CPD V

Departmentof Mechanical and Construction Engineering

Faculty of Engineering and Environment

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MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 1 of 4

Coursework Specification Referral/Deferral

  • 1 Module Information
  • 1.1 Module Title Construction project planning and delivery

    1.2 Module Code Number KB7039

    1.3 Module Level and Credit Points 7 20 credits

    1.4 Module Leader Hazel Ponton

    1.5 Assessment Component Number (on Module Specification) 01

    1.6 Assessment Weighting (on Module Specification) 100%

    1.7 Coursework Title Solutions to a construction industry problem

    1.8 Coursework Specification Author Hazel Ponton

    1.9 Academic Year and Semester(s) 2020-2021 Semester 2 only

  • 2 Coursework Submission and Feedback
  • 2.1 Release Date of Coursework Specification to Students As per eLP

    2.2 Mechanism Used to Disseminate Coursework Specification to Students eLP

    2.3 Date and Time of Submission of Coursework by Students As per eLP

    2.4 The mechanism for Submission of Coursework by Students eLP

    2.5 Return Date of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students As per eLP
    2021

    2.6 The mechanism for Return of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to
    Students eLP

    MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 2 of 4

  • 3 Assessment Details
  • 3.1 Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) Assessed by Coursework

    What will I be expected to achieve?

    Knowledge & Understanding:

    MLO1 – Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the work-based practice through the analysis and
    evaluation of research-based theory and relevant case studies, by formulating solutions to the effective
    and efficient delivery of construction engineering projects.

    Intellectual / Professional skills & abilities:

    MLO2 – Critically evaluate innovative approaches to product, process and services delivery in
    construction engineering through consideration of theory and practice.

    Personal Values Attributes:

    MLO3 – Formulate strategies for improvement within the global construction engineering industry to
    demonstrate cultural, ethical and sustainable awareness.

    3.2 Coursework Overview
    The assessment requires you to consider a single existing problem related to poor productivity in the
    construction industry, relating to one of the 8 forms of lean waste. Once you have selected a single
    problem and can define the problem in relation to lean waste, you need to critically analyse the potential
    solutions formulated from the module and provide considered solutions to the problem, with clear links
    between the problem and the potential solutions.

    3.3 Coursework Tasks to be Completed by Students
    You will produce an individual illustrated journal of no more than 6no. A3 pages (landscape) (Excluding
    front page, Content page and Reference List). The illustrated journal needs to include all of the following:

    1. Select a single construction industry problem related to poor productivity and one of the 8 forms of lean
    waste discussed during the module, include a short description and a statement that clearly and concisely
    defines the scope of the problem in the boundaries of this module.

    2. Justify (through good quality industry and academic literature) why this is a problem, who the problem affects,
    and the impact of the problem on a project/industry.

    3. Critically analyse possible solutions to the problem from learning during this module AND independent
    research.

    4. Create a visual illustration that links the problem to the solutions, i.e. fishbone diagram, mind map or
    another suitable visual tool.

    5. Create a visual improvement model which summarises HOW the problem can be solved.
    6. The illustrated journal should use an effective combination of text AND images to provide an interesting and

    visually engaging document. All images should be relevant and of an appropriate size and quality.

    The illustrated journal should include cited, good quality academic literature and industry literature.
    The content should be guided by the learning outcomes, the marking criteria and the learning from
    this module.

    3.4 Expected Size of Submission
    An individual illustrated journal of no more than 6no. A3 pages (landscape) (Excluding front page,
    Content page and Reference List). If more than 6 pages of content are provided, only the first 6 pages will
    be marked and assessed. The illustrated journal is to include approximately 50% text (using font size 10)
    and approximately 50% images of appropriate size.

    MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 3 of 4

    3.5 Referencing Style

    You are to write your coursework using the Cite Them Right version of the Harvard referencing system.
    An online guide to Cite Them Right is freely available to Northumbria University students at:

    https://www.citethemrightonline.com/

    3.6 Assessment Criteria
    Quality of presentation (including the ability to generate audience interest) 10%
    Depth of analysis of the industry problem 30%
    Selection and analysis of possible solutions 40%
    Ability to relate the problems to the solutions (visual illustration) 10%
    Quality and originality of the improvement model. 10%

  • 4 Referral
  • The Referral Attempt opportunity will generally take place after the end-of-level Progression and Awards
    Board (PAB). If you become eligible to complete a Referral Attempt but are subsequently unable to
    undertake the opportunity when required, you will be permitted to re-sit the module at the next scheduled
    sitting of the module assessment. This will typically entail the suspension of your progression on your
    programme of study until such time that you have completed the level and become eligible to proceed.

