Lab 06_ fluvial processes and landscapes


LAB 06: FLUVIAL PROCESSES AND LANDSCAPES

Note: Please appeal to the GETTING STARTEDmodule to imbibe how to maneuver through, and how to reply the lab doubts, in the Google Earth () factor.

KEY TERMS

You should perceive and know the forthcoming engagements:

Alluvial fan

Drainage part

Oxbow Lake

Basin

Drainage plan

Sinuosity

Braided drifts

Entrenched twist

Stream liberate

Cutbanks

Hydrograph

Stream appoint

Delta

Meandering capacious drift

Watershed

Drainage dullness

Meander scar

 

 

LAB LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After successfully completing this module, you should be talented to do the forthcoming tasks:

·         Describe the concepts of sub-basins and infiltratesheds

·         Identify incongruous anthropological infiltrate uses of a capacious drift

·         Construct a drift aptop for a capacious drift regularity

·         Compute drainage dullness of a attached basin

·         Identify drainage plans of capacious drift networks

·         Explain how braided capacious drifts and anfractuous capacious drifts are deviseed

·         Identify the visible features contemptible to a anfractuous capacious drift regularity

·         Describe the visible stipulations compulsory to devise alluvial fans

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

This module studys fluvial processes and fixscapes. Topics include infiltratesheds, drainage plans and densities, drift appoint, anfractuous and braided drifts, and alluvial fans. Occasion these topics may parade to be ill-matched, you earn imbibe how they are inherently allied. The modules set-on-foot delay indelicate start topics, or vignettes, which are plant in the obligatory Google Earth polish. These vignettes bring-in basic concepts of fluvial processes and fixscapes. Some of the vignettes bear brisknesss, videos, or deficient articles that earn prepare another perspective or visual interpretation for the topic at artisan. After balbutiation the vignette and associated links, reply the forthcoming doubts. Please still n ess that some links effectiveness chosen a occasion to downimpute based on your Internet urge.

 

 Expandthe INTRODUCTION folder and then chosen Topic 1: Introduction

Read Topic 1: Introduction

Question 1: Which of the forthcoming is a debate for the dregs chosened for the primeval English residuum in the New World, Jamestown, VA?

A.   Prime urban fix

B.   On the counsel from the Native Americans

C.   Deep infiltrate port

D.   The fix was already cleared

Read Topic 2: Rivers of Life

Question 2: If our force to prophesy deluges has improved significantly, why does economic dropping endure to stir? (Check all that dedicate).

A.   Increased urbanization

B.   Increased population

C.   Increased harvest along coasts

D.   Increased genuine plants esteems

Read Topic 3: Rivers of Waste

Question 3: What are virtual outcomes or stipulations resulting from too abundantly nitrogen popular off from urban scenes? (Check all that dedicate).

A.   Eutrophication of infiltrate bodies

B.   Decrease in product production

C.   Contamination of groundwater

D.   Health issues in infants

Read Topic 4: Erosion

Question 4: Register three ways in which anthropologicals co-operate to drift bank erosion.

A.   Vegetation removal

B.   Increase in impercolcogent manners

C.   Wave from boats

D.   Wind force on defensesuspend banks

Read Topic 5: Behavior and Token

Question 5: What impressions do dams bear on the behavior of residuum? Bridle all that dedicate.

A.   Decrease in residuum behavior updrift from dam

B.   Increase in residuum behavior downdrift from dam

C.   Decrease in residuum behavior downdrift from dam

D.   Increase in residuum behavior updrift from dam

 Collapse and uncheckthe INTRODUCTION folder

For the fostering shares of this module, you earn realize and decipher the geographic arrangement, plans, and processes associated delay fluvial environments. In doing so, you earn avow and esteem the impression of capacious drifts.

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

 Expand the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder and then spread the World Rivers folder. Double‑click and chosen any continent or globe share. To expose capacious drift instruction (call and resemble extension) click any capacious drift in the Google Earth 3-D pane.

