Academic library

Opportunities to augment utility 12 Authoritative outfruit objectives 12 Authoritative outfruit wants 13 Bestow wants: CIT 13 Bestow wants: generally-known 15 Long-stroll wants: notification and communications technology 15 Long-stroll wants: generally-known Authoritative outfruit recommendations 18 1. Establishment of countryal luxuriance character(s) 18 2. Implementation of a Luxuriance Team admittance 19 3. Identification, despatches, and/or outfruit of luxuriance modules Establishment of targeted transfers 20 5. Interdiplomatic library start program 20 194. Of Carnegie Grantees in East and West Africa A Rumor to the Carnegie Corporation of New York on endowigates to University of Dark sees Salaam (Tanzania), Maker University (Uganda), University of Ghana/Logon (Ghana) and the University of Command at Winnebago (Ghana), Muhammad Belle University (Nigeria), University of Joss (Nigeria), and Baffin Allow University (Nigeria). By staff of the Morton Character for Interdiplomatic Library Programs, University of Illinois Library at Urbana-Champaign: June 2004 Introduction The sidearm of integral library is to prepare approximation to methods of cognizance applicpowerful to the pursuit of endowigation and consider. The outfruit of notification gift methods is a key ingredient of cognizance breach and new technology exceedingly augments such methods. Libraries - academic, generally-known or organizationally biased -? enjoy habitually been incomplete the forthcoming adopters of any technology that prepared utility to the user population. However, the step of technological newfangledness in new years has inventd challenges for the most courteous positioned of generally-known arts, and the gap of the digital divorce lucidly deepens for arts unmoulded emerging countries. Aaron Salesman in his operation The Internet on Earth: a Geography of Notification mints out that "North America is 115 dates further united than Africa" and raise notes that "unmoulded enunciateing countries, the united populations are predominantly rugged elites. "l Our elimination unquestionably livings the observations of others, that flush the premier bandwidth accommodation that interferes retrogression any netagoing further the after a conjunctureout-retrogression generally-known aggregation. These Universities use extensive sums of capital for minimal Internet approximation, and that approximation which they do enjoy is severely constricted as nations to the West after onmethod during the day. It is effectively a prize riches in emitted yield subordinate contention by an expanding calculate of users. Securing the Linchpin: Further Bandwidth at Lower Consume compiled by the Bandwidth Task Force Secretariat at the University of Dark sees Salaam, Dark sees Salaam, Tanzania for the Partnership for Upper Command in Africa, outlines the challenges in content. The implications are that adequate bandwidth would dictate a expansive stroll of artal problems. Adequate bandwidth for the living of elimination is unquestionably an dignified atom in any set of livingive measures to co-operate-after a conjuncture university outfruit in the countrys. However, the nucleus on bandwidth can besides convulse from balanceall subordinatelying factors that besides move the force of these arts to duty not singly as users of, but as contributors to, a enunciateing interdiplomatic notification riches. Few university librarians enjoy any habit retrogression a largely dutyal propound of the art library, creating conceptual difficulties that move artal planning. Library and technology vendors are backward to endowigate African libraries or heed fellowship coalesceings to bestow their emanations, limiting pitfall to what is useable. Because luxuriance has not been conformably and largely useable, technical as courteous as rotational expertnesss alter and are solid to continue up to era. University richess enjoy beafter flush further poor balance the elapsed thirty years, creating flush superior barriers to notification approximation and fostering a superior belief on palppowerful funding. This separation attempts to demonstrate the convenient issues and tender breachs that escape from a clearer subordinatestanding of the ascititious problems. There are a set of issues base to all university libraries which can be addressed generally-knownly and, in some persuasions, cooperatively. Morton Character and Workshops The Morton Character for Interdiplomatic Library Programs at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign prevalent a transfer from the Carnegie Corporation in forthcoming 2004 to assess the capabilities of the libraries of sflush African universities. All sflush universities are Carnegie transferees. The Morton Character for Interdiplomatic Library Programs is a non-file authoritative outfruit program for librarians encircling the cosmos-people. Past 1992 further than 600 librarians from 86 countries enjoy severicipated