  • 5 Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment
  • The University has several policies for assessment. The following information, which is available to you
    from the link below, provides guidance on these policies, including relevant procedures and forms.

    (1) Assessment Regulations and Policies
    (a) Assessment Regulations for Taught Awards
    (b) Group Work Assessments Policy
    (c) Moderation Policy
    (d) Retention of Assessed Work Policy
    (e) Word Limits Policy

    (2) Assessment Feedback
    (a) Anonymous Marking Policy

    (3) Late Submission of Work and Extension Requests
    (4) Personal Extenuating Circumstances
    (5) Technical Extenuating Circumstances
    (6) Student Complaints and Appeals
    (7) Academic Misconduct
    (8) Student Disability and Unforeseen Medical Circumstances

    https://www.northumbria.ac.uk/about-us/university-services/academic-registry/quality-and-teaching-
    excellence/assessment/guidance-for-students/

    https://www.citethemrightonline.com/

    MCE | Learning and Teaching Version 2.0 | Page 4 of 4

    KB7039 Construction Project Planning and Delivery – Component 1
    Name ………………………………… Mark:

    OUTCOMES I CAN’T BELIEVE
    IT!

    [ 100%]

    WOW! [ 85%] DISTINCTIVE [ 75%] COMMENDABLE [
    65%]

    PASS [ 55%] FAIL [ 45%] POOR FAIL [ 0%]

    Quality of
    presentation
    (including the ability
    to generate
    audience interest)
    10%

    This work is of
    outstanding quality
    and has surprised
    the markers.

    Shows deeper learning
    than would normally be
    expected.

    Excellent and very
    clear with few
    problems.

    Very good and
    reasonably clear with
    some problems.

    Quite a few problems
    but overall the
    message was received

    Too many problems so
    the presentation was
    unclear.

    Very poor with little
    ability to express the
    ideas in a clear and
    interesting manner.

    Depth of analysis of
    the industry
    problems
    30%

    A good attempt with
    few mistakes – the
    student clearly
    understands the
    problems.

    A good attempt with
    some mistakes – the
    student’s
    understanding is
    generally good

    Some attempt with
    some mistakes – the
    student’s
    understanding is
    acceptable.

    Little attempt with
    many mistakes – the
    students show little
    understanding.

    Very little effort has
    gone into this – the
    student shows no real
    understanding.

    Analysis of possible
    solutions
    40%

    The student has an
    excellent grasp of
    possible solutions.

    The student has a
    good grasp of possible
    solutions although
    there are some minor
    problems.

    The student does not
    fully grasp the
    solutions but there is
    some merit in what is
    said.

    The student is not able
    to analyse solutions
    though there is
    evidence of a fair
    attempt.

    The student has little
    or no grasp of the
    issues.

    Ability to relate the
    problems to the
    solutions (visual)
    10%

    Solutions are clearly
    and cogently linked to
    problems.

    Solutions arise from
    problems in most
    instances although
    there is some lack of
    clarity.

    Some linkage of
    solutions and problems
    but the work lacks
    depth.

    Evidence of only
    surface understanding
    of linkages.

    Little evidence of ability
    to derive the solutions
    from the problems.

    Clarity and
    relevance of the
    improvement model
    10%

    The clarity of
    expression and
    cogency of the
    argument are generally
    excellent with few
    problems.

    The clarity of
    expression and
    cogency of the
    argument are generally
    good though there are
    a few problems.

    The clarity of
    expression and
    cogency of the
    argument are generally
    acceptable but there is
    some confusion.

    The work lacks clarity
    and cogency – difficult
    to follow

    The work is confusing
    and has little merit.

