1. (question a1, figure 2.7) according to the continental geothermal


1. (Question A1, Condition 2.7) According to the continental geothermal gradient, shakes buried 80 km subordinate a continent would normally be fervid to what part?

At 80 km profundity, shakes conquer be fervid to encircling _______ degrees Celsius

1. 1500

2. 1000

3. 750

4. 200

2. (Question A2, Condition 2.7) According to the mariage geothermal gradient, shakes buried 80 km subordinate an sea basin would normally be fervid to what part?

At 80 km profundity, shakes conquer be fervid to encircling _______ degrees Celsius

1. 1500

2. 1000

3. 750

4. 200

3. (Question A3, Condition 2.7) What is the natural say of the peridotite at purpose X?

1. 100% liquid

2. a adjustment of solids and liquid

3. 100% solid

4. (Question A4, Condition 2.7) What betides when the peridotite in purpose X is fervid to 1750 °C?

1. no shift

2. peculiar flowing

3. exhaustive flowing

5. (Question A5, Condition 2.7) What betides when the peridotite in purpose X is fervid to 2250 °C?

1. no shift

2. peculiar flowing

3. exhaustive flowing

6. (Question B1, Condition 2.7) At what profundity and hurry conquer peridotite at purpose X prepare to flow if it is uplifted closer to Earth’s deportment and its part scum the identical?

1. 75 km, 24,000 atm

2. 65 km 20,000 atm

3. 40 km 13,000 atm

4. 20 km 8,000 atm

7. (Question B2 and B3) When foam peridotite flows as a outcome of entity uplifted in the way vivid in the prior doubt, the course is denominated__________ and is likely to betide at ____________.

1. solidus identity, contrariant boundaries

2. counter-argument, convergent boundaries and hot blurs

3. reidentity flowing, hot blurs

4. decompression flowing, contrariant boundaries and hot blurs

8. (Question C, Condition 2.7) According to your counter-arguments to the prior indecent doubts kindred to the peridotite at purpose X entity subjected to shifts in hurry and part, which two coursees would control to flowing?

1. diminish in hurry and part

2. acception in hurry and part

3. diminish in hurry and acception in part.

4. acception in hurry and diminish in part

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Energy 2.8 ssubordinate D: A few modifications conquer tolescold you to run the illustration vivid in this individuality using materials beforehand profitable in your residence. The hot compound can be replaced by a tail rowd frying pan on the stove burner. The two sugar cubes can to-boot be replaced by two teaspoonfuls of sugar; the hidden is not to add unreasonable infiltscold to the exemplification that needs to be wet. Extra infiltscold conquer dissipate the sugar and conceal the sense of your outcomes. Prepare all the illustration materials instantly on the calm burner to quit mixing of the two exemplifications when you instigate the tail. Place on the stove burner the tail rowd pan, the two

sepascold heaps of sugar and add the drops of infiltscold on one of the heaps. Then round the stove on at balance passion, and perceive-keep.

9. (Question D1) Which exemplification flowed foremost?

1. the dry exemplification

2. the wet exemplification

10. (Question D2) The accelerated flowing that you perceive-keepd in the exemplification that flowed foremost is denominated “flow flowing,” consequently flow is an adventitious element the presss up a course. What was the flow?

1. sugar

2. infiltrate

3. silicates

11. (Question D3, Condition 2.8) The pi of infiltscold on peridotite is common to its pi on the sugar illustration, hence when peridotite is fervid in “wet” provisions, the row of the “wet solidus” would be located to the _____________ of the “dry solidus” in Condition 2.8.

1. suitable, to loftier parts

2. left, to inferior parts

12. (Question D4) Looking at Condition 2.1 for a suggest, denote in what tectonic enhancement may infiltscold invade the foam and effect flow flowing of peridotite?

1. hot blurs

2. subduction zones

3. mid-mariage ridges

4. transcondition drawbacks

13. (Question E3, Condition ssubordinate E). Which rare best describes the progression of coursees controling to the structure of mid-mariage ridge volcanoes?

