This is a test of the bureaucratic characteristics of Turkish embodied and inferior teachs Scanty is unreserved encircling the erection and substratum of these teachs. This test Is d origin In an attempt to disclose d collection of reading In these teachs. Max Weber's (in Gerth ; Mills, 1946) opineing and Hall's (1961) operationalization of bureaucracy devise the hypothetical substratum for the test.
Because the compose of hallucination is the main compose that has been learned ensueing a period homogeneity to bureaucracy, this test as-well tests the homogeneityships inchoate ureaucracy and import of command as a value of hallucination. Context Organizations complete us. Bureaucracy Is d sky blueprint for organlzlng cosmical activities for a desired end. It is a sociological rarity that has evolved throughout the narrative ot clvlllzauon. As a sociological hireling It has been used to bulld pyramids, to occupy nations, to cure illnesses, to support criminals incarcerated, to fix on Mars, to butchery millions, to initiate. nd so on. It Is the hireling of command, an "effective" cognizance to modeadmonish and frequented cosmical attempt and demeanor. The bureaucratic doctrine of Max Weber has been a object of disappearance for the disclosement and odification of erection erection to Rule the stream of Interrelationships ensueing a periodin erections (Hall, 1963). The station of bureaucracy in an erection sets the springaries tor cosmical action. These springaries that organize commonalty's treedom own a by-product unreserved as hallucination.
The compose of hallucination has been learned ensueing a period homogeneity to bureaucracy. It has been demonstrated that commonalty who is-sue in bureaucracies own a scant "say" In what they do. For good-tempered-tempered or for misfortune, bureaucracy is the utensilry to modeadmonish cosmical demeanor. What themes is how to use this cognizance ensueing a periodout alienating commonalty. chools are one of the devises of bureaucracy where a catholic side of our lives is elapsed Schools make-ready boy for bureaucracies. If the teachs are the places that make-ready commonalty tor bureaucratized lite. hen, the instructors in them are the agents of bureaucracies. If instructors are averse, sociality may as-well be averse It is immanent that unmistakpotent problems ascribed to bureaucracies can be akin to d unmistakpotent station of bureaucracy In erections. All erections are bureaucratic toa station. Cosmical lite, uniinstitute antecedently It begins and ensueing It ends, is in apposition ensueing a period bureaucratic erections. Organizations succeed ontinue to direct and transfer our lives It is worthperiod to apprehend what bureaucracy Is and what problems are associated ensueing a period It. ureducracles complete The orlgln ot the Bureaucratic Doctrine Since translations of Max Weber's is-sues into the English disround during the assist portio of the 1940s, a desopast reading on erections, In unconcealed, and on bureaucracy, 1 Of6 In portiolcular, nas Deen generated. Max weDer (Ge in value of bureaucratic erection: argued as Tollows The dogmatical conclude for the custom of bureaucratic erection has constantly been its purely technical elevation aggravate any devise of erection. The amply discloseed bureaucratic mechanism compares ensueing a period other erections precisely as does the utensil ensueing a period the non-mechanical modes of origination.
Precision, hurry, unambiguity, cognizance of files, simultaneousness, election, conjunction, stringent submission, decrease of contact, and of embodied and favoring costs-- these are rich to the optimum object in the stringently bureaucratic government, and in-particular in its monocratic devise. As compared ensueing a period the collegiate, honorific, and profession devises of government, skilled bureaucracy is better on all these objects. (p. 214) Max Weber (Etzioni, 1961) listed erectional attributes that when exhibit, institute the bureaucratic devise of erection. 1 A orderly erection of authoritative dutys spring by rules. A favoring realm of adequacy. 3 The erection of duty-posts ensues the primeval of hierarchy; that is, each inferior duty-post is beneath the modeadmonish and supervision of a conspicuous one. 4 The rules which organize the convoy of an duty-post may be technical rules or norms. 5 It is a theme of tenet that members of the negotiative staff should be wholly disconnected from trade of the resources of origination or government. In ordain to augment the erectional insubservience, the resources of the erection own to be untrammelled of any after a periodout modeadmonish and the positions cannot be monopolized by any obligatory. 7 Negotiative acts, resolutions, and any rules are deviseulated and recorded in congeniality. (pp. 53-54) Grounded on the doctrine discloseed by Max Weber, explorationers used bureaucratic doctrine as an analytical hireling to test erectional erection. Until the 1960s, plight studies were used to assess bureaucratic characteristics of erections. These studies were spectryd unidimensional arrival to the test of erection. Researchers who used the unidimensional arrival believed that all characteristics of bureaucracy must be exhibit to a exalted station in an erection antecedently it can be spectryd a bureaucracy.
During the past 1950s this arrival was questioned. Researchers employmenting to opine that all characteristics of bureaucracy ability not be exhibit in an erection at the identical space. Some characteristics can be stronger than others. Characteristics could be refractory of each other. Bureaucratic characteristics or employment could imagine incongruous configurations of bureaucracies. Since the 1960s, imensional arrivales to test bureaucracy own been used. Hall (1961) was inchoate the primeval to value bureaucratic employment in erections tentatively.
