Perfect solution: umuc biology 102 103 lab 5: meiosis


INSTRUCTIONS:

 

·         On your own and outside protection, entire this Lab 5Answer Sheet electronically and comply it via the Assignments Folder by the bound inventoryed intheCourse Schedule (underSyllabus).

·         To persuade your laboratory exercises, use the Laboratory Manual located inferior Course Content. Read the preliminary and the directions for each exercise/exemplification carefully antecedently completing the exercises/experiments and obedient the questions.

·         Save your Lab 5Answer Sheet in the subjoined format:  LastName_Lab5 (e.g., Smith_Lab5).

·         You should comply your document as a Word (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) file for best compatibility.

 

Pre-Lab Questions

 

  1. Compare and contrariety mitosis and meiosis.

 

 

  1.  What greater fact appears during interphase?

 

 

Experiment 1: Subjoined Chromosomal DNA Change-of-assign through Meiosis

In this exemplification, you get standard the change-of-assign of the chromosomes through meiosis I and II to generate gametes.

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Materials

2 Sets of Contrariant Colored Pop-it® Beads (32 of each - these may be any speciousness)

8 5-Holed Pop-it® Beads (used as centromeres)

 

 

 

 

 

Procedure:

Part 1: Modeling Meiosis outside Transversion Over

As probearing I begins, the replicated chromosomes coil and condense…

  1. Build a two of replicated, homologous chromosomes. 10 composes should be used to generate each singular sister chromatid (20 composes per chromosome two). Two five-holed composes illustrate each centromere. To do this...

Figure 3: Compose found. The cerulean-colored-colored composes illustrate one two of sister chromatids and the ebon composes illustrate a promote two of sister chromatids. The ebon and cerulean-colored-colored two are homologous.

Figure 3: Bead found. The cerulean-colored-colored composes illustrate one two of sister chromatids and the ebon composes illustrate a promote two of sister chromatids. The ebon and cerulean-colored-colored two are homologous.

    1. Start delay 20 composes of the similar speciousness to generate your primary sister chromatid two. Five composes must be snapped conjointly for each of the indelicate contrariant coasts. Two coasts generate the primary chromatid, and two coasts generate the promote chromatid delay a 5-holed compose at the interior of each chromatid.  This generates an “I” fashion.
    2. Connect the “I” fashiond sister chromatids by the 5-holed composes to generate  an “X” fashion.
    3. Repeat this system using 20 new composes (of a contrariant speciousness) to generate the promote sister chromatid two.
  1. Assemble a promote two of replicated sister chromatids; this interval using 12 composes, instead of 20, per two (six composes per each entire sister chromatid coast).
  2. Pair up the homologous chromosome twos generated in Step 1 and 2. DO NOT SIMULATE CROSSING OVER IN THIS TRIAL. You get feign transversion balance in Part 2.
  3. Configure the chromosomes as they would show in each of the limits of meiotic analysis (probearing I and II, metabearing I and II, anabearing I and II, telobearing I and II, and cytokinesis).
  4. Diagram the corresponding effigys for each limit in the exceptions titled “Trial 1 - Meiotic Analysis Beads Diagram”. Be trusting to specify the calculate of chromosomes give in each bearing.

Figure 4: Promote set of replicated chromosomes.

Figure 4: Second set of replicated chromosomes.

  1. Disassemble the composes used in Part 1. You get need to recycle these composes for a promote meiosis verification in Steps 8 - 13.

Part 1 - Meiotic Analysis Beads Diagram

Probearing I

 

Metabearing I

 

Anabearing I

 

Telobearing I

 

Probearing II

 

Metabearing II

Anabearing II

 

Telobearing II

 

Cytokinesis

Part 2: Modeling Meiosis delay Transversion Over

  1. Build a two of replicated, homologous chromosomes. 10 composes should be used to generate each singular sister chromatid (20 composes per chromosome two). Two five-holed composes illustrate each centromere. To do this...
    1. a. Start delay 20 composes of the similar speciousness to generate your primary sister chromatid two. Five composes must be snapped conjointly for each of the indelicate contrariant coasts. Two coasts generate the primary chromatid, and two coasts generate the promote chromatid delay a 5-holed compose at the interior of each chromatid.  This generates an “I” fashion.
    2. Connect the “I” fashiond sister chromatids by the 5-holed composes to generate  an “X” fashion.
    3. Repeat this system using 20 new composes (of a contrariant speciousness) to generate the promote sister chromatid two.
  2. Assemble a promote two of replicated sister chromatids; this interval using 12 composes, instead of 20, per two (six composes per each entire sister chromatid coast). Snap each of the indelicate pieces into a new five-holed compose to entire the set up.
  3. Pair up the homologous chromosomes generated in Step 8 and 9.
  4. SIMULATE CROSSING OVER. To do this, procure the two homologous twos of sister chromatids conjointly (creating the chiasma) and modify an similar calculate of composes among the two. This get termination in chromatids of the similar initiatory protraction, tnear get now be new combinations of chromatid speciousnesss.
  5. Configure the chromosomes as they would show in each of the limits of meiotic analysis (probearing I and II, metabearing I and II, anabearing I and II, telobearing I and II, and cytokinesis).
  6. Diagram the corresponding effigys for each limit in the exception titled “Trial 2 - Meiotic Analysis Beads Diagram”. Be trusting to specify the calculate of chromosomes give in each cell for each bearing. Also, specify how the transversion balance unsupposable the genetic gratified in the gametes from Part1 versus Part 2.