 Collapse the World Rivers folder.

 

Major Cities on Rivers

 Expand Major Cities on Rivers.

 For each doubt underneath, likeness the latitude and longitude coordinates into the Search scene and then urge Enter. When you follow-to at your consignment, invent the instruction that you earn use to gorge in the blanks underneath:

Question 6:         33 18 59 N, 44 23 33 E

City:

A.   Atlanta

B.   Baghdad

C.   Cairo

D.   Dusseldorf

River:

A.   Mississippi

B.   Euphrates

C.   Tigris

D.   Nile

Question 7:         30 03 29 N, 31 14 05 E

City :

A.   Paris

B.   Moscow

C.   Cairo

D.   Shanghai

River:

A.   Ohio

B.   Jordan

C.   Zambesi

D.   Nile

Question 8:         48 51 26 N, 2 21 04 E

City:

A.   London

B.   Madrid

C.   Paris

D.   Buenos Aires

River:

A.   Rio de la Plata

B.   Seine

C.   Thames

D.   Volga

Question 9:Montreal, Canada.

Latitude: A. 45° 30’S  B. 73° 33’N      C. 45° 30’N  D. 73° 33’S

Longitude: A. 45° 30’E  B. 73° 33’N   C. 45° 30’S  D. 73° 33’W

River:

A.   Montreal

B.   St. Lawrence

C.   Hudson

D.   Ottawa

 

 Collapse andunbridle the GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE folder

 

 

 

WATERSHEDS AND DRAINAGE DENSITY

 

 Expand the WATERSHEDS AND DRAINAGE DENSITY folder.

A drainage basin is an area of fix in which a drift receives infiltrate, predominately by manner runoff, through progress, and groundinfiltrate progress. Drainage basins are topographically disjoined from each other by the first tops of improvement, so that all infiltrate from the ridges and hills progress into a attached drainage basin and thereby into a attached drift. This topographic artifice is contemptiblely appealred to as a infiltrateshed (the drainage part betwixt two drainage areas), although abundant in the United States use the engagement infiltrateshed interchangeably delay drainage basin or catchment.

A capacious drainage basin can arrest separate smaller drainage basins or sub-basins. The nested nature of these sub-basins is established by topography as polite as warrest the infiltrate progresss out of the drainage area, perceiven as the outprogress top.

In Figure 1, dash-lines A, B, and C demarcate the infiltratesheds of the subordinate drifts, occasion dash-thread D delineates the infiltrateshed of a capaciousr drainage basin for the capaciousr drifts, which includes the smaller tributaries and their sub-basins.

 

Figure 1. Watershed map (Source: Maidstone Lake USGS 7.5 specific map).

Understanding infiltratesheds are grave accordingly drift progress and infiltrate virtue are influenced by the nature of and modifys in the drainage basin. We can designate what is happening in our capacious drift basins by examining the infiltrate progress and infiltrate virtue from a capacious drift’s outprogress top. Changes to infiltrate progress or infiltrate virtue in capacious drifts could be due to either pauseent events (such as lightning ascititious forest fires increasing begrime erosion) or anthropological modifications (such as urban practices increasing soilure).

 Double-click and chosen Columbia Capacious drift Watershed.

The Columbia Capacious drift infiltrateshed encompasses 258,000 clear miles (approximately the dimension of France), delay 220,000 clear miles in the U.S. and 38,000 clear miles in Canada. The extension of the capacious drift is resemblely 1243 miles, making it the 15th longest capacious drift in the United States.

 Unbridle Columbia Capacious drift Watershed.

 Check the Columbia Capacious drift Sub-basin US solely folder. Click on each sub-basin in the Google Earth map pane to realize its call.

Question 10: How abundant Columbia Capacious drift sub-basins in the United States are exposeed on the map?

A.   7

B.   8

C.   9

D.   10

 Unbridle Columbia Capacious drift Sub-basin US solely.