    Feedback – 3 areas of good practice, 3 areas for potential improvement:

      1 Module Information
      1.1 Module Title Construction project planning and delivery
      1.2 Module Code Number KB7039
      1.3 Module Level and Credit Points 7 20 credits
      1.4 Module Leader Hazel Ponton
      1.5 Assessment Component Number (on Module Specification) 01
      1.6 Assessment Weighting (on Module Specification) 100%
      1.7 Coursework Title Solutions to a construction industry problem
      1.8 Coursework Specification Author Hazel Ponton
      1.9 Academic Year and Semester(s) 2020-2021 Semester 2 only
      2 Coursework Submission and Feedback
      2.1 Release Date of Coursework Specification to Students As per eLP
      2.2 Mechanism Used to Disseminate Coursework Specification to Students eLP
      2.3 Date and Time of Submission of Coursework by Students As per eLP
      2.4 The mechanism for Submission of Coursework by Students eLP
      2.5 Return Date of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students As per eLP 2021
      2.6 The mechanism for Return of Unconfirmed Internally Moderated Mark(s) and Feedback to Students eLP
      3 Assessment Details
      3.1 Module Learning Outcomes (MLOs) Assessed by Coursework
      3.2 Coursework Overview
      3.3 Coursework Tasks to be Completed by Students
      3.4 Expected Size of Submission
      3.5 Referencing Style
      3.6 Assessment Criteria
      4 Referral
      5 Guidance for Students on Policies for Assessment

    1

    | P a g e

    Def ect w a st e p ro b le m i n t he co nst ruct io n I nd ust ry ! ! !

    Collapse of buildings

    Source Aljazeera News, 2019

    Student Number: W19042969

    Department of Mechanical and Construction Engineering

    Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE18ST, United

    Kingdom

    2 | P a g e

    onstruction defect can be defined as a fault in design, the worship and material system which leads to project failure.

    Collapse of buildings

    Source: (Aljazeera News, 2019))

    C

    Generally, defects occur as a result of failure to follow required guidelines resulting to

    financial, property and personal damages as argued by Robson, (2015). Construction defects

    are usually hard to identify since only experts can analyze when a procedure is not correctly

    followed (Waziri, 2016).

    Types of construction defects

    Design defects

    Errors in designing

    Source:(Katume, 2017))

    Design defects occurs when engineers and architects make errors when

    planning on how facilities are going to be constructed. The most likely losses

    errors that might occur includes the water penetration plan, poor draining

    system design and inadequate structural support leading to occurrence of

    (Cogurcu2015).

    3 | P a g e

    Material defects

    Material defects in projects

    Source: (Hazem, 2017)

    Workmanship

    Source:(Levelset,2018)

    Material defects occurs when inferiorproducts are

    used during the construction. The material used in

    construction projects is based on the requirement of

    the end products. the higher the quality of the end

    product, the higher the material quality that should

    be used. The use of inferior products means that the

    buildings and infrastructures cannot last for long

    period ((Tayeh, et, al, 2017)

    The interpretation of designs is important for the safety of the

    occupants and users of buildings. Workmanship is a scenario

    where construction is not undertaken as per the directions of the

    designers. It results from misinterpretation of designs and pans

    leasing to poor quality of buildings (Bagdiya&Wadalkar,2015)

    4 | P a g e

    How defects lead to wastages in the construction industry

    Effects of defects in construction

    Source:(LMT,2018)

    In construction works, defects must be corrected otherwise, they might lead to greater losses in

    future. The wastage in defects comes as a result of additional work that needs to be performed to

    correct defects that are noted.

    Financial wastages

    Financially, organizations are forced to use more funds to undertake repairs as a result of additional

    work to mend the effects of defects. Since projects are run under strict budgets, there is need for

    project managers to ensure that the actual expenses do not exceed the budget. However, it is

    difficult for project managers in construction project to ensure that budget is actualized since more

    resources will be allocated in order to amend the defects.

    Human resource wastage

    In terms of human resources, organizations are made to committee more employees for repairs as

    opposed to using the employees in undertaking other important stages of the projects. In presence of

    defects in construction projects hence means that employees will be used to undertake repeat tasks

    rather than undertaking progress tasks and advancing the projects (Dey, et al., 2017).

    Time wastage

    Construction projects are undertaking in consideration with a time plan. This means that project

    managers are required to follow the project plans in order to deliver each milestone at the right

    time. However, the presence of defects in the projects is likely to lead to delays in the process of

    project management (Gulghane&Khandve, 2015). Since defects have to be solved immediately,

    they are realized, time is used when trying to redo the work. This leads to time wastage and project

    delay. Milestones cannot be reached at the required time since employees have to concentrate in

    amending the defects to reduce risks of losses and accidents upon completion of the project (Tejale,

    et al., 2015).

