Line Follower Robot

UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM| EE2G - Contemplation Report| THE GREAT EGG RACE| | | 25. 01. 2012| Table of Deviation Appendix3 The Bunch Contract3 Introduction4 Reading Review4 Narrative of inconstant robots:4 The narrative of the thread-aftercited robots:5 Ongoing a most past shows on thread-aftercited robots or thread-aftercited domiciled robots:5 Aims:6 Objectives:6 Requirements:6 Mode Decomposition7 Bunch Conduct Structure9 Indicate of the Robot9 Efforthither Design10 Technical Options, Important Retrospect and Latest Contemplation Choice10 Discretion 110 Discretion 211 Review of the Frame12 Retrospect of the Wheels12 Latest Design13 Electronic Design14 Technical Options, Important Retrospect and Latest Contemplation Choice14 The Guide Unit:14 The separated microguide and the concludes: PIC16F64815 Stepper Motors Unit:16 The Driver Unit16 Software Design18 Technical Options, Important Retrospect and Latest Contemplation Choice18 Odd or flush estimate of sensors18 The Estimate of Sensors18 The form in which the sensors are put fabricatecidently18 The inclination of the V19 How does the program labor? 19 Occasion Conduct pur-pose22 Risk Assessment24 Very practicable, low consume and practicable risks24 The pur-poses we enjoy favoringally conclude up succeeding a competentness for the Robot show25 Components Wish List26 Conclusion28 References29 Appendix The Bunch Abbreviate As a bunch, EGM had one target, to produce estate to ICKI. This would not fall but succeeding a competentness friendship and arduous labor. By signing this abbreviate you declare: * EGM succeed do the functions they are legitimate for by the inner defunctthread ruled. * If EGM had any problems fulfilling any of their responsibilities they should acquaint the bunch director in gait. EGM should end up all their bunch mates in unlocked-for and arduous predicaments. * EGM should expectation their bunch mates for their calibre of doing their own responsibilities notwithstanding this does not moderation that they cannot say their theory and effects. * As the labor demolish down has been ruled when the solid bunch enjoy been fabricatecidently, EGM is not recognized to effort encircling the tenuity in the labor segregation disfloating the rudiments of the bunch. * In any contingency when all the bunch rudiments cannot get to acquiesce on one theme they succeed enjoy to estimate votes. If they tie they succeed enjoy to ask a special’s theory solid bunch rudiment expectations. (Or they can flip a fabricate resourcely. ) * If EGM wants to alter any of the pur-poses, they should sift-canvass it succeeding a competentness the tranquillity of the bunch original. They are not recognized to recognize doing colossus and do it in their own way succeeding a competentnessout a bunch acquiescement. * EGM is legitimate for synchronous all the bunch meetings spontaneous they enjoy a convincing conclude not doing so. If any of the bunch rudiments disobeys any of the statements overhead, the tranquillity of the bunch has the equitable to refer their vestige upon acquiescement. Delaram SharifiZhanar Samayeva Hedieh Ekhlasi Xun Liu Introduction The resolve of this primal news is to retrospect the composed pur-pose made in dispose to adequate the consecrated Robot Project. This show is consecrated to solid relieve year and the resolve of the show is to contemplation and compose an autonomous robot that should ensue the ebon thread vestige on a unweighty endground. Original there is an overview on the thread ensueer robots in reading retrospect , The endowment, objectives and insist-uponments succeed ensue the retrospect. Reading Review The thread-aftercited robots are classified inferior the “Mobile Robots”. Inconstant Robots are the robots which do not enjoy a agricultural mean; they can gradation environing and do not physically staywithhold at one precipitation. These peels of robots are fairly gigantic as it is wayic in this separate of the condition from Wikipedia’s Inconstant robot is wayic underneath: “Mobile robots are the rendezvous of a gigantic dispense of floating discovery and almost solid gravityy university has one or over labs that rendezvous on inconstant robot discovery. Inconstant robots are so rest in assiduity, soldierly and pledge environments. They so profession as consumer products, for invigoration or to act undeniable functions enjoy vacuum, gardening and some other mean intimate functions. ” Narrative of inconstant robots: The original inconstant robots were built during the World War II succeeding a competentness the deep resolve of supple departure bombs and radars. The present generations would ensue a unweighty spring, enumerate if there are any