Lab 06_ fluvial processes and landscapes


LAB 06: FLUVIAL PROCESSES AND LANDSCAPES

Note: Please apex to the GETTING STARTEDmodule to gather how to maneuver through, and how to retort the lab topics, in the Google Earth () constituent.

KEY TERMS

You should acknowledge and acknowledge the forthcoming expressions:

Alluvial fan

Drainage bisect

Oxbow Lake

Basin

Drainage archetype

Sinuosity

Braided runs

Entrenched bind

Stream send-away

Cutbanks

Hydrograph

Stream direct

Delta

Meandering sublime drift

Watershed

Drainage dullness

Meander scar

 

 

LAB LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be conducive to do the forthcoming tasks:

·         Describe the concepts of sub-basins and impartsheds

·         Identify foulnt cosmical impart uses of a sublime drift

·         Construct a run direct for a sublime drift scheme

·         Compute drainage dullness of a ardent basin

·         Identify drainage archetypes of sublime drift networks

·         Explain how braided sublime drifts and sinuous sublime drifts are contriveed

·         Identify the substantial features spiritnigh to a sinuous sublime drift scheme

·         Describe the substantial stipulations inevitserviceable to contrive alluvial fans

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

This module ponders fluvial processes and attributescapes. Topics apprehend impartsheds, drainage archetypes and densities, run direct, sinuous and braided runs, and alluvial fans. Opportunity these themes may parade to be contrariant, you conquer gather how they are inherently cognate. The modules set-on-foot delay disgusting fissure themes, or vignettes, which are ground in the obligatory Google Earth refine. These vignettes begin basic concepts of fluvial processes and attributescapes. Some of the vignettes entertain exhilarations, videos, or inadequate profession that conquer collect another perspective or visual description for the theme at productionman. After lection the vignette and associated links, retort the forthcoming topics. Please voicelessness that some links command engage a opportunity to downpropel domiciled on your Internet accelerate.

 

 Expandthe INTRODUCTION folder and then picked Theme 1: Introduction

Read Theme 1: Introduction

Question 1: Which of the forthcoming is a argue for the colony pickeded for the leading English colonization in the New World, Jamestown, VA?

A.   Prime unroving attribute

B.   On the direction from the Native Americans

C.   Deep impart port

D.   The attribute was already cleared

Read Theme 2: Rivers of Life

Question 2: If our power to forecast abundances has improved significantly, why does economic privation endure to fuse? (Check all that adduce).

A.   Increased urbanization

B.   Increased population

C.   Increased crop parallel coasts

D.   Increased true rank esteems

Read Theme 3: Rivers of Waste

Question 3: What are virtual outcomes or stipulations resulting from too abundantly nitrogen exoteric off from unroving scopes? (Check all that adduce).

A.   Eutrophication of impart bodies

B.   Decrease in crop production

C.   Contamination of groundwater

D.   Health issues in infants

Read Theme 4: Erosion

Question 4: Catalogue three ways in which cosmicals keep to run bank erosion.

A.   Vegetation disruption

B.   Increase in impermeserviceable demeanors

C.   Wave from boats

D.   Wind enjoyment on laagered banks

Read Theme 5: Conduct and Attraction

Question 5: What collisions do dams entertain on the conduct of dross? Seal all that adduce.

A.   Decrease in dross conduct uprun from dam

B.   Increase in dross conduct downrun from dam

C.   Decrease in dross conduct downrun from dam

D.   Increase in dross conduct uprun from dam

 Collapse and uncheckthe INTRODUCTION folder

For the cherishing factions of this module, you conquer confirm and interpret the geographic division, archetypes, and processes associated delay fluvial environments. In doing so, you conquer acknowledge and prize the collision of sublime drifts.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

 Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder and then open the World Rivers folder. Double‑click and picked any continent or earth tract-of-land. To spread-out sublime drift knowledge (indicate and approach elongation) click any sublime drift in the Google Earth 3-D pane.

 Collapse the World Rivers folder.

 

Major Cities on Rivers

 Expand Major Cities on Rivers.

 For each topic under, archearchelikeness the latitude and longitude coordinates into the Search scope and then encroach Enter. When you extend at your purpose, meet the knowledge that you conquer use to store in the blanks under:

Question 6:         33 18 59 N, 44 23 33 E

City:

A.   Atlanta

B.   Baghdad

C.   Cairo

D.   Dusseldorf

River:

A.   Mississippi

B.   Euphrates

C.   Tigris

D.   Nile

Question 7:         30 03 29 N, 31 14 05 E

City :

A.   Paris

B.   Moscow

C.   Cairo

D.   Shanghai

River:

A.   Ohio

B.   Jordan

C.   Zambesi

D.   Nile

Question 8:         48 51 26 N, 2 21 04 E

City:

A.   London

B.   Madrid

C.   Paris

D.   Buenos Aires

River:

A.   Rio de la Plata

B.   Seine

C.   Thames

D.   Volga

Question 9:Montreal, Canada.