    Material wastages

    Before the commencement of projects, engineers and designers guide the

    project managers in terms the required material when undertaking the

    construction works. The control of material used is important as it ensures

    that cost is controlled (Arshad, et al., 2017). However, defects call for

    unplanned material to be used when redoing the construction work in order

    to fix errors that occurred. This hence might lead to demolition of some

    parts as the project managers try to fix problems associated with defects.

    This results to the excess use of material than the planned for hence leading

    to increase in project cost (Udawatta, et al., 2015)

    5 | P a g e

    Causes of defects in construction industry

    Fishbone image of causes of defects in the construction industry

    Source:(Ilie&Ciocoiu, 2010)

    Generally, the causes of defects can be categorized in to six components as shown in the

    above fishbone diagram.

    Material

    Material challenges that might lead to defects includes poorly stored material. Construction

    material needs to be stored in a good manner that will minimize chances of destruction. Such

    material includes metal which needs to be stored in places with less moisture to avoid

    rusting. Other material such as cements, ballast and stones need to be safely stored in order

    to avoid breakages and destruction by water as argued by (Jingmond&Ågren, 2015). The use

    of expired material is also a challenge in the construction management and is likely to lead to

    defects in the final products. such material includes paints, cements and other manufactured

    commodities used in construction work. This is

    likely to affect the quality of the buildings.

    Composition of components used in the building process might lead to defects in case

    measurements are not done in the required way. A perfect example is the mixture of ballast,

    sand and cements. Failure to ensure that material is well balanced is likely to lead to defects

    in the buildings the use of expired material is also a challenge in the construction

    management and is likely to lead to defects in the final products. such material includes

    paints, cements and other manufactured commodities used in construction work. This is

    likely to affect the quality of the buildings.

    Measurement

    Measurement in the building process is determined by the lay out designs. Workmanship is

    very important when it comes to putting the layout design in to actuality. There is need to

    ensure that scaling and estimations are done well to reduce chances of defects in size and

    length (Choudhry, et al., 2017).

    Machine

    Machines are likely to lead to defects in case there is power failure. Such incidence might

    cause delay and destruction. Human error where employees are required to feed the

    machines might lead to the wrong results hence defects in the projects. There is also a risk in

    wrong feed rate since construction machines depends on the instruction given by the

    operators (Bagdiya&Wadalkar, 2015).

    Employees

    Generally, human aspects in the construction project is important since projects

    are realized through the human resource efforts. However, defects might result

    from inadequate training of the employees where they take a job without full

    knowledge of what is required of them. The risk of human error is also likely to

    lead to defects (Gamil& Rahman, 2017).

    Environment

    Environment in which buildings are established is likely to affect the

    construction work.

    Subsurface Moisture Incursion might affect the strength of buildings in terms of

    its strength. This is likely to lead to defects following cracks as a result of excess

    moisture (Ye, et al., 2015). Weaknesses of soil is likely to lead to Foundation

    Displacement which might also result to cracks and need to rework. Insufficient

    climate control such as the failure to protect building site from excess water from

    rain, non-regulated sunshine among other factors might also lead to defects

    (Aljassmi,

    et al., 2016).

    6 | P a g e

    Methods

    Poorly design methods are likely to mislead engineers in their construction works. This hence makes it a risky affair as use of such designs might lead to defects. On the other hand,

    project plan that does not in to consideration all activities in to place is likely to lead defects since some activities might be skipped (Asgari&Rahimian, 2017).

    The case study of Sampoong Department Store, South Korea collapse.

    ne other greatest disaster ever seen in the construction industry is the collapse of Sampoong Department Store(Fay, 2019). The main cause of the collapse as per the reports by

    investigators was because of poor planning, poor material of construction and poor design. This case led to the death of five hundred pole most of them being workers(Fay,

    2019).Human ignorance and greed were the major reasons for the errors that occurred during the construction causing massive losses. This shows how failure to consider important

    aspects during construction could lead to, massive losses(Fay, 2019).