obstacles and terminate in themselves when their battery was low and according to the needs they would enjoy unanalogous functions and made bulky rectifyments in the journey so that they meet a very spacious class of features. Line-aftercited robots which are the deep theme of this show are classified as “Land or Home Wheeled” robots. It is indispensable to be said that the technology is far over past now that the robots succeeding a competentness ethnical enjoy or voluptuous enjoy legs to furnish disturbance rather than legs rest. The technology has past as far as making alert ethnical-enjoy robot (Androids), succeeding a competentness a miscellany of capabilities such as symbolical, signification fame, visage fame, ethnical enjoy gradationments, dancing and singing. The resolves astern these shows are advenient from a miscellany of endgrounds as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved such as: Intimate robot which can inferiortakes any of a seed stayholds maid’s duties and investigation fable movie remarkable. The guide estimateries in Android are Japan, Korea, the US, the UK and Iran. The acquaintation overhead are to profession how gait the technology has past in inconstant robots but past the endowment set for this show insist-upon very ample inferior delineatione of inferiorstanding the inconstant robots, this theme succeed not be sift-canvassed further. The narrative of the thread-aftercited robots: The contemplations of the original thread-attendant robot in 1960 was basically built for the resolve of getting guideled from globe competentness it is on the moon using a camera on it for styleing images and video which has been fruitless. At 1970 the robot ended up ensueing a violent contrariety colorhither thread inferior guideled unweightying provisions at a expedite of encircling 0. 8 mph which is tolerably unanalogous to this robot showpast we enjoy over past programming equipment and styleors, the robot of ours uses sensors rather than the video cameras to use hither style. The deep aim is totally unanalogous too. The fist thread-aftercited robot was ensueed by over interchangeable used robots for which could do vacuuming and cleaning the floor. They used sensors to get the objects out of their way which is the way in which this show’s robot succeed enumerate its vestige, using sensors. Ongoing a most past shows on thread-aftercited robots or thread-aftercited domiciled robots: The most past of the thread ensueers according to the Wikipedia, DARPA website, Kiva modes and spec -minder website are : “DARPA Urban Grand Challenge, succeeding a competentness six miens autonomously completing a abstruse thread involving manned miens and obstacles.  “Kiva Systems clforever robots proliferate in classification actions; these spruce shelving items style themselves according to the amplespreadity of their deviation. The Tug becomes a amplespread moderations for hospitals to gradation liberal cabinets of store from establish to establish. ” “The Speci-Minder succeeding a competentness Motivity begins conveying dignity and other resigned samples from nurses' stations to diversified labs. “ “Seekur, the original spaciously adapted, non-soldierly outdoor employment robot, pulls a 3-ton mien resisting a parking lot , expedites autonomously indoors and begins apprehendledge how to saunter itself succeeding a occasionout. “Boston Dynamics released video footage of a new generation BigDog able to march on icy terrain and remeet its enumerateerpoise when kicked from the posteriorality. ” The mentioned robots are very past using not singly basic inobservant switch sensors but so cameras to discover whatforever their resolve is. Past this show insist-upons elementary separation to form the robot built secure and labor secure these could not very ample aid in the style of structure the robot. According to the websites and so newss adapted on the internet, solid university which does computer investigation or electrical engineering has got some peel of robot show and deeply thread ensueers. The favoring favoringations are moderately unanalogous but in all shows the deep resolve is practicing an familiar show in veritable estate and discerning how to use elementary and alert circumference contemplation, program and implementation. The MINI Thread ensueer robot for sample has the most homogeneous favoringations to this show. The robot needs to ensue a thread potentialitying up by a battery succeeding a competentness dimension boundaryations. Kerman, Judith B. (1991). Retrofitting Blade Runner: Issues in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner and Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Fresh State University Widespread Press. ISBN 0-87972-509-5. Perkowitz, Sidney (2004). Digital People: From Bionic Humans to Androids. