Dimension In Big Five Personality Traits Psychology Essay

Based on the theory that had been done by Goldberg the dimension in big five personality traits which are neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreebleness and conscientiousness. The different personality can give impact positively and negatively on the employees job satisfactions. According to Paola and Antonio (2012) stated that job satisfaction is an attitute of individuals about their job that can be positive or negative depend on their personality.

These five dimensions represent broad of personality and these groupings of characteristics are tend to be occur for many peoples, however personality is a complex and varied for each person that display behaviors across several of these dimensions and by using the five-factor model, the discussion change from an analysis of the terms which are used to describe personality (Udoudoh, 2012).

Moreover, those high score in satisfaction, it indicate the person that have personality characteristic because most of psychological researcher believe though this theory they will be more understand on human personality (Patel, 2011).

Based on past research, this big five factor model adequate to describe of personality goes beyond the levels of satisfaction adapted from Judge, 2002 as cited by Paul, (2009). In the organization, job satisfaction is necessary to promote functional employees behaviors and workforce that is motivated and committed to high quality performance because job Satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and a predictor of work behaviors (Diksha & Shruti, 2012). Furthermore, job satisfaction also can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behaviors (Diksha & Shruti, 2012).

Personality traits can be an important factor and make a difference in job satisfaction because most of researchers found that there was a relationship between five personality traits studied and job satisfaction (Zeki M., 2011).

Therefore, this study is carried out to identify the relationship between Big Five Personality Traits and job satisfaction among support staff in Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM).

Statement of Problem

In recently, Big Five Personality Traits is a main component in order to understand the individual personality Digman,(1990), McCrae, (1992). By using Five Factor Model of Personality, we can notice about the factor that will make employee satisfied with their job. Satisfaction with the work itself completely mediated the relationship between conscientousness and normative commitment whereas it partially mediated the relationship between extroversion and affective commitment ( Spagnoly & Caetano, 2012).

It is necessary for a organization to understand the big five personality traits in order to increase employee satisfaction. Those employees that satisfied will give their commitment to organization while dissatisfied employee will lead to turnover, absenteeism, tardiness, accidents, strikes, grievances and sabotage adapted from Rue and Byars (2003), as cited by Aziri, (2011). If the employee may feel not satisfied with the organization and will reducing their job performance. According to Steele, Osburn and Piper (2000), it is needed to examine motivational construct such as motivational traits in the context of individual performance change and there will increase the turnover and demotivational between employee because not all of them was satisfied toward the organization (Steele, Osburn & Piper (2000), cited by Udoudoh, 2012).

According to Udoudoh, (2012) some key personality factors, which will help to find the resources to explore one’s own personality type, so it will find the career of one’s dreams which is identified as job satisfaction

Based on our personal interview with Encik Mohamad Zaini bin Mohammad Naim, Supervisor, Orna Paper Sdn. Bhd, he was said that as a supervisor, he acknowledge that personality trait can improve job satisfaction. However, the problem is the supervisor in the organization, did not notice about the characteristic of personality trait that can boost job satisfaction (Personal Communication, Batu Berendam, October, 2012). Therefore, he also agree that this study is important to identify the relationship between personality traits towards job satisfaction.

Therefore, it is important to conduct this study to identify the relationship between personality traits toward job satisfaction among the employee in the organization. Based on informal observation done by researcher, it was found that the some of employer did not really stress on the personality traits practised at the organization. The employee also did not deeply realize the relationship between dimension which personality traits will increase the level of satisfaction among employee in the organization.

Research Objective

RO1: To identify the relationship between Big Five Personality Traits and job satisfaction among support staff in Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM).

RO2: To identify which dimension of Big Five Personality Traits that has a highest influence on job satisfaction at Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM)

Research Questions

RQ1: What is the relationship between Big Five Personality Traits and job satisfaction among support staff in Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM)?

RQ2: What is the relationship of neuroticism toward job satisfaction among support staff in LPPNM?