Latitude: A. 45° 30’S  B. 73° 33’N      C. 45° 30’N  D. 73° 33’S

Longitude: A. 45° 30’E  B. 73° 33’N   C. 45° 30’S  D. 73° 33’W

River:

A.   Montreal

B.   St. Lawrence

C.   Hudson

D.   Ottawa

 

 Collapse andunseal the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder

 

 

 

WATERSHEDS AND DRAINAGE DENSITY

 

 Expand the WATERSHEDS AND DRAINAGE DENSITY folder.

A drainage basin is an area of attribute in which a run receives impart, predominately by demeanor runoff, through run, and groundimpart run. Drainage basins are topographically disjoined from each other by the exaltedest apexs of loftiness, so that all impart from the ridges and hills run into a ardent drainage basin and thereby into a ardent run. This topographic project is spiritlessly apexred to as a impartshed (the drainage bisect among two drainage areas), although sundry in the United States use the expression impartshed interchangeably delay drainage basin or catchment.

A sublime drainage basin can inend contrariant smaller drainage basins or sub-basins. The nested probableness of these sub-basins is decided by topography as courteous as wend the impart runs out of the drainage area, acknowledgen as the outrun apex.

In Figure 1, dash-lines A, B, and C demarcate the impartsheds of the auxiliary runs, opportunity dash-extension D delineates the impartshed of a sublimer drainage basin for the sublimer runs, which apprehends the smaller tributaries and their sub-basins.

 

Figure 1. Watershed map (Source: Maidstone Lake USGS 7.5 microscopic map).

Understanding impartsheds are leading consequently run run and impart kind are influenced by the probableness of and shifts in the drainage basin. We can featureize what is happening in our sublime drift basins by examining the impart run and impart kind from a sublime drift’s outrun apex. Changes to impart run or impart kind in sublime drifts could be due to either probserviceable events (such as lightning leading forest fires increasing tarnish erosion) or cosmical modifications (such as unroving practices increasing contamination).

 Double-click and picked Columbia Sublime drift Watershed.

The Columbia Sublime drift impartshed encompasses 258,000 clear miles (closely the dimension of France), delay 220,000 clear miles in the U.S. and 38,000 clear miles in Canada. The elongation of the sublime drift is approachly 1243 miles, making it the 15th longest sublime drift in the United States.

 Unseal Columbia Sublime drift Watershed.

 Check the Columbia Sublime drift Sub-basin US merely folder. Click on each sub-basin in the Google Earth map pane to confirm its indicate.

Question 10: How sundry Columbia Sublime drift sub-basins in the United States are spread-outed on the map?

A.   7

B.   8

C.   9

D.   10

 Unseal Columbia Sublime drift Sub-basin US merely.

 Expand the Columbia Sublime drift Watershed - Fly Over folder.

The Google Earth soaring artifice of the Columbia Sublime drift parades how the basin is a multi-use impartshed. Do the forthcoming steps to attenuate laziness for the period of the artifice:

1.   Unseal all the seal boxes in the Google Earth’s Places and Layers panes.

2.   Check merely the Enconducive this seal box for the outing seal box to spread-out the quotation in the artifice.

3.   Double-click end to estimate the outing (Running Time: 2:06).

 

 When the artifice seals, end the artifice coerce panel:

Question 11: What impart uses did you see as you traveled uprun on the Columbia River? (Check all that adduce).

A.   Agriculture

B.   Flood coerce

C.   Power generation

D.   Recreation

E.   Ranching

 Unseal Columbia Sublime drift Watershed - Fly Over.

 Expand the Stream Orderfolder.

Stream Order

 

Figure 2. Run direct (16.9 Arbogast 2nd. Ed.).

Stream direct is a mete of the dimension of a run domiciled on a hierarchy of tributaries. Using the Strahler run direct direction, the meanest tributaries are assigned the esteem of 1. When two runs delay foulnt direct bulk link, the resulting run is assigned the esteem of the remarkserviceable direct computeed run.

In Figure 2, two runs delay an direct compute of 1 link to contrive a run delay an direct compute of 2. However, when one run delay an direct compute of 1 links a run delay an direct compute of 2, the run scum a 2. Sublime sublime drift schemes typically entertain a remarkserviceable run direct. The Mississippi Sublime drift for amplifyment has a run direct of 10.

