Food science

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Answer Sheet of Food Science Course

LO4: Investigate the physical and chemical transformations of ingredients that occur in cooking.

Discuss how changes in equipment, preparation and cooking methods are being used to produce innovative products:

مناقشة كيفية استغلال التغييرات في المعدات وطرق التحضير والطهي في سبيل إنتاج منتجات مبتكرة

· Mention the preparation and cooking methods are being produce innovative products with explain each point

#

Weakness

Innovative Products

1.

2.

Equipments

#

Name of equipments with explain

Weakness

Innovative Products

1.

2.

Preparation and Cooking Methods

Name of cooking method with explain

Explore the impact of chemicals in modern food presentation techniques and the impact this has upon consumer choice and trends:

استكشاف تأثير المواد الكيميائية في تقنيات عرض الطعام الحديثة وتأثير ذلك على خيار المستهلك وتوجهاته

1.

Liquid Nitrogen

Utilization in Kitchen

Negative

Opinion of Customer

2.

Name of Chemicals

Utilization in Kitchen

Negative

Opinion of Customer

3.

Name of Chemicals

Utilization in Kitchen

Negative

Opinion of Customer

4.

Name of Chemicals

Utilization in Kitchen

Negative

Opinion of Customer

Evaluate how molecular scientific developments in food production can impact on consumer choice and influence trend:

تقييم كيف يمكن للتطورات العلمية الجزيئية في إنتاج الغذاء أن تؤثر على خيار المستهلك وتوجهاته

· Define the molecular scientific concept or molecular gastronomy.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………

· Explain the molecular gastronomy development in food production in culinary industry in timeline.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

· Explain the impact of molecular gastronomy on consumer choice and influence trend with providing weakness and strength.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Critically evaluate the impact of molecular science on current restaurant trends and the way we eat, predicting future developments in food production:

· تقييم نقدي لتأثير العلوم الجزيئية على اتجاهات المطاعم الحالية وطريقة تناول الطعام ، مع ذكر توقعاتك بخصوص التطورات المستقبلية التي يمكن أن تطرأ على انتاج الغذاء

· impact of molecular science on current restaurant trends

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

· By providing strengths and weaknesses

Trends

Strength

Weaknesses

1-

· Predicting future developments in food production:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

· Giving your opinion of effect molecular science in food production related to culinary arts.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

1

SCOPE

Definitions of molecular cuisine (1-

5

)

 The use of different terms,

 Molecular science

Molecular gastronomy

2

Definition of Molecular Gastronomy
• Molecular gastronomy, the scientific discipline concerned with the

physical and chemical transformations that occur during cooking.

• The name is sometimes mistakenly given to the application of
scientific knowledge to the creation of new dishes and culinary
techniques.

• Its program includes three areas, as cooking was recognized to have
three components: social, artistic, and technical.

• Molecular cuisine is a modern style of cooking, and takes advantage
of many technical innovations from the scientific disciplines

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https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/discipline

https://www.britannica.com/topic/cooking

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Branches_of_science

 This, are seeking for the mechanisms of culinary
transformations and processes (from a chemical and
physical point of view) in three areas:

1. Social phenomena linked to culinary activity

2. Artistic component of culinary activity

3. Technical component of culinary activity

4

Molecular gastronomy

 Applications building on the principles of molecular
gastronomy, such as ‘Molecular Cooking’ and ‘Note-by-
Note cooking’ have emerged in recent years.

 Food scientists, culinary scientists, food engineers, and
chefs are increasingly collaborating within these areas,
whether in the kitchen or in industry.

 The principles of molecular gastronomy (physics and
chemistry) can provide a blueprint for “high tech”
product development

5

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/food-science/gastronomy

SCOPE

Influence on modern cuisine (1-5)
 Innovation, experimentation, how food tastes and behaves under

different temperatures, pressures and other scientific conditions
 Expansion of techniques and equipment
 Chefs and restaurants involved in the development of molecular

cuisine
 The need for time-saving methods, reducing labour and overhead

costs Customer demand for new dining experiences
 Unique selling points
 Consumer choice, desire for innovation, customer profiles
 Trends, fashion, fad or long-term trend, views of industry leaders

6

Influence on modern cuisine

• Food product development is necessary for survival of the
product in a competitive global market

• Chefs, culinary experts and food processors have become
interested in the intelligent design of foods with optimal flavor
characteristics.