    Sampoong Department Store, South Korea collapse

    Source, Great Disasters

    O

    From the case study above, it is hence observable that

    Financial wastages

    Human resource wastage, Time wastage, Material wastages

    are experienced since the building caused losses of lives,

    time to evacuate the affected and the waste of human

    resources who were engaged in building process(Fay, 2019)..

    Solutions to the defect wastage problem

    Employee training

    Through employee training, employees will be able to understand their

    roles in the construction. They will also be able to understand the most

    important activities and how to undertake them. As a result, there will

    be a decline in chances of making errors hence minimizing defects in

    construction industry (Hanaysha, 2016).

    Employee training

    Source: (Andriotis, 2018)

    7 | P a g e

    Expert consultation

    There is need to consult experts in every stage of construction. The project managers should work together with the external experts in order to ensure that all activities are undertaken in

    accordance with the plan and quality needed. The experts will help in checking gaps that might lead to defects in constructions (Elziny, et al., 2016).

    Proper Environmental analysis

    Experts consultation Collapse of buildings

    Source: (Reporting, 2019) Source:(Pentago,2018)

    Proper project management strategies

    Project management process

    Source:(Kerzner,2018)

    In order to reduce chances of defects caused

    by environment, the construction engineers

    should study environmental factors such as the

    surface level of water, the probability of

    having earthquakes among other factors before

    settling on the site. This will help to reduce the

    probability of occurrence of a defect as a result

    of occurrence of an environmental risk (Tixier,

    et al., 2016).

    Project management process

    Source: (Kerzner, 2017)

    Proper planning of activities is important in ensuring that there is a

    good procedure followed. Through strategic project management, the

    project managers are going to ensure that there is no omission of

    important activities in construction hence reduce chances of defects in

    building (Kerzner, 2017).

    8 | P a g e

    References

    Aljassmi, H., Han, S. and Davis, S., 2016. Analysis of the complex mechanisms of defect generation in construction projects. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 142(2), p.04015063.

    Aljazeera News. 2019. Four killed in Taiwan building collapse after quake. [Online]. Available at: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/02/hotel-collapses-taiwan-major-earthquake-180206171245403.html (Accessed

    on

    8/4/2020).

    Andriotis, N. 2018. 5 Popular Employee Training Methods for Workplace Training. [Online]. Available at: https://elearningindustry.com/how-choose-training-methods-for-employees

    (Accessed on 8/4/2020).

    Arshad, H., Qasim, M., Thaheem, M.J. and Gabriel, H.F., 2017. Quantification of material wastage in construction industry of Pakistan: An analytical relationship between building types and waste generation. Journal

    of Construction in Developing Countries, 22(2), pp.19-34.

    Asgari, Z. and Rahimian, F.P., 2017. Advanced virtual reality applications and intelligent agents for construction process optimisation and defect prevention. Procedia engineering, 196, pp.1130-1137.

    Bagdiya, N.V. and Wadalkar, S., 2015. Review paper on construction defects. IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng, 12(2), pp.88-91.

    Bagdiya, N.V. and Wadalkar, S., 2015. Review paper on construction defects. IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng, 12(2), pp.88-91.

    Choudhry, R.M., Gabriel, H.F., Khan, M.K. and Azhar, S., 2017. Causes of discrepancies between design and construction in the Pakistan construction industry. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 22(2),

    pp.1-18.

    Cogurcu, M.T., 2015. Construction and design defects in the residential buildings and observed earthquake damage types in Turkey. Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences, 15(4).

    Dey, S., Manikanda Prabhu, S. and Siva Subramani, G., 2017. Identification and mitigation of factors affecting human resource productivity in construction. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology,

    8(1), pp.123-131.

    Elziny, A.A., Mohamadien, M.A., Ibrahim, H.M. and Fattah, M.A., 2016. An expert system to manage dispute resolutions in const ruction projects in Egypt. Ain Shams Engineering Journal, 7(1), pp.57-71.

    Gamil, Y. and Rahman, I.A., 2017. Identification of causes and effects of poor communication in construction industry: A theo retical review. Emerging Science Journal, 1(4), pp.239-247.

    Gulghane, A.A. and Khandve, P.V., 2015. Management for construction materials and control of construction waste in construction industry: a review. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications,

    5(4), pp.59-64.