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 0-309-09619-7. Shelde, Per (1993). Androids, Humanoids, and Other Investigation Fable Monsters: Investigation and Soul in Investigation Fable Films. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-7930-1. http://www. stanford. edu/~learnest/cart. htm http://www. richardvannoy. info/building-a-line-following-robot. pdf http://ikalogic. com/proj_mini_line_folower. php ttp://online. physics. uiuc. edu/courses/phys405/P405_Projects/Fall2005/Robot_project_jaseung_. pdf http://nereus. mech. ntua. gr/pdf_ps/aim11. pdf Aims: * To contemplation and compose an autonomous robot * The robot to be adequated on occasion * To found the robot succeeding a competentness its utmost expedite * Found the robot succeeding a competentness all the possibilities to win the pursuit Objectives: * To conclude up succeeding a competentness the effects * To labor as a team. Retrospect and custom the skills of teamlabor * To get apprehendledge of modes engineering * Rectify electronic and attempthither skilled contemplation skills Requirements: * The robot must ensue the thread a) The thread is 50mm spacious b) The thread is 10m desire c) The thread is sombre on colorhither endgspherical d) The thread has utmost recesss of 900 e) The thread is vapid * The robot must gradation onward * The robot must convey an egg a) The lump of egg is 25gr (approx. ) b) The dimension of egg is 5cm x 3cm (approx. ) Mode Resolution Mode is an unembarrassed, resolveful constituency guarded as a all and consisting of interallied and interdependent elements such as rudiments, entities, factors, rudiments, or separates. According to the Robot Project, the robot itself is the mode, as it is consists of unanalogous subsystems, competentness the subsystems made of the rudiments. Life over allied to the Robot, it can be explained as the Mechanical, Electronic and Software Designs are the deep subsystems, competentness the elements of each submode is defined as the rudiments. The condition underneath professions the Robot mode resolution for emend explanation: Condition [ 1 ]- The Mode Resolution for the robot Bunch Conduct Constituency During the meetings the labor allocations inadequate bunch rudiments were sift-canvassed. The labors as attemptless, electronic, programming, news, DVD film and logbody were disjoined inadequate each in the bunch. To grant one labor segregation per bunch rudiment moderations to put a big business on him, as solid separate has a big aggregate of not comfortable labor to be produced, and it can object the difficulty in inferiorstanding the job that succeed administer to vicissitude. So solid separate has two rudiments to labor on it, and solid bunch rudiment has 3 jobs to be produced by the end of the show and the labor allocations are as ensueings: * Team Director : Delaram Sharifi * Mechanical: Zhanar ; Hedieh Electronic: Xun ; Delaram * Programming: Delaram ; Hedieh * Reports: Zhanar ; Hedieh * DVD Film: Xun ; Zhanar * Logbook: Delaram ; Xun Indicate of the Robot The original creature was produced by bunch is creating the indicate for the advenient robot. This style made the bunch to be over opened, close-knit, and conceptional, as polite-behaved-behaved-behaved as the style aided to rectify the team laboring. A lot of discretions we attended, but the deep aim of giving the indicate was to compose colossus that can ponder all of the bunch rudiments in one indicate. So the pastst excellent made by the bunch is the indicate ICKI. It stayholds by the estimateries of the each bunch rudiment which are Iran, China, Kazakhstan, and Iran intermittently. Efforthither Contemplation Efforthither contemplation for the robot presents manifold defys and its deep effect is to form it elementary and affordable. The attempthither contemplation of autonomous robot is including: * Robot’s Wheels. They are one of the most gigantic assemblies of the attempthither platform. * Robot’s Frame. This bring-encircling is attempthither platform of robot and due to the bring-encircling all the separates are staywithhold fabricatecidently * Motors. To guide the expedite and outoutverse of the robot. * Sensors. To discover the outline. Technical Options, Important Retrospect and Latest Contemplation Excellent During one of the meetings there are two discretions of attempthither contemplation were sift-canvassed. Two bunch rudiments legitimate for the contemplation presented their effects to the bunch succeeding a competentness all the aspects, advantages and disadvantages. The discretion as ensueings: Discretion 1 The original discretion was presented as the robot succeeding a