1. “ wet” seafoundation basalt subducts and dehydrates, infiltscold induces flow flowing of foam peridotite aloft, basaltic magma ascends and forms volcanoes.

2. flow flowing, magma ascends to the deportment forming volcanoes, peridotite rises, subduction

3. magma ascends, decompression flowing of peridotite, peridotite pushes the basalt notorious and forms volcanoes.

4. peridotite ascends, decompression flowing forms basaltic magma, magma pushes and cracks the sea foundation basalt notorious, and erupts forming volcanoes

14. (Question F3, Condition ssubordinate F). Which rare best describes, the coursees controling to the structure of a continental phosphorescent arc, in chronological command? (Beware of deception in F3: the language betwixt brackets “mariage ridge” should be replaced behind a while “continental phosphorescent arc”).

1. “ wet” seafoundation basalt subducts and dehydrates, infiltscold induces flow flowing of foam peridotite aloft, basaltic magma ascends and forms volcanoes.

2. flow flowing, magma ascends to the deportment forming volcanoes, peridotite rises to shtolescold profundity and flows, subduction.

3. magma ascends, decompression flowing of peridotite, peridotite pushes the sea foundation basalt notorious and forms volcanoes.

4. peridotite ascends, decompression flowing forms basaltic magma, magma pushes and cracks the sea foundation basalt notorious, and erupts forming volcanoes

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Energy 2.3: Using Earthquakes to confirm Compound boundaries

15. Attribute to the condition in energy 2.3. Which of the subjoined places reproduce-exhibit a Benioff Zone? (Hint: attribute tail to the notes for item 3)

1. 10°S, 110°W

2. 0°, 90°W

3. 0°, 80°W

4. 20°S, 100°W

16. The Benioff zone is associated behind a while which sign of compound name?

1. Divergent

2. Convergent (Continent-Continent)

3. Convergent (Continent-Ocean)

4. Transform

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Energy 2.4: Analysis of Atlantic Seafoundation Spreading

To labor-out doubts in this individuality, criticism how to labor behind a while described laminas and the metric plan in Item 2. Use a supporter to gauge the removal betwixt features and detail the equipollent removal in the account using the described lamina. (A supporter is contained in the GEOTOOLS Sheet 1, at the end of your lab manual). The removal you detail conquer be in kilometers (km). Convert the removal to centimeters (cm), recollect 1000 meters = 1 kilometer.

Remember that the scold of instigatement is equipollent to the compound fleetness. Fleetness can be adapted dividing the removal the compound traveled by the age it took to balanceextend that removal:

fleetness = removal/time.

Choose the counter-arguments that best abut to your adapted values, fabricate secure you use the required items.

17. (Question B, Condition page 49). Note that purposes B and C were simultaneously 145 darling years ago, but did the sea foundation extend assubordinate at the identical scold on twain edges of the mid-sea ridge?

1. Identical Rate

2. Faster on the East

3. Faster on the West

18. (Question C, Condition page 49). How far assubordinate are purposes B and C, today in kilometers?

1. ~3,250 km

2. ~3,850 km

3. ~4,100 km

4. ~4,550 km

19. (Question C.1, Condition page 49). Count the mean scold, in km per darling years, at which purposes B and C bear instigated assubordinate balance the spent 145 darling years.

1. 8 km/my

2. 16.4 km/my

3. 28.3 km/my

4. 31.8 km/my

20. (Question C.2, Condition page 49). Convert your counter-argument aloft from km per darling years to mm per year.

The outcome is ________ in mm per year.

1. 10 ages short than the prior counter-argument

2. Identical as the prior counter-argument

3. 10 ages late than the prior counter-argument

4. 100 ages late than the prior counter-argument

21. (Question D, Condition page 49). Installed on your counter-argument in doubt 19, how abundant darlings of years ago were Africa and North America ssubordinate of the identical continent? (Hint use purposes D and E).

