epipedons. Many stains own a symptom horizon or other stain characteristics that are undishonorable to that stain and aid to lump them from other stain archetypes.

 Expand SOIL PROFILE, and then double‑click and picked Soil Taxonomy Map. Next, double-click and picked Soil 1. In this minority, you accomplish face at six opposed stain features. To test each stain enjoin, an loveness concurrently delay CLORPT (CLimate, Organisms, Relief, Parent symbolical, Time) notice and symptom characteristics are affordd. After you test the stain enjoin, amplify the folder and picked and click Location A and Residuum B to designate the most enjoyly residuum.

Question 23: What is Stain 1? _____________________

a.      Aridisols

b.      Inceptisols

c.       Ultisols

d.      Vertisols

 

Question 24: This stain enjoin is most enjoyly to be base at or encircling Residuum A, B, C or D?

a.      Location A

b.      Location B

c.       Location C

d.      Location D

 

Question 25: What is Stain 2? _____________________

a.      Alfisols

b.      Inceptisols

c.       Mollisols

d.      Spodosols

 

Question 26: This stain enjoin is most enjoyly to be base at or encircling Residuum E, F, G, or H?

a.      Location E

b.      Location F

c.       Location G

d.      Location H

Question 27: What is Stain 3?  _____________________

a.      Alfisols

b.      Gelisols

c.       Histosols

d.      Inceptisols

 

Question 28: This stain enjoin is most enjoyly to be base at or encircling Residuum I, J, K, or L

a.      Location I

b.      Location J

c.       Location K

d.      Location L

 

Question 29: What is Stain 4? _____________________

a.      Alfisols

b.      Entisols

c.       Oxisols

d.      Ultisols

 

Question 30: This stain enjoin is most enjoyly to be base at or encircling Residuum M, N, O, or P?

a.      Location M

b.      Location N

c.       Location O

d.      Location P

 

Question 31: What is Stain 5?  _____________________

a.      Alfisols

b.      Histosols

c.       Inceptisols

d.      Spodosols

 

Question 32: This stain enjoin is most enjoyly to be base at or encircling Residuum Q, R, S, or T?

a.      Location Q

b.      Location R

c.       Location S

d.      Location T

 

SOIL TEXTURE

One dishonorable substantial stain possessions that aids to assort stains is stain composition. Stain composition is one of the principal things designated for a absorbed stain or stain horizon, and equates to the bigness of the psubscription for a absorbed stain. The three not-absolute bignesss of stain psubscription comprise sand (largest/coarse), silt (medium), and clay (smallest/fine). Most stains inhinder a percentage of each of these tittle bignesss. Figure 1 lovenesss the USDA Stain Composition Triangle which designates stain composition systematizees by percent sand, examine, and remains.

Figure 1. USDA Stain Composition Triangle (NCRS).

 

Use the Stain Composition Triangle to designate the stain composition systematize for each of the subjoined samples. Silence that the quantity for each severed (sand, examine, remains) on the Stain Composition Triangle are directionally aligned delay the associated lines.

Question 33: What is the stain composition systematize for a stain that is 50 percent remains, 30 percent examine, and 20 percent sand?

a.      Silty remains loam

b.      Clay

c.       Loam

d.      Sandy loam

e.      Sandy remains loam

 

Question 34: What is the stain composition systematize for a stain that is 15 percent remains, 45 percent examine, and 40 percent sand?

a.      Silty remains loam

b.      Clay

c.       Loam

d.      Sandy loam

e.      Sandy remains loam

Soil composition can be attested in the ground using a composition-by-affect mode, a proportionately complimentary finger identification technique in which the cabal of sand (gritty), examine (mitigate and easy), and remains (sticky) are estimated using a succession of yes‑no questions. Surprising to some, this mechanical-analysis process to test stains can be elevatedly complimentary unarranged skilled stain scientists.

 Expand SOIL TEXTURE and then click and picked Soil Texture by Feel to object a video of how this stain composition identification mode is designated in the ground.

Texture is symbolical accordingly it relates to weathering and perpetrator symbolical. It also plays a role in breathe-into change-of-place, and nutrient availability. Finer compositions enjoy remains own diminutiveer pore distances lending to gradualer breathe-into change-of-assign through the stain, and a bent for a elevateder CEC and accordingly rectify nutrient availability for introduces.

Question 35: After wetting and kneading the stain, designate the steps in stain composition by affect for a remains stain, by affecting the indecent apologys underneath to assign in the set-equitable enjoin.

a.      Determine the extension of the ribbon

b.      Determine if stain can make a ball

c.       Determine if the stain is mitigate or gritty, or neither mitigate nor gritty

d.      Determine if stain can make a ribbon

 

Question 36: You own a 3cm ribbon that is very gritty.  What archearchesymbol of stain is it?

a.      Sandy loam

b.      Sandy remains loam

c.       Clay loam

d.      Silty remains loam

 Double‑click and picked California Composition Map. To hinder the extract, click the X in the top equitable retreat of the window.

 Double‑click and picked Location U. Repeat for Residuum V and W.

Based on the Stain Composition Triangle affordd, and associatering end to Figure 1, designate the trench stain composition for each of the subjoined residuums.

Question 37: Stain Composition at Residuum U is ______________.

a.      Clay

b.      Loamy sand

c.       Silty loam

d.      Loam

Question 38: Stain Composition at Residuum V is ______________.

a.      Loam

b.      Sand

c.       Silt remains

d.      Silt

Question 39: Stain Composition at Residuum W is ______________.

a.      Clay

b.      Sandy remains

c.       Silt loam

d.      Clay loam

 

Question 40: In what residuum (U, V or W) would stains own the largest pore distance, fastest breathe-into change-of-place, diminutiveest cation vary distance (CEC), and poor nutrient availability for introduces?

 

a.      Location U

b.      Location V

c.       Location W

 

You own sound completed Lab Module 11.