competentness the spherical form. Then the robot would enjoy 2 wheels by the left and equitable posterioralitys, 2 motors, thread succeeding a competentness 5 sensors in the aspect and the bring-encircling of HDPE (High Density Poly Ethylene), i. e. yielding. Condition 2-Round Form Discretion 2 The relieve discretion is to form over unwritten, the athwart one. The athwart robot succeeding a competentness the bring-encircling and mean of Aluminum or HDPE, succeeding a competentness 2 wheels on the posterioralitys and succeeding a competentness the “V” form thread sensors and the skid on the aspect. The skid succeed aid to guide the enumerateerpoise. Condition 3-Rectangular Form Succeeding presenting the discretions of the attempthither contemplation for the robot some advantages and disadvantages were written for each of the discretion that aided the bunch to cull the equitable one. During the sift-canvassion of the contemplation, three creatures were attended: calibre, unweighty gravity and low to the premise. As desire as two motors are used for the composeion of the robot and each motor can grasp one wheel, the neediness in wheels is fair for two. So two wheels conjoined to the motors at the end of the robot is abundance to guide the masquerade and the skid conjoined to the sensor consultation in the aspect can aid the autonomous robot guide the enumerateerpoise. The robot’s dimension is to be encircling 12cm to 14 cm and 4 cm is for the wheels. Retrospect of the Bring-encircling The bring-encircling is the basic constituency to which solidcreature should be unshaken and Aluminum and HDPE were attended as the bring-about. First of all, Aluminum is sound, unweighty, and comfortable to cut and discipthread competentness HDPE is the selfselfcorresponding unweighty, sound, comfortable to form and cut but so the common one. In alikeity, HDPE has a very low ardent conductivity, and a violenter potentiality to gravity relative than Aluminum. Retrospect of the Wheels All the bunch rudiments acquiesced that the liberal transversion wheels grant the robot low torque but violent fleetness and if the motors sound abundance then the wheels succeeding a competentness liberalr transversion emend to use. The expedite of the robot depends on the dimension of the wheels and it is cheerful to enjoy them inadequate 1cm and 2 cm. Here are some advantages and disadvantages of the original and relieve discretions that were made during the sift-canvassions on the meetings: | Original OptionThe Spherical Shape| Relieve OptionThe Athwart Shape| Advantages| * Beautiful, extraordinary contemplation * HDPE bring-encircling | * HDPE bring-encircling * The aspect skid * “V” form thread sensors * Compact| Disadvantages| * Remoteness inadequate wheels and sensors is not abundance to form deflects equitable succeeding the sensor is discovered * Not abundance of remoteness for circumference consultation, 2 motors and sensors, that forms the contemplation not compound| * Usual Design| Table [ 1 ] Advantages and Disadvantages for the contemplation discretions Final Contemplation Insertion into acestimate all the retrospects made and the table of advantages and disadvantages the sentence was made is to cull the relieve discretion of the attempthither contemplation, and to alter some nuances as to use HDPE for the bring-encircling fabricatecidently succeeding a competentness the “V” form thread sensors (so see Software Design) and add a spoon in the average inadequate the wheels that is the best lie to suppress the enumerateerpoise for an egg. So the pastst consequence would contemppast enjoy: Condition 4-Final Contemplation Electronic Contemplation The Circumference is consisted of 5 items. Sensors are acting as the input. The guide item guides solid rudiment in the circumference. The expediter furnishs abundance potentiality for the strideper motor to gradation the robot. The Potentiality surrender potentialitys up the all circumference. Sensors Guide Item Driver Stepper Motors Potentiality Surrender Condition 5-Block Diagram Technical Options, Important Retrospect and Latest Contemplation Excellent The Guide Unit: AVR/PIC/8051 8051: an old but very amplespread guideler. The older 8051s are peel of slow: 12 clocks per counsel. Newer 8051s enjoy 6 clocks per counsel up to 1 clock per counsel. The preoption of low pin estimate shows is a bit poor. Most 8051s enjoy an manifest fame bus that forms it comfortable to add fame and peripherals. CISC has unreserved C compiler. PIC: Slightly hither old than the 8051. PICs are amplespread succeeding a competentness twain industrial developers and hobbyists aenjoy due to their low consume, spacious availability, liberal user mean, enlightened store of contact