 Expand the Columbia Capacious drift Watershed - Fly Over folder.

The Google Earth dispretense airs of the Columbia Capacious drift parades how the basin is a multi-use infiltrateshed. Do the forthcoming steps to subjugate indistinctness for the continuance of the airs:

1.   Unbridle all the bridle boxes in the Google Earth’s Places and Layers panes.

2.   Check solely the Entalented this bridle box for the turn bridle box to expose the passage in the airs.

3.   Double-click arrest to aspect the turn (Running Time: 2:06).

 

 When the airs seals, arrest the airs curb panel:

Question 11: What infiltrate uses did you see as you traveled updrift on the Columbia River? (Check all that dedicate).

A.   Agriculture

B.   Flood curb

C.   Power generation

D.   Recreation

E.   Ranching

 Unbridle Columbia Capacious drift Watershed - Fly Over.

 Expand the Stream Orderfolder.

Stream Order

 

Figure 2. Drift aptop (16.9 Arbogast 2nd. Ed.).

Stream appoint is a appraise of the dimension of a drift based on a hierarchy of tributaries. Using the Strahler drift aptop mode, the smallest tributaries are assigned the esteem of 1. When two drifts delay incongruous aptop aggregate accompany, the resulting drift is assigned the esteem of the surpassing aptop proportioned drift.

In Figure 2, two drifts delay an aptop proshare of 1 accompany to devise a drift delay an aptop proshare of 2. However, when one drift delay an aptop proshare of 1 accompanys a drift delay an aptop proshare of 2, the drift dregs a 2. Capacious capacious drift regularitys typically bear a surpassing drift appoint. The Mississippi Capacious drift for model has a drift aptop of 10.

The Strahler drift aptop proshare for a attached drift is contingent on the layer as which one aspects a drift network. A drift delay an aptop proshare of 3 on a 1:24,000 map, for model, effectiveness bear an aptop proshare of 1 on a 1:1,000,000 layer map, as fewer capacious drifts are exposeed on a smaller layer map.

 Double-click and chosen the Willamette River folder.

In this feature map, the Willamette Capacious drift has a Strahler drift aptop of 5. Though not all drifts are labeled delay their appoint, you should be talented to designate how the drift appointing regularity effects. You effectiveness bear to zoom in to see the labels perspicuously.

 Double-click and chosen the Snake River folder.

For Questions 12 to 15, realize the drift aptop proshare for capacious drifts A, B, C, and D:

Question 12: Capacious drift A:

A.   1

B.   2

C.   3

D.   4

 

Question 13: Capacious drift B:

A.   1

B.   2

C.   3

D.   4

 

Question 14: Capacious drift C:

A.   1

B.   2

C.   3

D.   4

 

Question 15: Capacious drift D:

A.   1

B.   2

C.   3

D.   4

 

 Unbridle the Stream Order folder.

 

 

Stream Density

 Double-click and chosen the Stream Density folder.

 

Figure 3. Drainage basins (16.8 Arbogast 2nd. Ed.).

Notice the two sub-basins that are talllighted. The smaller one is the Willamette Capacious drift infiltrateshed and the capaciousr one is the Snake Capacious drift infiltrateshed. The drainage dullness of a basin appraises how polite a infiltrateshed is drained and depends capaciously on the underlying bedrock and topography of the basin. Basins delay tall assistance and defensesuspend bedrock guard to bear a surpassing drainage dullness.

Use the forthcoming deviseula to proshare the drift dullness of each sub-basin (parade your effect):

 

In other language, the [drainage dullness] equals the [entirety extension of all drifts] disjoined by the [area of the drainage basin]

 Double-click and chosen Snake All Streams.

 Double-click and chosen Willamette All Streams.

Willamette Capacious drift infiltrateshed:

  • The area of the Willamette Capacious drift sub-basin is 11,500 clear miles.
  • The entirety extension of all drifts in the Willamette Capacious drift sub-basin is 12,800 miles.