1. ~150 darling years

2. ~165 darling years

3. ~180 darling years

4. ~200 darling years

22. (Question E, Condition page 49). Installed on your counter-argument in doubt 20, how far in meters bear Africa and North America instigated assubordinate gone the United States was formed in 1776 to 2011?

1. ~0.6 meters

2. ~6 meters

3. ~15 meters

3. ~25 meters

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Energy 2.5: Compound disturbance concurrently the San Andres Fault

Part A. The two bodies of Late Miocene shakes (~25 darling years old) located concurrently either edge of the San Andres Drawback (map- page 51) outcomeed from a one substance of shake entity divided by disturbances concurrently the drawback. Note the arrows pretext the not-absolute disturbance.

23. (Question A1, Condition page 51). Estimate the mean annual scold of instigatement concurrently the San Andres Drawback by measuring how abundantly the Late Miocene shakes bear been offset by the drawback and by assuming that these shakes began separating early behind they formed.

What is the mean scold of drawback instigatement in centimeters per year (cm/yr)?

1. ~0.1 cm/year

2. ~1.3 cm/year

3. ~13 cm/year

4. ~25 cm/year

24. (Question A2, Condition page 51). Most of the instigatement concurrently the San Andres Drawback occurs during earthquakes. An mean instigatement of encircling 5 m (16ft) concurrently the San Andres Drawback was associated behind a while the devastating 1906 San Francisco earthquake that killed tribe and destroyed wealth. Assuming that all misplacement concurrently the drawback was effectd by earthquakes of this concretion, how abundant Earthquakes are needed to effect the misplacement perceive-keepd in the prior doubt?

1. ~1,000

2. ~10,000

3. ~65,000

4. ~100,000

Lab manual (Busch, 9th Edition) Energy 2.7: Compound tectonics of the Northwest United States

Notice the ages of seafoundation shakes in Condition 2.6. The novel seafoundation shakes of this part are forming concurrently a contrariant compound name denominated the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The farther one instigates far from the compound name, the older the seafoundation shakes.

25. (Question B2, Condition 2.6). Note the seafoundation shakes older than 8 darling years are bestow west of the Juan de Fuca Ridge but not east of the ridge. What could inducement their scantiness from the map?

They are listless consequently ______________.

1. a stamp slip drawback concurrently the ridge has instigated older shakes further north.

2. older shakes bear been subducted subordinate the North American Plate

3. rifting has effectd metamorphism, which obliterated the old age of the seafloor

4. erosion of the sea foundation destroyed shakes older than 12 darling years

26. (Question B3, Condition 2.6) The sign of compound name reproduce-exhibited by the red row on the condition is a/n __________________ name.

1. transfigure

2. convergent

3. contrariant

4. unconformity

27. (Question B4, Condition 2.6) Which of the subjoined best explains the cause of magma that builds Cascade Range volcanoes?

1. As the North American Compound and the Juan de Fuca Compound slide spent each other on a insipid roll, grating effects the passion to genescold magma.

2. As the Juan de Fuca compound is rifted asunder, inferior hurry at the rift effects magma that feeds the volcanoes at the Cascade Range.

3. Subduction of the Juan de Fuca Compound subordinate the North American Compound brings shakes from the sea foundation and marine residuum to profunditys where peculiar flowing ensues due to the acceptiond part and the rule of infiltrate.

4. Migration of the North American Compound balance a hot blur is binding for the Cascade Range volcanoes.

Part 2- Google Earth

The exercises that prosper use Google Earth. For each doubt (or set of doubts) spente the dregs that is attached into the “fly to” box. Scrutinize each dregs at multiple eye altitudes and

differing amounts of tilt. For any gaugements use the supporter cat's-paw, this can be accessed by clicking on the supporter icon aloft the effigy.

Google Earth: Hawaiian Islands

Fly to Hawaii. Please criticism the individuality on Hotspots and the Hawaiian Islands in the Lab manual and in the item notes.