RQ3: What is the relationship of extroversion toward job satisfaction among support staff in LPPNM?

RQ4: What is the relationship of openness to experience toward job satisfaction among support staff in LPPNM?

RQ5: What is the relationship of agreeableness toward job satisfaction among support staff in LPPNM?

RQ6: What is the relationship of conscientiousness toward job satisfaction among support staff in LPPNM?

RQ7: Which element in Big Five Personality Traits that has a highest influence on job satisfaction at Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM)?

Significance of Study

It is hoped that the findings of this research will contribute to a better understanding of Five Personality Traits in order to give significance attempt in promoting the Big Five Personality Traits that can influence the support staff’s performance in the Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM). The significance of this study will give benefits to the organization, employer and employees at LPPNM.

The findings in this study could be used as a reference for the LPPNM in order to understanding more about Big Five Personality Traits and it also help them to achieve their vision and mission if their employees perform well. It also will help the organization decrease the percentage of turnover among employees because they achieve the expectation or satisfaction work in the organization.

This study also beneficial to employer to gain the knowledge on the beneficial of big five personality traits in workplace in order to increase employee job satisfaction especially support staff in LPPNM. The employer can organize the seminar and workshop about Big Five Personality Traits to their employees to ensure they are alert about the individual personality.

Lastly, this study also contribute the beneficial finding towards support staff in LPPNM to realize how important the satisfaction in work, which they are needed to understand about personality traits. As a result, employees will perform well if they satisfied with their work by applying Big Five Personality Traits to achieve or increases thier satisfaction work in LPPNM.

Limitation of Study

This study is subjected to the following limitations:

1. Only support staffs at Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka are chosen for this study.

2. The questionnaire is only distributed to support staff in Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka.

Definition of Terms

Big Five Personality Traits is the independent variable which consists of neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness, and employee’s satisfaction for dependent variables. So, there are several definition of terms used which are related to this study:

Big Five Personality Traits:

Personality traits are another set of variables that may account for subjective well-being and life satisfaction variance. One particular set of global dimensions used to examine personality is known as the Big Five personality traits (adapted from Lounsbury and Gibson (2009), cited by Patel, 2011).

Neuroticism:

This trait is the inverse of what others term Neuroticism; it reflects overall level of adjustment, resilience, and emotional stability indicative of ability to function effectively under conditions or job pressure and stress (adapted from Lounsbury and Gibson (2009), cited by Patel, 2011).

Extraversion:

Tendency to be sociable, outgoing, expressive, talkative, gregarious, warmhearted, congenial, and affiliative; attentive to and energized by other people and social/interpersonal cues in the workplace (adapted from Lounsbury and Gibson (2009), cited by Patel, 2011).

Agreeableness:

Disposition to be pleasant, amiable, equable, and cooperative inclined to work harmoniously with others; will avoid disagreements, arguments, conflict in interactions with other people (adapted from Lounsbury and Gibson (2009), cited by Patel, 2011).

Conscientiousness:

Conscientiousness can be measure by two other related forms of Conscientiousness, one that includes orderliness, rule-following behavior, and preference for structure; while one other measure of Conscientiousness does not include orderliness and the other does not include rule-following behavior (adapted from Lounsbury and Gibson (2009), cited by Patel, 2011).

Openness to experience:

Prone to seek out and engage in new: ideas, procedures, techniques, and experiences; inclined toward organization innovation, acquiring new knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA’s) on the job, continuing education, professional development, travel, cross-cultural activities, and temporary duty assignments (adapted from Lounsbury and Gibson (2009), cited by Patel, 2011).

Job satisfaction:

Job satisfaction is defined as a collection of feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job, or more specific, a pleasurable feeling that arises from one’s workplace. Most work in job satisfaction regards its relationship to job performance Robbins, Judge, (1998), cited by Lau, 2012)

Government sector:

A part of the state that deals with either the production, ownership, sale, provision, delivery and allocation of goods and services by and for the government or its citizens, whether national or regional (Barlow, 2012).