The Strahler run direct compute for a ardent run is resting on the layer as which one estimates a run network. A run delay an direct compute of 3 on a 1:24,000 map, for amplifyment, command entertain an direct compute of 1 on a 1:1,000,000 layer map, as fewer sublime drifts are spread-outed on a smaller layer map.

 Double-click and picked the Willamette River folder.

In this feature map, the Willamette Sublime drift has a Strahler run direct of 5. Though not all runs are labeled delay their direct, you should be conducive to featureize how the run directing scheme productions. You command entertain to zoom in to see the labels explicitly.

 Double-click and picked the Snake River folder.

For Questions 12 to 15, confirm the run direct compute for sublime drifts A, B, C, and D:

Question 12: Sublime drift A:

A.   1

B.   2

C.   3

D.   4

 

Question 13: Sublime drift B:

A.   1

B.   2

C.   3

D.   4

 

Question 14: Sublime drift C:

A.   1

B.   2

C.   3

D.   4

 

Question 15: Sublime drift D:

A.   1

B.   2

C.   3

D.   4

 

 Unseal the Stream Order folder.

 

 

Stream Density

 Double-click and picked the Stream Density folder.

 

Figure 3. Drainage basins (16.8 Arbogast 2nd. Ed.).

Notice the two sub-basins that are exaltedlighted. The smaller one is the Willamette Sublime drift impartshed and the sublimer one is the Snake Sublime drift impartshed. The drainage dullness of a basin metes how courteous a impartshed is drained and halts sublimely on the underlying bedrock and topography of the basin. Basins delay exalted remedy and laagered bedrock keep to entertain a remarkserviceable drainage dullness.

Use the forthcoming contriveula to sum the run dullness of each sub-basin (parade your production):

 

In other say, the [drainage dullness] equals the [sum elongation of all runs] disjoined by the [area of the drainage basin]

 Double-click and picked Snake All Streams.

 Double-click and picked Willamette All Streams.

Willamette Sublime drift impartshed:

  • The area of the Willamette Sublime drift sub-basin is 11,500 clear miles.
  • The sum elongation of all runs in the Willamette Sublime drift sub-basin is 12,800 miles.

Question 16: What is the run dullness of the Willamette Sublime drift sub-basin?         

 

A.   12800 / 11500 = 1.11

B.   11500 / 12800 = 0.90

C.   12800 / 11500 = 1.43

D.   11500 / 12800 = 0.95

 

Snake Sublime drift impartshed:

  • The area of the Snake Sublime drift sub-basin is 108,000 clear miles.
  • The sum elongation of all runs in the Snake Sublime drift sub-basin is 138,000 miles.

Question 17: What is the run dullness of the Snake Sublime drift sub-basin?

 

A.   108000 / 138000 = 0.78

B.   138000 / 108000 = 1.28

C.   108000 / 138000 = 0.83

D.   138000 / 108000 = 1.48

 Collapse and unseal WATERSHEDS AND DRAINAGE DENSITY folder.

 

DRAINAGE PATTERNS

 Expand the DRAINAGE PATTERNS folder.

 

Figure 4. Drainage archetypes (16.7 Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

The drainage archetypes of a run scheme (a netproduction of runs and tributaries) halt sublimely on the topography on the attribute as courteous as the building of the underlying bedrock. Areas topic to faulting repeatedly fruit rectangular drainage archetypes, opportunity areas delay furled topography (mountains) repeatedly entertain trellis drainage archetypes. Volcanoes typically contrive radial drainage archetypes. Dendritic drainage archetypes are spiritnigh in areas delay non-porous, impermeconducive bedrock.

 

 Double-click and picked Drainage archelikeness 1.

Question 18: Confirm Drainage archelikeness 1:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

Now that you entertain signed Drainage archelikeness 1, double-click and picked drainage archetypes 2 to 5 to confirm them.

Question 19: Identify Drainage archelikeness 2:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

Question 20: Identify Drainage archelikeness 3:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

Question 21: Identify Drainage archelikeness 4:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

Question 22: Identify Drainage archelikeness 5:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

 

 Collapse andunseal the DRAINAGE PATTERNS folder
BRAIDED STREAMS

 Double-click and picked the BRAIDED STREAMS folder.

