Criminal Tech

After reading the three criminal justice focused articles I provided in CougarView, for this week, scope out the conceptual thread running through all three. Use note taking techniques described in Chapter 4 of “Write & Wrong” to:

  1. Write a thesis statement
  2. Create a detailed outline of your paper which lays out a summary of the information you would present in your final paper. This outline must include the minimum number of sections heads and subtopics required to covey your ideas. The outline also must follow the format contained in Chapter 4 of the Ferree and Pheifer book.

https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1982/03/broken-windows/304465/

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ACADEMIA Letters

Restorative Justice’s Role in Criminal Justice Reform

Kenneth Lang, Glenville State College

Introduction

With the murder of George Floyd in May 2020, and now the conviction of Minneapolis Police
Officer Derrick Chauvin, decries to defund the police and institute genuine criminal justice
reform continue to echo across this nation. Officials have struggled to grapple with the turn
in the tide as violent crimes spikes with the defunding the police (CNN, 2021). While calls to
‘defund the police’ has obscured the idea of reimagining police departments, the larger ques-
tion centers on how we can achieve reform throughout the criminal justice system. Police
agencies and communities will undoubtedly be the catalyst in bringing about the necessary
reform. One aspect of reform that has not received much attention and could potentially prove
to be promising, pivots on the precepts of restorative justice. By instituting restorative justice
more consistently in criminal violations community policing efforts, and internal affair inves-
tigations, police agencies open the door to bringing about a more equitable form of justice,
shifting the justice paradigm from a retributive mindset to a more restorative collaboration.

Restorative Justice

The immediate notion for most who are unfamiliar with restorative justice is to suppose it to be
a soft-handed approach to offenses, whether criminal or otherwise in nature. Zehr (2002), who
is considered the grandfather of restorative justice in the United States, outlines this justice
as “…a process to involve, to the extent possible, those who have a stake in a specific offense
and to collectively identify and address harms, needs, and obligations, in order to heal and put
things as right as possible,” (p. 37). Restorative justice is a burgeoning movement throughout

Academia Letters, August 202

1

Corresponding Author: Kenneth Lang, kenneth.lang@glenville.edu
Citation: Lang, K. (2021). Restorative Justice’s Role in Criminal Justice Reform. Academia Letters, Article
3012. https://doi.org/10.20935/AL3012.

1

©2021 by the author — Open Access — Distributed under CC BY 4.0

https://doi.org/10.20935/AL301

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the United States in courts, businesses, and schools (Umbreit, Coates, &Vos, 2007; Zehr,
2002). Though it’s more prominent in states such as Illinois, Colorado, Pennsylvania, and
Vermont, restorative justice is demonstrating evidence for its utilization (Van Ness & Strong
2015). Proponents for this justice model have evidenced its benefits. In using restorative
justice with incidents of wrongdoing participants have expressed a higher satisfaction rate,
a higher restitution payments, and lower recidivism rates (Sherman & Strang, 2007; Zehr,
2002). In fact, Colorado recently exhibited a significant reduction in juvenile recidivism along
with high victim satisfaction rates (Winder & Nunes, 2018).

More specifically, modern restorative justice is based on the response to wrongdoing and
indigenous cultures’ responses to offenses (Hand, C., Hankes, J., & House, T., 2012). Restora-
tive justice brings the stakeholders together affected by a wrongdoing and seeks to right the
wrong due to the relational aspect of the offense (Zehr, 2002). Moreover, it asks ‘What hap-
pened?’, ‘Why did it happen?’, ‘What was its impact?’, and ‘How do we right the wrong?’
(Pranis, 2005). Stakeholders involved in the incident then have the opportunity to articulate
their responses to these prescribed questions which produces a more communal approach to
resolving the incident and the prospect of reintegrating the offender back into the community
our social circles. Consequently, for those who have experienced a restorative justice praxis
with their incident, most articulate positive feedback about the process and its outcomes, giv-
ing way to the possibility of further expanding this justice concept.

