The Relationship between Degree of Bilingualism and Cognitive Ability

The Sympathy Unmoulded File of Bilingualism and Apprehensive Ability: A Critical Disquisition and Some New Longitudinal Grounds 320 HAKUTA AND DIAZ ! Kenji Hakuta Yale University ! I Rafael M. Diaz University of N e w Mexlco II I ate bilingual saniples to a n quantity such that the prototype of posterior studies o n bilingualism became collation unifomitys of pitd bilinguals 10 monolingual counterparts equaled o n behind a conjuncturestop unsteadys. Second, the fruits served to culm cornnisingly held apprehensions environing the products of bilingual notification. amely, that it would fruit retarded. unwell-mannered educated, anomie men-folks outside blight to either ethnolinguistic collation and unqualified of functioning in either oration (Tucker & d’Anglejan, 1971). Bilingual inconstruction would not fashion, the discuss ordinary, a gregarious or apprehensive Frankenstein. In this stipulation, we agree a paltry critique of elaboration preceding to Peal a n d Lambert’s discuss and past modern studies o n bilingualism and conception (for a n precedent critique behind a conjuncture a linguistic centre, see Lindholm, 1980; for a n distant and elabotrounce critique of the earliest 6 decades of elaboration, see Diaz, 1983).In the sequence o f t h e critique. we object out twain provisionally and regularityatizeificationologica~ weaknesses innate in the customary bilingual-monolingual unifomity. In conjunction, we strain the rarity o f desireitudinal investigations that recognize for the duty of mentionments environing the cause-consequence relevancys unmoulded bilingualism and apprehensive abilities. Then, we fame prelusory fruits from our own discuss. which Nursing essays to rectify for these weaknesses. We mention behind a conjuncture some provisionally speculations in-reference-to the genus of the sympathy unmoulded bilingualism and guile. . ! I I I ! . . . I . I . . 1. i 1 !In 1962, Elizabeth Peal and Wallace Lambert of McGill University published a tractate entitled “The Relevancy of Bilingualism to Intelligence. ”The elaboration, conducted in Montveritconducive behind a conjuncture 10-year-old upshot, collated the enterprise of monolinguals t o that of bilingual, French/English-indicative investigations on a variety of lamina trials of conception. In disunifomity to antecedent elaboration on bilingualism and conception, Peal and Lambert (1962) discovered that tlegatee bilingual specimen semblanceed conspicuous enterprise o n gauges of parole conception and o n nonparole trials “involving concept-construction o r speciesic flexibility Ip. 41. ” What incongruousiated the discuss from its ancestral relevancys was the reverence behind a conjuncture which Peal and Lambert exercised modetrounce pit specimen segregation. They mix a dissociation unmoulded penny, “balanced bilinguals” who are expert in twain tlegatee earliest (11) and obstruct oration (L2) and “pseudo-bilinguals” who, for medley reasons, accept not yet attained agewithstop abilities in tlegatee obstruct oration. According to Peal and Lambert(l962): “The pseudo-bilingual apprehends one oration fur emend than the other, and does not use his obstruct oration in despatch.T h e penny (or pitd) bilingual masters twain at a n existing age and has address behind a conjuncture twain as instrument of despatch [p. 61. ” Into tlegatee specimen of bilinguals, singly those cogitateed “balanced” were admitted. Peal and Lambert’s discuss had stout application on two fronts. First, it cogitatetelling the notice of elaborationers on the whole of primeing appropri- ! THE FIRST 4 DECADES OF RESEARCH Psychical studies of the relevancy unmoulded bilingualism and apprehensive abilities began in the existing 1920s out of sympathy cogitatetelling by the fair of psychometric trials o f conception.The sympathy was that bilingual upshot would undergo from some linguistic disadvantages, which could, in reverse, obstruct [air duty o f tlegatee psychical abilities and undeveloped. The circumstance that the delineation of conception is heavily hanging on parole abilities made psycholog,ists and educators deeply sympathyed (and rightamply so! ) environing the vehemence o f such trials for bilingual upshot. As expected, the independence of studies preceding to Peal and Lambert’s (1962) discuss root that bilinguals were linguistically meagre in unifomity to tlegatee monolingual counterparts. Among other mans, bilinguals were semblancen t o accept meagre knee (Carrow, 1957). inferior laminas in written settlement, past unwritten mistakes (Harris, 1948; Saer, 1924). and a cogitateably base lexicon (Barke & Williams, 1938; Grabo, 1931; Saer, 1924). Theconsistcnt answer was that bilinguals undergoed from a so-unshaken “oration indexicap” (see critique5 b i Arsenian. 1937; Darcy, 1953, 1963; Macnamara, 1966). Unfortunately, agreeing answers environing bi1inguals’“lanpuagc indexicap” led too quickly to statcincnts in-reference-to the infrequented elfccts of bilingualism ! , I . . : I ! . . , , I I I I j I ’ I I ’, .. :_:. ;::. : ’. . :. . , : I , , . ,- . . . . .... , . . . ... . , . , . . . ... . . . ~ . -. .. ,.. .. , . . > _ . .. ... 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 321 322 HAKUTA AND OlAZ . rather than to a cogitateoperative investigationing of the vehemence of psychometric trialsof conception for this population. Negative, and rather abusive, mentionments condemning bilingualism as a gregarious persecute (Epstein, 1905) or as “a trouble destitute of patent habit” (Yoshioka, 1929) were low in the existing attaining. In weak, the gauged oration indexicap of bilinguals was declareed as a linguistic indistinctness that deeply abnormal upshot’s psychical bud and academic enterprise up to the college years (Saer, 1940). The independence of existing studies in the area, at-last, undergoed from a ample file of regularityatizeificationological wholes, and as a fruit, most surrender investigatorsin the province reverence the answers of existing studies as amply disputed (see Cummins, 1976). A amiable-tempered-tempered calculate of existing studies, for exemplification, failed to modetrounce for collation varietys in socioeconomic footstop unmoulded bilingual and monolingual specimens.As existing as 1930, McCarthy objected out that bilingualism in the US was cogitateablely confounded behind a conjuncture low socioeconomic foothold. She root that past than half of the bilingual initiate upshot could be regularityatizeified as cognate t o families from the untarnished drudge occupational collation. Parallel the selfidentical outlines, Fukuda (1925) alerted elaborationers to the circumstance that haughty-scoring English-indicative investigations were largely in the occupational and adherent regularityatizees; he fameed a correlevancy of 3 3 unmoulded the Whiltier (socioeconomic) Lamina and the Binet IQ in his specimen.Nevertheless, preceding to the existing 1960s. most studies investigating the proceeds of bilingualism on upshot’s conception did not receive into entiretyity collation varietys in socioeconomic foothold. A obstruct senior regularityatizeificationological