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问题 1
A tsunami wavelength is measured to be 186 mi and the time between wave peaks is
45 min; how fast is the wave travelling? (choose best approximation of your answer)
• 400 km/hr
• 300 km/hr
• 250 km/hr
• 350 km/hr
问题 2
Almost all of the energy that powers our climate and weather systems fundamentally
comes from
.
• gravity
• impacts with comets and asteroids
• the sun
• radioactive decay inside the Earth
问题 3
Within large drainage basins,
can result from low intensity but
widespread rains that last for long periods of time (e.g., days to weeks).
• none of the choices are correct
• regional floods
• flash floods
• catastrophic floods (e.g., glacial dam failure)
问题 4
Tornadoes tend to form most often where
• masses of warm moist air and cold air collide.
• there is only cool, dry air.
• there is only warm, moist air.
• none of the choices are correct.
问题 5
.
The long-term pattern of temperature and precipitation in a given location is known as
.
• weather
• climate
• atmospheric wind patterns
• ocean circulation
问题 6
Refer to the image above. The man-made concrete structure is known as a
.
• groin
• retaining wall
• jetty
• breakwater
问题 7
Refer to the image above. Waves are approaching the shoreline in a shore-parallel, or
due north, orientation as indicated on the figure. With the man-made concrete
structure in place, sand will build up on which city’s beach?
• City A
• City C
• City D
• City B
问题 8
Refer to the image above. Waves are approaching the shoreline in a shore-parallel, or
due north, orientation as indicated on the figure. With the man-made concrete
structure in place, which city(-ies) will experience coastal erosion?
• City D
• City B
• City C
• City B and D
问题 9
Which of the following is not required for fire to burn?
• carbon dioxide
• oxygen
• fuel (hydrocarbons)
• heat
问题 10
Floods can be caused by
• all of the choices are possible.
.
• the storm surge of a tropical cyclone.
• the melting of a deep snow pack.
• high precipitation events.
问题 11
Los Angeles, CA is on what tectonic plate?
• Pacific
• North American
• Eurasian
• Nazca
问题 12
Identify the rivers on the map above.
• (H) Columbia, (M) Colorado, (J) Missouri, (L) Mississippi
• none of the choices are correct
• (H) Colorado, (M) Columbia, (J) Missouri, (L) Mississippi
• (H) Colorado, (M) Columbia, (J) Mississippi, (L) Missouri
问题 13
The final stage of a fire is known as
.
• flaming combustion.
• preheating.
• glowing combustion.
• pyrolysis.
问题 14
The typically rainy weather at the Earth’s equator is largely due to
.
• the sinking down of hot, moist air.
• the rising up of hot, moist air.
• the rising up of cool, dry air.
• the sinking down of cook, dry air.
问题 15
The
is
region
experiencing
.
the
highest
number
of
tornadoes
each
year
• (D)
• (B)
• (C)
• (A)
问题 16
Creep is caused by
• vegetation along rotational slide (stump) surfaces
• jointing in rotational slide (stump) surfaces
• movement along volcanic vents
• expansion and contraction of surficial soil layers
问题 17
Refer to the image above. The steeply sloping hill near town has a large earthen mass
(labeled ‘failure block’) that is likely to move along the indicated failure surface in the
near future. The two main forces acting on the failure block are
• water and gravity
• lubrication and downhill pull
• friction and water
• gravity and friction
问题 18
.
Refer to the image and fast forward in time. The slope failed and the large earthen
mass (‘failure block’) is now moving along the failure surface toward the town. Based
on the characteristics of the failure surface, what type of mass movement is this?
• rotational slide (slump)
• translational slide
• creep
• subsidence
问题 19
A seawall may be intended to protect a home from
to
, but often leads
.
• wind-driven waves; increased erosion
• wind and wind-driven sand transport (i.e., aeolian transport); beach renourishment
• tsunami; large, expansive beaches
• coastal flooding; decreased erosion
问题 20
Strong storms, such as during EI Nino, have been observed to
• increase erosion along coastal beaches
• decrease longshore transport
• carry large volumes of sand onto coastal beaches
• decrease erosion along coastal beaches
问题 21
.
For a given stream, small floods happen
.
• with the same frequency as large floods
• less often than catastrophic floods
• more often than large floods
• in equal proportions as large floods
问题 22
Efforts to control floods include
.
• stream channelization
• all of the choices can be utilized to control floods.
• levees
• dams
问题 23
The most explosive eruptions typically happen when the magma is
.
• high in viscosity and low in gas content.
• low in viscosity and high in gas content.
• low in viscosity and low in gas content.
• high in viscosity and high in gas content.