notes, availability of low consume or unreserved fruit tools, and serial programming (and re-programming succeeding a competentness glitter fame) calibre. AVR: The newest structure by encircling 20 years. Designed for a pipeline, so has a very cheerful clocks/instruction. Cheerful class of shows: inferior and common succeeding a competentness fairly violent actance. It is very C politedisposed beobject of the RISC. Comparison: Selections: AVR=PIC;8051; Price: AVR=8051;PIC; For beginners: 8051;PIC;AVR; C language: AVR=PIC;8051; Anti-interference: AVR=PIC;8051; Latest Excellent We enjoy used PIC in a few illustrations, so we are affable succeeding a competentness it. Moreover, in university we fair enjoy equipment for program the PIC, so we ruled to use the PIC. The separated microguide and the concludes: PIC16F648 The PIC16F84 was separated for its inferior dimension, comfortable reprogram ability and interrupts it is clocked at 4 MHZ by a ceramic resonator and it can be flush potentialityed by 4 AA rechargeable batteries (Very low waste). These selfselfcorresponding batteries potentiality the motors. This is usually not recommended past surges in motor floating can interest the styleors action, but succeeding a competentness decoupling caps in establish and the watchdog occasionr life used in the software no problems were apprehendledged. The watchdog could reset the styleor if it went besotted precedently you could forforever see it act up. Succeeding all, we attended the estimate of inputs and outputs. The inputs are estimate of sensors we enjoy which is 7, and outputs are motors. So PIC16F648 which we enjoy used disagreeent occasions has abundance bit (8-bit PORTA, 8-bit PORTB). Stepper Motors Unit: Servo motor/Stepper motor Servo motor: A servomotor (servo) is an electroefforthither show in which an electrical input enumerates the lie of the armature of a motor. Servos are used enlightenedly in robotics and radio-controlled cars, airplanes, and boats. Stepper motor: A strideper motor (or stride motor) is a brushhither DC electric motor that can multiply a unmeasured deflect into a liberal estimate of strides. The motor's lie can be guideled indisputably succeeding a competentnessout any feedend mechanism (an open-loop guideler), as desire as the motor is cautionfully dimensiond to the contact. Comparison: Both kinds of motors present homogeneous opportunities for exact lieing, but they disagree in a estimate of ways. Servomotors insist-upon analogue feedend guide modes of some kind. Typically, this involves a potentiometer to furnish feedend encircling the rotor lie, and some mix of circumferencery to expedite a floating through the motor inversely proportional to the disagreeence inadequate the desired lie and the floating lie Latest Choice: Servo motor needs abstruse analogue feedend circumferences. And we enjoy used strideper motor precedently. Notwithstanding strideper motor succeed be consecrated to us, so we chose strideper motor. The Driver Unit L298&L297/L293D A motor guideler is a show or bunch of shows that serves to command in some predetermined style the actance of an electric motor. [1] A motor guideler rule comprise a manual or unimpassioned moderations for set-on-footing and intermission the motor, selecting onward or inversion deflect, selecting and predominant the expedite, predominant or boundarying the torque, and indemnifying intermittentlyst overloads and faults. Three ways to expedite a strideper motor: Use a transistor to expedite each implication. But It was a tiny gawky to wire up the circumference - consultation remoteness. Also, it insist-upons 4 pins on the PIC to expedite the motor. Use a expediter adorn lotd in an IC. Don't obliviate to wire in the refuge diodes! (i. e. SAA1027, L298, L293D) Use a specialized strideper motor expediter remnant. It would husband on consultation remoteness, and pin manner. As the expense of strideper motor expedite remnant is very extravagant and 4 transistors to expedite each implication may form the consultation a lump. So we cull strideper motor expediter IC. L298 has floating calibre of 2A compared to 0. 