1. (question a1, figure 2.7) according to the continental geothermal


1. (Question A1, Symbol 2.7) According to the continental geothermal gradient, hurls buried 80 km adown a continent would normally be hot to what clime?

At 80 km profoundness, hurls conciliate be hot to environing _______ degrees Celsius

1. 1500

2. 1000

3. 750

4. 200

2. (Question A2, Symbol 2.7) According to the nautical geothermal gradient, hurls buried 80 km adown an deep basin would normally be hot to what clime?

At 80 km profoundness, hurls conciliate be hot to environing _______ degrees Celsius

1. 1500

2. 1000

3. 750

4. 200

3. (Question A3, Symbol 2.7) What is the tangible propound of the peridotite at object X?

1. 100% liquid

2. a structure of solids and liquid

3. 100% solid

4. (Question A4, Symbol 2.7) What happens when the peridotite in object X is hot to 1750 °C?

1. no fluctuate

2. inequitable runing

3. perfect runing

5. (Question A5, Symbol 2.7) What happens when the peridotite in object X is hot to 2250 °C?

1. no fluctuate

2. inequitable runing

3. perfect runing

6. (Question B1, Symbol 2.7) At what profoundness and wave conciliate peridotite at object X inauguobjurgate to run if it is uplifted closer to Earth’s deportment and its clime settlement the identical?

1. 75 km, 24,000 atm

2. 65 km 20,000 atm

3. 40 km 13,000 atm

4. 20 km 8,000 atm

7. (Question B2 and B3) When bluster peridotite runs as a issue of life uplifted in the way descriptive in the foregoing topic, the way is designated__________ and is likely to happen at ____________.

1. solidus arrestation, irreferring-to boundaries

2. explanation, convergent boundaries and hot dishonors

3. rearrestation runing, hot dishonors

4. decompression runing, irreferring-to boundaries and hot dishonors

8. (Question C, Symbol 2.7) According to your counter-arguments to the foregoing foul-mouthed topics kindred to the peridotite at object X life subjected to fluctuates in wave and clime, which two wayes would manage to runing?

1. diminish in wave and clime

2. acception in wave and clime

3. diminish in wave and acception in clime.

4. acception in wave and diminish in clime

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Air 2.8 disunite D: A few modifications conciliate avow you to run the trial descriptive in this minority using materials preparedly conducive in your abode. The hot mess can be replaced by a end rowd frying pan on the stove burner. The two sugar cubes can too be replaced by two teaspoonfuls of sugar; the hidden is not to add extravagant introduce to the illustration that needs to be wet. Extra introduce conciliate dissipate the sugar and darken the rendering of your issues. Prepare all the trial materials at-once on the irresolute burner to shirk mixing of the two illustrations when you impel the end. Place on the stove burner the end rowd pan, the two

sepaobjurgate heaps of sugar and add the drops of introduce on one of the heaps. Then metamorphose the stove on at medium intensity, and heed.

9. (Question D1) Which illustration runed chief?

1. the dry illustration

2. the wet illustration

10. (Question D2) The accelerated runing that you heedd in the illustration that runed chief is designated “substitution runing,” accordingly substitution is an adventitious factor the hastens up a way. What was the substitution?

1. sugar

2. introduce

3. silicates

11. (Question D3, Symbol 2.8) The conmanage of introduce on peridotite is resembling to its conmanage on the sugar trial, consequently when peridotite is hot in “wet” conditions, the row of the “wet solidus” would be located to the _____________ of the “dry solidus” in Symbol 2.8.

1. exact, to eminent climes

2. left, to inferior climes

12. (Question D4) Looking at Symbol 2.1 for a insinuate, betoken in what tectonic setting may introduce penetobjurgate the bluster and development substitution runing of peridotite?

1. hot dishonors

2. subduction zones

3. mid-nautical ridges

4. metamorphose omissions

13. (Question E3, Symbol disunite E). Which cherished best describes the manage of wayes manageing to the structure of mid-nautical ridge volcanoes?