• The modern kitchen is a meeting place where chefs, who are
normally characterized by their artistry, creativity, and craft,
can interact with scientists who are normally characterized by
their empiricism, rationality and adherence to the scientific
method.

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Restaurants

• Restaurants should meet the desires and needs of
its customers in the best way.

• They can compete with other restaurants and play a
role in the forefront in this competition by
innovating and submitting the current products
with different tastes or services.

• Applications of molecular cuisine at this point, play
an important tool in this process by new
preparation, cooking and presentation methods.

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Innovative
• Today, in an increasingly competitive environment, scientists,

researchers and practitioners emphasize the necessity and
importance of innovation in order to take advantage of
sustainable competition.

• In this purpose, they focus on improved products, processes,
techniques or procedures, and they change their managerial
systems continuously.

• The processes related to the innovations made by the
company, meet consumers’ needs and demands which
changes daily and allows the companies to increase the
product quality and decrease costs.

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Define Innovation
• as searching new processes, products, organizational structure and

methods to discover, develop, improve, adopt and co

mm

ercialize.

• as new ideas that customer perceived and are defined as the
development of products and technologies to market.

• In an innovation, a completely new product or a new feature of an
existing product take place on the market, new production, methods
and processes begins, the necessary resources for business operations
implement and businesses reorganize.

• Innovation may transform an idea to an application, process, or to the
product

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• Innovation is not just a concept with tangible products and businesses; it
also applies to intangible businesses such as restaurants where services
are offering.

• Restaurant businesses operate primarily related to innovation because
they want to be forefront in the competition with other restaurant
businesses and they want to improve their image in the market in a
positive way.

• Restaurants need to develop technologies to adapt to the changing
conditions of the restaurant business, to meet consumer needs and
desires and to provide better service.

• Despite innovation process has some advantages like coming forefront in
competition, improving quality, having fully satisfied customers.

• Sometimes some restrictions may occur, because the innovation process
has a complex, risky and hard structure. The deficiency of top managers’
support and motivation for innovative culture, employees long adoption
process, the difficulty of finding and protecting new innovative ideas.

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Changing techniques in preparation and cooking method

( 3 of 5)

 Techniques, foams, syphon whipping, suspensions,
emulsification, powdering, specification.

 Sous vide – application of lower temperature and longer
cooking times, bainmarie, dehydration.

12

Techniques

There are some food items which have lots of moisture in them like

vegetables which are leafy like spinach and fenugreek. These items are

cooked using technique that makes use of this moisture.

But food items like rice, wheat and pulses are comparatively low in

moisture content therefore these ingredients are cooked by adding extra

water (moisture).

There are also methods where no water is involved in the process of

cooking; in fact these methods help the food to remain crisp on completion

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Techniques
Therefore the methods of cooking are classified into the following:

1. Cooking by moist heat: The method includes boiling,
simmering/stewing, steaming pressure cooker, poaching and microwave
cooking.

2. Cooking by dry heat: This method includes baking, roasting and
grilling.

3. Cooking by frying in oil: Includes methods like deep frying, shallow
frying or pan fried and stir frying.

 Cooking is the procedure of changing the chemistry of food by
transferring energy to the food to make it safe and eatable and to get the
desired flavor, texture and nutrition.

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Foams

Foams are one of the techniques most associated with modernist cooking.

They are easy to make, very versatile, and fun to use and eat.

Foams have been around traditional cooking for a very long time and
include whipped cream, head on beers, and even bread dough.

Culinary foams are often created with usual flavors taken from stock, fruit
juices, vegetable purees and even soups.

These are combined with stabilizing agents to prevent breakdown later on.

Stabilizers range from natural plant and animal derivatives.

Examples of commonly used stabilizers are agar and lecithin. Depending
on what is being made, fats and egg whites may also be used.