While Zehr’s definition of restorative justice is the most referred to version, there is no
single structured definition as various scholars wrestle to include community attributes in the
definition (Van Camp & Wemmer, 2013). However, Walker (2013) does attribute the commu-
nity’s inclusiveness as a stakeholder in the process by noting, “Restorative justice is a way of
responding to criminal behavior by balancing the needs of the community, the victim and the
offenders. It is an evolving concept that has given rise to different interpretation in different
countries, one around which there is not always a perfect consensus,” (p.8). If then, restorative
justice is a process of impartiality that addresses multiple types of wrongs and better involves
the community in righting the wrong, can it be folded into the envelope of criminal justice
reform? By introducing this justice praxis into criminal violations, community policing ini-
tiatives, and internal affairs complaints police agencies could reap the benefits and improve
community inclusivity, satisfaction rates, and reduce recidivism rates.

Criminal Violations

Since the mid-1970s modern restorative justice has been introduced into the American crim-
inal justice system, modeling it much after the New Zealand’s structure to implement the

Academia Letters, August 2021

Corresponding Author: Kenneth Lang, kenneth.lang@glenville.edu
Citation: Lang, K. (2021). Restorative Justice’s Role in Criminal Justice Reform. Academia Letters, Article
3012. https://doi.org/10.20935/AL3012.
2
©2021 by the author — Open Access — Distributed under CC BY 4.0

https://doi.org/10.20935/AL3012

concept into the juvenile justice system and await the benefits to matriculate as the juveniles
grew into adults. The idea was not only novel, but it was successful and brought about the
desired positive effects. While some are squeamish at the notion of utilizing restorative justice
in cases of violence, the evidence reflects the contrary. Not only is restorative justice effec-
tive in misdemeanors, but it is more effective in violent offenses (Sherman & Strang, 2007;
Zehr, 2002). There has been concern about victims in cases of violence being manipulated
or revictimized by the offender (Curtis-Fawkey & Daly, 2005). However, Miller and Iovanna
(2013) have demonstrated that by implementing a restorative justice process after a traditional
court adjudication, this threat is virtually eliminated and demonstrates the ability of restora-
tive justice to coincide and work in tandem with the current justice system. There is still much
research that needs to be accomplished with respect of restorative justice and violent crimes.
Nevertheless, Umbreit and Voss (2000) have demonstrated its successful implementation in
cases of murder, giving the surviving family members a voice in expressing the impact of the
crime and answering their often prevailing question of “Why?”

Today, restorative justice is flourishing as a grassroots movement in various jurisdictions
throughout the United States. State legislatures are also turning to explore the concept as new
laws are passed to enable court systems to implement the unfamiliar concept and measure
results. Even more importantly, restorative justice is not limited to crimes. It is also taking
hold in various businesses, industries, and educational systems. As it becomes known to
communities, restorative justice is quickly embraced.

Community Policing

Since the evolution of the Baltimore County Police’s Citizen Oriented Police Enforcement
(COPE) in 1982 (Behan, 1986), police agencies have sought ways to engage communities
in their crime fighting efforts. Evolving from this program is the more commonly known
concept of community policing, which remains a primary initiative with many major law en-
forcement agencies. In its advancement over the years, community policing has proven to be
quite effective with communities, particularly in the areas of patrol and traffic and criminal
investigations (Laru-an & Beup, 2015). Laru-an et al., further acknowledge that communities
need to be stakeholders and that “crime is everybody’s business,” (p. 1). But not all citi-
zens are aware of their responsibilities. Likewise, police agencies need to acknowledge the
involvement of communities in the processing of criminal events (Laru-an & Beup, 2015).

The benefits of restorative justice certainly align with the enforcement initiatives of any
given police department. It acknowledges stakeholders, including those form the community,
and affords community members the ability to voice their opinions and concerns about crim-

Academia Letters, August 2021
Corresponding Author: Kenneth Lang, kenneth.lang@glenville.edu
Citation: Lang, K. (2021). Restorative Justice’s Role in Criminal Justice Reform. Academia Letters, Article
3012. https://doi.org/10.20935/AL3012.

3

©2021 by the author — Open Access — Distributed under CC BY 4.0

https://doi.org/10.20935/AL3012

inal offenses. The praxis also enables those affected by the crime and enables investigators
to bring about a richer appreciation of the various perspectives represented in these incidents.
Folding restorative justice techniques into community policing efforts could potentially fur-
ther enhance the already documented successes of community policing.