discoloration of existing studies is that it was unconcealedly-again-and-frequently suspicious whether the “bilingual” investigations were in circumstance exuberant in twain orations. Brunner (l929), for exemplification, inconsequent that upshot’s bilingualism would be estimated by the alienness of tlegatee creators.Brunner disjoined his bilingual specimen into three categories: (1) twain creators born in this country; (2) one creator born close and the other aloof; and (3) twain creators born aloof. The bunch was merely inconsequent to portray medley files of upshot’s bilingualism. In other studies, the specimen’s bilingualism was assessed through nobility names or plain situate of resldence (see Darcy, 1953, for a critique). As surrender investigators accept unconcealedly-again-and-frequently recurrent, it is unustelling to attain whether the bilingual investigations of numerous studies were veritablely bilingual or righteous monolingual of a lad oration. Toward the end of the 1950s, elaboration o n the proceeds of bilingualism semblanceed the forthcoming agreeing answers. Monolinguals executed forciblely conspicuous than bilinguals on gauges of parole conception. On gauges of nonparole power, some studies semblanceed that monolinguals were so at an habit, but collation varietys on this unsteady were not agreeing abutting studies. However, consequently of the cogitateoperative regularityatizeificationological discolorations righteous mentioned, none of the fruits, plain if they were statistically forcible in either undergoing, can be easily declareed.Peal and Lambert’s (1962) discuss, de- scribed paltryly in the prelude, took tramps to advertise the segregation O f penny, pitd bilinguals. In conjunction, it recruited prudence from antecedent studies in moderateling for socioeconomic raze. ! PEAL AND LAMBERT (1962): THE PUNCTUATION POINT IN RESEARCH - I Twain bilingual and monolingual specimens for the Peal and Lambert discuss were unconnectedd from the selfidentical initiate scheme in Montreal. All I0-year-old upshot in the scheme were middle in the judicious screening by immodest gauges, the composite of which was used to mention whether the branch should be cogitateed monolingual or pitd bilingual. The gauges were: ( I ) the associatering-to quantity of vote agreed in a promise company work in LI and L2; (2) the associatering-to quantity of vote in LI and L2 descryed in a succession of letters; (3) the quantity of vote regive in L2 (English) from a subset unconnectedd from the Peabody Delineate Lexicon Test; and (4) imrepresentative self-ratings& power in indicative, discernment, lection, and letter in L2.Children who subvert in the extremes of these laminas were mentiond to be monolingual or pitd bilingual. The definite specimen consisted of 75 monolinguals and 89 bilinguals; all upshot were regulateed a qualified mentionment of the LavoieLarendeau Collation Trial of Open Conception (Lavoie & Laurendeau, 1960). lhe Raven’s Coloured Modificonducive Matrices (Raven, 1956; Raven, Court, & Raven. 1976). and a French mentionment of unconnectedd subtests of the Thurstone Primary Imrepresentative Abilities Trial (Thurstone & Thurstone, 1954). Contrary to the answers of precedent studies, the fruits of the Peal and Lamberi discuss semblanceed that bilinguals executed forciblely emend than monolinguals o n most of the apprehensive trials and subtests, plain when collation varietys in sex, age. and socioeconomic footstop were behind a conjunctureholdly moderateled. Bilingual upshot executed forciblely conspicuous than monolinguals on trials of twain parole and nonparole abilities; the bilinguals’ conspicuousity in nonparole trials was past clexisting obvious in those subtests that required imrepresentative production and reorganization of visual stimuli, rather than unadulterated perceptual abilities.A circumstanceor segregation of trial beaks mentiond that bilinguals were conspicuous to monolinguals in concept construction and in works that required a ordinary imrepresentative or speciesic flexibility. Overall, bilinguals were root to accept a past medley specimen of abilities than tlegatee monolingual peers. . Peal and Lambert’s (1962) answers must be cogitateed behind a conjuncture a ordinary file of timidity, at-last. First, as Macnamara (1966) has objected out, the round of investigation segregation command accept introduced a prejudgment in countenance of the bilingual specimen.Peal and Lambert’s bilingual specimen middle singly upshot who beakd aggravatesource a ordinary mentiond raze in the English Peabody Delineate Lexicon Test, a trial commsingly used to gauge conception in monolinguals. I 1 I I I ! , ! i 1 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 323 324 HAKUTA AND OlAZ It is potential that the conception of French-Canadian upshot command be rcflected in a gauge of English (the obstruct oration) lexicon.Second, the bilingual specimen, on the mediocre, belonged to a conspicuous action than the monolingual specimen; possibly the conspicuousity observed in bilinguals was the fruit of tlegatee having desireer snare to shapely notification. And third, the quantity arrangement of the Raven’s trial beaks was very incongruous for the two collations of upshot; it, was inquickly skewed for bilinguals, inasmuch-as the contrary was penny for monolinguals. In weak, the apprehensive habits observed in Peal and Lambert’s pitd bilingual specimen could accept been cheered by sundry artigrounds in tlegatee investigation segregation proceedings. As Peal and Lambert (1962) admitted: A pausericted declareation of this [the fruits] may lie in our regularityatizeification of choosing the bilingual specimen. Those undergoing from a oration indexicap may unintentionally accept been eliminated. We Nursing essayed to prime bilinguals who were pitd, that is. identical exuberant in twain orations. However, when the pit gauges did not surrender a unobstructed prognostic of whether or not a surrendern branch was bilingual, past power was secure to his beak on the English lexicon trials. Thus some bilinguals who command be pitd, but whose lexicon in English and French command be medium, would be omitted from our specimen.The close clever bilinguals, those who accept not extraneous as enlightened an English lexicon, would not be cogitateed bilingual abundance for our discuss [p. IS]. Nevertheless. Peal and Lambert’s (1962) tentative dissociation unmoulded bilinguals and pseudobilinguals made a forcible (and fur insufficiencyed) regularityatizeificationological assistance to the province. Tlegatee dissociation has dense modern investigators to prime tlegatee bilingual specimen behind a conjuncture elder reverence and gauge the specimen’s explicit cognizance of the two orations. RECENT STUDIESSince Peal and Lambert (1962). a variety of studies accept been fameed in o which monolingual upshot are collated t pitd bilingual upshot. In most of these studies, pitd bilinguals accept semblancen habits in sundry apprehensive abilities, such as concept construction (Liedtke & Nelson, 1968) and melalinguistic certifiedness (Cummins, 1978). In conjunction, numerous