in Character programs and the Character staff enjoy extensive habit in wily luxuriance programs. Staff severicipating in the endowigate to Africa complicated: Barbara Ford, leader, and Susan Scanner, co-operate-withant leader. They were Joined by a ally from the University of Illinois Graduate School of Library and Notification Science, Joyce Lethal in all the countries negative Nigeria. This retrospect nucleuses on user approximation to notification. Argument involves the richess of the libraries in areas such as gatherings and databases, staff outfruit luxuriance, bibliographic direction for users, subordinatestanding of interdiplomatic standards, and united utilitys. New technologies and their role in libraries are a key sever of the impost, which nucleused on the evaluation of the want for authoritative outfruit luxuriance for Barry staff. Base Challenges The Morton Character team endowigateed University of Ghana Logon and University of Command at Winnebago in Ghana; Muhammad Belle University, University of Joss, and Baffin Allow University in Nigeria; Dark sees Salaam University in Tanzania; and Maker University in Uganda. The Morton Character team spent two days on each campus to coalesce retrogression corruption-chancellors, university librarians and their staff, CIT administrators and staff, Carnegie steering committees, and library users. They besides toured libraries and CIT facilities. A set of base issues escaped from the endowigates ND observations, which are discussed in the relics of this rumor. ISSUE: Generally-known matter Gregarious and economic stforce Several of the countries enjoy pressd through challenging gregarious footings that enjoy negatively contacted the operations of the country and of universities. Economic challenges involve subordinate-funding of universities and their libraries and flabby currencies that enjoy noncommunicationing purchasing faculty on the interdiplomatic bargain. Numerous palppowerful funding springs and agendas Each of the universities receives palppowerful funds from a calculate of springs such as the Carnegie Corporation, the Fellowship of African Universities, Interdiplomatic Fellowship of University Presidents, Swedish Interdiplomatic Outfruit Cooperation Agency and Norwegian Agency for Outfruit Cooperation. Each of these agencies has its own agenda and priorities which may balancelap. Conjuncture the plans are probing to the outfruit of the university and its libraries, discordant priorities can invent superintendence problems and alter examine from other importunate issues. Flying fruit of tyro population The flying fruit of tyro populations has supposing gigantic challenges to the universities. In some persuasions, universities enjoy confirmed from 7,000 to 30,000 tyros in a noncommunicationing date. Unfortunately financial living for universities has not kept step retrogression enrollment fruit. Without stout living from the government and, in some persuasions, noncommunicationing the force to carry trailing, universities are struggling to contribute wanted utilitys. Lecture halls, hostels, and libraries are packed retrogression tyros, and there is physically not plenty sstep to contribute command and utilitys for all the tyros. At the similar date, there is a big ask-for for university universities. In at trivialest one plight, a corruption chancellor implied that the university would not retrogression toolation of new programs resisting a noncommunicationingage of materials to signification the program. ISSUE: Physical infrastructure Faculty Grid The deep libraries answer to enjoy a further trustworthy faculty spring than abundant of the methodal libraries. Electrical insufficiencys are base, but most of the deep libraries do enjoy a backup spring for important methods. Departmental libraries may not. Two medical libraries had been retrogressionout faculty for liberal dates. Sphere govern The sphere is solid on materials, and none of the libraries had sphere govern throughout the elevateings. Mold was plain in some elevateings. Open windows endanger materials to constant deprivation. While convenient switching technology ay be sheltered in sphere governled environments, PC's on the sole were not; some were setup in windows, exposing them to the unexposed hurt of lofty warmth, conjuncture those on the sole were besides endangerd to extremes of remains. Library elevateings and equipment Most library elevateings showed signs of rub and sunder. In some universities plans were subordinate way for emanationion to prevalent facilities or to elevate a new quickness. Few elevateings had the inevitpowerful or certain wiring for the technology. It was not unbase to see coagulated emanationion cords due too noncommunication of faculty outlets. Many of the stacks were closed-access. Most elevateing noncommunicationed assurance features and few had approximationibility features. Considerpowerful of the movables was barren and shelving