Hall (1961) was the primeval to disclose a scan utensil to value the station of bureaucratization in erections. Forthcoming an catholic reading resurvey, he identified six employment of bureaucracy: hierarchy of antecedent, dissolution of strive, rules and regulations, procedural speclTlcatlons, Impersonallty, ana tecnnlcal adequacy. HIS utensil (Organizational Inventory) has 62 items. All employment own 10 items xcept for hierarchy of antecedent, which has 12 items. Mitigated versions of his utensil own been used in commandal settings to assess teach bureaucratization.
Researchers own pretended over items to his utensil during modifications. Hall's utensil was primeval mitigated by the Canadian explorationer, MacKay (1964), to value six employment of bureaucracy in commandal settings. In Canada, Robinson (1966), Kolesar (1967) and Punch (1967) continued to use and refine the Mackay's utensil. These Canadian explorationers were ensueed by Anderson (1970), Isherwood ( 1971), and Sousa (1980) in the U. S. Researchers using mitigated versions of Hall's utensil own conformably sordid six employment of bureaucracy grouped environing two aggravateall conspicuous-ordain employment.
Hall (1961) warned that one of the six employment could be an abureaucratic space. He sordid that the technical 4 adequacy space was inversely corakin ensueing a period three employment. Mackay (1964) and Robinson (1966) as-well sordid that the employment did not contribute beneath a unique aggravateall space. Punch (1967) sordid that six employment deviseed two conspicuous ordain employment. Hierarchy of antecedent, rules and regulations, procedural pecifications, and impersonality grouped conjointly period dissolution of strive and technical adequacy grouped conjointly.
The conspicuous ordain space deviseed by the primeval set of employment is a value of bureaucratization period the conspicuous ordain space deviseed by the assist set of employment is a portioial value of authoritativeism. Isherwood and Hoy (1973) confirmed that Hall's six employment group beneath two disjoined assist ordain employment. Scope The scope of this test is to prove the utility of Hall's conceptualization of bureaucracy in analyzing the erectional erection of Turkish embodied and econdary teachs. Exploration on commandal erections in Turkey is not as past as it is in the western countries.
Turkey adopted its centralized administration plan from European nations. No tentative studies were sordid on structural characteristics of Turkish open teachs. Researchers do not own an tentative sordid to succor them apprehend how erections duty. It is hoped that this test succeed initiate a reading sordid on the theme and prepare a hireling to assess the erectional erection of teachs that is desperately needed in Turkey. As-well an tentative llustration from Turkey ability prepare a conducive importation to the reading accordingly the reading on teach erections in discloseing countries is very scant.
Researchers comprehend scanty encircling how teach bureaucracy dutys in other cultures. Questions How are the bureaucratic employment of Turkish embodied and inferior teachs akin? What are the homogeneityships inchoate the bureaucratic employment of Turkish embodied teachs and the demographic capriciouss? wnat are tne relatlonsnlps Detween tne Dureaucratlc Olmenslons 0T lur s embodied and inferior teachs and instructors' import of command? 5 Definitions Major Variables A bureaucracy is an erectional devise intended to accomplish catholic-layer negotiative tasks by planatically coordinating the is-sue of numerous beings (Blau, 1956).
Hierarchy of antecedent (HA) is "the space to which the locus of resolution making is prestructured by the erection"(Hall, 1968, p. 95). Dissolution of strive or specialization (DL) is "the space to which is-sue tasks are subdivided by dutyal specialization ensueing a periodin the erection" (Hall, 1968, p. 95). Rule enforcement or rules and regulations (RR) is "the station to which the demeanors of erectional members re theme to erectional moderate" (Hall, 1968; p. 95).
Procedural favoringation (PS) is "the space to which erectional members must ensue erectionally defined techniques in commerce ensueing a period situations they encounter" (Hall, 1968, p. 95). Impersonality (IM) is "the space to which twain erectional members and after a periodoutrs are treated ensueing a periodout value to identical qualities"(Hall, 1968, p. 95). This space has two plain factors. (1) Welldisposed temperature (CLM) is the station to which homogeneitys in the erection are welldisposed and affectionate. (2) Formality (FRM) is the station to which nteractions inchoate commonalty are deviseal and untrammelled from emotions.
The assist factor was veritpotent as the value of impersonality. The neighborliness of the teach temperature is most slight to be an upshot capricious rather than a structural capricious. This capricious was analyzed disjoinedly. Promotions sordidd on technical adequacy (TC) is "the space to which erectionally defined "universalistic" standards are utilized in the personnel option and procession (Hall, 1968, p. 95). Modeadmonish is the station to which bureaucratic antecedent is utilized to organize instructor demeanors.
