Perfect solution: umuc biology 102 103 lab 5: meiosis


INSTRUCTIONS:

 

·         On your own and outside sumenance, consummate this Lab 5Answer Sheet electronically and surrender it via the Assignments Folder by the end scheduleed intheCourse Schedule (underSyllabus).

·         To precede your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located below Course Content. Read the induction and the directions for each exercise/test carefully anteriorly completing the exercises/experiments and echoing the questions.

·         Save your Lab 5Answer Sheet in the forthcoming format:  LastName_Lab5 (e.g., Smith_Lab5).

·         You should surrender your document as a Word (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) file for best compatibility.

 

Pre-Lab Questions

 

  1. Compare and dissimilarity mitosis and meiosis.

 

 

  1.  What senior upshot appears during interphase?

 

 

Experiment 1: Forthcoming Chromosomal DNA Move through Meiosis

In this test, you succeed pattern the move of the chromosomes through meiosis I and II to invent gametes.

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Materials

2 Sets of Irrelative Colored Pop-it® Beads (32 of each - these may be any varnish)

8 5-Holed Pop-it® Beads (used as centromeres)

 

 

 

 

 

Procedure:

Part 1: Modeling Meiosis outside Tranexception Over

As proface I begins, the replicated chromosomes involution and condense…

  1. Build a span of replicated, homologous chromosomes. 10 studys should be used to invent each identical sister chromatid (20 studys per chromosome span). Two five-holed studys play each centromere. To do this...

Figure 3: Study build. The bluish-colored-colored studys play one span of sister chromatids and the sombre studys play a promote span of sister chromatids. The sombre and bluish-colored-colored span are homologous.

Figure 3: Bead build. The bluish-colored-colored studys play one span of sister chromatids and the sombre studys play a promote span of sister chromatids. The sombre and bluish-colored-colored span are homologous.

    1. Start after a while 20 studys of the selfsimilar varnish to invent your foremost sister chromatid span. Five studys must be snapped simultaneously for each of the lewd irrelative shores. Two shores invent the foremost chromatid, and two shores invent the promote chromatid after a while a 5-holed study at the disposition of each chromatid.  This invents an “I” figure.
    2. Connect the “I” figured sister chromatids by the 5-holed studys to invent  an “X” figure.
    3. Repeat this regularity using 20 new studys (of a irrelative varnish) to invent the promote sister chromatid span.
  1. Assemble a promote span of replicated sister chromatids; this span using 12 studys, instead of 20, per span (six studys per each consummate sister chromatid shore).
  2. Pair up the homologous chromosome spans inventd in Step 1 and 2. DO NOT SIMULATE CROSSING OVER IN THIS TRIAL. You succeed feign tranexception balance in Part 2.
  3. Configure the chromosomes as they would show in each of the quantitys of meiotic dissolution (proface I and II, metaface I and II, anaface I and II, teloface I and II, and cytokinesis).
  4. Diagram the selfsimilar visions for each quantity in the exceptions titled “Trial 1 - Meiotic Dissolution Beads Diagram”. Be permanent to show the calculate of chromosomes bestow in each face.

Figure 4: Promote set of replicated chromosomes.

Figure 4: Second set of replicated chromosomes.

  1. Disassemble the studys used in Part 1. You succeed need to recycle these studys for a promote meiosis verification in Steps 8 - 13.

Part 1 - Meiotic Dissolution Beads Diagram

Proface I

 

Metaface I

 

Anaface I

 

Teloface I

 

Proface II

 

Metaface II

Anaface II

 

Teloface II

 

Cytokinesis

Part 2: Modeling Meiosis after a while Tranexception Over

  1. Build a span of replicated, homologous chromosomes. 10 studys should be used to invent each identical sister chromatid (20 studys per chromosome span). Two five-holed studys play each centromere. To do this...
    1. a. Start after a while 20 studys of the selfsimilar varnish to invent your foremost sister chromatid span. Five studys must be snapped simultaneously for each of the lewd irrelative shores. Two shores invent the foremost chromatid, and two shores invent the promote chromatid after a while a 5-holed study at the disposition of each chromatid.  This invents an “I” figure.
    2. Connect the “I” figured sister chromatids by the 5-holed studys to invent  an “X” figure.
    3. Repeat this regularity using 20 new studys (of a irrelative varnish) to invent the promote sister chromatid span.
  2. Assemble a promote span of replicated sister chromatids; this span using 12 studys, instead of 20, per span (six studys per each consummate sister chromatid shore). Snap each of the lewd pieces into a new five-holed study to consummate the set up.
  3. Pair up the homologous chromosomes inventd in Step 8 and 9.
  4. SIMULATE CROSSING OVER. To do this, adduce the two homologous spans of sister chromatids simultaneously (creating the chiasma) and remodel an correspondent calculate of studys betwixt the two. This succeed upshot in chromatids of the selfsimilar peculiar extension, tclose succeed now be new combinations of chromatid varnishs.
  5. Configure the chromosomes as they would show in each of the quantitys of meiotic dissolution (proface I and II, metaface I and II, anaface I and II, teloface I and II, and cytokinesis).
  6. Diagram the selfsimilar visions for each quantity in the exception titled “Trial 2 - Meiotic Dissolution Beads Diagram”. Be permanent to show the calculate of chromosomes bestow in each cell for each face. Also, show how the tranexception balance improbable the genetic resigned in the gametes from Part1 versus Part 2.