Internal Affairs Investigations

Policing the police can be an arduous and controversial task. For some, internal investigations
of officers by their own agency are presumed to unfold in a forthright manner. But for others,
trust in the agency’s ability to conduct an unbiased investigation has eroded. Unresolved in-
ternal investigations prove to negatively impact the confidence of the public. Mrozla (2019)
articulates the longer it takes to resolve an internal complaint, or complaints involving several
officers in the same incident, the less likely it becomes the case will reach a conclusion. Mro-
zla (2019) further posits that “[a] police-community relationship is based on the principle of
legitimacy. Citizens have more favorable views of the police when treated in a fair manner,”
(p. 10).

As with the community policing suggestion, restorative justice could prove to be quite ben-
eficial if implemented in the process of internal affair investigations. This is particularly true
with the necessity to improve community involvement in internal investigations. When ad-
ministrative charges against an officer are substantiated, citizens could be vested in the process
and articulate community concerns bringing about legitimacy to the investigative process.

Conclusion

The recent shift to defund the police and calls for criminal justice reform have certainly not
gone unnoticed by police departments, governments, and the citizenry. Advocates for these
movements are calling for less lethal and more equitable measures from their police, exhibiting
an interest in becoming more involved addressing crimes in their community. With properly
facilitated restorative justice methods, police agencies and the communities could experience
the well documented benefits of this less known justice concept. Stakeholders would have an
uninterrupted voice in the processes, increasing satisfaction rates and potentially decreasing
recidivism rates. Without question, in addressing criminal justice reform and bringing about
an authenticity with the community, criminal justice needs to find a new pathway forward
that is more equitable with the stakeholders affected by crime. After all, ‘crime is everyone’s
business.’

Academia Letters, August 2021
Corresponding Author: Kenneth Lang, kenneth.lang@glenville.edu
Citation: Lang, K. (2021). Restorative Justice’s Role in Criminal Justice Reform. Academia Letters, Article
3012. https://doi.org/10.20935/AL3012.

4

©2021 by the author — Open Access — Distributed under CC BY 4.0

https://doi.org/10.20935/AL3012

References

Behan, C. J. (1986). Fighting fear in Baltimore County – the Cope Project. FBI Law En-
forcement Bulletin 55(11), 12-15.

Curtis-Fawley, S., & Daly, K. (2005). Gendered violence and restorative justice. Violence
Against Women, 11(5), 603-638. doi:10.1177/1077801205274488

Hand, C., Hankes, J., & House, T., (2012). Restorative justice: The indigenous justice system.
Contemporary Juvenile Review, 15(4), 449-467. doi: 1080/10282580.2012.734576.

Laru-an, N. G., & Beup, H. T. (2015). Levels of effectiveness in community policing. Inter-
national Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 5(2), 1-5.

Miller, S. L., & Iovanna, L. (2013). Using restorative justice for gendered violence success
with a postconviction model. Feminist Criminology, 8(4), 247-268. doi:10.1177/1557085113490781

Nickeas, P., Jones, J., Campbell, J., & Krishnakumar, P. (2021). Defund the police encounters
resistance as violent crime spikes. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2021/05/25/us/
defund-police-crime-spike/index.html.

Pranis, K., (2005). The little book of circle processes: A new/old approach to peacemaking.
Good Books.

Sherman, L. & Strang, H. (2007). Restorative justice: The evidence. Retrieved from http://
restorativejustice.org/10fulltext/restorative-justice-the-evidence

Umbreit, M.S., Coates, R.B., & Vos, B. (2007). Restorative justice dialogue: A multi-
dimensional, evidence-based practice theory. Contemporary Justice Review, 10(1), 23-
41. doi: 10.1080/10282580601157521.

Umbreit, M. S., & Vos, B. (2000). Homicide survivors meet the offender prior to execu-
tion. Homicide Studies, 4(1), 63-87. Retrieved from http://hsx.sagepub.com/content/4/1/
63.short

Van Camp, T. & Wemmer, J. (2013). Victim satisfaction with restorative justice: More
than simply procedural justice. International Review of Victimology, 19(2), 117-143. doi:
10.1177/02697580124727764.

Van Ness, D. W., & Strong, K. H. (2015). Restoring justice: An introduction to restorative

Academia Letters, August 2021
Corresponding Author: Kenneth Lang, kenneth.lang@glenville.edu
Citation: Lang, K. (2021). Restorative Justice’s Role in Criminal Justice Reform. Academia Letters, Article
3012. https://doi.org/10.20935/AL3012.