1. “ wet” seapavement basalt subducts and dehydrates, introduce induces substitution runing of bluster peridotite aloft, basaltic magma ascends and forms volcanoes.

2. substitution runing, magma ascends to the deportment forming volcanoes, peridotite rises, subduction

3. magma ascends, decompression runing of peridotite, peridotite pushes the basalt unreserved and forms volcanoes.

4. peridotite ascends, decompression runing forms basaltic magma, magma pushes and cracks the deep pavement basalt unreserved, and erupts forming volcanoes

14. (Question F3, Symbol disunite F). Which cherished best describes, the wayes manageing to the structure of a continental flashing arc, in chronological manage? (Beware of omission in F3: the say among brackets “nautical ridge” should be replaced delay “continental flashing arc”).

1. “ wet” seapavement basalt subducts and dehydrates, introduce induces substitution runing of bluster peridotite aloft, basaltic magma ascends and forms volcanoes.

2. substitution runing, magma ascends to the deportment forming volcanoes, peridotite rises to shavow profoundness and runs, subduction.

3. magma ascends, decompression runing of peridotite, peridotite pushes the deep pavement basalt unreserved and forms volcanoes.

4. peridotite ascends, decompression runing forms basaltic magma, magma pushes and cracks the deep pavement basalt unreserved, and erupts forming volcanoes

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Air 2.3: Using Earthquakes to identify Mess boundaries

15. Advert to the symbol in air 2.3. Which of the subjoined places denote a Benioff Zone? (Hint: advert end to the notes for item 3)

1. 10°S, 110°W

2. 0°, 90°W

3. 0°, 80°W

4. 20°S, 100°W

16. The Benioff zone is associated delay which pattern of mess word?

1. Divergent

2. Convergent (Continent-Continent)

3. Convergent (Continent-Ocean)

4. Transform

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Air 2.4: Analysis of Atlantic Seapavement Spreading

To reresolve topics in this minority, retrospect how to effect delay feeling laminas and the metric classification in Item 2. Use a supporter to gauge the space among features and specify the equiponderant space in the account using the feeling lamina. (A supporter is contained in the GEOTOOLS Sheet 1, at the end of your lab manual). The space you specify conciliate be in kilometers (km). Convert the space to centimeters (cm), retain 1000 meters = 1 kilometer.

Remember that the objurgate of impelment is equiponderant to the mess celerity. Celerity can be conducive dividing the space the mess traveled by the span it took to shield that space:

celerity = space/time.

Choose the counter-arguments that best approach to your conducive values, perform comprehending you use the required items.

17. (Question B, Symbol page 49). Attend-to that objects B and C were simultaneously 145 darling years ago, but did the sea pavement scatter adisunite at the identical objurgate on twain accounts of the mid-deep ridge?

1. Identical Rate

2. Faster on the East

3. Faster on the West

18. (Question C, Symbol page 49). How far adisunite are objects B and C, today in kilometers?

1. ~3,250 km

2. ~3,850 km

3. ~4,100 km

4. ~4,550 km

19. (Question C.1, Symbol page 49). Number the mediocre objurgate, in km per darling years, at which objects B and C entertain impeld adisunite aggravate the late 145 darling years.

1. 8 km/my

2. 16.4 km/my

3. 28.3 km/my

4. 31.8 km/my

20. (Question C.2, Symbol page 49). Convert your counter-argument aloft from km per darling years to mm per year.

The issue is ________ in mm per year.

1. 10 spans close than the foregoing counter-argument

2. Identical as the foregoing counter-argument

3. 10 spans gone-by than the foregoing counter-argument

4. 100 spans gone-by than the foregoing counter-argument

21. (Question D, Symbol page 49). Based on your counter-argument in topic 19, how frequent darlings of years ago were Africa and North America disunite of the identical continent? (Hint use objects D and E).

1. ~150 darling years

2. ~165 darling years

3. ~180 darling years

4. ~200 darling years

22. (Question E, Symbol page 49). Based on your counter-argument in topic 20, how far in meters entertain Africa and North America impeld adisunite gone-by the United States was formed in 1776 to 2011?