问题 24
Refer to the diagram. Severe weather systems, such as supercell thunderstorms, rise
vertically to the altitude of the
increase in
, but then can’t rise higher due to an
. (choose best answer)
• (2) Tropopause; temperature
• (1) Troposphere; altitude
• (3) Stratopause; altitude
• (4) Mesosphere; temperature
问题 25
Adding water to an unstable slope
overall
friction and
weight,
the potential for slope failure.
• reduces; decreases; increasing
• reduces; does not change; diminishing
• reduces; increases; increasing
• increases; decreases; decreasing
问题 26
The highest wind speeds of any weather phenomenon occur in
.
• hurricanes
• tornadoes
• Santa Ana winds
• cyclones
问题 27
Refer to the image and fast forward in time. The slope failed along the ‘failure
surface’ and the large earthen mass (‘failure block’) is moving toward the town. Based
on the characteristics of the failure surface, what type of mass movement is this?
• subsidence
• rotational slide (slump)
• creep
• translational slide
问题 28
The direction that fire propagates is strongly affected by
• the wind.
• all of the choices are correct.
• the topography
• the availability of fuel.
问题 29
In a large wildfire,
.
• the entire fire zone is actively burning.
• none of the choices are correct.
• usually only the perimeter of the fire zone is actively burning.
• the same places can burn multiple times.
问题 30
Of the following mass movements, which typically moves the fastest?
• rock fall
• translational slide
• creep
• earthflow
问题 31
Refer to the image above. To keep its harbor open, City B builds a jetty: one wall is
located between City B and City A and the second between City B and City C. As
indicated in the image, waves predominantly approach the coast at a northeast
orientation. Over time, which city will suffer the most erosion?
• City A
• City C
• none of the choices are correct; jetties do not affect coastal processes.
• City B
问题 32
Santa Ana winds are hot mostly because
.
• the air heats up as the wind descends and compresses from higher elevations.
• they come from the warm ocean onto the land.
• none of the choices are correct.
• there is a lot of friction between the ground and the wind.
问题 33
When the moon is in a quarter position (i.e., the moon and sun are not aligned), we
observed the
tidal range, which is known as the
tide.
• lowest; neap
• average; rip
• highest; spring
• median; red
问题 34
Compared to wind-driven waves, tsunami waves have a
.
• tsunami are not waves and do not have a wavelength
• equal wavelength
• shorter wavelength
• longer wavelength
问题 35
Fire suppression causes
.
• thick understory shrubs and trees making it easier to propagate fires, such as in
Mexico.
• thick understory shrubs and trees leading to larger and hotter fires, such as in the
United States.
• dense ladder fuels making it difficult to propagate fires, such as in the United States.
• sparse ladder fuels creating a pattern of larger fires, such as in Mexico.
问题 36
A natural method to minimize flood impact is the development of a
near
the channel.
• commercial building zone
• residential housing tract
• both commercial building zone or residential housing tract
• riparian zone
问题 37
Fire is essentially the reverse of the process of
.
• condensation
• photosynthesis.
• evaporation.
• respiration.
问题 38
Current tsunami warning systems utilize
• seafloor pressure sensors
.
• acoustic (sound) emissions from severe weather events
• reports of offshore fish migrations
• oral reports from beach lifeguards
问题 39
The initial stage of a fire is known as
, when
• pyrolysis; the majority of fuel has been consumed
• preheating; fuel material is breaking down into gas
• flaming combustion; combustion is actively occurring
• glowing combustion; the majority of fuel has been consumed
问题 40
Hurricanes typically
.
• gain power over both land and cold water.
• gain power over warm water, and lose power over land.
• lose power over both land and warm water.
• gain power over cold water, and lose power over land.
问题 41
Refer to the image above. What type of fault is shown?
• reverse
• left-lateral
.
• right-lateral
• normal
问题 42
Refer to the image above. When the fault slips, what type(s) of hazard(s) are likely to
affect the town?
• mass movement
• all of the choices are likely.
• earthquake
• tsunami
问题 43
is an engineering process that aims to reverse the effect of
coastal erosion by increasing the size of the beach.
• beach renourishment
• longshore transport
• none of the choices are correct; all of the above decrease the size of the beach.
• seawall construction
问题 44
Which type of fault involves 2 blocks of rock sliding past each other?
• all of the choices are correct
• strike-slip
• reverse
• normal
问题 45
When air cools, the water vapor in the air typically
.
• condenses, releasing lots of energy.
• evaporates, releasing lots of energy.
• condenses, taking up lots of energy.
• evaporates, taking up lots of energy.
问题 46
Lightning occurs more frequently over
due to the
.