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©2021 by the author — Open Access — Distributed under CC BY 4.0

https://www.cnn.com/2021/05/25/us/defund-police-crime-spike/index.html

https://www.cnn.com/2021/05/25/us/defund-police-crime-spike/index.html

http://restorativejustice.org/10fulltext/restorative-justice-the-evidence

http://restorativejustice.org/10fulltext/restorative-justice-the-evidence

http://hsx.sagepub.com/content/4/1/63.short

http://hsx.sagepub.com/content/4/1/63.short

https://doi.org/10.20935/AL3012

justice (5th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge

Walker, J. (2013). Restorative justice: Definition and purpose In Van Wormer, K. S. &
Walker, L. (Ed.), Restorative Justice Today: Practical Applications, 3-14, Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage.

Winder, C., & Nunes, A.H. (2018). Restorative justice in juvenile diversion: An evalua-
tion of programs receiving Colorado rj cash funds. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/kenne/
Downloads/2018+RJ+Juvenile+Diversion+Evaluation+Report+-+Final%20(1)

Zehr, H. (2002). The little book of restorative justice. Good Books.

Academia Letters, August 2021
Corresponding Author: Kenneth Lang, kenneth.lang@glenville.edu
Citation: Lang, K. (2021). Restorative Justice’s Role in Criminal Justice Reform. Academia Letters, Article
3012. https://doi.org/10.20935/AL3012.

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©2021 by the author — Open Access — Distributed under CC BY 4.0

https://doi.org/10.20935/AL3012

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Incarceration, social capital, and crime: Implications for social disorganization theory
Rose, Dina A;Clear, Todd R
Criminology; Aug 1998; 36, 3; Criminal Justice Database
pg. 441

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Organizing a Paper: From Taking Notes to Creating an Outline
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WRITING WITHIN CRIMINAL JUSTICE
© Roberts/ShutterStock, Inc.
© Falconia/ShutterStock, Inc.
Organizing a Paper
From Taking Notes to Creating an Outline
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Objectives
How to effectively take notes from journal articles and research reports
How to use your notes to create an outline for your paper
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Taking Notes
Purpose is to organize the material
Use notes to write an outline
Use outline to write your paper
Must paraphrase the information!
Policy paper has two sections, which each have different note-taking rules
Informative section
Educate your reader
Persuasive section
Discuss studies that have evaluated your program or policy
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One of the most difficult parts in writing a paper is organizing the material. However, if you organize the material as you read through each article, you will get a head start on organizing your paper.
One way to start organizing your paper is to take notes, then use those notes to write an outline. You will then write your paper using your outline as your guide.
As a criminal justice student, you may be asked to write a policy paper. Therefore, we will discuss how to take notes and write an outline for such a paper. A policy paper has two sections. The first section is the informative section, in which you will educate your reader about your program or policy. The second section is the persuasive section, in which you will discuss studies that have evaluated your program or policy. The note-taking techniques are different for each section.