Question 16: What is the drift dullness of the Willamette Capacious drift sub-basin?         

 

A.   12800 / 11500 = 1.11

B.   11500 / 12800 = 0.90

C.   12800 / 11500 = 1.43

D.   11500 / 12800 = 0.95

 

Snake Capacious drift infiltrateshed:

  • The area of the Snake Capacious drift sub-basin is 108,000 clear miles.
  • The entirety extension of all drifts in the Snake Capacious drift sub-basin is 138,000 miles.

Question 17: What is the drift dullness of the Snake Capacious drift sub-basin?

 

A.   108000 / 138000 = 0.78

B.   138000 / 108000 = 1.28

C.   108000 / 138000 = 0.83

D.   138000 / 108000 = 1.48

 Collapse and unbridle WATERSHEDS AND DRAINAGE DENSITY folder.

 

DRAINAGE PATTERNS

 Expand the DRAINAGE PATTERNS folder.

 

Figure 4. Drainage plans (16.7 Arbogast 2nd Ed.).

The drainage plans of a drift regularity (a neteffect of drifts and tributaries) depend capaciously on the topography on the fix as polite as the constituency of the underlying bedrock. Areas topic to faulting frequently result rectangular drainage plans, occasion areas delay furled topography (mountains) frequently bear trellis drainage plans. Volcanoes typically devise radial drainage plans. Dendritic drainage plans are contemptible in areas delay non-porous, impermetalented bedrock.

 

 Double-click and chosen Drainage plan 1.

Question 18: Realize Drainage plan 1:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

Now that you bear attested Drainage plan 1, double-click and chosen drainage plans 2 to 5 to realize them.

Question 19: Identify Drainage plan 2:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

Question 20: Identify Drainage plan 3:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

Question 21: Identify Drainage plan 4:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

Question 22: Identify Drainage plan 5:

A.   Radial

B.   Trellis

C.   Rectangular

D.   Dendritic

 

 Collapse andunbridle the DRAINAGE PATTERNS folder
BRAIDED STREAMS

 Double-click and chosen the BRAIDED STREAMS folder.

Fast tender drifts originating from mountainous glassy areas or shares delay an plenty of erodible residuum, frequently ecstasy immense quantities of vulgar embodied such as sand and gravel delayin the machine. As the drift swiftness decreases (topography becomes suspend inaccessible) ultimately, the liberate is scant and the drift can no longer heave the residuum impute. In nature, the deposited bed impute devises bars (or eyots) delayin the drift machine, forcing drift machine to mix and coincide natant the deposits. These continually variation machines delayin the capaciousr capacious drift machine are what yield the drift its braided paradeance.

The Delta Capacious drift is an model of a braided drift adjacent the town of Delta Junction, Alaska. Give-heed-to the neteffect of wide yet trifling drift machines that mix and coincide, disconnected by bars of deposited bed impute.

Question 23: Based on the dregs and the token likeness, decipher why this drift devises a braided plan.

A.   The inaccessible float of the capacious drift resources that infiltrate progresss faster and can easily model out a sequence of machines deviseing a braided drift

B.   The tedious progressing capacious drift resources that not abundantly residuum can be carried by the infiltrate and future, the impute is deposited deviseing a braided drift

C.   The machines are unalterable and it is the capacious drift that moves, thus creating a braided paradeance.

D.   The inaccessible topography resources the capacious drift is unalterable and it is the machines that are continually variation, deviseing a braided drift

 

Question 24: Warrest does the residuum (token embodied) follow from?

A.   The residuum is in-effect in settle and is not ecstasyed. It is barely disturbed by the capacious drift, which devises bars of deposited bed impute

B.   The residuum was in-effect deposited updrift by anfractuous capacious drifts and balance spell headward erosion by the capacious drift inventd the braided drift

C.   The residuum is from glassy erosion that is carried downdrift by drifts from the mellifluous glacier

D.   The residuum is finely distributed from updrift weathering and erosion of loess deposits

 Unbridle BRAIDED STREAMS
MEANDERING STREAMS AND FLOODPLAINS

 Expand the MEANDERING STREAMS AND FLOODPLAINS folder.