was not regularly protect. Students press in a multiplicity of accommodations either on or encircling campus, regularly sharing trivial rooms retrogression six to sflush other tyros. The solely consider fix on campus is the library which usually does not enjoy plenty seats to coalesce the ask-for. Most of the lighting, when it was operationing, was uneven. Computer Equipment As retrogression abundant arts, the calculate of aggregate computers and sculptureers for tyro and staff approximation was uneven. Most librarians divided computers incomplete homeless, and tyros were regularly seen two or three to a muniment. The press of repairs for hurtd equipment was moveed by the force to stipulate ingredient severs, in some persuasions usepowerful solely in western countries and requiring pre-payment. As illustrious overhead, conjuncture telecommunications equipment may be sheltered in sphere governled stipulations, the solidware on the sole repeatedly is not, exposing it to extremes of warmth and remains. On predicament One university was using a wirehither backbone. The other six universities had laid a fiber optic backbone for the deep campuses, habitually six to 12 strands, However, molly, not all the fiber was in use. One of the university notification and communications technology (ACT) authoritatives was unsure of the based accommodation for his university, and unclear encircling how considerpowerful was in-fact operational. Six of the deep libraries had fiber run to the foreign wall; it was their business to arstroll connectivity from after a occasionlinessin the elevateing to the backbone. Distant and methodal libraries may be hither courteous united. External Internet approximation was via satellite; the best accommodation was a 1. 5-megabyte downlink and a 1. 0-megabyte uplink. The lowest accommodation was a 1. -megabyte downlink and a 512- kilobyte uplink. This was insufficient; notwithstanding, the consume prohibits increased approximation. The medium consume for bandwidth was $10,000 per month. Generally-known area networks All deep libraries enjoy some configurations of generally-known area networks (Lana), retrogression computer characters for tyros. One library was actively extending wiring for faculty and Ethernet approximation throughout the deep elevateing, conjuncture another was testing the limits of wirehither networking. Departmental libraries alter, depending on their duty and springs of funding. Departmental libraries exact methodal living. In at trivialest one persuasion a methodal library was further rugged than the deep artal library. Strategies Each university CIT method is endowigating strategies for continueing commerce generally-known, prevalent on the loftyer accommodation in-house bandwidth. Two universities discussed the dispensation of generally-known email accounts to emulate retrogression the Web-based email utilitys, enjoy Yahoo and Hotmail. Some arts were limiting user approximation to Yahoo and Hotmail during the day. Another art would enjoy to ponder the onmethod e-Journal heedr on an in-house database heedr, so all Journal restitution could be kept generally-known. The contrition of e-Journal publishers on the Adobe Acrobat Reader (PDF) format taxes the low bandwidth of the Internet utility. ISSUE: Database outfruit and acquisition/retrospective alteration Cataloging Because of divided cataloging enabled by the standardization of the MARC proceedings, considerpowerful prevalent cataloging was singly "capture" cataloging from a base database. The captured proceedings was then edited to image artal holdings for the clarified inscription. Two university libraries used a emanation (Bibliophile) for their prevalent cataloging arrangement, conjuncture another used the Library of Congress onmethod method. The two emanations fifer. One colonization had no riches, notwithstanding, and implied that vendors had yet to tally to their attempts at contiguity. Retrospective alteration The alteration of the sculpture catalog to a digital proceedings was date consuming and proud-priced. One library had completed the retrospective alteration in house; two had begun the alteration arrangement on an unctuous poor layer, and the others were discussing strategies for source the alteration arrangement. It should be illustrious that the integrated library methods cannot largely duty retrogressionout the convenient database. Conjuncture funding was usepowerful to dissipation the solidware for integrated Barry methods, funding for the outfruit of the database has been left unaddressed. Onmethod generally-known approximation catalogs The onmethod generally-known approximation catalog (OPAC) is the premier emanation of any new library. However, it is solely as cheerful as the database aback it. The university libraries enjoyed altering files of expertise in, and flush apprehension of, the judgment of a iron digital catalog, how to invent it and how to deeptain it. Related procedures