studies intimate that pitd bilinguals proof a elder flexibility than monolinguals in tlegatee enterprise on incongruous apprehensive works (Balkan, 1970).Above all, modern elaboration not singly has replicated Peal and Lambert’s substantial answers in-reference-to pitd bilingualism, but so has surrendern tentative aid for linguists’ mentionments in-reference-to the apprehensive and linguistic habits of promotion a branch bilingually. In disunifomity to existing psychical studies of branchhood bilingualism, proper occurrence studies by linguists (Leopold, 1939, 1947, 1949a, 1949b; Ronjat, 1913) had mentiond that existing bilingualism was habitous to upshot’s apprehensive and linguistic bud.In top, Leopold (l96l), invetetrounce on observat ions of his bilingually cogitatetelling daughter, intimateed that bilingualism exaltd an existing dissociation of the promise gauge from the promise sense: “a grand slovenliness of the amalgamate unmoulded the phonetic promise and its sense (p. 3581. ” Furthermore, Leopold postulated a agreetelling unarm-an unmoulded the semantic and apprehensive bud of bilingual upshot, namely that the dissociation of gauge and sense leads to an existing certifiedness of the conveniionality of vote and the arbitrariness of oration.This certifiedness could exalt, in reverse, past unembodied razes of thinking. Vygotsky (1935/1975) saw the apprehensive habits of bilingualism parallel the selfidentical outlines; in his own vote (as cited in Cummins, 1976). bilingualism frees the select “from the prison of consolidated oration and phenoniena [p. 341. ” Leopold’s observations accept been trialed tentativey by lanco-Worrall (1972) in a singular courteous-mannered-designed and moderateled discuss of English. Afrikaans bilingual upshot in South Africa. The bilingual specimen consisted of train initiate upshot who had been cogitatetelling in a one peculiar-one oration environment. imilar to the position of Leopold’s daughter Hildegard. The specimen’s file of bilingualism was mentiond by sundry gauges, including elabotrounce interviews behind a conjuncture creators and expandmistresss as courteous-mannered-mannered as a unconcealeded trial of the upshot’s lexicon in twain orations. Two resembling monolingual specimens, one English and one Afrikaans. were middle in the discuss. in a earliest illustration, upshot were regulateed a semantic-phonetic determinations trial. The trial consisted of eight sets of three vote each. A customary set contained the vote cup, con, and har.Children were asked investigations such as: “Which promise is past enjoy cup, can or hal? ”Choosing the promise can or /tal mentiond the branch’s phonetic determination or semantic determination, not-absolutely, in analyzing promise resemblingities. The compressiveness to collate vote on the plea of a semantic configuration is reverenceed as past fresh budally than comparing vote parallel a phonetic configuration. The fruits of this illustration semblanceed not singly that semantic determinations extensiond behind a conjuncture age, but so that bilinguals outranked monolinguals in choosing vote parallel a semantic rather than a phonetic configuration.As lancoWorrall(l972) fameed: “of the adolescent 4-6 year old bilinguals, 54% agreeingly chose to declare unifomity $unmoulded vote in provisions of the semantic configuration. Of the unilingual collations of the selfidentical age, not one Afrikaans debater and singly one English debater semblanceed resembling select undergoing (p. l3YSl. ” lanco-Worrall mentiond that bilingual upshot cogitatetelling in a one peculiar-one oration environment stretch a mete of senlatitic bud 2-3 years precedent than monolingual upshot. . . ’ ’ . 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 325 326 HAKUTA AND DlAZ &In a obstruct illustration, using Vygotsky’s (1962) interviewing techniques, lanco-Worrall (1972) asked her investigations to interpret the names of incongruous mans (e. g. , why is a dog unshaken “dog”? ). She so asked upshot whether or not the names of mans could be arbitrarily mutual. Children’s defenses to the earliest investigation were assigned to incongruous categories such as calcultelling attributes, professional attributes, gregarious treaty, and so forth. The fruits of this obstruct illustration semblanceed no genuine varietys unmoulded bilingual and monolingual upshot in the types of declareations offered.For the obstruct investigation, at-last, the varietys countenanceed the bilingual upshot; bilinguals replied that names of objects could in element be alterable, inasmuch-as the contrary was penny for monolingual upshot. Lindholm (1980) fames a discuss by Sandoval (1976) in which a answer of lanco-Worrall’s fruits was Nursing essayed behind a conjuncture a Spanish/Enlish. specimen of kindergartners and third actionrs. Although tclose was a conceal countenanceing the bilinguals, it did not stretch statistical sense. However, it is not unobstructed whether the bilingual investigations were expressly pitd or merely enrolled in bilingual initiates. More modernly, Bain and Yu (1980) investigated the apprehensive consequences of promotion upshot according to Ronjat’s (1913) one peculiar-one oration element. Bain and Yu premeditated German-French. English-French, and Chinese-English bilinguals behind a conjuncture monolinguals from the not-absolute orations in three incongruous geographical colonizations. The hanging apprehensive unsteadys sympathyed upshot’s educeing certifiedness of the functions of oration as postulated by Luria and discussd in works such as the power to thrive a set of increasingly tangled undergoings in hide-and-solicit positions.In top, Bain and Yu hypothesized that bilingualism would exalt the use of oration as a self-directive instrument in apprehensive works. Using a qualified mentionment of Luria’s (1961) experiimrepresentative proceedings, the fruits semblanceed that, at environing age 4, upshot cogitatetelling bilingually in one peculiar-one oration environment were emend reciteing to use twain pitt and cavowed oration as a regulate and modetrounce in tlegatee apprehensive functioning. The ordinarytys so countenanceed adolescenter bilingual upshot, but this conceal failed to stretch statistical sense. Past cogitateablely, the answers were agreeing abutting incongruous oration collations and geographical positions.Several investigators accept explored the proceeds of bilingualism on the bud of metalinguistic certifiedness. Metalinguistic certifiedness associates to the power to dissect linguistic output extrinsicly; that is, according to Cummins (1978). “to contemplate of oration rather than lhrough it to the hinted sense [p. 1271. ’’ Indeed, as upshot educe, they beseem past captelling of contemplateing at oration as an extrinsic set of governments, as an extrinsic instrument for despatch. Consequently bilingualism induces an existing dissociation of promise and associateent, it is potential that bilingual upshot so educe an existing compressiveness to centre on ‘ , and dissect the structural properties of oration. Vygotsky( 1935/1962)suggested that, consequently bilinguals could toped the selfidentical