    Hanaysha, J., 2016. Examining the effects of employee empowerment, teamwork, and employee training on organizational commitment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229(298-306), pp.298-306.

    Hazem, Z. 2017. Construction defect management – Risk analysis of causes and effects. [Online]. Available at: https://www.planradar.com/construction-defect-management-risk-analysis-and-effects/(Accessed on

    8/4/2020)

    Ilie, G. and Ciocoiu, C.N., 2010. Application of fishbone diagram to determine the risk of an event with multiple causes. Management research and practice, 2(1), pp.1-20.

    Jingmond, M. and Ågren, R., 2015. Unravelling causes of defects in construction. Construction Innovation.

    Katume, N. 2017. 3 Ways to avoid Construction Defect Claims. CR. [Online]. Available at: https://constructionreviewonline.com/2017/09/3-ways-to-avoid-construction-defect-claims/(Accessed on 8/4/2020)

    Kerzner, H., 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.

    Level set. 2018. Defects in Construction: How to Identify and Avoid Them [Online]. Available at: https://www.levelset.com/blog/construction-defects/ (Accessed on 9/4/2020).

    LMT. 2018. Waste of Defects; causes, symptoms, examples and solutions. [Online]. Available at: https://leanmanufacturingtools.org/129/waste-of-defects-causes-symptoms-examples-and-solutions/(Accessed on

    8/4/2020).

    Pentago, C. 2018. Strategies You Need for Successful Project Management. [Online]. Available at: https://www.business2community.com/strategy/3-strategies-need-successful-project-management-01926965

    (Accessed on 8/4/2020).

    Reporting MD. 2019.expert consultation importance.[Online]. Available at: https://reportingmd.com/mips-2019-are-you-in-or-out-macra-exemptions-thresholds-and-eligibility/expert-consultation-3/ (Accessed on

    8/4/2020).

    Robson, P.E.B., 2015. Structural repair of traditional buildings. Routledge.

    Smart Bricks. 2018. Construction Defect – Here Is One Ultimate Guide. [Online]. Available at: https://gosmartbricks.com/construction-defect-here-is-one-ultimate-guide/(Accessed on 8/4/2020).

    Tayeh, B.A., Al-Hallaq, K., Yusuf, M.O. and Sabha, F.A., 2017. Effects of construction phase errors on maintenance of school buildings in Gaza Strip. Effects of construction phase errors on maintenance of school

    buildings in Gaza strip, 5(01).

    Tejale, D.S., Khandekar, S.D. and Patil, J.R., 2015. Analysis of construction project cost overrun by statistical method. International Journal, 3(5), pp.349-355.

    Tixier, A.J.P., Hallowell, M.R., Rajagopalan, B. and Bowman, D., 2016. Automated content analysis for construction safety: A natural language processing system to extract precursors and outcomes from unstructured

    injury reports. Automation in Construction, 62, pp.45-56.

    Udawatta, N., Zuo, J., Chiveralls, K. and Zillante, G., 2015. Improving waste management in construction projects: An Australian study. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 101, pp.73-83.

    Waziri, B.S., 2016. Design and construction defects influencing residential building maintenance in Nigeria. Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, 10(3).

    Ye, G., Jin, Z., Xia, B. and Skitmore, M., 2015. Analyzing causes for reworks in construction projects in China. Journal of Management in Engineering, 31(6), p.04014097.

    Fay, K. 2019.The Sampoong Department Store Collapse. Great disasters. [Online]. Available at: http://www.greatdisasters.co.uk/the-sampoong-department-store-collapse/ (Accessed on 5/6/2020)

    https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/02/hotel-collapses-taiwan-major-earthquake-180206171245403.html

    https://elearningindustry.com/how-choose-training-methods-for-employees

    Construction defect management – Risk analysis of causes and effects

    https://constructionreviewonline.com/2017/09/3-ways-to-avoid-construction-defect-claims/

    Defects in Construction: How to Identify and Avoid Them

    Waste of Defects; causes, symptoms, examples and solutions

    https://www.business2community.com/strategy/3-strategies-need-successful-project-management-01926965

    expert consultation

    https://gosmartbricks.com/construction-defect-here-is-one-ultimate-guide/

    http://www.greatdisasters.co.uk/the-sampoong-department-store-collapse/

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