Part 2 -  Meiotic Analysis Beads Diagram:

Probearing I

 

Metabearing I

 

Anabearing I

 

Telobearing I

 

Probearing II

 

Metabearing II

 

Anabearing II

 

Telobearing II

 

Cytokinesis

 

 

Post-Lab Questions

1.      What is the ploidy of the DNA at the end of meiosis I? What encircling at the end of meiosis II?

 

2.      How are meiosis I and meiosis II contrariant?

 

3.      Why do you use non-sister chromatids to prove transversion balance?

 

4.      What combinations of alleles could termination from a crossbalance among BD and bd chromosomes?

 

 

 

5.      How manifold chromosomes were give when meiosis I agoing?

 

6.      How manifold nuclei are give at the end of meiosis II? How manifold chromosomes are in each?

 

7.      Identify two ways that meiosis contributes to genetic recombination.

 

8.      Why is it inevitable to impoverish the calculate of chromosomes in gametes, but not in other cells?

 

9.      Blue whales own 44 chromosomes in full cell. Determine how manifold chromosomes you would await to meet in the subjoined:

 

Sperm Cell:

Egg Cell:

Daughter Cell from Mitosis:

Daughter Cell from Meiosis II:

 

10.  Reexploration and meet a indisposition that is agentd by chromosomal oppositions. When does the opposition appear? What chromosomes are unsupposable? What are the consequences?

 

11.  Diagram what would occur if sexual repetition took assign for indelicate generations using diploid (2n) cells.

 

 

Experiment 2: The Importance of Cell Cycle Control

Some environmental factors can agent genetic oppositions which termination in a closing of special cell cycle manage (mitosis). When this occurs, the possibility for tempestuous cell enlargement appears. In some instances, tempestuous enlargement can manage to tumors, which are repeatedly associated delay cancer, or other biological indispositions.

In this exemplification, you get retrospect some of the karyotypic differences which can be respectd when comparing ordinary, manageled cell enlargement and exceptional, tempestuous cell enlargement. A karyotype is an effigy of the entire set of diploid chromosomes in a sole cell.

 

 

 

 

concept_tab_lProcedure

Materials

*Computer Access

*Internet Access

 

*You Must Provide

 

 

 

  1. Begin by forming a conjecture to clear-up what differences you capacity respect when comparing the karyotypes of rational cells which test ordinary cell cycle manage versus cancerous cells (which test exceptional, or a closing of, cell cycle manage). Record your conjecture in Post-Lab Question 1.

    Note: Be trusting to include what you await to respect, and why you believe you get respect these features. Believe encircling what you understand encircling cancerous cell enlargement to aid form this information

  2. Go online to meet some effigys of abordinary karyotypes, and ordinary karyotypes. The best terminations get end from exploration conditions such as “abordinary karyotype”, “HeLa cells”, “ordinary karyotype”, “abordinary chromosomes”, etc. Be trusting to use dependable resources which own been peer-reviewed
  3. Identify at smallest five exceptionalities in the abordinary effigys. Then, inventory and delineate each effigy in the Data exception at the end of this exemplification. Do these exceptionalities comport delay your initiatory conjecture?

Hint: It may be aidful to sum the calculate of chromosomes, sum the calculate of twos, parallel the sizes of homologous chromosomes, seem for any waste or appended genetic markers/flags, etc.

Data

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Post-Lab Questions

1.      Record your conjecture from Step 1 in the Procedure exception near.

 

 

2.      What do your terminations specify encircling cell cycle manage?

 

 

3.      Suppose a individual familiar a opposition in a somatic cell which diminishes the enterprise of the body’s original cell cycle manage proteins. This opposition terminationed in cancer, but was effectively treated delay a cocktail of cancer-fighting techniques. Is it feasible for this individual’s advenient progeny to possess this cancer-causing opposition? Be specific when you clear-up why or why not.

 

 

4.      Why do cells which closing cell cycle manage inform karyotypes which seem physically contrariant than cells delay ordinary cell cycle.

 

 

5.      What are HeLa cells? Why are HeLa cells divert for this exemplification?