guile in incongruous. orations, a bilingual branch would conceal to“see his oration as one top scheme unmoulded numerous, to intention its phenomena undet past open categories, and this leads to an certifiedness of his linguistic operations [ 1962, p. I IO]. ” Past modernly, Ben-Zeev (I 977b) hypothesized that bilinguals dtvelop an analytic diplomacy inside oration in arfile to combat suspension unmoulded tlegatee t w o orations.Lambert and Tucker (1972) exalted that upshot in the St. Lambert bilingual illustration affianced in some genus of “contrastive linguistics” by comparing resemblingities and varietys unmoulded tlegatee two orations. Cunmins (1978) investigated the metalinguistic bud of third- and sixth-action Irish-English bilinguals. Upshot in the specimen came from settlements wclose twain Irish and English were oral; all upshot ordinary shapely initiate education in Irish. An behind a conjuncturestop monolingual unifomity collation was unconnectedd that was equipollent to the bilingual‘collation on gauges of IQ and socioeconomic foothold.A earliest work investigated upshot’s certifiedness of the arbitrariness of oration. Resembling to the gauge used by lancoWorrall(1972). upshot were asked whether names of objects could be mutual; they were then asked to interpret or righteousify tlegatee defenses. The fruits mentiond that, at twain third- and sixth-action razes, bilinguals semblanceed a elder certifiedness of the irresponsible ‘genus of linguistic regard. In a obstruct work, upshot were surrendered behind a conjuncture sundry impotential and tautological dooms environing some poker chips that were either conspicuous or mysterious. The dooms divers in two conjunctional configurations: penny versus sham and tentative versus nonempirical. According to Cummins (1978), nontentative mentionments associate to dooms that “are penny or sham by amiableness of tlegatee linguistic construct rather than deriving tlegatee exactness trounce from any extralinguistic mention of affairs [p. 129j. ” The work was unconnectedd as a gauge of metalinguistic certifiedness consequently antecedent elaborationers had semblancen that, in arfile to evaluate contradictions and tautologies rectifyly, it is inevitoperative to discuss oration in,an extrinsic fashion.Although the enterprise on this evaluation work was not unobstructed-cut in countenance of the bilinguals, sixth-action bilingual upshot semblanceed a noticeoperative conspicuousity in rectifyly evaluating mysterious nontentative dooms. But Cummins (1978) notes that the monolinguals “analyzed linguistic input close closely, kind past pleased to surrender the obvious‘can’t recite’ defense to the mysterious nontentative items [p. 1331. ” In a obstruct illustration behind a conjuncture pitd Ukranian-English bilinguals, Cumniins (1978) investigated upshot’s metalinguistic certifiedness usiiig a ample variety of gauges, including segregation of doubtful dooms and a regularityatize inclusion work.Contrary to antecedent answers, the bilinguals in this discuss did not semblance habits on the Seniantic-Phonetic Determination Trial or on an arbitrariness of oration rask. However, Cummins (1978) fames that “the fruits of the Systematize Inclusion and Ambiguities works are agreeing behind a conjuncture previ- iI - I I I !! ! .. . .i. ,’) < ‘I .. ’ , , . .>: . ,,,,:’ . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . .. . , , , . io. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 327 328 HAKUTA AND DlAZ ous answers in that they intimate that bilingualism exalts an analytic orientation t o linguistic input [p. 1351. In the studies that accept been illustrative, bilinguals exceeded monolinguals in a ample file of linguistic and melalinguistic abilities. Bilinguals semblanceed a elder compressiveness to dissect the unifomity of vote parallel semantic rather than sonorous configurations, a elder use of oration as a self-directing instrument in apprehensive works, and a elder pitall certifiedness of the treatyal genus of vote and oration. Also, in a incongruous discuss (Feldman & Shen, 1971). bilingual 5-year-olds were emend than tlegatee monolingual peers at relabeling objects and topeding relevancys unmoulded objects in elementary dooms.This certifiedness or flexibility behind a conjuncture deference to the use of oration seems to state an cogitateoperative role in the apprehensive functioning of bilingual upshot. In circumstance, sundry investigators accept vindicationed that bilinguals are past “cognitively flexible” than monolinguals when performing on twain parole and nonparole works. Although the belief of apprehensive flexibility has never been adequately interpreted (see Cummins, 1976)’ it is potential that bilinguals’ singular use and certifiedness of oration gives to a elder flexibility in the production of twain parole and nonparole speciess.One of the most unconcealedly cited studies of bilinguals’ apprehensive flexibility was conducted in Switzerland by Balkan (1970). Balkan regulateed sundry trials of nonparole abilities that purportedly gauged apprehensive flexibility. The bilingual collation, as expected, executed forciblely conspicuous than the modetrounce monolingual collation in two of these gauges. One work, Figures Cachees, confused the power to reassemble a perceptual position, resembling to the everyday Embedded Figures Test. The other work, Histoires, confused sensitivity to the incongruous senses of a promise.Interestingly abundance, the substantial proceeds of bilingualsm on these gauges were fur stronger for upshot who had beseem bilingual anteriorly the age of 4. The varietys unmoulded monolinguals and upshot who had beseem bilingual at a behind age were in countenance of the passing but did not stretch statistical sense. ’ Balkan’s discuss implies, as precedent proper occurrence studies by linguists had intimateed, that bilingualism command accept the most gainoperative apprehensive proceeds for those upshot who attain tlegatee two orations unitedly. Consequently pitd bilinguals accept two incongruous vote for most associateents, it s not bewildering that they semblance a elder sensitivity than monolinguals to the potential incongruous senses of a sole promise, as semblancen in the Histoires work. On the other index, Balkan’s discuss offers no explication as to how or why bilingualism should give to a elder power to reassemble and reconstruct perceptual arrays, as semblancen in the Figures Cachees work. As modern elaboration intimates, the explication command be in bilinguals’elder certifiedness and flexibility behind a conjuncture deference to the use of oration, as courteous-mannered-mannered as in tlegatee elder use of twain pitt and cavowed oration in the warnering of tlegatee apprehensive functioning (Bain & Yu. 980). Raise proof of bilinguals’ so-unshaken apprehensive flexibility has been offered by Ben-Zeev’s (1977) discuss behind a conjuncture Hebrew-English bilingual upshot. When collated to monolinguals, the bilingual upshot in the discuss semblanceed a noticeoperative conspicuousity in species adherence and parole transconstruction works. The species adherence work confused upshot’s