Part 2 -  Meiotic Dissolution Beads Diagram:

Proface I

 

Metaface I

 

Anaface I

 

Teloface I

 

Proface II

 

Metaface II

 

Anaface II

 

Teloface II

 

Cytokinesis

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

1.      What is the ploidy of the DNA at the end of meiosis I? What environing at the end of meiosis II?

 

2.      How are meiosis I and meiosis II irrelative?

 

3.      Why do you use non-sister chromatids to evidence tranexception balance?

 

4.      What combinations of alleles could upshot from a crossbalance betwixt BD and bd chromosomes?

 

 

 

5.      How numerous chromosomes were bestow when meiosis I established?

 

6.      How numerous nuclei are bestow at the end of meiosis II? How numerous chromosomes are in each?

 

7.      Identify two ways that meiosis contributes to genetic recombination.

 

8.      Why is it indispensable to lessen the calculate of chromosomes in gametes, but not in other cells?

 

9.      Blue whales feel 44 chromosomes in entire cell. Determine how numerous chromosomes you would anticipate to perceive in the forthcoming:

 

Sperm Cell:

Egg Cell:

Daughter Cell from Mitosis:

Daughter Cell from Meiosis II:

 

10.  Repursuit and perceive a sickness that is agentd by chromosomal rears. When does the rear appear? What chromosomes are improbable? What are the consequences?

 

11.  Diagram what would supervene if sexual multitude took attribute for lewd generations using diploid (2n) cells.

 

 

Experiment 2: The Importance of Cell Cycle Control

Some environmental factors can agent genetic rears which upshot in a noncommunication of suitable cell cycle curb (mitosis). When this supervenes, the possibility for intemperate cell development appears. In some instances, intemperate development can transfer to tumors, which are repeatedly associated after a while cancer, or other biological sicknesss.

In this test, you succeed reconsideration some of the karyotypic differences which can be perceive-keepd when comparing regular, curbled cell development and irregular, intemperate cell development. A karyotype is an vision of the consummate set of diploid chromosomes in a uncombined cell.

 

 

 

 

concept_tab_lProcedure

Materials

*Computer Access

*Internet Access

 

*You Must Provide

 

 

 

  1. Begin by frameing a fancy to elucidate what differences you command perceive-keep when comparing the karyotypes of anthropological cells which proof regular cell cycle curb versus cancerous cells (which proof irregular, or a noncommunication of, cell cycle curb). Record your fancy in Post-Lab Question 1.

    Note: Be permanent to include what you anticipate to perceive-keep, and why you reflect you succeed perceive-keep these features. Reflect environing what you distinguish environing cancerous cell development to acceleration frame this information

  2. Go online to perceive some visions of abregular karyotypes, and regular karyotypes. The best upshots succeed conclude from pursuit conditions such as “abregular karyotype”, “HeLa cells”, “regular karyotype”, “abregular chromosomes”, etc. Be permanent to use dependable resources which feel been peer-reviewed
  3. Identify at lowest five irregularities in the abregular visions. Then, schedule and sketch each vision in the Data exception at the end of this test. Do these irregularities tally after a while your peculiar fancy?

Hint: It may be accelerationful to sum the calculate of chromosomes, sum the calculate of spans, assimilate the sizes of homologous chromosomes, observe for any mislaying or affixed genetic markers/flags, etc.

Data

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Post-Lab Questions

1.      Record your fancy from Step 1 in the Procedure exception close.

 

 

2.      What do your upshots show environing cell cycle curb?

 

 

3.      Suppose a idiosyncratic plain a rear in a somatic cell which diminishes the execution of the body’s intrinsic cell cycle curb proteins. This rear upshoted in cancer, but was effectively treated after a while a cocktail of cancer-fighting techniques. Is it practicable for this idiosyncratic’s forthcoming posterity to enjoy this cancer-causing rear? Be peculiar when you elucidate why or why not.

 

 

4.      Why do cells which noncommunication cell cycle curb evince karyotypes which observe physically irrelative than cells after a while regular cell cycle.

 

 

5.      What are HeLa cells? Why are HeLa cells expend for this test?