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

There are several of the researchers nowadays find that the level of job satisfaction among employees can be affected by the Big Five Personality Traits. There are five elements of the Big Five Personality Traits which is neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness.

The differences of personality can give positive impact and negative impact on the job satisfactions. According to Paola and Antonio (2012) stated that job satisfaction is an attitude of individuals about their job that can be positive or negative depend on their personality.

This study is aim to find the relationship between Big Five Personality Traits towards job satisfaction among the support staff’s performance in the Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM).

Definition of Job Satisfaction

Job satisfaction is defined as a collection of feelings that an individual holds toward his or her career, in more specific, a pleasurable feeling that arises from one’s workplace and most work in job satisfaction regards its relationship to job performance adapted from Robbins, Judge, (1998), cited by Lau, (2012). According to Paola and Antonio (2012), stated that are five-factor traits are associated and play a key role in job satisfaction in that dispositions may amplify or condition the experience and expression of job satisfaction. They stated that a job satisfaction is attitudes of individuals about their job that can be positive or negative depend on their personality (Paola & Antonio, 2012).

In the organization, job satisfaction is necessary to promote functional employees behaviors and workforce that is motivated and committed to high quality performance because job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their jobs and a predictor of work behaviors (Diksha & Shruti, 2012). Job satisfaction also can partially mediate the relationship of personality variables and deviant work behaviors (Diksha & Shruti, 2012).

Meanwhile, based on Aziri (2011), define that job satisfaction is the feeling and beliefs of the employee towards their current job and he also believes that job satisfaction will be appearing when the employee material and psychological needs has been fulfilled.

Personality traits is an important factor and make a difference in job satisfaction, managers can utilize the personality traits questionnaire as a first screening in recruiting because most of researchers found that there was a relationship between five personality traits studied and job satisfaction (Zeki M., 2011).

The prevailing view in past research assumes that satisfaction is an antecedent of commitment (Jernigan, 2002) and the effects of various antecedents on commitment are mediated through job satisfaction as adapted from Jernigan, (2002) and cited by Paola and Antonio, (2012). Based on Rue and Byars (2003), those employees that satisfied will give their commitment to organization while dissatisfied employee will lead to turnover, absenteeism, tardiness, accidents, strikes, grievances and sabotage as adapted from Rue and Byars (2003) and cited by Aziri, (2011).

Job satisfaction causes a series of influences on various aspects of organizational life such as job satisfaction on employee productivity, loyalty and absenteeism (Diksha & Shruti, 2012). According to Aziri (2012), state that when satisfaction is high, absenteeism and turnover tends to be low; when satisfaction is low, absenteeism and turnover tends to be high.

Furthermore, satisfaction is important in life because it is considered to be a central part of human welfare and many researchers believe that being satisfied with one’s life is what matters the most. He also added that life satisfaction is sought by many individuals and it is one’s goal for one to be happy and have numerous pleasant experiences (Patel, 2011).

Big Five Personality Traits

Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations and behaviors in various situations (Udoudoh, 2012).

Meanwhile, personality traits are another set of variables that may account for subjective well-being and life satisfaction variance. One particular set of global dimensions used to examine personality is known as the Big Five personality traits as adapted from Lounsbury and Gibson (2009) and cited by Patel, 2011).

According to Golparvar and Javadian (2012), the big five personality factors viewpoint suggested that personality structure of human’s relatively independent factors that along with each other provide a meaningful category for the study of personality differences. Based on the theory that had been done by Goldberg (1990) the dimension in big five personality traits are neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. It also supported by Patel (2011), one particular set of global dimensions used to examine personality is known as the Big Five personality traits dimension which is neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness (Patel, 2011).