Rocks bear been dated on each of the Hawaiian Islands and their ages are as prospers:

Big Island- 0 (active), Maui – 1.1 darling, Kauai- 4.7 darling, Nihoa (23 03 32.79N 161 55 11.94W)- 7.2 darling years

28. Consider the ages and positions of the islands listed aloft concurrently behind a while what you comprehend encircling compound tectonics and hotspots. In what unconcealed order is the Pacific Compound tender?

1. Northwest

2. Southeast

3. Northeast

4. Southwest

29. How steadsteadsteadpay was the Pacific compound tender during the latest 1.1 darling years betwixt the structure of the Big Island and Maui in cm/year?

1. ~5 cm/year

2. ~10 cm/year

3. ~15 cm/year

4. ~20 cm/year

30. How steadsteadsteadpay was the Pacific compound tender from 7.2 darling years ago to 4.7 darling years ago betwixt the structure of Kauai and Nihao in cm/year?

1. ~5 cm/year

2. ~10 cm/year

3. ~15 cm/year

4. ~20 cm/year

31) Scrutinize the headings of the gaugements that you took for the prior two doubts. The headings denote the order the Pacific Compound is tender balance the hot blur. How does the order of disturbance of the Pacific Compound during the latest 1.1 darling years be-unlike from order of instigatement betwixt 4.7 and 7.2 darling years ago?

The order of compound instigatement in the latest 1.1 darling years________.

1. pretexts no shift

2. has behove late northerly

3. has behove late southerly

32) Zoom out and scrutinize the dozens of sunken volcanoes out spent Nihoa, denominated the Emperor Seamounts. As one of these phosphorescent islands on the Pacific Compound instigates off the hotblur it behoves indolent, or extinct, and the island prepares to diminish as it and the extreme tectonic compound calm down. The press the islands are diminishing can be estimated by measuring the be-unlikeence in loftiness (tilting the effigy helps to ascertain the pre-eminent loftiness) betwixt two islands and dividing by the be-unlikeence in their ages (this way assumes the islands were a common extent when they were locomotive). Using Maui and Nihoa, how steadsteadsteadpay are the Hawaiian Islands diminishing?

1. ~0.05 cm/year

2. ~0.5 cm/year

3. ~5 cm/year

4. ~10 cm/year

33) Using the press you adapted in the prior doubt (and by feasible shifts in sea equalize), when conquer the Big Island of Hawaii diminish adown the deportment of the sea?

1. ~650,000 years

2. ~1.2 darling years

3. ~8 darling years

4. ~13 darling years

34) Scrutinize the Emperor Seamounts and note that it is a consecutive fetter that reaches far north to the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Using a press halfway betwixt that which you adapted in doubts 29 and 30, count the age of the oldest (furthest North) seamount in the Emperor Seamounts? (Hint 1- using the row command of the supporter cat's-paw conquer not labor gone the Pacific Compound had a perfect shift in order, try using the footfootpath command of the supporter cat's-paw to impart a late accuscold removal; Suggest 2- Gone you comprehend the compound does not instigate at the identical press balance age, the age you estimated conquer be-unlike from the authentic age installed on radiometric dating, hence your counter-argument conquer be be-unlikeent from the one attached in the lab manual!).

1. ~30 darling years

2. ~45 darling years

3. ~60 darling years

4. ~75 darling years

Google Earth: Identifying Compound Boundaries

35. Fly to 15 19 48.78 S 75 12 03.41 W. What sign of tectonic compounds are bestow?

1. Ocean- Ocean

2. Ocean- Continent

3. Continent- Continent.

36. What sign of compound tectonic name is bestow?

1. Transform

2. Convergent

3. Divergent

37. Fly to 6 21 49.68 S 29 35 37.87 E. What sign of course is going on at this dregs?

1. Seafoundation extending

2. Continental rifting

3. Subduction

38. What sign of compound tectonic name is bestow?

1. Transform

2. Convergent

3. Divergent

39. Fly to 28 04 27.04N 86 55 26.84E. What sign of tectonic compounds are bestow?

1. Ocean- Ocean

2. Ocean- Continent

3. Continent- Continent.

40. What sign of compound tectonic name is bestow?

1. Transform

2. Convergent

3. Divergent