• oceans; condensation of water that can lead to the formation of supercell
thunderstorms
• valleys; greater air pressure than can generate severe storms at cold fronts
• polar regions; differential heating of the Earth that makes the Equatorial regions
colder with more frequent storms
• land; heating of the earth that can lead to unstable air conditions forming severe
storms
问题 47
The first tsunami wave that hits the coast is
in amplitude.
• typically equal to the second wave
• none of the choices are correct; a tsunami is only one wave.
• always the highest
• not necessarily the highest
问题 48
The seismic body wave that produces the highest ground motion and the greatest
damage to buildings is the
.
• Love wave.
• P-wave
• S-wave
• Rayleigh wave
问题 49
Floodplains are best for
.
• factories.
• commercial development.
• floods.
• houses.
问题 50
Catastrophic floods involve the destruction of a
in
, such as occurred
.
• water fountain; the Geology Building during last quarter
• glacial ice dam; Washington during the recent ice age approximately 18,000 years
ago
• levee system; New Orleans, Louisiana during Hurricane Katrina in 2005
• levee system; San Jacinto, California during higher-than-average precipitation in
1980
问题 51
Differential heating of the earth means that
.
• the earth absorbs less energy per area at the equator
• the earth absorbs more energy per area at higher latitudes
• the earth absorbs the same amount of energy per area at the equator as at higher
latitudes
• the earth absorbs more energy per area at the equator
问题 52
At a convergent plate boundary between a continental and oceanic plate, which is
most likely to happen?
• The oceanic plate will subduct underneath the continental plate.
• Neither plate will subduct; both plates will be folded upward.
• The continental plate will subduct underneath the oceanic plate.
• Both plates will subduct underneath each other.
问题 53
Refer to the image above. Based on the stream network shown, the highest discharge
is likely to be measured near
.
• Area marked 4
• Town C
• Town B
• Town A
问题 54
Refer to the image above. Above average precipitation falls in the mountains during
winter months; in fear of floods, Town B constructs levees. Man-made levees
are
.
• a stream perpendicular wall that retains water and manages river discharge during
times of above average rainfall.
• areas of restricted urban development next to the river channel.
• human built embankments, or walls, along the sides of a river channel.
• human built walls on the bottom and sides of the river that slow down the flood
waters.
问题 55
Refer to the image above. Find the locations of the river marked with 1 and 3 and
describe what is occurring at these locations.
• Location 1: river is depositing sediment on channel sides; Location 3: river is
eroding the channel sides
• Locations 1 and 3: river is eroding the channel sides
• Location 1: river is eroding the channel sides; Location 3: river is depositing
sediment on channel sides
• none of the choices are correct; the river is neither depositing sediment nor eroding
the channel
问题 56
Refer to the image above. Above average rain falls over a 2 hour period; as a result,
Town C experiences
.
• no floods
• catastrophic floods
• regional floods
• flash floods
问题 57
Which of the following processes will you often find taking place at a stratovolcano?
• lahars
• all of the choices are correct
• ash falls
• pyroclastic flows
问题 58
A strong indication that a tsunami may be coming is
tsunami may be heading toward the shore
. If you think a
.
• none of the choices are correct
• a sudden rise of the sea on the shore; grab a surfboard board and paddle out to catch
a wave
• a sudden withdraw of the sea on the shore; run to the beach to pick up fish
• a sudden withdraw or rise of the sea on the shore; run to a higher location
问题 59
Refer to the image above. A localized coastal region that sediment moves through is
known as a
.
• sediment sink
• littoral cell
• sediment source
• longshore current
问题 60
Refer to the image above. Sediment may be added to the system from
sources and removed from the system through
• river; submarine canyons
• dune; rivers
• dune; rivers
• dune and river; eroding cliff
. (choose best answer)
问题 61
To accurately define your location on the Earth’s surface, how many position
measurements do you need?
• 4 numbers
• 3 numbers
• 2 numbers
• 1 number
问题 62
San Diego, CA is on what tectonic plate?
• North American
• Pacific
• Cocos
• South American
问题 63
As it approaches the shore, a tsunami
.
• slows down and becomes smaller.
• speeds up and becomes higher.
• speeds up and becomes smaller.
• slows down and becomes higher.
问题 64
Refer to the image above. Which of the following best describes what is occurring at
Time 1 in the deep ocean?
• wind blowing over the ocean’s surface has created waves, also known as swells
• the wave “breaks”, crashes onto the beach, and the reflected wave energy drags sand
back out into the ocean
• the wave orbital continually pushes sand along the seafloor and deposits it onto the
beach
• the wave “feels” the seafloor, causing the wave to slow down due to friction and
increase in amplitude
问题 65
Refer to the image above. Which of the following best describes what is occurring at
Time 2 as the seafloor shallows near the beach?