In opposition to braided drifts, anfractuous drifts are deviseed in fixscapes delay small assistance, are generally tediouser tender, and heave finer residuums. In analysis, infiltrate progress delayin anfractuous drift typically is stubborn to a uncombined machine. As their call suggests, anfractuous drifts are identifitalented by their sinuosity, or the directs and turns of the drift machine aggravate a delugeplain. The twist of the machine occurs delay the scouring of the machine on the after a whileout of the direct (warrest progress is faster) and token on the internally of the direct (warrest progress is tediouser). This trustworthy erosion or removal of residuum from cutbanks and token of residuum from top bars results the modify-of-place of the twist aggravate the fixscape, delay elapsed twists indisputable from oxbow lakes and twist scars.

 Click Stream Process Animation and aspect the briskness.

Erosion and token occurs chiefly during periods of delugeing. Abundant capacious drifts are bent to delugeing, delay some capacious delugeing events changing the succession of the drift machine (by bypassing the twist in-one and supple a rectilinear attain). Occasion pauseent or deceptive levees effectiveness neutralize a drift from delugeing, capacious deluge events compose levees, delay infiltrate and its projecting residuum spilling balance the levees and depositing onto the embracing delugeplain.

 Double-click and chosen Mississippi Capacious drift - Realize Features.

 

 

 

Using the forthcoming register of anfractuous drift features, reply Questions 25 to 29 that dedicate to the Mississippi Capacious drift map likeness in Google Earth.

A.    Oxbow Lake

B.    Point bar

C.    Meander scar

D.   Outside of twist

E.     Isfix

F.    Inside of twist

G.   Deep machine (thalweg)

H.    Shsanction machine

I.     Floodplain

J.     Low ground

K.    Cut bank

 

 

Question 25: Drift Feature A:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of twist

E.   Isfix

F.    Inside of twist

G.   Deep machine (thalweg)

H.   Shsanction machine

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 26:Stream Feature B:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of twist

E.   Isfix

F.    Inside of twist

G.   Deep machine (thalweg)

H.   Shsanction machine

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 27:Stream Feature C:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of twist

E.   Isfix

F.    Inside of twist

G.   Deep machine (thalweg)

H.   Shsanction machine

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 28: Drift Feature D:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of twist

E.   Isfix

F.    Inside of twist

G.   Deep machine (thalweg)

H.   Shsanction machine

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 29: Drift Feature E:

A.   Oxbow lake

B.   Point bar

C.   Meander scar

D.   Outside of twist

E.   Isfix

F.    Inside of twist

G.   Deep machine (thalweg)

H.   Shsanction machine

I.     Floodplain

J.    Low ground

K.   Cut bank

 

Question 30: Identify the dominant fix uses embracing the capacious drift.

A.   Agriculture

B.   Mining

C.   Forestry

D.   Urban

E.   Fishing

 

 Double-click and chosen Mississippi Capacious drift - Appraise Distance.

Do the forthcoming steps to study capacious drift derangement.

1     Verify that Mississippi Capacious drift - Measure Distance is the solely individual bridleed in the Places pane.

2     Go to the Google Earth icon bar and click the Show Ruler dupe .
Note: Verify that the airs curb panel is arrestd:

3    

Figure 2. Drift interval (likeness from Google Earth).

In the Ruler window, click the Path tab and chosen Miles for the units.

4     Draw a rectilinear thread betwixt the two tops; that is, click top  and then click top  to designate the interval. This is the downvalley extension.

5     Click Clear on the Ruler window to seal.

Question 31: What is the extension, in miles, of the machine?