such as weeding of the gathering and list govern exact examine and inventd bestow luxuriance wants. Generally-known databases Two of the university libraries were actively occupied in the creation of databases to trail their sculpture season gatherings. In one plight they were making use of CDC-ISIS, a database emanation exposed by UNESCO and arranged for open. This was a hither than iron breach. There were issues of indexing and abstracting strategies, whether for a sculpture or a digital database, that exactd examine in all arts. Acquired or donated databases Most of the libraries had approximation to databases supposing by non-governmental organizations (Nags) and other springs. Approximation to palppowerful databases was severely emitted by the noncommunication of bandwidth and computers in libraries. Librarians did not enjoy facile approximation so they could augment their elaborate expertnesss, and users repeatedly were not informed of what was useable, past librarians had not promoted use of the databases due to very poor approximation. In at trivialest one colonization, the librarians had to pay for their Internet approximation. ISSUE: Integrated library methods Purchased methods The integrated library method (ILLS) coordinates a stroll of dutys to conduct the outfruit of the library gathering. These dutys involve cataloging, vogue, dissipationd methods. One was largely based, conjuncture another was operational but using a minimal MARC database. Another had been dissipationd but not tooled due to the noncommunication of a MARC database. Vendor kindred Libraries in this sever of Africa were seriously dense in their evaluation and segregation arrangement, as vendors were singly backward to contribute on predicament demonstrations. Support for emanations was similarly proposeed at a separation, and the consume of on-predicament luxuriance was very-abundantly lofty. Conjuncture the libraries had funds for the dissipation of a method, it was unclear what supplies had been made for deeptenance of these methods. As most ILLS vendors execute their actual use through the deeptenance method, flush funds usepowerful for dissipation may not be a adequate creed to symmetrical contributers. The one university retrogression a method largely tooled did not govern the arrangement, was co-operate-withed by a European university and was poor to a select of two practicpowerful vendors. Consortia planning One library implied involvement retrogression a knot of other libraries in the evaluation of ILLS vendors, retrogression a estimate to demonstrateing a base vendor for all severicipants. This was an praiseworthy diplomacy, as it could execute it worthconjuncture for vendors to endow date ND breath in the living of a countryal method. However, funding disparities incomplete the arts could invent barriers to toolation on a countryal smooth, as courteous as misunderstandings encircling how consortia classifyments duty to heed all members. The western country had experimented retrogression a broad area netoperation providing basic connectivity to universities in the area, but the plan failed to advance and enunciate. ISSUE: Library staffing and outfruit Difficulties in fostering staff/outdated staffing patterns Each library had staff dedicated to CIT living for the library, funded from the library judged. In some persuasions the CIT staffing was proximate, as it resulted from the generally-known utility commitment of the university graduates' luxuriance and command. Some of these CIT staff did not enjoy extensive habit or orientation to library utility and habit. All library staff wanted luxuriance to communicate retrogression new technologies. On-the- job luxuriance to reform CIT expertnesss was inevitpowerful for all library staff in a phased sort. Salaries were generally-knownly low, and staff retrogression CIT expertnesss could repeatedly confront improve paying business in footings where they could enunciate attached expertnesss. There as vigorous race for technical expertise unmoulded the arts, incomplete arts, and retrogression palppowerful employers. Technical staff tended to win habit unmoulded the generally-known sector and then journey to improve paying Jobs in the peculiar sector. In some plights, important library reorganizations would be wanted to complete the technological newfangledness that was hoped for. Each of the libraries was subordinatetaking initiatives relative-to to technologies. Most were using databases for their prevalent cataloging, and some were doing retrospective alteration. Some generally-known databases were entity exposed. Most libraries had not dissipationd an integrated library method, and one university planned to enunciate its own method. Librarians were culture on the Job encircling technology, and irreverence was repeatedly not base incomplete library staff. The multiplicity of admittancees was animated, and university library staff could favor from sharing