power to regive vote in a doom according to the illustrationer’s educations. In a customary prompting, upshot were asked to resituate the promise I behind a conjuncture the promise spughetli.Children were surrendern rectify beaks when they were reciteing to say dooms enjoy“Spaghetti om secure,” rather than “Spaghetti iscold” or a resembling doom that, although unwrittenly rectify, violated the governments of the amusement. The bilinguals’ conspicuous enterprise on the parole transconstruction work confused emend defiance of alters in a oral inducement that is many unintermittently by instrument of a tape loop. Warren and Warren (1966) accept fameed that when a oral stiinulus is surrendered in such a way, investigations older than 6 years fame hearing unconcealed alters in what the taped expression says.The authors attributed this myth to the bud of a reorganization resources that aids in the cognizance of ongoing oration. The bilingual upshot in Ben-Zeev’s discuss so outexecuted the monolingual collation on ordinary aspects of a matrix reversal work. Bilinguals were emend at isolating and mentioning the inferiorlying configurations of the matrix, but no collation varietys were root on the rearrangement of figures in the matrix. The two unifomity collations so executed resemblingly on Raven’s modificonducive matrices.I t should be exalted that the bilinguals in Ben-Zeev’s discuss semblanceed apprehensive habits singly on gauges that were unconcealededly kindred to linguistic power and on the parole aspects of the matrix transconstruction work. Ben-Zeev( 1977) exalted that throughout the discuss bilingual upshot seemed to admittance the apprehensive works in a expressly analytic way. They so seemed past cool to twain the construction and specialtys of the works regulateed, as courteous-mannered-mannered as past perceptive to feedback from the works and the expcrimenter.BenZeev interpreted these improved abilities in provisions of bilinguals’ confrontation behind a conjuncture tlegatee t w o orations. She disputed that, in arfile to desert linguistic suspension, bilinguals must educe a certified certifiedness of the structural resemblingities and varietys unmoulded tlegatee two orations as courteous-mannered-mannered as a proper sensitivity to linguistic feedback from the environment. Supposedly, this past educeed analytic diplomacy inside linguistic constructions is transmitted to other constructions and specimens associated behind a conjuncture incongruous apprehensive works.Ben-Zeev (1977) summarized her fruits as thrives: Two strategies characterized the thinking specimens of the bilinguals in relevancy to parole denoteative: gainingness to ascribe construction and gainingness to reassemble. I j i I I The specimens they solicit are largely linguistic, but this round so operates behind a conjuncture visual specimens, as in tlegatee bent at isolating the diniensions of a matrix. . .. , ... . . .. .. < -,,:i , . I, . . ,r,, . ,, l.. r. %-. r, < . .. .: v . %. i:. , . . .L . _ . . .. ,. . 10.BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 329 . 330 HAKUTA AND DlAZ Behind a conjuncture visual denoteative the spatial reorganizational expertness did not answer, at-last [p. 1017). In blank, the genus o r sense of apprehensive flexibility is far from kind amply inferiorstood; at-last, the studies righteous critiqueed intimate that the flexibility exalted in bilinguals could root from oration-kindred abilities, such as the use of oration in warnering apprehensive functioning or an existing certifiedness of the treatyality and structural properties of oration. OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF THE ART The modern studies intimate that if one collates bilinguals who are closely equipollent in tlegatee abilities in L l and L2 behind a conjuncture a monolingual collation equaled for age, socioeconomic raze, and other pertinent unsteadys and regulates a gauge of apprehensive flexibility to twain collations, the bilinguals gain do emend. Now, cogitate an intellectual (from the intentionobject of amiable-tempered-tempered experiimrepresentative experiment) elaboration guile. You would originate by vestibule a unpremeditated specimen of men-folks and assigning them unpremeditatedly to either an experiimrepresentative collation or modetrounce collation, thereby moderateling for any setting misselect in sampling.The experiimrepresentative collation is situated in an environment that fosiers bilingualism, inasmuch-as the modetrounce collation recrement in a monolingual environment. Unintermittently the tenor has had tidings to receive consequence (Le. , unintermittently the investigations in the state accept beseem pitd bilinguals), you regulate your hanging gauge, making indisputconducive that the peculiar who regulates the hanging gauge is sightless to whether the investigation kind trialed is in the tenor or modetrounce state. And, lo and discern, you meet a variety in countenance of bilinguals. Under this intellectual position, one can reasonably mention that bilingualism causes apprehensive flexibility, o r whatever apprehensive habit this flexibility stands for. You could so go on to consider environing why this fruit came environing and conspenny medley other experiimrepresentative states to trial your hypotheses. In what ways is the intellectual elaboration guile unenjoy the case inferior which surrender studies of bilingualism are conducted? We would object out at narrowest two. First, in the veritconducive globe, tclose is n o such man as unpremeditated assignment to a bilingual o r monolingual collation.Most unconcealedly-again-and-again, bilingualism or monolingualism is mentiond by sociolinguistic case that are, as would be penny of most sociolinguistic case, kindred to a ample file of gregarious unsteadys. What this veritablely instrument is that tclose gain be a enlightened calculate of unsteadys that incongruousiate the bilingual from the monolingual other than merely that the bilingual speaks two orations and the monolingual one. It is potential. of sequence, to equal the two collations behind a conjuncture deference to some unsteadys (e. g. , ethnicity) or to modetrounce them statistically (e. g. , by pausericteding out the proceeds’of socioeconomic raze).But at what object can we be pleasant that all the rele- ’ vant unsteadys accept been moderateled for, such that the variety unmoulded the two collations can be attributed to the calculate of orations that the peculiar apprehends? SO, the unbeliever could dispute, “While you accept moderateled for u,b,c,d,e, andj. you acceptn’t moderateled for g. ” The obstruct way in which the intellectual position is unenjoy the veritableity of the studies is past regularityatizeificationological and has to d o behind a conjuncture the preoption of a sightless proceeding (a double-sightless is unusable, consequently presumably the investigations would apprehend whether they are bilingual or monolingual).In none of the studies critiqueed accept we seen proof of Nursing essays by the elaborationers to conceal the singularity of the investigation sightless to the illustrationer. If the illustrationer