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Foams

Concentrated

Dilute

Whipping Syphon
The whipping siphon is one of my favorite pieces of modernist equipment.

It can create a wide variety of foams as well as infuse liquids and foods and
carbonate anything with water in it.

It works by pressurizing a canister filled with liquid or food with nitrous
oxide (N2O) or carbon dioxide (CO2) and then either dispensing it out a
nozzle or venting the gas and using the liquid by itself.

Whipping siphons were originally developed to quickly and easily create
foams.

 The main components of a foam are a flavored liquid and a stabilizer.

The stabilizer can be anything from cream or cheese to modernist
ingredients like xanthan gum or gelatin.

The stabilizer often takes the form of a thickened liquid or a fluid gel.

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Suspensions

Suspensions are defined as heterogeneous or homogeneous

material, in which rigid or deformable particles (disperse system) are

mixed with a liquid (dispersion medium).

Many foods are colloidal suspensions in which the continuous

phase is an aqueous solution.

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Emulsification
It is common knowledge that immiscible substances such as oil and water
will not mix due to the difference in chemical properties.

The end product of an emulsion may differ according to which substance
becomes dispersed.

Two main types of emulsions include oil in water and the opposite which
is water in oil. When oil is diffused in water the end product may be
something like a hollandaise sauce or mayonnaise. On the other hand when
water is diffused a common result is butter or a vinaigrette.

An oil in water emulsion can be used in the production of creams, sauces,
aioli, milk, dressings, cheese and more. On the other hand water in oil
emulsion can result in vinaigrettes, margarine, butter, spreads and others

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Types of Emulsion

Oil-in-water emulsion Water-in-oil emulsion

Water

Oil

mm

Dispersed Systems with Liquid Continuous

Phases

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ExampleTechnical termDispersed phase

meringue, whipped

cream

FoamGas

milk, mayonnaise,

butter

Emulsionliquid

latex, paint, bloodSuspentionSolid

Sous-vide
Sous Vide (application of lower temperature and longer cooking
times

Sous vide is a technique in which vacuum-sealed food is slow-
cooked in a water bath that is set to a certain temperature. Prepare
many different types of foods, from steak to fruit.

Sous-Vide is desirable because the food has little exposure to an
outside environment while cooking, thus maintaining a very natural
flavor.

Many high end steaks are prepared in this manner since they can
emphasize the quality of the meat.

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https://www.webstaurantstore.com/article/97/sous-vide-cooking.html

Sous-vide
Sous-Vide is actually a rather modern technique that takes
advantage of modern technologies.

 In sous-vide cooking, food is encased in a sealed water tight
contained and immersed in a water bath to be heated to precisely the
perfect temperature.

Once the food has reached the ideal temperature it is removed from
it’s packaging and finished off with a dry heat method to provide
browning.

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Bain marie
A bain-marie is essentially a fancy way to describe a hot water bath
in the culinary world.

It is commonly used for cooking delicate foods such as custards.

 The purpose of a bain-marie is that it creates a gentle heat around
the food and results in a uniform cooking process.

It’s used for cooking delicate foods like custards and terrines to
create a gentle and uniform heat around the food.

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https://www.thekitchn.com/recipe-lemon-spongettes-44689

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Different equipment( 4 of 4)

• Thermomix, thermal circulators, combi ovens

• Induction cookers, vacuum packers siphon whippers, water
baths, drying cabinets

26

Thermomix

 The name comes from the combination of “thermo” (heating) and
“mix” (mixing).

 The current Thermomix has a heating element, a motor for fast or
slow blending and stirring, and a weighing scale.

 The functions can be accessed simultaneously to carry out
steaming,emulsifying,blending,precise heating, mixing, milling,
whipping, chopping, weighing, grinding and stirring.

 The Thermomix differs from ordinary blenders and food processors in
having a thermostatically controlled heating element with a range of

37

°C to 120 °C

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steaming

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emulsion

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heating

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_mixer

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mill_(grinding)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whisk

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cutting

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weighing

27

Thermal Circulators

 Thermal Circulators are used for sous vide food cooking, which
is the prolonged cooking of food in sealed packages in a water
bath and at lower temperatures than is usually used for cooking.