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Taking Notes:
Informative Section
List the topics you must discuss
Read your first source, highlighting important information
Do not stop to take notes
At the top of a blank Word document, type:
Last name(s) of author(s)
Year of publication
Article’s title
A number you assign to that source
Reread article, taking notes on each topic you must discuss
Paraphrase the information!
Before each entry, type the topic you are addressing (e.g., history)
After each entry, type the number you assigned and page number where information was located (e.g., 1, p. 14)
Repeat the previous steps for each source
Open a final Word document
COPY and paste the information for the first topic (e.g., history) from each source into the final document
Repeat this process for each topic
All of the information for each topic will be grouped together in the final document
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Before you take notes, you should review the directions for your writing assignment to see what topics you must address in your paper. When you write a policy paper, you will have both an informative section and a persuasive section. For the informative section, you should provide a description of the program, the scope of the problem it is trying to address, its history, its purpose(s) or goal(s), the population it targets, and the specific elements of the program (how it works). For the persuasive section, you must provide a summary of empirical studies that support your thesis statement. For each study, you must summarize the research question examined, describe the sample population and how the data were obtained, and then summarize the key findings of the study that relate to your thesis statement. Finally, you must summarize any limitations the researcher(s) noted at the end of the study.
The key to note-taking is organization; the more attention you pay to organizing your notes as you create them, the easier it will be to create an outline from those notes. Moreover, the more attention you pay to correctly recording where you read each piece of information, the easier it will be to find it again if you need to double-check what you have written or if you need to obtain additional information.
To begin your note-taking on the informative section, write all of the topics you are required to discuss on a separate piece of paper. You will use this list during the note-taking process to help you remember what information to look for as you read each source.
Read your first source. Highlight any information that relates to any of the topics you are required to write about in your paper. Do not stop and write any notes at this point. The first read-through is to just get a feel for what the source about.
Next, open a blank Word document. At the top, type the last name(s) of the author(s), the year of publication, and the article’s title. Give your source a number and type it at the top of the page.
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Sample Notes Page for
Informative Section
Wilson & Carlie (2015) “Mental Health Courts” – source #1
History – First program created in FL in 1985 (1, p. 122)
History – Currently 250 similar programs nationwide (1, p.124)
Purpose – To offer mentally ill offenders treatment rather than punishment and to reduce recidivism (1, p. 133)
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Read through the slide with the students. Note that the top line has the authors’ names, year of publication, title of the article, and assigned source number. Also note that each entry begins with the relevant topic, a short phrase of information, and the location of the information.
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Taking Notes:
Persuasive Section
List the topics you must discuss
Read your first source, highlighting the relevant information
Do not stop to take notes
At the top of a blank Word document, type:
Last name(s) of author(s)
Year of publication
Article’s title
You do not have to give the source a number
Reread the source, taking notes on each topic you must discuss
Paraphrase the information!
Before each entry, type the topic you are addressing (e.g., data obtained, findings)
After each entry, type the page number where information was located (e.g., p. 28)
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After you have finished taking notes for the informative section, you will take notes for the persuasive section.
As with taking notes for the informative section, when you take notes for this section, list the topics you must address on a separate piece of paper. As we discussed for this section earlier, you should provide a summary of empirical studies that support your thesis statement. For each study, you should summarize the research question examined, describe the sample population and how the data were obtained, and then summarize the key findings of the study that relate directly to your thesis statement. Finally, you should summarize any limitations the researcher(s) noted at the end of the study.
To take notes:
Read the first study and highlight the relevant information. Do not stop to take any notes.
Next, open a blank Word document and, at the top, type the last name(s) of the author(s), the year of publication, and the article’s title. You do not have to give it a number.
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Taking Notes: Persuasive Section
(continued)
Open a new blank Word document
At the top, type:
Title of study
Last name(s) of author(s)
Year of publication
COPY and paste the information so all information about each topic is grouped together
Repeat this process for each study
*

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Sample Notes Page for
Persuasive Section
Wilson & Carlie (2015) “Mental Health Courts”
Research Question – Gender differences in recidivism rates among mental health court participants (p. 121)
Data obtained – 60 male and 40 female program participants (p. 122)
Data obtained – Interviews and arrest records (p. 122)
Findings – Men more likely to recidivate than women (p. 130)
Findings – Men ages 18-21 most likely to recidivate within the first year (p. 131)
Findings – Women ages 18-21 least likely to recidivate (p. 131)
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When you take notes on the findings of a study, remember that you are only interested in that part of the study that addresses your thesis statement. Do not take notes on information that is irrelevant to it.
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What do outlines and GPS have in common?
They get you where you need to go in the most efficient manner
© M. Dykstra/ShutterStock, Inc.
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The purpose of writing an outline is to further evaluate and better organize the information you have collected from your notes.
In general, an outline serves as the “roadmap” for writing your paper! The more specific and detailed you make it (e.g., provide turn-by-turn directions), the easier it will be to write your paper and to stay on point (e.g., avoid getting “side tracked”).
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Writing an Outline:
General Rules
Purpose: To further evaluate and organize the information in your notes
An outline serves as a roadmap
It should be specific and detailed
The more detailed, the easier it will be to stay on track
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Writing an Outline: Format
Major headings
Denoted by Roman numerals
Main elements of your paper
Minor headings
Denoted by capital letters
Supporting points for major headings
Subheadings for minor headings
Denoted with numbers
© Irmak Akcadogan/ShutterStock, Inc. 
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An outline has major headings, minor headings, and subheadings.
Major headings: When you write an outline, begin with your major points (Roman numerals). These constitute the main ideas (or sections) for your paper. For this lecture, the major points are the scope of the problem, definition, history of the program or policy, and goal(s) of the program or policy. On the outline, list the elements in the same order that they are listed in the writing assignment.
Minor headings – These are the supporting details that provide the reader with specific information about each of the key points you will address in your paper. For example, if you have a section in your paper on the history of a program (a major heading), as minor headings beneath it, you would list where the program began and when it began.
*