is certified on the fancy of the discuss and in conjunction apprehends whether the investigation is a bilingual or a monolingual branch, one cannot government out unintended experilnenter prejudgment proceeds(Rosentha1, 1976). In custom, it may be entiretyly opposed to Nursing essay t o practise a sightless proceeding. Bilingual and monolingual upshot are most unconcealedly-again-and-frequently root in incongruous initiates, incongruous neighborhoods, and would probably semblance some undergoingal manifestations of tlegatee linguality.It is, at-last, an consequence that one must undergo in select when declareing the fruits of studies using the prototype guile. The regularityatizeificationological wholes rootming from the veritableity of explicit bilingual positions conceal opposedy to aiding tentatively the vindication that bilingualism is associated behind a conjuncture elder apprehensive flexibility. One pausericted discerption to twain of these wholes can be achieved in a rarely used guile of contemplateing at proceeds behind a conjuncturein a bilingual specimen (Duncan & DeAvila, 1979).If file of bilingualism can be reliably gauged behind a conjuncturein a specimen of upshot suitconducive bilingual and if this gauge of file can be semblancen to be kindred to apprehensive flexibility, then one would accept behind one tramp closer to answer a immaculate sympathy unmoulded bilingualism and apprehensive flexibility. Using a behind a conjunctureinbilingual specimen, it is so potential to modetrounce for illustrationer prejudgment. Inasfur as the investigations could behind from the selfidentical initiates, if the LI and L2 abilities were kept sightless to the illustrationer, it would minimize prejudgment proceeds.In conjunction to the asource wholes, tclose is the mentiond but untested mentionment environing undergoing of flushtuality. As Peal and Lambert (1962) put it: “one may ask whether the past clever upshot, as gauged by nonparole conception trials, are the ones who beseem bilingual, or whether bilingualism itself has a countenancetelling consequence on nonparole conception [p. 131. ” One indexle on this whole would be through a desireitudinal discuss in which twain unsteadys are gauged unconcealedly-again-and-frequently pit tidings. We are certified of righteous one siudy (Barik &Swain, 1976) in which desireitudinal ordinarytys were conducive.Barik and Swain collated 32 low L2 achievers behind a conjuncture 32 haughty achievers in a French immersion program in Ottawa pit a 3-year conclusion (Grades K-3). They fame that the haughty achievers executed emend on subtests of analogies and forthcoming parole undergoings plain when judicious IQ beaks at Tidings I were moderateled. j io. BILINGUALISM A N D COGNITIVEABILITY 331 332 HAKUTA AND OlAZ The discuss we fame in the equalize of the stipulation addresses the asource sympathys behind a conjuncture antecedent studies of the sympathy unmoulded bilingualism and apprehensive flexibility.We are ardent in assessing the associatering-to abilities in twain LI and L2 of upshot‘in the round of suitconducive bilingual and in forthcoming them on a desireitudinal plea to mention whether file of bilingualism is kindred to apprehensive flexibility and to assess the undergoing of flushtuality unmoulded linguistic and apprehensive unsteadys. Description of the Project The investigations in our discuss are surrenderly enrolled in regularityatizees from the Bilingual Inconstruction Program in the New Haven, Connecticut, open initiates.Children who are enrolled in the program are dominant in Spanish. Importation in the bilingual program for the investigations is mentiond largely on the plea of inconstruction agreed by the creators and by the expandmistresss of the regularityatizerooms to which they are judiciously assigned. Upshot who are fameed as kind unpopularly Spanish-indicative or largely Spanish-indicative are channeled into the bilingual regularityatizees, conjuncture those fameed as predominantly or unpopularly English-indicative are situated in monolingual, oceanstream regularityatizerooms.Those upshot who fameedly use twain orations are raise assessed for prevalence through the Oration Duty Battery, and Spanish-dominant upshot are situated in the bilingual regularityatizerooms. . The unconcealededor of the bilingual program estimates that of the 165,000 residents in New Haven, tclose are 18,000 Hipics, largely Puerto Ricans. Tclose are at surrender roughly 2700 Hipic students in the initiate scheme unmoulded Grades K-12,of which roughly 45% are in bilingual regularityatizees; All bilingual regularityatizees are conducted on a 5050 relevancy of Spanish and English as orations of education.Based on expandmistress monition, when the upshot admittance equivalence unmoulded tlegatee English and Spanish power, they are situated into the oceanstream, English monolingual regularityatizees. Thus, enjoy most bilingual inconstruction programs in the United States, the New Haven program is alterconducive in genus, as opposed to the defence or immersion programs root in Canada (see Swain, 1 7 ) 94. THE PRESENT LONGITUDINAL STUDY The two-dimensional quantity fashiond by associatering-to abilities in Ll and L2 is delineated in Fig. 0. 1 (a), noticeoperative by a outoutline behind a conjuncture a appear of 1 parallel which intellectually pitd bilinguals gain throng. This two-quantity is, of sequence, an’intellectual position that is ample, and we surrenderly accept no way of locating any surrendern specimen of bilingual men-folks in absolute provisions. Thus, depending on specimen characteristics, the two-quantity defined by a set of LI and L2 gauges can diversify. Figure IO. I (b) semblances two provisionally specimens, A and B, wclose B portrays a collation of men-folks that is past “balanced” than A.The object is that although we cannot mention the two-quantity colonization of a collation of bilinguals in any top discuss using a top gauge, the proceeds of file of bilingualism can be premeditated by contemplateing at the failure in the L2 gauge conjuncture moderateling for failure in the L1 gauge. As can be seen in Fig. 1 . 01 (c), proper A2 is past bilingual than proper AI, and B2 is past bilingual than BI. We hypothesize that the failure in L2 moderateling for failure in L1 is attributtelling t o the file of bilingualism, and this failure should be kindred in a substantial way to apprehensive power. (Cl . SubjectsAt Tidings I (the originatening of the Gravitate Semester), we began by screening all upshot in the kindergarten and earliest-action regularityatizees in three initiates in the New Haven open initiate scheme. We wanted to castaway from the discuss upshot who semblanceed proof of open oration faintness. All 180 upshot were regulateed a Spanish letter of the Peabody Delineate Lexicon Trial (SPVT), which is illustrative in past specialty behind. On the plea of the arrangement of the SPVTscores, investigations whosebeak was past than I lamina failure underneath the medium were eliminated. Our trial-invetetrounce evaluations were agreeing behind a conjuncture the fames of regularityatizeroom expandmistresss. In sum, out of the judicious 180, we were left behind a conjuncture 154 investigations, who were raise trialed behind a conjuncture the equalize of the Tidings I gauges. By Tidings 2, closely 6 months behind, 30 of the I54 investigations had moved abroad from the initiate scheme, leaving US behind a conjuncture 124 investigations. In conjunction (or, past precisely, in disjunction), a cherishing investigation at Tidings 2 was so ‘exceedingly dominant in English at twain conditions that she was etiminated from LZ ABILITY LZ ABILITY L2 ABILITY FIG. 10. 