 A thermal immersion circulator comprises a circulator pump (a
mechanism to move the fluid), a heating element immersed in
the fluid, an accurate temperature probe and control
circuitry, which compares the measured temperature with the
desired value and supplies power to the heater as required to
stabilize the temperature.

28

Combi ovens

 A combi oven is a three-in-one oven which allows you to cook with steam,
hot air (convection) or a combination of both. As an alternative to using a
separate steamer or convection oven, a combi can be used to replace both
appliances – saving time, space and money when it comes to professional
food preparation

29

Combi ovens

 Three cooking options in one oven

 A commercial kitchen combi oven allows you to choose between three
different cooking options in one appliance:

1. Steam Cooking

2. Convection (dry heat) Cooking

3. Combination Cooking (a mixture of steam and convection)

https://jla.com/catering-equipment/combi-ovens

30

Induction cooker

 Induction cooking is performed using direct induction heating of cooking
vessels, rather than relying on indirect radiation, convection, or thermal
conduction. Induction cooking allows high power and very rapid increases in
temperature to be achieved, and changes in heat settings are instantaneous.

 Induction cooking uses electric currents to directly heat pots and pans
through magnetic induction.

31

Vacuum Packers siphon whippers

 A whipping siphon, also called a cream whipper, a cream siphon, or just
a siphon, is a device that uses pressurized gas to create whipped cream,
foams, infusions, and other pressurized culinary delights.

 High-end whipping siphons have three main applications: foaming,
carbonating, and rapid infusion. And you can use rapid infusion to quickly
create foods that traditionally take a long time to make.

32

Water Bath

 A water bath is laboratory equipment made from a container filled with
heated water. It is used to incubate samples in water at a constant
temperature over a long period of time.

33

Drying Cabinets

 BINDER’s Cabinet dryers create a gentle drying environment that requires low space, but
provides a relatively large surface for drying and the ability to make frequent product changes.

 The Cabinet dryer consists of a drying chamber with integrated Horde elevator and heating
system. Thus, efficient drying with minimal space requirements and a relatively large drying
surface can be achieved.

 Cabinet dryers are appropriate for drying the following products:

1. Chemical products: Bulk goods in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries including:
metal oxides, pigments, etc.

2. Fruit & Vegetable products: carrots, beans, peas, dill, parsley, mushrooms, spinach, herbs,
celery, tomatoes, potatoes, olives, figs, dates, bananas, pears, apricots, cherries, apples

3. Meat products: Meat, fish, poultry, pet food

4. Other Products: Chunky products where surface moisture must be dried

34

Cabinet dryer

 Cabinet/tray dryers are used for batch drying of solid foods at small to
moderate scale (say, 2000 to 20 000 kg per day). They are inexpensive and
simple to construct. Cabinet dryers consist of a closed compartment in
which trays containing the food to be dried are placed

35

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Use of chemicals and their effects

( 5 of 5)
• The use of liquid nitrogen, spherification fizz, lecithin foams

• The use of aperol gel, thickening agents e.g. xanthan gum,
alginates,hydrocolloids as moussing and

emulsifying agents

e.g. soya lecithin

• Concerns regarding the use of chemicals in the food chain

 The use of liquid nitrogen

 Liquid nitrogen is actually nitrogen gas, but in the liquid state
at an extremely low temperature. It has been used in the
global food industry since the 1800s to freeze food products
and preserve them quickly. While it isn’t likely to catch fire, it
is extremely cold, and can freeze anything in an instant.

 Nowadays, liquid nitrogen is used to chill drinks, desserts, ice
creams, and glasses. It’s used in the food packaging industry
because it delays foods from turning rancid.

36

Use of chemicals and their effects

 What Is Its Purpose in a Kitchen?

 Because liquid nitrogen is so incredibly cold, it is used to freeze
foods, which it can do almost instantly.