6 A of a L293D. L293D’s lot is not competent for attaching a cheerful ardor decay; skilledly you can’t use it overhead 16V succeeding a competentnessout frying it. L298 on the other attemptman labors happily at 16V succeeding a competentnessout a ardor decay, so we cull L298. And in the factssheet we discover out that it’s emend to couple L298 succeeding a competentness L297. * It needs to be attended that in-reference-to to the latitude potentiality surrender is going to add to the circumference a ardor decay needs to be comprised in the consultation inadequately it would colliquate. Software Contemplation Technical Options, Important Retrospect and Latest Contemplation Excellent The software to be used in dispose to program the pic CCS C Compiler, as it is the polite-behaved-behaved-known software for the bunch. This software was used to do illustration laboratories for EE2A thread and to use CCS C Compiler to program the robot succeed be over than ample and aidful. Odd or flush estimate of sensors Twain odd and flush estimates are practicable to use, the bunch has separated the odd to growth the faultlessness and form the sequence over inferiorstandable and absolved. As it succeed be explained how the program labors, it succeed be absolved how they twain can be used. The Estimate of Sensors * 3: The program would labor, but not deferential abundance. All deflects, no substance liberal or inferior succeed be reacted the selfsame. * 7: Again, the program succeed labor, but needs far too ample extra attempt, growths the occasion of styleing the facts and forms the sequence very implicated. 5: Is a fully showy estimate, succeed grant the occasion to discover the deflects in two unanalogous stages so that the robot can form the deflects promptly abundance and succeeding a competentness over faultlessness. The form in which the sensors are put fabricatecidently * An uplaterality down V: Where the average sensor is in the aspect, ensueed by two sensors, spaciousr from each other in the end and ensueed by another two sensors, spaciousr at the very end. This succeed not labor beobject the deflect is discovered by the spaciousr sensors posterior than the equitable occasion for to gradation to be graspn from the robot. This way may be deferential but would not aid the robot life secure. thread: Where all the sensors are at the selfselfcorresponding delineatione. This way is emend than the cessation but stagnant succeed not form the robot to discover the liberalr deflects promptlyer in dispose to form the reaction at the equitable occasion. * V: The average sensor is at the very end recess, two sensors succeeding a competentness a spaciousr remoteness concludes present and the conclusive two, intermittently spaciousr at the aspect. This way forms the robot inferiorwithhold the liberal inclinations promptlyer succeeding a competentness the external sensors, so that the robot succeed set-on-foot deflecting promptlyer than the inferiorer inclinations which are discovered by the average sensors. The inclination of the V The inclination should not be too inferior, beobject the robot succeed set-on-foot the deflects too forthcoming, and it should not be very spacious beobject then it would not form any disagreeence from the lifenear form. This is to be apprehendledged during the testing style but the ruled inclination at this occasion is 120 degrees. How does the program labor? As it has been explained precedently, there are 5 sensors to be used in the robot. The fame of the deflects has been explained in 4 provisions underneath. The fresh dispersions speciapast the sensors which enjoy discovered the sombre thread and the red dispersions speciapast the sensors which enjoy discovered the colorhither demeanor. The fresh dispersion is the logic “1” and the red is the logic “0”. Recognized lies of the sensors In this predicament, when singly the average sensor discovers the sombre thread, the robot gradations nearest onward succeeding a competentnessout any deflects. The logic is “00100” 2. 5 cm Condition 4- The recognized lie of the sensors Over than 50? deflects including the 90? : When the deflect is over than 50 degrees, the external sensor arrive-ats the deflect promptlyer than the average sensor, so that the robot succeed set-on-foot deflecting prior, or if ruled secureer as polite-behaved-behaved. The logic is “00101”. Condition 5-The over than 50? deflects. It so needs to be said that if the liberal deflects are falling for a very tiny competentness (for hither than 4. 5 cm), the average sensor succeed perception the deflect original so that the robot would not alter the outoutverse to secure and get out of guide. Hither than 50? deflect: When the deflect is over than 50? , the average sensor arrive-ats the deflect original, so that the robot set-on-foots deflecting at a concludeable occasion to contrive the deflect. The logic is “00110” Condition 6-The hither than 50? deflects Approximately 50 degrees deflects: At this predicament, twain average and external sensor arrive-at the deflect at the selfselfcorresponding occasion. The logic is “00111”. Condition 7- ? 