Fast tender runs originating from mountainous smooth areas or tract-of-lands delay an plenty of erodible dross, repeatedly enravishment sublime quantities of unpolished embodied such as sand and gravel delayin the deed. As the run celerity decreases (topography becomes nigh hilly) notwithstanding, the send-away is inadequate and the run can no longer push the dross propel. In substance, the deposited bed propel contrives bars (or eyots) delayin the run deed, forcing run deed to foul and contribute discurrent the deposits. These forever variation deeds delayin the sublimer sublime drift deed are what yield the run its braided paradeance.

The Delta Sublime drift is an amplifyment of a braided run nigh the town of Delta Junction, Alaska. Regard the netproduction of liberal yet unprofound run deeds that foul and contribute, disjoined by bars of deposited bed propel.

Question 23: Domiciled on the colony and the attraction archetype, interpret why this run contrives a braided archetype.

A.   The hilly climb of the sublime drift media that impart runs faster and can extensively levigate out a rotation of deeds contriveing a braided run

B.   The slack runing sublime drift media that not abundantly dross can be carried by the impart and hereafter, the propel is deposited contriveing a braided run

C.   The deeds are quiescent and it is the sublime drift that moves, thus creating a braided paradeance.

D.   The hilly topography media the sublime drift is quiescent and it is the deeds that are forever variation, contriveing a braided run

 

Question 24: Wend does the dross (attraction embodied) after from?

A.   The dross is in-effect in attribute and is not enravishmented. It is merely solicitous by the sublime drift, which contrives bars of deposited bed propel

B.   The dross was in-effect deposited uprun by sinuous sublime drifts and balance duration headward erosion by the sublime drift maked the braided run

C.   The dross is from smooth erosion that is carried downrun by runs from the limpid glacier

D.   The dross is finely as as as sorted from uprun weathering and erosion of loess deposits

 Unseal BRAIDED STREAMS
MEANDERING STREAMS AND FLOODPLAINS

 Expand the MEANDERING STREAMS AND FLOODPLAINS folder.

In opposition to braided runs, sinuous runs are contriveed in attributescapes delay scanty remedy, are generally slacker tender, and push finer drosss. In conjunction, impart run delayin sinuous run typically is unyielding to a uncombined deed. As their indicate suggests, sinuous runs are identificonducive by their sinuosity, or the tends and turns of the run deed counter a abundanceplain. The bind of the deed occurs delay the scouring of the deed on the beyond of the tend (wend run is faster) and attraction on the after a whilein of the tend (wend run is slacker). This fixed erosion or disruption of dross from cutbanks and attraction of dross from apex bars fruits the shift-of-place of the bind counter the attributescape, delay gone-by binds clear from oxbow lakes and bind scars.

 Click Stream Process Animation and estimate the exhilaration.

Erosion and attraction occurs principally during periods of abundanceing. Sundry sublime drifts are apt to abundanceing, delay some sublime abundanceing events changing the direction of the run deed (by bypassing the bind in-one and pliant a rectilinear extend). Opportunity probserviceable or deceptive levees command obstruct a run from abundanceing, sublime abundance events adjust levees, delay impart and its projecting dross spilling balance the levees and depositing onto the embracing abundanceplain.

 Double-click and picked Mississippi Sublime drift - Confirm Features.

 

 

 

Using the forthcoming catalogue of sinuous run features, retort Questions 25 to 29 that adduce to the Mississippi Sublime drift map idea in Google Earth.

A.    Oxbow Lake

B.    Point bar

C.    Meander scar

D.   Outside of bind

E.     Isattribute

F.    Inside of bind

G.   Deep deed (thalweg)

H.    Shrecognize deed

I.     Floodplain

J.     Low ground

K.    Cut bank

 

 

Question 25: Run Feature A:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of bind

E.   Isattribute

F.    Inside of bind

G.   Deep deed (thalweg)

H.   Shrecognize deed

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 26:Stream Feature B:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of bind

E.   Isattribute

F.    Inside of bind

G.   Deep deed (thalweg)

H.   Shrecognize deed

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 27:Stream Feature C:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of bind

E.   Isattribute

F.    Inside of bind

G.   Deep deed (thalweg)

H.   Shrecognize deed

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 28: Run Feature D:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of bind

E.   Isattribute

F.    Inside of bind

G.   Deep deed (thalweg)

H.   Shrecognize deed

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 29: Run Feature E:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of bind

E.   Isattribute

F.    Inside of bind

G.   Deep deed (thalweg)

H.   Shrecognize deed

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 30: Identify the dominant attribute uses embracing the sublime drift.

A.   Agriculture

B.   Mining

C.   Forestry

D.   Urban

E.   Fishing

 

 Double-click and picked Mississippi Sublime drift - Mete Distance.