37

http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/edible-innovations/molecular-gastronomy4.htm/

 There are 3 different cooking techniques associated with molecular gastronomy:

1. Foams

2. Spherification

3. Fizz

 Spherification is the process of creating a gel around a liquid, forming a gelled sphere with a
liquid centre. It can be used for almost any food substance. Spheres range in size, with smaller
spheres of a few millimetres bursting like caviar when bitten and larger ones, of up to 3cm,
releasing their liquid similar to an egg yolk

 Fizz

 A well-known example of the fizz technique is when making honeycomb. This is made by adding
bicarbonate of soda to a light caramel.

In fact, if you mix bicarbonate of soda with any form of acid and then add water, it will fizz. For
example, a mixture of bicarbonate of soda, citric acid and icing sugar can be dusted onto toffees,
boiled sweets or dry-skinned fruits to create a tongue-tingling effect.

38

Spherification Fizz

 Lecithin is ideal for making airs, foams, mousses and emulsions. Most
commercial lecithin is extracted from soybeans making it both
vegetarian and vegan friendly. Lecithin contains both hydrophobic
(water-hating) and hydrophilic (water-loving) groups, so it can also be
used in making emulsions.

 Under normal circumstances oil and water do not mix and separate out,
creating two distinct layers, but an emulsifier such as lecithin helps to
combine these two layers, creating a more stable preparation.

39

Lecithin Foams

 A thickening agent or thickener is a substance which
can increase the viscosity of a liquid without substantially
changing its other properties.

 Edible thickeners are commonly used to
thicken sauces, soups, and puddings without altering
their taste.

 Thickeners may also improve the suspension of other
ingredients or emulsions which increases the stability of
the product

40

Thickening Agents

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_substance

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosity

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sauce

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soup

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pudding

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspension_(chemistry)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emulsion

Xanthan gum

is a polysaccharide with many
industrial uses, including as a common food additive.
It is an effective thickening agent and stabilizer to
prevent ingredients from separating. It can be
produced from simple sugars using
a fermentation process, and derives its name from
the species of bacteria

41

Xanthan gum

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polysaccharide

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_additive

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thickening_agent

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stabilizer_(food)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monosaccharide

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermentation

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Species

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria

 Alginate, or alginic acid, is extracted from brown algae
and most commonly available as a sodium salt.
Sodium alginate (a food product derived from brown
algae or seaweed) is a thickening and gelling agent that
forms heat stable gels in the presence of calcium

Alginates

offer many interesting properties allowing
them to be used to thicken, suspend, stabilize, or emulsify

42

Alginates

 Hydrocolloids are water-soluble biopolymers
consisting of high molecular weight polysaccharides

 Some hydrocolloids were also considered as
emulsifying agents, since they help to form and
stabilize oil-in-water emulsions

43

Hydrocolloids as missing and

emulsifying agents

 Introduction to food hydrocolloids 3·

 baked beans contain modified corn starch as a thickener ·

 hoi-sin sauce contains modified corn starch as a thickener ·

 sweet and sour sauce contains guar gum as a thickener ·

 Sunny Delight fruit drink contains modified starch as an emulsifier with carboxymethyl cellulose

 Italian dressing includes xanthan gum as a thickener ·

 `light’ mayonnaise contains guar gum and xanthan gum as fat replacers to enhance viscosity ·

 yoghurt incorporates gelatin as a thickener rather than a gelling agent ·

 Mousse contains modified maize starch as a thickener with guar gum, carrageenan and

 Bramley apple pies contain modified maize starch with sodium alginate as gelling agent ·

 fruit pie bars contain gellan gum and the blackcurrant preserve and redcurrant jelly contain

 pectin as gelling agents

 pectin present as `stabilisers’ ·

44

Hydrocolloids as missing and emulsifying
agents

 What is soy lecithin? Lecithin is a food additive that
comes from several sources — one of them being soy. It’s
generally used as an emulsifier, or lubricant, when added
to food, but also has uses as an antioxidant and flavor
protector. Like many food additives, soy lecithin isn’t
without controversy.

 Soy lecithin is found in dietary supplements, ice cream
and dairy products, infant formulas, breads, margarine,
and other convenience foods

45

Soya Lecithin

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