According to Udoudoh (2012), extraversion is characteristics such as excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness. Agreeableness also known as an attributes which is trust, altruism, kindness, affection and other pro-social behaviors (Udoudoh, 2012).

Furthermore, conscientiousness dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness with good impulse control and goal directed behaviors and it will tend to be organized and mindful of details (Udoudoh, 2012). In addition, he also defined neuroticism as person tends to experience instability, anxiety moodiness, irritability and sadness and openness to experience as persons are characterized as imagination and insight and high broad range of interest (Udoudoh, 2012).

Neuroticism

The first element of Big Five Personality Traits is neuroticism trait that is the inverse of what others term Neuroticism which is it reflects overall level of adjustment, resilience, and emotional stability indicative of ability to function effectively under conditions or job pressure and stress adapted from Lounsbury and Gibson (2009) as cited by Patel, 2011). Neuroticism refers to differences between people in their emotional stability or how they experience mostly in the negative effects (Bipp & Kleingeld, 2010).

Particularly, neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative effect, affective instability and increased stress levels, which associated with negative health outcomes or contribute to the maintenance of illness adapted from Costa and McCrae, (1987); Appel, (2007) cited by Nater and Hoppmann (2010).

They respond more poorly to environmental stress, and are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening, and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult because most of them are often self-conscious, phobia, depression, panic disorder, and other anxiety disorders and shy, and they may have trouble controlling urges and delaying gratification (Neupert, Mroczek & Avron, 2008).

Neuroticism is a measure of affect and emotional control which is low levels of neuroticism indicates emotional stability whereas high levels of neuroticism increase the likelihood of experiencing negative emotions (Udoudoh, 2012). According to Howard (1995), persons with high levels of neuroticism are reactive and more easily bothered by stimuli in their environment; they are more frequently become unstable, worried, temperamental and sad. Resistant persons on the other hand need strong stimuli to be provoked adapted from Howard, (1995) cited by Udoudoh, 2012).

Same like other personality traits, neuroticism is typically viewed as a continuous dimension, rather than as a distinct type of person (John, Kelly & Ye Xu, 2009). People vary in their level of neuroticism, with a small minority of individuals scoring extremely high or extremely low on the dimension because most people cluster around the average, neuroticism test scores approximate a normal distribution, given a large enough sample of people.

From the past study, there are positive relationship between all the Big Five dimensions and job satisfaction aspects, except for the relationships between neuroticism and job satisfaction aspects which, in accordance with the literature, we suppose to be negative (Paola and Antonio, 2012). Therefore, Paola and Antonio (2012), was stated that all the big five personality traits, except for neuroticism, are positively related to satisfaction with the work itself and satisfaction with human resource practices.

Extraversion

Extraversion is tendency to be sociable, outgoing, expressive, talkative, gregarious, warmhearted, congenial, and affiliative; attentive to and energized by other people and social/interpersonal cues in the workplace adapted from Lounsbury and Gibson (2009), cited by Patel, 2011).

Based on past study, extraversion characteristics is included excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness and high amounts of emotional expressiveness (Udoudoh, 2012). There also supported by Kalish and Robbins (2006) stated that, extraverts person are tend to be more outgoing, gregarious, energetic, cheerful, an sociable than introverts. In an organization, we can see that an extravert person is a better social person than introvert person.

Extraverted behavior involves proactively approaching others, demand for social attention, pursuing status and influence between their colleague as adapted from Ashton, Lee, and Paunonen, (2002), cited by Lund, 2007). According to Anderson (2001), extravert person will gain benefits such as the development of valuable social relationships and the acquisition of social status and they have the desire to influence people in order to lead others adapted from Anderson (2001), cited by Lund,( 2007).

Meanwhile, extravert people also focuses on social attention on one’s devalued characteristics and extravert people will tend to take attention on anybody eventhough some people did not like it (Anderson & Shirako. 2008).