1 Conceplualization of pitd bilingualism, how incongruous bilingual specimens are embedded behind a conjuncturein it, and how men-folks are cmbcdded behind a conjuncturein specimens.Panel a semblances . intellectual pit tine unmoulded LI and LZ abilities. Panel b semblances situatement of two incongruous specimens (A and B) behind a conjuncturein intellectualircd quantity. Panel c semblances men-folks behind a conjuncturein the specimen spades. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 333 334 ’ HAKUTA AND DlAZ the discuss as kind entiretyly incongruous from the pause of our specimen. Thus, our definite specimen for the earliest year of the discuss consisted of 123 investigations, and we license out of raise disquisition the equalize of the investigations. The specimen of 123 investigations contained 56 (45%) kindergartners and 67 (55%) earliest actionrs, behind a conjuncture 55 (45Crlo) girls and 68 (55%) boys.All of these upshot were of Puerto Rican descent. The medium age was 6 years 0 months, behind a conjuncture a file from 4. 1 to 8. 3. Aside from this open notification, which was availtelling for all investigations, we obtained past sundericular demographic infomation through a investigationnaire sent to the creators. The investigationnaires were select at Tidings 1, and of our specimen, 88 (72%) responded, some behind a obstruct entreat. We accept performed some analyses to see whether the estimates obtained from the investigationnaire defenses would be reasontelling estimates for the entirety specimen.We collated all availtelling unsteadys in the discuss unmoulded responders and nodresponders and did not meet any forcible varietys in the instrument. Thus, we take the 88 defenses to be a reasonably unjaundiced portrayation of the population specimend. The investigationnaire ordinarytys mention that 42% of the investigations were born in the United States, the equalize in Puerto Rico. The creators accept lived in the continental United States for a medium of 2 years (SD = 6 years), ranging from 5 months to 26 years. They accept lived at tlegatee fameed address for an mediocre of 2 years (SD = 1 year, IO months), behind a conjuncture the file extending from I month to 8 years.Tclose is a medium of . 91 rooms per occupier in the free (SD = . 60). Of the sources of free, 37To are filled and 63% are inactive. Avocation is unconcealededly kindred to the calculate of adults in the free. Of all investigationnaire respondents, 55% were sole-creator sources of free, and 32% had two adults in the free. Of the two-adult frees, 64% (18/28) had the source filled, inasmuch-as singly 14% (6142) of sole-adult free sources fameedly were filled. The forcible company unmoulded calculate of adults and avocation, x2(l) = 18. 4, p = . 001, is congruous behind a conjuncture the discernment that sole creators in open accept low trounces of avocation, presumably due in sunder t o the circumstance that a reverencetaker would be required at settlement. Singly a medium lad of the investigations are outside siblings (790). The median calculate of siblings is 2. In the investigationnaire, we so asked the creators to trounce the quantity to which Spanish and English are used unmoulded medley men-folks at settlement. We agreed a 5-object lamina, behind a conjuncture 1 selfidentical to “singly Spanish,” 3 to “twain Spanish and English,” and 5 to “singly English. In all three potential dissequence combinations (adult-child, branch-sibling, adult-adult), the defenses were heavily skewed inside Spanish (for adult-child, I = 42%, 2 = 23%. 3 = 33%, 4 = 2%. 5 = 0%; for branch-sibling, I = 32%, 2 = 21%. 3 = 43?? 00. = 2%, 5 = 2%; for adult-adult, 1 = 50%. 2 = 32%. 3 = 17%, 4 4 = 2%. 5 = 1%. These three ratings of the quantity of use of Spanish and English at settlement are haughtyly correlated, r = 3 2 to r = t . 61, and when entirely, kindred inquickly behind a conjuncture the years of pernoctation the United States oceanland mentioned precedent, r = + . 34.It answers that the desireer the cling (and the precedent the year of pretense) in the United States, the past the dominant oration permeates the settlement. + Measures The power in Spanish (LI) was assessed by regulateing an adaption o f the Peabody Delineate Lexicon Trial fameed and select by Wiener, Simond, and Weiss (1978). Enjoy the English mentionment of the Peabody Delineate Lexicon Trial (Dunn, 1965). the trial is properly regulateed and consists of the branch choosing a succession of lexicon items (ordered by increasing agenormed opposedy) out of immodest delineated choices. Wiener et al. laminaized legatee Spanish mentionment on Puerto Rican upshot in New York City. English (L2) power was assessed through Construct A of the lexicon trial. We associate to the Spanish trial as SPVTand the English trial as EPVT; when they are thriveed by a calculate (EPVTI, EPVT2, SPVTI, SPVTZ), thecalculate associates to the Tidings (1 = gravitate o r 2 = leap) unsteady. We should execute it unobstructed at this object that we did not inconceal to use these lexicon trials as a gauge of conception, as is commsingly used (and misused) in monolingual populations. Rather, they were mediumt to be a gauge of the associatering-to abilities behind a conjuncturein each of the two orations for our bilingual specimen.It should be exalted close that the numerical raw beaks for the two trials are not resembling. That is to say, a branch who receives a beak of 20 on twain the EPVT and SPVT cannot be cogitateed equipollent in his or her associatering-to abilities in English and Spanish. On the other index, the SPVT and EPVT accept proofd the power to systematize upshot reliably parallel the not-absolute Spanish and English oration improvement configurations. In arfile to validate the SPVT and EPVT as gauges of oration, a collation of 40 upshot behind a conjuncturein our specimen was surrendern a narrative-retelling work in the two orations.Both the Spanish and English stories consisted of 14 dooms, paired behind a conjuncture cartooh delineates. The illustrationer earliest told the narrative conjuncture flipping through a delineate body and, straightway upon total, asked thebranch to recite the narrative cued by the delineates. Thechild’s utterances were tape commemorative and posteriorly transcribed. The protocols were trounced in a 5-object lamina, behind a conjuncture 1 kind minimal use of the oration and 5 kind unmeasured fluency, by two inhanging trouncers. Singly fluency was arbiterd; exactness of the retelling was ignored for this discuss. lnterrater reliablities were . 96 (Spearman-Brown) for English and . 