their expertise incomplete arts. Disconnection from what is happening in library and notification cosmos-people In abundant plights, librarians were culture encircling technologies through the attainment, past they were weak to trip to conferences retrogression abundant vendors bestow, and there were no braises nearby that enjoy already tooled technologies. One CIT library peculiarist commented that: "l would devotion to see a largely automated library; I would then comprehend what my end is. " Retrogression poor approximation to the Internet and email as courteous as the sculpture authoritative attainment, librarians were not largely powerful to browse the web and Join electronic argument knots. Libraries were dense in their evaluation and segregation arrangement as vendors were singly backward to contribute on-predicament demonstrations. Living for emanations was similarly proposeed at a separation, and the consume of onpredicament luxuriance was very-abundantly lofty. Lack of pitfall to interdiplomatic standards and habit Past librarians had not generally-knownly been powerful to heed conferences beyond the country and enjoy poor approximation to the attainment, there was casually a noncommunication of pitfall to interdiplomatic standards and habit. In some plights, the librarians were enunciateing inside standards, uninformed of the entity of interdiplomatic standards. In one library, a digital plan was tooled retrogressionout consulting standards. Geographic disconnection media that there was noncommunicationing occasion to imbibe in idiosyncratic from others or to divide expertise. Because vendors were repeatedly backward to contribute on-predicament ministrations, librarians did not enjoy the occasion to imbibe from view a multiplicity of methods. Authoritative outfruit opportunities Abundant librarians had severicipated in countryal and generally-known luxuriance opportunities and were completely hot encircling the habit. The base grievance was that there wanted to be further luxuriance, adjusted to generally-known want, stepd at the direct press, and retrogression follow-up possibilities. Abundant of the librarians had prevalent technical luxuriance precedently they had approximation to a computer and were not powerful to hold considerpowerful of the luxuriance. Several librarians mentioned the want for improve approximation to technical co-operate-withance when tooling a new method. Some of the libraries were source to constitute a staff outfruit function in the library, recognizing that their wants would be improve met by courteous-trained experts unmoulded the library. Institutional CIT We requested coalesceings retrogression CIT staff at each university, and had an occasion at each colonization to adopt, to altering files, retrogression the CIT idiosyncraticnel on generally-known living issues, and living for the library biasedally. All CIT methods had business for the installation, outfruit and dilution of the fiber optic backbone. For one art, that was the ample distance of their business. One CIT method had exposed a ample stroll of luxuriance opportunities, including certification programs addressing networking, programming and living emanations; these classes were usepowerful for a fee to university idiosyncraticnel. Library CIT budget. Departmental 'CT, enjoy methodal libraries, were habitually funded from methodal budgets. At trivialest two of the arts had very complicated CIT conductrs; notwithstanding, the file of involvement did not regularly image the distance of subordinatestanding of library utility and habit. Underlying tensions imageed, in some persuasions, a insufficiency to demonstrate the inter-relationship of technological living for new library habit. Technical staff tended to win habit unmoulded the generally-known sector and then journey to improve paying Jobs in the peculiar sector. One CIT methodal diplomacy was to abundance the bargain retrogression technical expertness, but, abandoned the permepowerful borders, that may siege a extensive date of date. Palppowerful CIT luxuriance: library fellowships The stroll of luxuriance opportunities proposeed by generally-known library fellowships numerous retrogression the power of those fellowships. Some library staff rumored approximation to one or woo day seminars on several habits, solely to promote the contact of the luxuriance due to an inforce to tool or habit what was imbibeed. This was not strange, flush in exposed areas, where solidware could calm?} be a poor riches. Library fellowships besides wanted to demonstrate or enunciate a pool of technical experts frank retrogression library habit who could propose luxuriance applicpowerful to the bestow footing. Palppowerful CIT luxuriance: peculiar plans Luxuriance usepowerful for the toolation of biased plans - such as the digitization of university theses - may not condense a ample informedness of the extractions subordinate which libraries have-effect.