1. ~0.6 meters

2. ~6 meters

3. ~15 meters

3. ~25 meters

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Air 2.5: Mess turmoil concurrently the San Andres Fault

Part A. The two bodies of Late Miocene hurls (~25 darling years old) located concurrently either account of the San Andres Omission (map- page 51) issueed from a sole association of hurl life divided by turmoils concurrently the omission. Note the arrows pretext the referring-to turmoil.

23. (Question A1, Symbol page 51). Estimate the mediocre annual objurgate of impelment concurrently the San Andres Omission by measuring how considerable the Late Miocene hurls entertain been offset by the omission and by ostentatious that these hurls began separating promptly forthcoming they formed.

What is the mediocre objurgate of omission impelment in centimeters per year (cm/yr)?

1. ~0.1 cm/year

2. ~1.3 cm/year

3. ~13 cm/year

4. ~25 cm/year

24. (Question A2, Symbol page 51). Most of the impelment concurrently the San Andres Omission occurs during earthquakes. An mediocre impelment of environing 5 m (16ft) concurrently the San Andres Omission was associated delay the devastating 1906 San Francisco earthquake that killed community and destroyed nature. Ostentatious that all misinterpretation concurrently the omission was developmentd by earthquakes of this heap, how frequent Earthquakes are needed to development the misinterpretation heedd in the foregoing topic?

1. ~1,000

2. ~10,000

3. ~65,000

4. ~100,000

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Air 2.7: Mess tectonics of the Northwest United States

Notice the ages of seapavement hurls in Symbol 2.6. The new-fangled seapavement hurls of this country are forming concurrently a irreferring-to mess word designated the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The farther one impels loose from the mess word, the older the seapavement hurls.

25. (Question B2, Symbol 2.6). Attend-to the seapavement hurls older than 8 darling years are bestow west of the Juan de Fuca Ridge but not east of the ridge. What could account their absence from the map?

They are absent accordingly ______________.

1. a insert lubricate omission concurrently the ridge has impeld older hurls elevate north.

2. older hurls entertain been subducted subordinateneath the North American Plate

3. rifting has developmentd metamorphism, which obliterated the old age of the seafloor

4. erosion of the sea pavement destroyed hurls older than 12 darling years

26. (Question B3, Symbol 2.6) The pattern of mess word denoteed by the red row on the symbol is a/n __________________ word.

1. metamorphose

2. convergent

3. irrelative

4. unconformity

27. (Question B4, Symbol 2.6) Which of the subjoined best explains the rise of magma that builds Cascade Range volcanoes?

1. As the North American Mess and the Juan de Fuca Mess slide late each other on a mawkish roll, attrition developments the intensity to geneobjurgate magma.

2. As the Juan de Fuca mess is rifted separately, inferior wave at the rift developments magma that feeds the volcanoes at the Cascade Range.

3. Subduction of the Juan de Fuca Mess subordinate the North American Mess brings hurls from the deep pavement and marine settlement to profoundnesss where inequitable runing ensues due to the acceptiond clime and the wave of introduce.

4. Migration of the North American Mess aggravate a hot dishonor is imperative for the Cascade Range volcanoes.

Part 2- Google Earth

The exercises that thrive use Google Earth. For each topic (or set of topics) latee the dregs that is attached into the “fly to” box. Discuss each dregs at multiple eye altitudes and

differing amounts of tilt. For any gaugements use the supporter implement, this can be accessed by clicking on the supporter icon aloft the conception.

Google Earth: Hawaiian Islands

Fly to Hawaii. Please retrospect the minority on Hotspots and the Hawaiian Islands in the Lab manual and in the item notes.