Do the forthcoming steps to ponder sublime drift deviation.

1     Verify that Mississippi Sublime drift - Measure Distance is the merely ace sealed in the Places pane.

2     Go to the Google Earth icon bar and click the Show Ruler dupe .
Note: Verify that the artifice coerce panel is endd:

3    

Figure 2. Run separation (idea from Google Earth).

In the Supporter window, click the Path tab and picked Miles for the units.

4     Draw a rectilinear extension among the two apexs; that is, click apex  and then click apex  to featureize the separation. This is the downvalley elongation.

5     Click Clear on the Supporter window to seal.

Question 31: What is the elongation, in miles, of the deed?

A.   29

B.   16

C.   38

D.   47

Measure the separation of the deed (the bind):

1     In the Supporter window, click the Path tab and set the units to Miles.

2     Click apex  and click you as track the trackwayway of the sublime drift until you get to apex . This is the deed elongation. Figure 7 parades an amplifyment of how your trackwayway command parade.

Question 32: What is the elongation, in miles, of the deed?

A.   29

B.   16

C.   38

D.   47

 

The deviation abjuration (SI), besides acknowledgen as the bind harmony, sums how abundantly the run deed deviates from the inadequateest trackway. Rectilinear sublime drifts entertain a SI end to 1, but this compute increases the over a sublime drift binds.

 

Question 33: Use the forthcoming contriveula to sum the SI for this extend of the Mississippi River:

 

 

In other say, the [deviation abjuration] equals the [deed elongation] disjoined by the [downvalley elongation].

 

A.   16 / 37 = 0.42

B.   47 / 29 = 1.62

C.   38 / 16 = 2.38

D.   38 / 29 = 1.31

 Close the supporter dupe. Unseal Mississippi Sublime drift - Mete Distance.

 Double-click and picked San Juan Sublime drift - Assimilate Features.

The San Juan Sublime drift is another sinuous run, yet we do not see the chaste oxbow lakes and sinuous scars we saw delay the Mississippi River.

Question 34: Compute the SI of the San Juan Sublime drift from apex A to apex B.

A.   20 / 4 = 5.0

B.   6 / 10 = 0.60

C.   6 / 2 = 3.0

D.   8.5 / 3 = 2.83

Question 35: Which sublime drift (Mississippi Sublime drift or San Juan River) has a remarkserviceable SI?

A.   Mississippi River

B.   San Juan River

C.   They entertain the same

D.   Unconducive to discern

 

 Use the forthcoming navigation steps to ponder the terrain:

  1. Press and trust the Shift key (PC and Mac).
  2. Use the scroll trundle-wrecognize on the mouse to see the attributescape in 3D. You can besides use the Ctrl (Command key for Mac) or Shift keys in league delay the arrow keys to pivot and circulate the idea.

Question 36: Interpret why keep are no chaste oxbow lakes or bind scars.

A.   They entertain been storeed in by drosss from the sublime drift

B.   The embracing embodied is too delicate to recognize for their creation

C.   The embracing embodied is too arduous to recognize for their creation

D.   The sublime drift is downcutting faster than it can shift direction

 

 Collapse and unseal MEANDERING STREAMS AND FLOODPLAINS
ALLUVIAL FANS

 

 Expand the ALLUVIAL FANS folder. Double-click and picked Alluvial Fan.

 

Alluvial fans are comprised of impart-delighted embodied or alluvium. Most alluvial fans be principally of unpolished grained embodied. In Death Valley, California, regard the rotation of alluvial fans.

 

 Do the forthcoming steps to get a rectify estimate of the attributescape and to discuss the topography:

1     Check the Nova Canyon 7.5 microscopic map seal box and assimilate the conouting extensions on the alluvial fan to those conouting extensions on the northeast faction of the map. This compel engage a few microscopics, halting on your Internet unarm-an accelerate.

 

2     Zoom in to the Death Valley tract-of-land.

3     To see the attributescape in 3D:

PC: Encroach and trust the Shift key and use the scroll dot on the mouse. You can besides use the Ctrl or Shift keys in league delay the arrow keys to pivot and circulate the idea.

Mac: Encroach Shift in league delay the up and down arrows. You can besides use the mouse scroll trundle-wrecognize to zoom.

 

Question 37: What geographic and topographic attribute features are inevitserviceable to make alluvial fans? Hint: Wend are the fans located substantially as courteous as what features are required to amplify them?

 

A.   Humid, even attributescapes

B.   Arid, hilly attributescapes

C.   Humid, hilly attributescapes

D.   Arid, even attributescapes

 

 

This concludes Module 16