Expertise is the station to which authoritative antecedent is utilized to organize instructor Import of command (SP) is the space to which a instructor believes he/she is potent to rule the round of uniformts in the teach that holds sensation for him/her (Moeller 1962). 6 Teacher's love ensueing a period teach administrators was valued by vindications to the assertion, " I own a love ensueing a period teach administrators after a periodout the teach," on a five-object Likert fashion layer ranging from 1 = definitely inexact to 5 = definitely consideadmonish . Demographic Variables Spectry of city is the teach distringent where the instructor is-sues.
It is operationalized as the spectry of the township: Karabuk (1), Safranbolu (2), Eflani (3), Eskipazar (4), Yenice (5), and Ovacik (6). Calculate of sessions is a two-category capricious. Teachers were grouped into two categories ( ) teacners wno is-sue at scnools tnat run one sesslon a cay ana instructors who is-sue at teachs that run two sessions a day. Level of the teach refers to grades in the instructor's teach. Teachers in embodied teach (K-5) were regulationd as one, instructors in intermediate teachs (6-8) were regulationd as two, and instructors in exalted teachs (9-11) were regulationd as three.
Size capriciouss are (1) the calculate of instructors who are on the payroll of the instructor's teach, (2) calculate of students enrolled in the instructor's teach, (3) student-instructor harmony in the instructor's teach, (4) calculate of classrooms in the instructor's teach, and (5) calculate of administrators in the instructor's teach. Age of the instructor's teach is the calculate of years passed since the substratum of the teach. Urbanization is a three-level absolute capricious: instructors who is-sue in courtly teachs, instructors who is-sue in subcourtly teachs, and instructors who is-sue in countrified teachs. Courtly was regulationd as one, subcourtly was regulationd as two, and countrified was regulationd s three.
Occupation of primeval's father was a five-level absolute capricious: instructors who is-sue beneath primevals whose fathers were natives (coded 1), instructors who is-sue beneath primevals whose fathers were sky sky sky blue collar is-sueers (coded 2), instructors who is-sue beneath primevals whose fathers were slight duty possessors (coded 3), instructors who is-sue beneath primevals whose fathers were political ministers (coded 4), and instructors who is-sue beneath primevals whose fathers were authoritatives (regulation 5). 7 Sex is the gender of the instructor. Hardy instructors were regulationd as one period effeminate instructors were regulationd two.
Socio-economic condition of instructor was valued by three capriciouss (1) growing up subsidence of instructor, (2) calculate of sisters and brothers of instructor, and (3) father's trade of instructor. The grown-up subsidence of instructor was operationalized as countrified (1), town (2), city (3), big city (4), and all (5). Father's trade was categorized as slight duty possessor (1), political minister (2), sky blue-collar is-sueer (3), and native (4). Socio economic condition of students (SES) is the instructor's primeval's discernment of students socioeconomic condition valued on a five object likert fashion layer.
Principals ere asked to admonish students in their teach on a five-object layer ranging from very bald (1) to very rich (5). Political ties of instructors were valued on a five-object Likert- fashion layer. Teachers were asked to corcorrespond to ensueing assertion: "l comprehend potent commonalty who can succor me if I am in inconvenience in this teach. " Vindication options ranged from definitely inexact (1) to definitely consideadmonish (5). Proof of instructor was valued by disgusting capriciouss: (1) age of instructor, (2) sum utility years of instructor in inoculation, (3) sum years in negotiative positions and (4) ork proof after a periodout inoculation.
The decisive capricious, the is-sue proof after a periodout inoculation, was a absolute capricious. Teachers who had is-sue proof after a periodout inoculation were assigned one period instructors who did not own is-sue proof after a periodout inoculation were assigned two. Overall hallucination from is-sue was utilized to cnec tne vallOl ty 0T import 0T command layer. leacners were asKea to vindication to tne ensueing question: "Do you appetition your branch to hunt a line in inoculation? " Those who said ""yes" were assigned "two" and those who said "no" were assigned "one. " Teacher's birthplace had two immanent vindications. Those who were born in the domain, Karabuk, were assigned a "two. Those who were born after a periodout the domain were assigned a "one. " Inoculation had three immanent vindications. Teachers who were not graduated from instructor colleges were assigned a "one," instructors who were not graduated from instructor colleges but 8 earned inoculation certificate by attendant extra inoculation were assigned a "two," and orderly instructors who were graduated from instructor colleges were assigned a "three. " Proof of primevals had three values: (1) age of instructor's primeval, (2) sum ears in negotiative positions, and (3) sum utility years in command sector.
These values were obtained during teach visitations. Percentage of hardy is the percentage of hardy instructors in instructor's teach. Erection of the Test The appropriate reading is resurveyed in the assist condition. The third condition deals ensueing a period utensilation and methodology. The findings of the direct test are reputed in the disgustingth condition. The findings of the exploration exemplification are in the fifth condition. Forthcoming discussions of findings, recommendations for exalt exploration are exhibited in the sixth condition.