Lab 10_soil geography | Geography homework help


LAB 10: SOIL GEOGRAPHY

In this module, you succeed fulfill and expound the geographic disposal, patterns, and processes associated after a while Earth’s stains.

Note: Please apply to the GETTING STARTEDlab module to attain tips on how to set up and maneuver through the Google Earth ( ) constituent of this lab.

KEY TERMS

The subjoined is a roll of weighty words and concepts used in this lab module:

Cation-vary calibre (CEC)

Particle magnitude –sand, explore, dust

Soil make

CLORPT

Pedogenic processes

Soil building

Diagnostic horizon

Pore distance

Soil solution

Eluviation

Soil hue – hue, prize, chroma

Soil Taxonomy

Humus

Soil consistence

Soil matter

Illuviation

Soil horizons - O, A, E, B, C, R

Transpiration

Inorganic representative (matter)

Soil moistity

 

Organic representative (matter)

Soil pH

 

 

LAB MODULES LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be potent to:

·         Identify the primary constituents of stain

·         Explain the contents that bias the product of stain (CLORPT)

·         Identify stain sign and stain train by indication characteristics and subsidence

·         Explain stain makes and stain horizons

·         Recognize stains by matter and hue

·         Describe the geography of stains at contrariant taxonomic razes

INTRODUCTION

This module examines the geography of stain. Topics embrace stain genuss, stain horizons, stain moistity, pH and hue. While these questions may apology to be ill-matched, you succeed attain how they are inherently kindred.

The modules set-on-foot after a while five opportunity questions, or vignettes, which are set in the congenial Google Earth rasp. These vignettes conduct-in basic concepts of the geography of stain. Some of the vignettes entertain animations, videos, or soon catechism that succeed furnish another perspective or visual explication for the question at agency.  After lection the vignette and associated conjoins, apology the subjoined questions. Please voicelessness that some constituents of this lab may transfer a while to download or unreserved, chiefly if you entertain a dull internet intercourse.

 Expand SOIL GEOGRAPHY and then spread the INTRODUCTION folder.

 Read Question 1: The Earth’s Soils.

Question 1: Looking at the map, what is the stain moistity terminology used for countrys after a while proportionately moist weathers and well-exclusive rainfall, where soak moves down through the stain via stain pores, relish that of eastern USA, the United Kingdom, Norway, and eastern China?

a.       Udic

b.      Aridic

c.       Ustic

d.      Perudic

 

 Read Topic 2: Stain Forming Factors

Question 2: Which content – weather, organisms, comfort, composer representative, or season – would concern most universally the stains in mountainous areas?

a.       climate

b.      organisms

c.       relief

d.      composer representative

e.      time

 

 Read Topic 3: Stain Characteristics

Question 3: How are colloids advantageous to inserts (Hint: What can they do that aids inserts)?

a.       Colloids dissipate stain soak for insert use

b.      Colloids embrace discerning ions that leach nutrients from stain

c.       Colloids lodge positively full demeanors to induce nutrients

d.      Colloids await stain nutrients for insert use

 

 Read Topic 4: Stain Horizons

Question 4: The photo relishness professions a vast horizon of accumulated dusts, oxides, and organics. Does this stain prorasp profession a vast O horizon, A horizon, E horizon, B horizon, or C horizon?

a.       0 horizon

b.      A horizon

c.       E horizon

d.      B horizon

e.      C horizon

 

 Read Topic 5: Stain Degradation

Question 5: Reading the map, what is the global rootation of stain in South Africa, the inside country of Madagascar, and the bulk of eastern China?

a.       Very lofty severity

b.      High severity

c.       Moderate severity

d.      Low severity

 

 Collapse and uncheck INTRODUCTION

 

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

In this exception, you succeed fulfill how stains are exclusive at a global flake. Remember, flake is an weighty concept in geography, accordingly some patterns can be seen merely at the global (coarse) flake and not at the topical (fine) flake.

 

 Expand GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE and then click and fine, Soil Taxonomy Map.

Soils are unconcealedly disposeified using their stain makes and other substantial, chemical, and biological characteristics. How they are disposeified, or collectioned into categories, depends on the genus plan used. There are multifarious arrangeatic stain genus plans in the earth, including genus plans from Canada, Russia, China, Germany, Australia, the United States, and the internationally arrangeatic FAO Earth Reference Base for Stain Resources (WRB). For this exception, the stain dispose nomenclature (how stains are stated) is inveterate on the United States genus plan unreserved as the USDA Stain Taxonomy. The induced map plaster professions detail geographic patterns of stain after a while weather and comfort that are palpable at the global flake.

 Double‑click and fine Atlanta. When you reach at your design, adopt the dominant stain dispose for the city. Repeat this for the cherishing questions in this exception.