• the wave “breaks”, crashes onto the beach, and the reflected wave energy drags sand
back out into the ocean
• the wave “feels” the seafloor, causing the wave to slow down due to friction and
increase in amplitude
• the wave orbital continually pushes sand along the seafloor and deposits it onto the
beach
• wind blowing over the ocean’s surface has created waves, also known as swells
问题 66
Refer to the image above. Which of the following best describes what is occurring at
Time 3 at the beach?
• the wave “breaks”, crashes onto the beach, and the reflected wave energy drags sand
back out into the ocean
• the wave “feels” the seafloor, causing the wave to slow down due to friction and
increase in amplitude
• the wave orbital continually pushes sand along the seafloor and deposits it onto the
beach
• wind blowing over the ocean’s surface has created waves, also known as swells
问题 67
Refer to the image above. A tropical cyclone, ‘Storm ZZyzx’, started in the eastern
Pacific Ocean and then travelled west as shown in the smaller scale inset map above.
Based on naming conventions this tropical cyclone would be called a
.
• none of the choices are correct
• hurricane
• cyclone
• typhoon
问题 68
Refer to the image above. A tropical cyclone, ‘Storm ZZyzx’, started in the eastern
Pacific Ocean and then travelled west as shown in the smaller scale inset map above.
Upon making landfall on Kauai, the highest storm surge is expected at which location
on the island?
• (D)
• (B)
• (C)
• (A)
问题 69
Refer to the image above. As indicated in the image, waves predominantly approach
the coast at a northwest orientation. Over time, sand will move from
to
.
• City C to City D
• none of the choices are correct; sand does not move along the shoreline
• City B to City A
• City A to City C
问题 70
Refer to the plot above. You measure a maximum dent diameter of 0.25 inches on
your roof following a recent hail storm. What was the size of the largest hail?
• 1 in
• 0.5 in
• 2.0 in
• 1.5 in
问题 71
Tsunami are created by all but which of the following:
• fault movements
• landslides
• hurricanes
• volcanic eruptions
问题 72
Engineering projects to reduce damage from mass movements include (choose best
answer)
• retaining walls, catch fences, flow channelization
• retaining walls
• catch fences
• retaining walls, catch fences, groins
问题 73
The wave process that gradually carries sediment along a beach is known
as
.
• all of the choices are correct
• longshore drift
• littoral erosion
• dune erosion
问题 74
The water in the Mississippi River watershed ultimately flows to lowest base level, or
a(n)
• ocean
.
• human dammed reservoir
• larger river
• lake
问题 75
A river is displaced by a fault in the image; what type of fault is this?
• normal
• right-lateral
• reverse
• left-lateral
问题 76
If you are caught outdoors in a lightning storm, you should
• seek shelter under a tree
• crouch low with minimal contact with the ground
• lay flat in an open field
• go swimming in the ocean
问题 77
.
Refer to the image. The hardrock cliff near the town has many visible cracks and
fractures. The town likely faces a high risk of
.
• rock falls
• creep
• earthflows
• subsidence
问题 78
The type of flow that is typically most dangerous as it carries larger objects (e.g., trees,
boulders) is known as a
• creeping flow
• mudflow
• earth flow
• debris flow
问题 79
.
Refer to the image above. Town 2 inputs a well to pipe groundwater for the city’s
water use. The removal of water from the underground cavern may likely cause what
type of mass movement?
• flow
• subsidence
• landslide
• creep
问题 80
Refer to the image above. This type of mass movement likely to occur here
has
.
• both horizontal and vertical motion
• dominantly horizontal motion
• dominantly vertical motion
• dominantly strike-slip motion
问题 81
Refer to the figure above and features labeled (1) and (2). This is a schematic of
a
.
• warm front, where warm air (1) rapidly pushes up cold air (2) resulting in vertical.
• cold front, where cold air (1) rapidly pushes up warm air (2) resulting in unstable
weather that can form thunderstorms.
• cold front, where cold air (1) pushes up warm air (2) resulting in stable weather that
forms laterally widespread, wispy clouds at low altitudes
• warm front, where warm air (1) gently pushes up cold air (2) resulting in unstable
weather that generates hail
问题 82
Refer to the map figure. Point H is located at 1080 ft and Point G is located at 1160 ft
elevation. The contour interval is
• 30 ft
• 10 ft
• 40 ft
• 20 ft
.
问题 83
Consider the elevation and spacing of the contour lines,
a floodplain.
• Point D
• Point A
• Point J
• Point E
问题 84
is located nearest to
Based on slope, a landslide is more likely to occur along which profile line (i.e.,
between which two locations)?
• profile B-F
• profile I-E
• profile C-D
• profile I-J
问题 85
It is a sunny day and wind speed is negligible, a wildfire is likely to
travel
• from H to G
• from D to C
.
• from J to I
• from A to E

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