Given that extroversion and affective commitment are both related to a positive emotional reaction, it is reasonable to assume that individuals high in extroversion should experience higher affective commitment than those who are less extroverted (adapted from Erdheim (2006), cited by Paola and Antonio, 2012).

Furthermore, extravert people also entails high-stakes competition with potentially rivals which is the possibility for extravert person to make an enemy in organization is higher than antagonist person (Lund, 2007).

Agreeableness

According to Graziano and Eisenburg, (1997), agreeableness is an individual difference in the motivation to maintain positive interpersonal relations with others. This is support by Lounsbury and Gibson (2009), that stated agreeableness is the disposition to be pleasant, amiable, equable, and cooperative inclined to work harmoniously with others; will avoid disagreements, arguments, conflict in interactions with other people cited by Patel, (2011).

In the Big-Five framework, agreeableness would then seem a likely antecedent as it emphasizes friendly relationship and flexible social skills (Steward & Barrick, 2000). Agreeableness people are described as being warm, kind, cooperative, unselfish, and considerate and trusting (Goldberg, 1992). There are certain points in time where it can be appropriate to be agreeable or more team more focused. For example, when working on a common project a disagreeable individual may express an idea and expect it to be used as given without amendments to the idea, however, an agreeable individual may express an idea and expect it to be considered and if needed or amended. One possibility is that agreeable people may be better able to control themselves when in a conflict situation. If a team is perceived as agreeable and cooperative, team members may be willing to continue working together in the future to fulfill their need to belong (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). (Lun & Bond, 2006) found that team member’s agreeableness positively predicted his or her achievement of relationship harmony in the group.

Some theorists and researchers have argued that agreeable people are generally better able to regulate their behavior (Graziano & Eisenberg, (1997, Jensen-Campbell, 2002) and self regulation has been causally associated with more constructive conflict resolution strategies (Finkel & Campbell, 2011). Agreeableness would seem to be an important foundation upon which team members are willing and able to discuss their ideas openly and integrate their views, and interactions that are needed. In addition, agreeable team members have been found to readily accept ideas in order to avoid argument and teams composed of people with high average agreeableness were not adept in terms of team learning (Ellis, 2003).

Conscientiousness

Conscientiousness can be measure by two other related forms of Conscientiousness, one that includes orderliness, rule-following behavior, and preference for structure; while one other measure of Conscientiousness does not include orderliness and the other does not include rule-following behavior (adapted from Lounsbury and Gibson (2009), cited by Patel, 2011).

Conscientiousness are tendency to be organized, thorough, and reliable, has been shown to be linked to positive health outcomes (Kern and Friedma, 2008). According to Patel, (2011) later stated, conscientiousness is the ability of an individual to be detail oriented, organized, orderly and decisive. He also said that conscientiousness is being reliable, dependable, trustworthy and rule-following; strives to honour commitments and do what one says one will do in a manner others can count on. (Patel, 2011; Judge, Heller & Mount, 2002) which is able to decrease their stress levels by being organized in their lives and at work. These individuals are more satisfied with their jobs and perform better because of the rewards of high performance.

According to Patel (2011), they usually approach their work or lives in the same thorough manner and achieve more satisfying outcomes by being attentive to details, good on follow through and organized- thus, increasing their overall life satisfaction. Conscientiousness also describes task behaviour and impulse control. Which given that conscientious people set high goals for themselves and achieve more, they are more likely to feel satisfied with their lives. Conscientious individuals tend to experience fewer major health problems, across a variety of ailments (Goodwin & Friedman, 2006).

Openness to experience

The definition of openness to experience is someone that prone to seek out and engage in new such as ideas, procedures, techniques, and experiences inclined toward organization innovation, acquiring new knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA’s) on the job, continuing education, professional development, travel, cross-cultural activities, and temporary duty assignments as adapted from Lounsbury and Gibson (2009), cited by Patel, 2011).

