1.Refer to the corresponding appendix below on “Monograph” and “What Is a Monograph.” 

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2.Select a monograph and write a short summary of 4-8 sentences about the topic. 

 Possible areas to write about the monograph are:

  • – targeted audience and purpose
  • – thesis or hypothesis,
  • – logic or argument for the thesis,
  • – evidence, questions and possible answers,
  • – sources of study,
  • – organization of the study, and
  • – theory or models used in the study.

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What Is a Monograph?

Retrieved from: http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-a-monograph.htm

A monograph, sometimes called a scholarly treatise, is an extremely detailed essay or book

covering a very specific or limited subject. It is designed to stand alone in most cases, although

some are produced with a finite number of volumes. The publication presents new information

that advances the author’s career and field, and it generally follows a predictable pattern in

terms of the content covered. Usually, only one author is involved, but a writer may collaborate

if necessary. Review, defense, and presentation usually are part of the monograph publication

process, and document itself generally is brief.


The main objective of a monograph is to present information and scholarly research on a very

specific topic. The data included is always meant to educate others in some way, and ideally, it

also should advance the author’s field as a foundation for future research. This means that

individuals who write these documents always need to make sure that they are not conducting

research and writing on previously covered topics without contributing something new.

Given the main purpose scholarly treatises hold, professionals typically produce them as a

means to show their expertise and gain credibility and, as a result, advance to new, higher

positions. Many fields require publication of these texts before an author can obtain a degree

or particular job. In general, the more an author publishes, the more respected he becomes,

although in some cases, a single essay or book may be so influential that the author is always

known for that one work, regardless of additional publications.

Key Contents

Monographs generally share the same basic elements, no matter the topics covered. They usually

identify a purpose for the research and the main question the author was trying to answer, as well as









ENGL 331-O Public Speaking
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©2013. Universidad Ana G. Méndez. All rights reserved. 42

what the author expected the results of his research to be. These documents outline the results and

discuss the implications and applications the work has. The last element is sources and references.

Even though most scholarly treatises include these elements, the author might be required to

present them in a slightly different way, depending on his field, or he might have to add or omit

sections. People in liberal arts and humanities usually format the document using the Modern

Language Association (MLA) format, for example, while those in the social sciences, usually use

the American Psychological Association (APA) format.

Refer to recommended links.

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The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use Monograph Nineteen


About this Monograph

A major public health challenge of this century is finding a way to harness the powerful

influence of the media to control tobacco use. This monograph begins the important process of

understanding the full extent of this influence, especially among youth—one of our most

vulnerable populations.

Despite a decline of roughly 50% in smoking prevalence over the past 40 years, about one

in five Americans continues to smoke, and more than 4,000 young people smoke their first

cigarette each day. Tobacco use still accounts for nearly one-third of cancer deaths worldwide, and

deaths are predicted to increase by 2015. If these trends are to be reversed, an understanding of

the media’s power for both tobacco control and tobacco promotion must guide the way.

The challenge has never been more urgent. Tobacco industry and tobacco control efforts are

successfully using the media to influence the attitudes and behavior of the American public. In

addition, as tobacco advertising in traditional print media becomes scarcer, new or nontraditional

media are being used by the tobacco industry to reach potential and established smokers. These

media include the movies, the Internet, and video games.

The National Cancer Institute presents this 19th monograph, The Role of the Media in

Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use, in the Tobacco Control Monograph Series. The monograph

provides a critical, scientific review and synthesis of current evidence regarding the power of the

media to encourage and to discourage tobacco use. As such, it is the most current and

comprehensive summary of the scientific literature on media communications in tobacco

promotion and tobacco control. Research included in the review comes from the disciplines of

marketing, psychology, communications, statistics, epidemiology, and public health. All are vital to

understanding how exposure to the media influences tobacco use. Armed with that

understanding, it is possible to explore effective ways to leverage the media to improve public


This monograph provides a comprehensive examination of different channels of media

currently used, the strategies and themes that either encourage or discourage tobacco use, and

their effects on attitudes and behavior. The monograph is organized into six parts:



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 Part 1, a general overview and framework, lays the groundwork for understanding the theory

and methods underlying the media research examined in this monograph.

