Case Study: Joe’s Supermarket
This local supermarket is located in an urban neighborhood and provides customers with a wide
array of products to choose from. Over time, the inventory has grown exponentially, but the
current information system is not equipped to handle the increase in purchase demand. The
company that owns the store opted to go with the “light” versions of the Purchasing and Point of
Sale (POS) modules used to manage inventory and request products from vendors. The owner of
the organization (Joe Russo) has emphasized that there are critical things on his “wish list” that
he believes will move the supermarket into “the new tech age,” but he is not sure where to start.
Here is some information he wants the IT consultant to know, but there is more likely additional
information he is unaware of:
• Other processes that are part of the enterprise resource planning system are becoming
slower, and some of the staff noticed errors in some of the product data coming into the
• A centralized database supports the entire system but has not been reviewed or upgraded.
• The time spent on customer transactions is too long! Anyone in management should be
able to monitor transactions in real-time, but the point of sale system sends the data “over
the wire” to the database slower each day. Some days there is a 2-hour lag in the system
catching up on transactions!
This week, you will use one of the critical business processes identified in last week for the
case study organization (Joe’s Supermarket) to perform a gap analysis that clearly shows the
difference between the “as-is” state of the specific information system to be changed and the
“to be” state of the system process planned for the future. Lucidchart or Draw.io can be used
to create the business process map and a data flow diagram for the systems project.
Include the following information and diagrams in your gap analysis:
1. Create a root cause analysis diagram (fishbone) to document “pain points” in the
problematic business process.
2. Document the business objectives, the scope of the project with qu antifiable key
performance indicators as metrics, a breakdown of goals with small measurable units,
and a specific plan (with steps to close the gaps) to get the organization to the desired
3. Use the systems requirements plan created in last week for the organization and proper
notation (symbols) to create a business process map diagram for the system to create a
visualization of the current state of the business process for the organization system.
4. Use the proper notation to create a data flow diagram that clearly shows the current
flow of data throughout the organization as related to the business process.
5. Utilize the proper notation to create a business process map diagram of the system to
visualize the series of events that will produce the future state of the business
process in the organization system.
6. Use the proper notation to create a data flow diagram that clearly shows the future
flow of data throughout the organization as related to the business process.
7. Position the respective data flow and process model diagrams side-by-side to clearly
show the “before and after” for both the data flow in and out of the information system
and the changes to the business process.
8. Write a summary of the gap analysis and justification for business process selection,
while detailing the conclusions made and how those conclusions were derived.
Length: 6 to 7-page paper, not including title and reference pages (APA), plus 4
diagrams (data flow and process model) in the appendix.
References: Include a minimum of 3 scholarly references.
• Dewey, J. (2020). McKinsey 7S Framework. Salem Press Encyclopedia.
• Draw.io (n.d.). Security-first diagramming for teams. Retrieved from
• Lucidchart.com. (2020). Free flowchart maker. Retrieved from
System Requirement Plan last week:
The first stage of Requirement analysis will be to identify every end user of the POS software,
and all the stakeholders of the supermarket. The stakeholders are the system sponsor’s, this
might include the management, executive or the owner. The end users are the cashiers and
anyone else who interacts with the system including the customers who are served through the
system, and they experience the first-hand effects of the system inconveniences and failures. All
these parties are important since the software end product needs to fulfill their requirements.
Second step is collection of the business system requirements, Software developer team have to
collect requirements from all the end users and supermarket stakeholders. Some of the best
techniques to collect system requirements include:
1. One on one interviews: The one-on-one interviews with end users (Cashiers and the
management) together with stakeholders and customers. Using these techniques, one will be able
to collect specific requirements from each party.
2. Using Focus groups( Böhm,2021): focus groups are number of people who serve the
supermarket in certain department or have a role in the business operations of the supermarket,
some focus groups may include cashiers, using focus group have an advantage of eliminating
conflict of interest later after the system is developed
3. Application of Use case: use case is an important methodology which can be applicable in
collecting requirements together with others, through use case the system analyst and developers
will be able to identify, analyze and organize the system requirements. Another advantage of
using use case diagrams is creating possible interactions and sequence of the system, this helps
identify possible bottlenecks and challenges in early stage before developing the final product
thus saving on time and other resources.
4. Prototypes: prototypes are the best since they allow the system developer to give the end user
an example of an actual product, End user interact with the prototype system, use it alongside the
existing one to avoid normal business operation, from the experience they highlight the
challenges and what requirements are not well addressed by the prototype. Prototype address
feasibility challenges and help solve problems earlier on bettering the system success rate.
Open ended questions are the best in conduction one on one interviews, it helps the system
analyst understand well the current systems, its challenges and help design system with best
functionalities, A good done survey and questionnaires plays an important role in helping the
analyst gather important and critical requirements of the system and thus avoiding problems in
the design and implementation phase (Banzhaf et al., 2016). For a successful system
requirements analysis an in-depth system requirement have to be done( Böhm,2021). Open
ended questions are the best since they give the research subject the freedom to articulate what
have not been asked, the maximum freedom accorded to the interviewee helps get a lot of
These inquiries build trust, appear less intimidating, and allow for an unfettered or free answer.
Nevertheless, techniques may be time-consuming (7), and developing broad assertions or
generalizations can be challenging. There is also the possibility that the subject will drift off into
an ineffective response. Second type of quest closed end questions. The closed-ended inquiry is
brief and takes minimal thought. Such questions are especially effective for demographic
Nevertheless, statistical questions need to be asked at the conclusion of the interview to avoid
negatively impacting participants’ preparation to respond to questions owing to the sensation of
losing confidentiality, that might occur if such questions were raised at the beginning of the
questionnaire. (6) The disadvantage of this question type is that it may be leading, which can be
annoying or intimidating; it also discourages transparency because the viable replies are preset.
Step 3 is Categorizing the system requirements, there are multiple types of system users’
requirements and they must be grouped to allow better analysis and avoid confusion. There are
four categories of system requirement normally summarized to function and non-functional
requirements. Functional requirements are systems functionality which are critical for business
continuity example includes selling products, technical requirement is technical requirement
which defines success of the system in business delivery, example include the speed of the
system, other types of requirements include Transitional requirement and operational
Functional requirements of the POS of the supermarket are the basic system functions that helps
the supermarket. The first functional requirement is system has some errors in products
information, Developer must ensure the new system have seamless data transfer with no errors.
The importance of this functionality will be to ease the struggles of doing transactions. Minimal
or no error in the system will help sell product faster and thus improve time of transaction.
Centralized database needs to be update to support the growing business. Supermarket is
currently growing, same with its customers, the current system is struggling to work with the
Thus, the database must be updated to improve its capacity to support the new system and also
security measures. Third functional requirement is to change the system network cable, The
system can adopt new technology to communicate with the database such example might include
wireless dedicated network, this will ensure the system has a network channel that is not slow
and can be burstable with the demand. It is easier to request the network provider to increase the
network bandwidth rather than trying to change the cable of the whole network to increase the
speed of the system