50 ? Occasion Conduct pur-pose Due to EE2G1 module, students enjoy gleant how to contrive their occasion in consecrated shows using the graphs, charts and tables. Here is the Gantt chart that consists of two tables. The original one aids to dissect what functions has to be produced, when it has to be set-on-footed and what aggregate of occasion is consecrated and so grants the acquaintation encircling each function, if it is sequential or correspondent. Task| Earliest Set-on-foot (week)| Length (week)| Type| Dependent on…| A. Violent Plane segregation| Week 0| 1 week| Sequential| | B. Selection of Efforthither Contemplation and Components| Week 1| 1 week| Sequential| A| C. Detailed Segregation of Electronics for Robot| Week 1| 1 week| Sequential| A| D. Efforthither Design| Week 2| 2 weeks| Sequential| B| E. Circumference Design| Week 2| 2 weeks| Sequential| C| F. Found Mechanics| Week 4| 2 weeks| Sequential| D| G. Found Circuit| Week 4| 1 weeks| Sequential| E| H. Construction| Week 6| 1 week| Sequential| F, G| I. Programming| Week 3| 3-4 weeks| Parallel| D, E, F, G, H, | J. Testing| Week 7| 4 weeks| Sequential| H, I| K. Demonstration| Week 11| -| Sequential| J| Table 1 – Gantt Table Summarizing the original table, acquaintation should be communicated to the chart. The chart aids visualize all the consecrated functions and the occasion consecrated to adequate them. Week| 0| 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| 10| 11| (1) A. Violent Plane Analysis| (1) B. Preoption Of Efforthither Contemplation and Components| (1) C. Detailed Segregation of Electronics for Robot| (2) D. Mechanical Design| (2) E. Circumference Design| (2) F. Found Mechanics| (1) G. Found Circuit| (1) H. Construction| (3-4) I. Programming| (4-5) J. Testing| DEMONSTRATION| Chart 1 – Gantt Chart Risk Assessment As solidcreature else, this show has its own risks and possibility of efforts. We cannot seal the problems from falling, but we can attend the ways we would contrive if they enjoy falled. There are unanalogous kinds of problems which may supervene, some succeeding a competentness liberal possibility but practicable mischief, some succeeding a competentness very tiny possibility but disastrous mischiefs. The bunch has conclude succeeding a competentness some effects encircling these risks and how to contrive them which are as ensues: Very practicable, low consume and practicable risks Burning the electrical rudiments such as the PIC or the potentiality springs: 1. Keeping cheerful caution of the over extravagant rudiments, putting them in a lie which produces the possibility of the mischief to the smallest practicable. 2. Having resources for each rudiment, over for the common and over burnable ones, hither for the over extravagant and smallest burnable ones. Losing the documents, programs or rudiments: 1. Insertion cheerful caution of where the materials are husbandd or put, haply transcribe the establishs down or divide succeeding a competentness other bunch mates in contingency for fame detriment. 2. Having a photo of each page of the written documents, copies of the electronic nonsense on unanalogous establishs, and having a roll for the rudiments we enjoy to pack solid occasion. The A pur-pose’s need : 1. Having a pur-pose Bs and Pur-pose Cs for all the Pur-pose As. . Pur-pose Bs can be for a alter in the A pur-pose, but pur-pose Cs are totally unanalogous ways in contingency the all pur-pose has been a all of a lot of waste-matter. 3. Having the legitimate special opportune for the pur-poses when the need concludes so that the alter can be alert and comfortable. Running out of occasion: 1. Having someone legitimate for the pur-poses to go as it has been ruled in the occasion contrivement pur-pose, insertion caution of flush sunweighty past consequences to forefend the sum of inferiors beadvenient a bulky stay. 2. Intermission fupright attacks or they succeed object over stay. 3. Keeping solidcreature elementary and commandly in dispose to form the effort shooting secureer and easier. The pur-poses we enjoy favoringally conclude up succeeding a competentness for the Robot show 1. Insertion cheerful caution of the PIC, having resources for all the rudiments. 2. Saving the programs on fame sticks, computer and email. 3. Keeping pictures of the important pages of the log body. 4. Having an resource way of programming for the thread discovering bits. 5. Having some discretions for the rudiments adapted in contingency the robot doesn’t labor out succeeding a competentness them. 6. Having a map of the circumference succeeding a competentness all the explanations encircling wiring and connections. . Keeping the familiar circumference scrupulous and commandly, the wires low and the colors equitable. Components Wish Roll According to the contemplation sentences, the roll of rudiments needed for the show can be made. There are some basic rudiments insist-upond in dispose to adequate the attemptless, electrical and software contemplation of the robot, such as: * HDPE for the bring-encircling and chassis * 2 wheels * 1 skid * 2 DC strideper motors * Sensors * Circumference consultation * Capacitors, resistors, Diodes, Transistors (referring to the deep rudiments) * Microguide * LED’s Solid bunch is furnishd succeeding a competentness 40 ? n dispose to buy the rudiments needed. The table underneath professions the abut expense estimations: Wheels| ? 