An Epidemiology Of Two Diseases Health And Social Care Essay

Tuberculosis is an infective disease that is considered as one of the greatest slayer of all clip which is caused by bacteriums whose scientific name is Mycobacterium TB besides known as Koch ‘s B. Tuberculosis is characterized by the formation of tubercles on the lungs and other tissues of the organic structure. Harmonizing to the Health Protection Agency, TB normally causes disease in the lungs ( pneumonic ) , but can besides impact other parts of the organic structure ( extra-pulmonary ) . Merely the pneumonic signifier of TB disease is infective. Transmission occurs through coughing of infective droplets, and normally requires drawn-out close contact with an infective instance. Terbium is curable with a combination of specific antibiotics, but intervention must be continued for at least six months
The Health Protection Agency is one of the bureaus that are involved in advancing the wellness of persons that are affected by the disease. The wellness protection bureau intends to advance the riddance of TB in England by the support of the National Health Services and the Department of Health by developing a BCG ( Bacillus Calmette-Guerin ) Immunisation Programme. The marks of this programme are the persons who are at great hazard of geting the disease such as babes and older peoples who are most likely easy affected by the disease.
Lung malignant neoplastic disease is the most common malignant neoplastic disease in the universe but it is one of the most preventable types of malignant neoplastic disease. Nine out of 10 people who have lung malignant neoplastic disease are caused by smoking but some people who are non non-smokers are besides affected. Many people believed that lung malignant neoplastic disease can non be treated but it can merely by descrying its early marks such as relentless cough for two hebdomads, repeated chest infection, relentless thorax or shoulder strivings, weight loss, declining cough, and fatigue or loss of energy. On the study of BBC News Network UK, it says that West Scotland has the highest rate of people diagnosed with lung malignant neoplastic disease than those people populating in the remainder of United Kingdom because smoking rates are 5 % higher in Scotland than the remainder of the UK, said Professor David Forman of Leeds University.

The National wellness services said that the most effectual manner of forestalling lung malignant neoplastic disease is to non smoke or if you have been smoking and have serious wellness conditions better quit smoking every bit early as possible. In order to understate the rate of lung malignant neoplastic disease in the state the National Health Services have come up with a programme called, Go Smoke Free Programme, this programme is intended to assist those people to discontinue smoke and it besides provides free group or one on one support from trained advisers, and entree to four hebdomads nicotine replacing therapy. It is besides suggested by the National Health Services that a diet rich in fruits and veggies and regular exercising can cut down the hazard of holding lung malignant neoplastic disease ( http: // ) .
Figure 1. Tuberculosis instance studies and rates by age group and sex, UK, 2008
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The figure shows the instances of TB by rate and age of male and female in the United Kingdom by the twelvemonth 2008. It is noticeable in the graph that between the ages zero to twenty nine the instances of TB is bit by bit increasing. It besides shows that from the ages runing from 0-4, 10-14, and 15-19 the figure of female instances are higher than the figure of male instances which indicates that these age groups are easy transmitted by TB but it shows that the lowest instance of TB is from the age of 90 and above because nowadays lifetime alterations and there are few who are able to last at this age. From ages between 30-89 old ages old the Numberss of male and female instances of TB were diminishing from about 680 instances down to 5 Numberss of instances. In footings of rate, the figure shows that the highest rates were in immature grownups and these rates shows that males are more prone to TB than females. Higher rates were besides seen in persons aged 75-90 old ages because that at this age their immune system is weaker than the younger aged that is why the disease can be easy transmitted.
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The figure shows the Numberss of new instances and age specific incidence rate between male and female diagnosed with lung malignant neoplastic disease in the UK in the twelvemonth 2006. Lung malignant neoplastic disease is seldom diagnosed below 30 old ages of age. The figure shows that get downing from the age of 40 until the age of 70 nine the figure of instances between male and female diagnosed with lung malignant neoplastic disease are invariably increasing as the figure of rate in male and female per 100,000 population additions but at the age between 79-85 the figure of instances were diminishing from about 4,500 instances to 2,000 instances. It is besides noticed in the figure that the figure of instances and rate of people diagnosed with lung malignant neoplastic disease are higher in male than in female of all age groups.
Tobacco is the individual largest preventable cause of malignant neoplastic disease in the universe today. It causes 80 % – 90 % of all lung malignant neoplastic disease deceases and about 30 % of all malignant neoplastic disease deceases in the development states. A comprehensive scheme including prohibitions on baccy merchandises, advertisement and sponsorship, increased revenue enhancement on baccy merchandises and surcease programmes can cut down baccy ingestion in many states. In Addition, In order to understate the rate of incidence of lung malignant neoplastic disease in the state it is besides of import that wellness professionals would inform the people in the community about the side consequence of smoking to the wellness and good being of single such as developing tummy ulcers, decreased circulation of blood flow to the appendages like the fingers and toes, the hazard of developing upper respiratory piece of land infections would be increased, and developing different sorts of malignant neoplastic diseases.
Another important attack to command the incidence of increasing rate of malignant neoplastic disease more specifically lung malignant neoplastic disease is the alteration of diet. Low fat high fiber diet can assist cut down the hazard of developing certain sorts of malignant neoplastic disease. Regular exercising and care of normal organic structure weight along with a healthy diet will assist understate the happening of malignant neoplastic disease. National policies and programmes should besides be implemented to raise consciousness and cut down exposure to malignant neoplastic disease hazard factors that people are provided with the information and back up them in order to follow a healthy life style.
Since smoke is one of the major causes of lung malignant neoplastic disease and it is evitable the National Health Services developed a programme called “ Go Smoke Free ” Programme, this programme helps persons who are tobacco users to actuate themselves to discontinue smoke by supplying one to one or group support. The “ Go Smoke Free ” Programme identifies the benefits of non smoking and helps people in bettering their wellness like cut downing the hazard of certain unwellness, disablement or disease caused by malignant neoplastic disease, bosom disease, and lung diseases ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .

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