Based on recent research by Cardona and Montalban (2012), openness involves active imagination, aesthetic sensitivity, attentiveness to inner feelings, preference for variety and intellectual curiosity.

The fifth dimension of big five personality traits is often labeled openness to experience, which is refers to a propensity to adjust beliefs and behaviors when exposed to new types of information or ideas as adapted from John (1990), cited by McElroy and Dowd, 2007).

Openness to experience is a measure of depth, breadth and variability in a person’s imagination and urge for experiences because this factor relates to intellect, openness to new ideas, cultural interests, educational aptitude and creativity as well as an interest in varied sensory and cognitive experiences (Udoudoh, 2012). This statement also supported by McElroy and Down (2007) state that in the last couple of decades the five-factor model of personality which is openness to experience has become the most widely tested and well-regarded personality trait model because most of the researchers has support this model’s validity and reliability.

Moreover, individuals scoring high on this dimension are more open to new ideas and motivated to seek variety and external experience and those with low score tend to be less inclined to consider alternative opinions and are more steadfast in their own beliefs making them more likely to rely upon information that is familiar and conventional as cited by McElroy and Dowd (2007)

Theoretical Framework

In this study, the researcher has developed a theoretical framework to describe and explain about all the variables that have in this study. This theoretical framework will show all the variables that important to this study. The variable includes the independent variable and dependent variable.

The researcher will test the independent variables influence the dependent variables. The independent variables in this research are neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience, agreebleness and conscientiousness and for the dependent variables are job satisfaction. The theoretical framework of this study is shown in Figure 2.1 below.

The Big Five Personality Traits

• Neuroticism

• Extroversion

• Openness To Experience, Agreebleness

• Conscientiousness

Job Satisfaction

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLE

Figure 2.1 Theoretical Framework on the The Big Five Personality Traits affects the Job Satisfaction in Support’s Staff at Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM).

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, researcher was discussed about the methodology of this research including research design, sampling frame, population, sampling technique, sample size, and unit of analysis. In this unit of analysis was described about data collection procedures, the instrument, validity of instrument and table data of analysis.

The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between Big Five Personality Traits and job satisfaction among support staff in Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM).

Research Design

The researchers have chosen design for this study is qualitative which is correlational as the method for the research. According to Salkind (2012), stated that descriptive method is the characteristics of an existing phenomenon. This also is a non-experimental research. This study is qualitative because to find the finding is through questionnaire. As the aim of this study is to identify the relationship between Big Five Personality Traits and job satisfaction among support staff in Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM), so it is a correlation research as it shows relationship between the independent variables and its dependent variables.

Sampling Frame

The sampling frame that the researcher was use in this study had been drawn from the list of Human Resources Department Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM) (2012). All the supporting staff at Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM) is chosen for this study.

Population

According to Sekaran (2006), population is defined as the target peoples, events or things of interest that researcher wants to investigate. The population of this study is the support staffs who work in Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM). All the supporting staff at Lembaga Pertubuhan Peladang Negeri Melaka (LPPNM) is chosen for this study including in all departments which are Bahagian Pengeluaran Ladang, Bahagian Khidmat Pengurusan, Bahagian Pembangunan Usahawan Peladang, Bahagian Penyeliaan, Bahagian Perniagaan Tani, Bahagian Kejuruteraan, Bahagian Hal Ehwal Korporat, Bahagian Perancangan dan Penilaian, Bahagian Kewangan, Bahagian Pembangunan Modal Insan, Bahagian Pengurusan Maklumat, Bahagian Audit Pertubuhan and Bahagian Penguatkuasaan.

Sampling Techniques

Samples should be small enough to provide a convenient amount of data and must accurately represent the population if any valid inferences are to be drawn from sample results (Sekaran, 2006).

In this study, the sampling technique used is a stratified sampling technique. According to Salkind (2007), stratified sampling technique is the most suitable technique to differentiated information is needed regarding various data within the population. Stratified sampling technique is the instrument that work best if a specific characteristics of population are con

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