 Part 2 explores how the tobacco industry uses advertising and promotion to create demand for

its products, especially among adolescents. Tobacco advertising and promotion expenditures in

the United States totaled more than $13.5 billion in 2005 (in 2006 dollars). Research shows

that tobacco advertising and promotion cause tobacco use to increase and even a brief

exposure to tobacco advertising can influence adolescents.

 Part 3 describes the role of the news and entertainment media in affecting tobacco use.

Children and adolescents are exposed to these media up to 5.5 hours a day. A key finding is

that depictions of tobacco in movies are causally related to youth smoking initiation.

 Part 4 describes how the media have been used as part of tobacco control efforts and the

media messages and channels that have worked best. The good news is that televised media

campaigns can reduce tobacco use.

 Part 5 shows how the tobacco industry and its supporters have used various media strategies

to counter tobacco control measures and messages. For example, they have worked against

antitobacco media campaigns in California and have defeated some state tobacco tax

increases on the ballot.

 Part 6 examines the future of the media in relation to both tobacco promotion and tobacco

control. The conclusions reached can help provide direction for future research efforts and

media interventions.

About the NCI Tobacco Control Monograph Series

The National Cancer Institute established the Tobacco Control Monograph series in 1991 to

provide ongoing and timely information about emerging issues in smoking and tobacco

prevention and control. Monographs are available at no cost in print and online.

To order a free copy, call the NCI Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-

6237) and ask for NIH Publication No. 07-6242 or visit




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©2013. Universidad Ana G. Méndez. All rights reserved. 45

Kinds of Sentences

Declarative – A declarative sentence makes a statement. A declarative sentence ends with a period.

Example: The house will be built on a hill.

Interrogative – An interrogative sentence asks a question. An interrogative sentence ends with a question


Example: How did you find the card?

Exclamatory – An exclamatory sentence shows strong feelings. An exclamatory sentence ends with an

exclamation mark.

Example: The monster is attacking!

Imperative – An imperative sentence gives a command.

Example: Cheryl, try the other door.

Sometimes the subject of an imperative sentence is you understood (You). Example:

Look in the closet. (You, look in the closet.)

Part 1: Identify the kind of sentence. The first two have been done for you.

 Why do you believe that? interrogative

 I want to know why you believe that. declarative

 Please accept my apology.

 Your face is frightening the baby!

 My shoe is on fire!

 When did you first notice that your shoe was on fire?

 My doctor told me to take these vitamins.

 Ask Doris for the recipe.

 Did you solve the puzzle yet?

 Ann, hand me your coat.

 It’s hard to believe that this paper is made from wood.

 There are more apples in the refrigerator.

 We’re on the wrong planet!

 Will Patricia pause to place poached pickles on Paula’s pretty plate?

 I would send her a gift if I were you.

 Send her a nice gift.

Part 2: Write two sentences for each of the four types of sentences.

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Types of reports (other reports may apply to specific fields of study):

 Laboratory reports – health and safety reports

 Research reports – case study reports

 Field study reports – cost-benefit analysis reports

 Proposals – comparative study reports

 Progress reports – accomplishments or gains reports

 Technical reports – informative for specific areas

 Financial reports – Monetary data, expenses, etc.

 Other type of reports

1. Describe the types of reports in your field of study.

 Give examples of types of reports in a particular field of study.

 When will these reports be typically written (timeline – weekly, monthly, or yearly) and for what

purpose are they written?

 In what format are the reports written (essay, charts, graphs, combination of formats, etc.)?

 Who is the intended audience?

 Does the information vary according to the type of audience? Consider confidential information or

information to be shared only with supervisors, employees, media and/or the public at large.

 How is the structure of a report different from an essay or other type of writing?

 What should be included in the report for a specific field of study?

 Consider any additional sections, as applicable.

2. Writing Conventions: Standard English – mechanics, usage, grammar, spelling, punctuation, sentence structure,



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