A.   29

B.   16

C.   38

D.   47

Measure the interval of the machine (the twist):

1     In the Ruler window, click the Path tab and set the units to Miles.

2     Click top  and click you as investigate the method of the capacious drift until you get to top . This is the machine extension. Figure 7 parades an model of how your method effectiveness parade.

Question 32: What is the extension, in miles, of the machine?

A.   29

B.   16

C.   38

D.   47

 

The derangement apostacy (SI), as-well-mannered perceiven as the twist relevancy, proportions how abundantly the drift machine deviates from the deficientest method. Rectilinear capacious drifts bear a SI arrest to 1, but this proshare increases the past a capacious drift twists.

 

Question 33: Use the forthcoming deviseula to proshare the SI for this attain of the Mississippi River:

 

 

In other language, the [derangement apostacy] equals the [machine extension] disjoined by the [downvalley extension].

 

A.   16 / 37 = 0.42

B.   47 / 29 = 1.62

C.   38 / 16 = 2.38

D.   38 / 29 = 1.31

 Close the ruler dupe. Unbridle Mississippi Capacious drift - Appraise Distance.

 Double-click and chosen San Juan Capacious drift - Assimilate Features.

The San Juan Capacious drift is another anfractuous drift, yet we do not see the graceful oxbow lakes and anfractuous scars we saw delay the Mississippi River.

Question 34: Compute the SI of the San Juan Capacious drift from top A to top B.

A.   20 / 4 = 5.0

B.   6 / 10 = 0.60

C.   6 / 2 = 3.0

D.   8.5 / 3 = 2.83

Question 35: Which capacious drift (Mississippi Capacious drift or San Juan River) has a surpassing SI?

A.   Mississippi River

B.   San Juan River

C.   They bear the same

D.   Untalented to discern

 

 Use the forthcoming navigation steps to study the terrain:

  1. Press and arrest the Shift key (PC and Mac).
  2. Use the scroll wheel on the mouse to see the fixscape in 3D. You can as-well-mannered use the Ctrl (Command key for Mac) or Shift keys in association delay the arrow keys to pivot and hang the likeness.

Question 36: Decipher why tarrest are no graceful oxbow lakes or twist scars.

A.   They bear been gorgeed in by residuums from the capacious drift

B.   The embracing embodied is too delicate to sanction for their creation

C.   The embracing embodied is too arduous to sanction for their creation

D.   The capacious drift is downcutting faster than it can modify succession

 

 Collapse and unbridle MEANDERING STREAMS AND FLOODPLAINS
ALLUVIAL FANS

 

 Expand the ALLUVIAL FANS folder. Double-click and chosen Alluvial Fan.

 

Alluvial fans are included of infiltrate-delighted embodied or alluvium. Most alluvial fans pause chiefly of vulgar grained embodied. In Death Valley, California, give-heed-to the sequence of alluvial fans.

 

 Do the forthcoming steps to get a reform aspect of the fixscape and to inspect the topography:

1     Check the Nova Canyon 7.5 specific map bridle box and assimilate the conturn threads on the alluvial fan to those conturn threads on the northeast share of the map. This find chosen a few specifics, depending on your Internet communication urge.

 

2     Zoom in to the Death Valley share.

3     To see the fixscape in 3D:

PC: Urge and arrest the Shift key and use the scroll dot on the mouse. You can as-well-mannered use the Ctrl or Shift keys in association delay the arrow keys to pivot and hang the likeness.

Mac: Urge Shift in association delay the up and down arrows. You can as-well-mannered use the mouse scroll wheel to zoom.

 

Question 37: What geographic and topographic fix features are compulsory to invent alluvial fans? Hint: Warrest are the fans located visiblely as polite as what features are required to disclose them?

 

A.   Humid, horizontal fixscapes

B.   Arid, inaccessible fixscapes

C.   Humid, inaccessible fixscapes

D.   Arid, horizontal fixscapes

 

 

This concludes Module 16