2-3| PIC16F648 (2)| ? 4| Sensors (5)| ? 5| HDPE yielding| ? 10| LED’s| ? 5| Screw Box| ? 2| Resistors| ? 2| Capacitors| ? 2| Skid| ? 2-3| Ardor Sink| ? 3| Conclusion This show is not singly for making thread ensueer pursuit robot but it is so a gigantic and veritableistic custom for bunch labor and show contrivement. This is a arduous defy and is singly practicable to contrive succeeding a competentness concert, arduous labor, motivation and sensation. Each indivisible rudiment gleans how to vie succeeding a competentness unanalogous theorys and effects. They glean to be indulgent and do not let anycreature specialal get implicated in the labor past this may prostration the politedisposed environment disfloating the bunch rudiments. By doing this show a lot of skills succeed be familiar such as: * Bunch labor * Occasion contrivement and laboring by defunctlines * Labor demolish down in correspondent aggregate disfloating bunch rudiments * Sentence making * Risk contrivement * Budget contrivement * Established succeeding a competentness occasion boundary and in stressful provisions * Starting a show from skim, developing effects and making rectifyments * Underinsertion risks and responsibilities * Keeping cheerful and trustworthy documentation Keeping motivation and congratulation disfloating the bunch feed or defunct By the end of this show we succeed enjoy produced a adequate show contrivement pur-pose and implementation. We succeed apprehend how to visage efforts and problems and hopefully this is going to be a gigantic fame of how we gleant to contrive a veritable show in custom. References Onthread Documents: * BASIC ROBOT MECHANICS TUTORIALS, (2005-1012). Society of Robots. Retrieved from http://www. societyofrobots. com/mechanicsbasics. shtml * Priyank PatilDepartment of Notice Technology S. W. Nawawi, M. N. Ahmad, J. H. S Osman (2008). “Real-Time Guide of a Two Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Inconstant Robot * http://forum. pololu. com/ * * Ooi, Rich Chi (2003). “Balancing a Two-Wheeled Autonomous Robot”. University of Western Australia. Thesis B. Mechatronics Engineering. * Ong, Yin Chee; Abidin, M. S. B (2006). “Design and Fruit of Two Wheeled Autonomous Balancing Robot”, Center for Artificial Intell. ; Robotic (CAIRO), University Technology Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 4th Student Discourse on Discovery and Fruit (SCOReD 2006), Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA, 27-28 June, 2006. Vivien Coelho; Stanley Liew; Karl Stol; Guangyu Liu (2008). “Development of a Inconstant Two-Wheel Balancing Platform for Autonomous Applications”. Department of Efforthither Engineering, the University of Auckland. 15th International discourse on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Custom (M2VIP08), 2-4 Dec 2008, Auckland, New-Zealand. * Jose Miranda (2009), “Application of Kalman Filtering and PID Guide for Direct Inverted Pendulum Control”. Master Thesis, California State University, Chico Spring 2009. * R. Hollis, “BallBots,” Scientific American, October 2006. Retrieved February 4, 2009. Adapted at the World Spacious Web: http://www. sciam. com/article. cfm? id=ballbots * Pakdaman, M. ; Sanaatiyan, M. M. (2009), "Design and Implementation of Thread Attendant Robot," Computer and Electrical Engineering, 2009. ICCEE '09. Relieve International Discourse on , vol. 2, no. , pp. 585-590, 28-30 Dec. 2009 * Priyank Patil (2010), “AVR Thread Aftercited Robot,” Department of Notice Technology K. J. Somaiya College of Engineering Mumbai, India. Retrieved Mar 5, 2010. Adapted at: http://www. kmitl. ac. th/~kswichit/ROBOT/Follower. pdf * Swope Design. Inc. , “Balancing Robots Made Easy”, Adapted at: http:// www. Balbots. com, 2004. * Miller Peter (2008), “Building a Two Wheeled Balancing Robot”, University of Southern Queensland, Faculty of Engineering and Surveying. Retrieved Nov 18, 2009. Adapted at: http://eprints. usq. edu. au/6168/ -------------------------------------------- [ 2 ]. Each Bunch Rudiment [ 3 ]. Statements can be added to this abbreviate upon the solid bunch’s acquiescement [ 4 ]. Inconstant Robot, Wikipedia website: [http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Mobile_robot] [ 5 ]. http://ikalogic. com/proj_mini_line_folower. php