 

Question 6:  What is the aggravateruling stain dispose for Atlanta, Georgia, USA and the enclosing country?

a.      Ultisols

b.      Vertisols

c.       Spodosols

d.      Oxisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.      Andisols

h.      Aridisols

i.        Mollisols

j.        Alfisols

k.      Inceptisols

l.        Entisols

 Double‑click and fine Bhopal

Question 7:  What is the aggravateruling stain dispose for Bhopal, India and the enclosing country?

a.      Ultisols

b.      Vertisols

c.       Spodosols

d.      Oxisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.      Andisols

h.      Aridisols

i.        Mollisols

j.        Alfisols

k.       Inceptisols

l.        Entisols

 Double‑click and fine Hamar

Question 8:  What is the aggravateruling stain dispose for Hamar, Norway and the enclosing country?

a.      Ultisols

b.      Vertisols

c.       Spodosols

d.      Oxisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.      Andisols

h.      Aridisols

i.        Mollisols

j.        Alfisols

k.       Inceptisols

l.        Entisols

 Double‑click and fine Yaounde

Question 9:  What is the aggravateruling stain dispose for Yaounde, Cameroon and the enclosing country?

a.      Ultisols

b.      Vertisols

c.       Spodosols

d.      Oxisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.      Andisols

h.      Aridisols

i.        Mollisols

j.        Alfisols

k.       Inceptisols

l.        Entisols

 Double‑click and fine Sarawak

Question 10: Sarawak is a Malaysian set-forth located on the Island of Borneo.  The aggravateruling stain dispose for most of Sarawak is the identical as which of the subjoined subsidences?

a.      Yaounde, Cameroon

b.      Hamar, Norway

c.       Bhopal, India

d.      Atlanta, Georgia

 Collapse and uncheck GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

SOIL ORDER

Physical, chemical, and other rare properties aid dispose stains at all razes of taxonomy. Soils are disposeified from the loftyest raze, the stain dispose, down to the meanest raze, the stain train. The razes betwixt stain dispose and stain train are stain suborder, exalted collection, subgroup, and families. The USDA Stain Taxonomy recognizes 12 stain sign, 64 suborders, aggravate 300 exalted collections, and aggravate 20,000 stain train.

The stain dispose raze is weighty at the macro (global) flake, or when unconcealed descriptions of stain are wanted. The stain train raze is weighty at the micro (local) flake, or when inequitable stain descriptions are wanted. At the topical flake, stains are very deep and can alter significantly after a whilein a proportionately narrow area due to contrariant environmental contents. These contents can embrace the steepness of the terrain, the magnitude and hasten of streams, the natural inserts or crops that become on it, the shadow of composer representative (rocks) under it, the age of the stain, and stain restlessness (for issue, courage).

Continue practicing your identification of stain sign at a global flake.

 Expand SOIL ORDER and then click and fine Identification. If you want aid after a while identification, click and fine Information. This conjoin transfers you to The Twelve Stain Sign of Stain Taxonomy web page hosted by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. You can use this to aid you fulfill stains 1 through 12.

Question 11: Soil 1:

Question 12: Soil 2:

Question 13: Soil 3:

Question 14: Soil 4:

Question 15: Soil 5:

Question 16: Soil 6:

Question 17: Soil 7:

Question 18: Soil 8:

Question 19: Soil 9:

Question 20: Soil 10:

Question 21: Soil 11:

Question 22: Soil 12:

<Question 11-22: Pull from the subjoined roll>

a.       Alfisols

b.      Andisols

c.       Aridisols

d.      Entisols

e.      Gelisols

f.        Histosols

g.       Inceptisols

h.      Mollisols

i.         Oxisols

j.        Spodosols

k.       Ultisols

l.         Vertisols

 

SOIL PROFILE

The USDA Stain Taxonomy uses hue, matter, building, and other stain properties of a stain make, measured from the demeanor down to two meters profoundness (NCRS). Natant the stain make, stain horizons are weighty in the identification of the stain dispose and inferior taxonomic razes. Stain horizons at the demeanor are casually unreserved as epipedons. Many stains entertain a indication horizon or other stain characteristics that are rare to that stain and aid to lump them from other stain shadows.

 Expand SOIL PROFILE, and then double‑click and fine Soil Taxonomy Map. Next, double-click and fine Soil 1. In this exception, you succeed observe at six contrariant stain makes. To fulfill each stain dispose, an relishness along after a while CLORPT (CLimate, Organisms, Relief, Parent representative, Time) instruction and indication characteristics are furnishd. After you fulfill the stain dispose, spread the folder and fine and click Location A and Subsidence B to state the most relishly subsidence.