Creating an Outline From the Notes: General Rules
Follow these rules:
Include the source number and page number where you found the information
For studies, only include page number
Write entries as short phrases, no complete sentences
Each entry should be one line
Exception: Study entries may be longer
Always include an introduction and a conclusion in your outline
Always follow the “rule of two”
*

Next to each entry, include the source number and page number where you found the information. This will enable you to easily refer back to the original source if you need to.
In general, each entry on your outline should not be longer than one line. However, the entries for your empirical studies may contain more specific information so they may be a bit longer. (But no longer than two lines).
The first major heading on your outline (Roman numeral I) should always be the “Introduction.” Similarly, the last major heading (last Roman numeral) on your outline should always be the “Conclusion.”
Rule of two: You must always include a minimum of TWO headings or subheadings. Therefore, if you include an “A” on your outline as a minor heading, you must also include at least a “B.” Similarly for subheadings, if you include a “1” as a subheading, you must also include at least a “2.”

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Creating an Outline: The First Draft
Step One: List your major points
Designated by Roman numerals
Main ideas for your paper
Include all elements required by your assignment
Step Two: Write your minor points for each major point
Designated by capital letters
Copy and paste information from notes that relates to the first major point
Include source number and page number for informative section
Include page number for persuasive section
Remember the “rule of two”
Step Three: Repeat the process for each remaining major point
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NOTE: For the persuasive section of your paper, you must present a summary of empirical studies that support your thesis statement. Thus, your final major points (before the conclusion) will each be a study. Under each major point, your minor points will be the topics that you must discuss for each study (e.g., how data obtained, findings). To create the minor points for this section of your outline, follow the same steps you used to create the minor points for the informative section of your paper. For example, copy and paste all of the information (include the page numbers) from your notes for the first study that discuss the first topic (e.g., history). Repeat the step for each topic you are required to discuss.
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Sample Outline Page for the Informative Section
III. History of mental health courts
A. Began in 1985 (source #, p. #)
B. Started in FL (source #, p. #)
C. Presently over 250 programs in the U. S. (source #, p. #)
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Sample Outline Page for a Study
VII. Study #1 – Wilson & Carlie (2015)
A. Research question – Gender differences in recidivism rates among mental health court participants (p. #)
B. Data – Interviews and arrest records of 60 male and 40 female program participants (p. #)
C. Findings
1. Men more likely to recidivate than women (p. #)
2. Men ages 18–21 most likely to recidivate within the first year (p. #)
3. Women ages 18–21 least likely to recidivate within the first year (p. #)
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Editing Your Outline
Focus on three things:
The content of your major points
The content of your minor points
The overall organization of the information
Step 1: Evaluate the content of your major points
Do you have too many supporting points?
If yes: Rewrite them as two or more major points
Do any of your major points lack substance?
If yes: Include them as supporting points for another topic
Did you include all of the topics required by the assignment?
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After you have written your first draft of your outline, you must revise it. To do this, look at each entry separately.
First focus on the major points. Evaluate the content of each one to determine if it should be rewritten as two or more major points, or included as supporting points instead. Also, review the major points to make sure you have included all of the topics required by the assignment.
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Editing Your Outline (continued)
Step 2: Evaluate the content of your minor points
Would your paper be stronger if you made a minor point a major point?
Did you provide enough detail?
Step 3: Review the overall organization
Did you present the information in a logical order?
Order of major points: Does paper “flow” well?
Is your outline “detailed” enough?
Use many heading and subheadings
Do not write lengthy entries
See Handout #1: “Sample Outline

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When you review the content of your minor points, look at each one to determine whether your paper would be stronger if you included the information as a major point instead. In addition, check to make sure you have provided enough information in your minor point. For example, if you are writing a paper about drunk drivers and you have listed gender and age as minor points, but the source also discusses legal limits, you should add that to your outline.
The best way to ensure that your paper is well organized is to discuss the elements in the same order in which they are listed in the assignment.
Finally, remember that a “detailed” outline does not mean one that has lengthy entries. It means that you should use many headings and subheadings.
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