1. The following attributes are measured for members of a herd of Asian elephants: weight, height, tusk length, trunk length, and ear area. Based on these measurements, what sort of similarity measure from Section 2.4 (measure of similarity and dissimilarity) would you use to compare or group these elephants? Justify your answer and explain any special circumstances.

2. Consider the training examples shown in Table 3.5 (please find the table from the Attached screenshot) for a binary classification problem.

(a) Compute the Gini index for the overall collection of training examples.

(b) Compute the Gini index for the Customer ID attribute.

(c) Compute the Gini index for the Gender attribute.

(d) Compute the Gini index for the Car Type attribute using multiway split.

3. Consider the data set shown in Table 4.9 (please find the table in the attached screenshot).

(a) Estimate the conditional probabilities for P(A|+), P(B|+), P(C|+), P(A|-), P(B|-), and P(C|-).

(b) Use the estimate of conditional probabilities given in the previous question to predict the class label for a test sample (A = 0, B = 1, C = 0) using the naıve Bayes approach.

(c) Estimate the conditional probabilities using the m-estimate approach, with p = 1/2 and m = 4.