Question 23: What is Stain 1? _____________________

a.      Aridisols

b.      Inceptisols

c.       Ultisols

d.      Vertisols

 

Question 24: This stain dispose is most relishly to be set at or encircling Subsidence A, B, C or D?

a.      Location A

b.      Location B

c.       Location C

d.      Location D

 

Question 25: What is Stain 2? _____________________

a.      Alfisols

b.      Inceptisols

c.       Mollisols

d.      Spodosols

 

Question 26: This stain dispose is most relishly to be set at or encircling Subsidence E, F, G, or H?

a.      Location E

b.      Location F

c.       Location G

d.      Location H

Question 27: What is Stain 3?  _____________________

a.      Alfisols

b.      Gelisols

c.       Histosols

d.      Inceptisols

 

Question 28: This stain dispose is most relishly to be set at or encircling Subsidence I, J, K, or L

a.      Location I

b.      Location J

c.       Location K

d.      Location L

 

Question 29: What is Stain 4? _____________________

a.      Alfisols

b.      Entisols

c.       Oxisols

d.      Ultisols

 

Question 30: This stain dispose is most relishly to be set at or encircling Subsidence M, N, O, or P?

a.      Location M

b.      Location N

c.       Location O

d.      Location P

 

Question 31: What is Stain 5?  _____________________

a.      Alfisols

b.      Histosols

c.       Inceptisols

d.      Spodosols

 

Question 32: This stain dispose is most relishly to be set at or encircling Subsidence Q, R, S, or T?

a.      Location Q

b.      Location R

c.       Location S

d.      Location T

 

SOIL TEXTURE

One sordid substantial stain gear that aids to dispose stains is stain matter. Stain matter is one of the primary things stated for a absorbed stain or stain horizon, and equates to the magnitude of the pcatechism for a absorbed stain. The three referring-to magnitudes of stain pcatechism embrace sand (largest/coarse), silt (medium), and clay (smallest/fine). Most stains embrace a percentage of each of these mite magnitudes. Figure 1 professions the USDA Stain Matter Triangle which states stain matter disposees by percent sand, explore, and dust.

Figure 1. USDA Stain Matter Triangle (NCRS).

 

Use the Stain Matter Triangle to state the stain matter dispose for each of the subjoined issues. Voicelessness that the aggregate for each different (sand, explore, dust) on the Stain Matter Triangle are directionally aligned after a while the associated lines.

Question 33: What is the stain matter dispose for a stain that is 50 percent dust, 30 percent explore, and 20 percent sand?

a.      Silty dust loam

b.      Clay

c.       Loam

d.      Sandy loam

e.      Sandy dust loam

 

Question 34: What is the stain matter dispose for a stain that is 15 percent dust, 45 percent explore, and 40 percent sand?

a.      Silty dust loam

b.      Clay

c.       Loam

d.      Sandy loam

e.      Sandy dust loam

Soil matter can be verified in the province using a matter-by-arrive-at process, a proportionately complimentary finger identification technique in which the coalition of sand (gritty), explore (level and easy), and dust (sticky) are estimated using a train of yes‑no questions. Surprising to some, this mechanical-analysis process to fulfill stains can be loftyly complimentary natant skilled stain scientists.

 Expand SOIL TEXTURE and then click and fine Soil Texture by Feel to vision a video of how this stain matter identification process is stated in the province.

Texture is weighty accordingly it relates to weathering and composer representative. It too plays a role in soak move, and nutrient availability. Finer matters relish dust entertain narrower pore distances lending to duller soak move through the stain, and a proclivity for a loftyer CEC and accordingly amend nutrient availability for inserts.

Question 35: After humectation and kneading the stain, state the steps in stain matter by arrive-at for a dust stain, by tender the indelicate apologys under to attribute in the remake dispose.

a.      Determine the prolixity of the ribbon

b.      Determine if stain can make a ball

c.       Determine if the stain is level or gritty, or neither level nor gritty

d.      Determine if stain can make a ribbon

 

Question 36: You entertain a 3cm ribbon that is very gritty.  What shadow of stain is it?

a.      Sandy loam

b.      Sandy dust loam

c.       Clay loam

d.      Silty dust loam

 Double‑click and fine California Matter Map. To delay the passage, click the X in the top correct recess of the window.

 Double‑click and fine Location U. Repeat for Subsidence V and W.

Based on the Stain Matter Triangle furnishd, and applyring tail to Figure 1, state the near stain matter for each of the subjoined subsidences.

Question 37: Stain Matter at Subsidence U is ______________.

a.      Clay

b.      Loamy sand

c.       Silty loam

d.      Loam

Question 38: Stain Matter at Subsidence V is ______________.

a.      Loam

b.      Sand

c.       Silt dust

d.      Silt

Question 39: Stain Matter at Subsidence W is ______________.

a.      Clay

b.      Sandy dust

c.       Silt loam

d.      Clay loam

 

Question 40: In what subsidence (U, V or W) would stains entertain the largest pore distance, fastest soak move, meanest cation vary calibre (CEC), and scant nutrient availability for inserts?

 

a.      Location U

b.      Location V

c.       Location W

 

You entertain orderly completed Lab Module 11.