Rocks entertain been dated on each of the Hawaiian Islands and their ages are as thrives:

Big Island- 0 (active), Maui – 1.1 darling, Kauai- 4.7 darling, Nihoa (23 03 32.79N 161 55 11.94W)- 7.2 darling years

28. Consider the ages and positions of the islands listed aloft concurrently delay what you comprehend environing mess tectonics and hotspots. In what public order is the Pacific Mess affecting?

1. Northwest

2. Southeast

3. Northeast

4. Southwest

29. How unyielding was the Pacific mess affecting during the developed 1.1 darling years among the structure of the Big Island and Maui in cm/year?

1. ~5 cm/year

2. ~10 cm/year

3. ~15 cm/year

4. ~20 cm/year

30. How unyielding was the Pacific mess affecting from 7.2 darling years ago to 4.7 darling years ago among the structure of Kauai and Nihao in cm/year?

1. ~5 cm/year

2. ~10 cm/year

3. ~15 cm/year

4. ~20 cm/year

31) Discuss the headings of the gaugements that you took for the foregoing two topics. The headings betoken the order the Pacific Mess is affecting aggravate the hot dishonor. How does the order of turmoil of the Pacific Mess during the developed 1.1 darling years be-unlike from order of impelment among 4.7 and 7.2 darling years ago?

The order of mess impelment in the developed 1.1 darling years________.

1. pretexts no fluctuate

2. has behove gone-by northerly

3. has behove gone-by southerly

32) Zoom out and discuss the dozens of sunken volcanoes out late Nihoa, denominated the Emperor Seamounts. As one of these flashing islands on the Pacific Mess impels off the hotdishonor it behoves indolent, or extinct, and the island inaugurates to subside as it and the excluded tectonic mess irresolute down. The hasten the islands are subsideing can be estimated by measuring the be-unlikeence in rise (tilting the conception helps to confront the primary rise) among two islands and dividing by the be-unlikeence in their ages (this mode assumes the islands were a resembling extent when they were free). Using Maui and Nihoa, how unyielding are the Hawaiian Islands subsideing?

1. ~0.05 cm/year

2. ~0.5 cm/year

3. ~5 cm/year

4. ~10 cm/year

33) Using the hasten you conducive in the foregoing topic (and by feasible fluctuates in sea equalize), when conciliate the Big Island of Hawaii subside adown the deportment of the deep?

1. ~650,000 years

2. ~1.2 darling years

3. ~8 darling years

4. ~13 darling years

34) Discuss the Emperor Seamounts and attend-to that it is a true association that reaches far north to the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Using a hasten halfway among that which you conducive in topics 29 and 30, number the age of the oldest (furthest North) seamount in the Emperor Seamounts? (Hint 1- using the row adjudication of the supporter implement conciliate not effect gone-by the Pacific Mess had a complete fluctuate in order, try using the road adjudication of the supporter implement to grant a gone-by accuobjurgate space; Insinuate 2- Gone-by you comprehend the mess does not impel at the identical hasten aggravate span, the age you estimated conciliate be-unlike from the actual age based on radiometric dating, consequently your counter-argument conciliate be be-unlikeent from the one attached in the lab manual!).

1. ~30 darling years

2. ~45 darling years

3. ~60 darling years

4. ~75 darling years

Google Earth: Identifying Mess Boundaries

35. Fly to 15 19 48.78 S 75 12 03.41 W. What pattern of tectonic messs are bestow?

1. Ocean- Ocean

2. Ocean- Continent

3. Continent- Continent.

36. What pattern of mess tectonic word is bestow?

1. Transform

2. Convergent

3. Divergent

37. Fly to 6 21 49.68 S 29 35 37.87 E. What pattern of way is going on at this dregs?

1. Seapavement scattering

2. Continental rifting

3. Subduction

38. What pattern of mess tectonic word is bestow?

1. Transform

2. Convergent

3. Divergent

39. Fly to 28 04 27.04N 86 55 26.84E. What pattern of tectonic messs are bestow?

1. Ocean- Ocean

2. Ocean- Continent

3. Continent- Continent.

40. What pattern of mess tectonic word is bestow?

1. Transform

2. Convergent

3. Divergent