9 (Spearman-Brown) for Spanish. The medium ratings for twain English and Spanish were forciblely corkindred behind a conjuncture the EPVTI and SPVTI beaks, r = . 82 for English rating behind a conjuncture EPVTI, r = + . 36 for ’ - + 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 335 336 HAKUTA AND DlAZ Spanish. The inferior Spanish correlevancy most enjoyly heeds the circumstance that the file of SPVTl beaks was past pausericted than the EPVTI beaks for this top subsaniplr and so the possibility that the upshot are past Spanish-dominant and a elementary narrative-retellihg work may not heed varietys at conspicuous razes of linguistic power. We are surrenderly pursuing raise validation of the vocabularly gauges, but for the instant prize that the trials do ruminate entiretyly precisely our investigations’ failure in power in twain orations. As a gauge of nonparole apprehensive power, we chose the Raven’s Coloured Modificonducive MatricesTest (Raven, 1956; Raven et al. , 1976). a gauge on which the most hearty varietys were root unmoulded bilinguals and nionolinguals in the Peal and Lambert discuss. R a w beaks rather than percentiles were used consequently the trial has not been laminaized on populations conipartelling to ours.The Raven beaks at Tidings I and Tidings 2 are closebehind associatered to a s Ravenl and Raven2. In conjunction to t hcse nieasures, we regulateed a trial of metalinguistic abili t y (to arbiter the unwrittenity of Spanish dooms and to descry English vote embedded in Spanish dooms) and a gauge of gregarious perpectivevestibule (Chandler’s “bystander cartoons”), but these ordinarytys are stagnant in the round of kind dissectd and are not fameed in this stipulation. Procedures All nieasures were regulateed properly at the initiates ‘in void rooms or hush hallway corners by Spanish-English (balanced) bilingual illustrationers.Except for surrenderation of the EPVT items, all trialing was conducted in Spanish. Each gauge was regulateed twice, unintermittently during the gravitate semester (Time I ) atid frequently in the leap (Time 2). The mediocre tidings lag unmoulded the two conditions was 6 months. Except for the toil that SPVTl was regulateed earliest at thc very originatening of the discuss for judicious screening, as mentioned precedent behind a conjuncture regard to specimen segregation, arfile of trials was counterbalanced. At each tidings, each branch was trialed in three sessions, one behind a conjuncture the SPVT. econd behind a conjuncture the EPVT, and third behind a conjuncture the apprehensive trials. In arfile that the illustrationer accrue sightless to the branch’s power in twain orations, the selfidentical illustrationer never tes‘ied any sunderichar branch in twain EPVT and SPVT; closeafter. the investigation’s file of bilingualism was noi apprehendn t o ! he illustrationers until behind total of the ordinarytys collation. bilingualisin at Tidings 1 prognosticate apprehensive power at l i m e 2 , or choicely, does apprehensive power at Tidings I prognosticate file of bilingualisrn at Tidings 2?IVirhin-Time Anulysis: T h e 1. The instrument and lamina failures for Tidings I and Tidings 2 gauges can be root in Ttelling 10. 1. The earliest atlalysis di- vided investigations into collationson the bases of tlegatee abilities i n each latiguage. We collationed investigations into three razes of EPVT beaks unproductive three levcls of S I W beaks, the crossing of which fruits nine collations. EPVTI raw beaks filed from 3 to 55, M = 26. 24, SD = 14. 86, and SPVTl raw beaks filed from 21 IO 81, M = 44. 32, S D = 13. 26. Upon error of the ordinarytys. we felt that. 0-object intervals for twain EPVT and SPVT raw beaks would portray reasontelling laminaing of investigations behind a conjuncture deference to tlegatee abilities, recognizing of sequence that the segregation is irresponsible and conducted solely for purposes of inspecting varietys illustrative in instrument. The forthcoming were segregations, imposed twain on the Tidings 1 and Tidings 2 ordinarytys: Spanish Lamina 1: SPVT 1-40; Spanish Lamina 2: SPVT 41-60; Spanish Lamina 3: SPVT elder than 60; Engfish Lamina I: EPVT 1-20; English Lamina 2: EPVT 21-40; English Lamina 3: EPVT elder than 40.Means and lamina failures for Raven I beaks for each of the nine collations secure of the crossing of the Spanish and English laminas can be root in Ttelling 10. 2 (a). Error of the instrument intimates strongly that Ravenl instrument extension behind a conjuncture increasing razes of English laminaing. However, this is confounded behind a conjuncture the ages of the investigations in the collations, as can be observed in Ttelling 10. 2 (b). The instant tramp was to assess the power of the sympathy unmoulded file of bilingualism and apprehensive power through pausericted mutuality, wclose EPVTI is corkindred behind a conjuncture Ravenl, moderateling for age and SPVTl .The parindicating a forcible relevancytial correlevancy coefficient is . 267 p = . W2, ship unmoulded file of bilingualism and nonparole apprehensive power. TABLE 10. 1 Instrument and Lamina Deviations 01 Baric Measures lor the Bilingual Specimen 1iiS 123) Aftair --. . . . . . . . . . . * ’ SI) lU. 15 14. 116 71. 11Y 26. 24 44. 33 15. 34 13. 26 3. 17 10. 15 16. YJ 1. 1. 56 Results 77. IY Tclose are t w o sepatrounce investigations we ask of the ordinarytys. First, is file of bilingualism kindred to apprehensive power at any one tidings? This can be answered by contemplateing behind a conjuncturein Tidings I and behind a conjuncturein Tidings 2 unconnectedly.Second, does file of 33. YY 5?. 6Y . 16. 16 3. 11 ,... I ... .. , . . . . . . . . . ... ,, , . . .. . . . . . ... , . , . . .~ . .. , .. . . ... .. .. .. .. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 337 338 HAKUTA AND DlAZ TABLE 10. 2(a) Ravel11 M e a n s lor Bilingual Groups English 1. ql’c. r I 11’ I‘1‘ ( I . ‘ U ) I. o,iw 2 -. . l. :iycr - ._ .... 11’ I’7’ -7 I 40) . . . . . lamina 3 EP I’r (>40) 3 P a I1 (> 6 0 ) I. :l). lvL SI’V I’ SD- A1 = 11. 0 0 11 zI ’ suI1 dl = 13. 5 ?. I : : nr = 18. 3 S D = 5. 7 11 2 = 7 SI’V I i s ,I 141-60) IAyvI I SI’V I’ I141l) AI= 14. 4 SI) . - 3. 0 t l - - 15 .! I = 15. S I ) = 2. 6 I I = 3n A I = 16. 4 SI) = 3. 2 I I = 14 ~~ M = 16. 5 SI) = 3. 5 I1 Wifhin-Time Arrulysis: Tidings 2. The pitall instrument for the gauges at Tidings 2 can be root in Ttelling 10. 1. The elabotrounce instrument semblancen in Ttelling 10. 3 mention Raven’s razes and age razes when the investigations were disjoined into collations by Spanish and English laminaings using the selfidentical criteria as hi Tidings 1. The pausericted correlevancy of EPVTZ and Raven2, moderateling for age and SPV2 is . 3 5 7 , p < . W l . Forcible for thesocioeconomic vaiables, the sympathy does not alter stoutly, pausericted correlevancy = . 28l, p = J O N .Thus, bolh Tidings I and Tidings 2 ordinarytys mention Illat file of bilingualism is kindred IO enterprise on the Raven’s matrices. Between- Tinre Analysis. We ordinary precedent that file of bilingualism is in-occurrence kindred to Ravens at twain conditions. However, which of these is TABLE 10. 31al Rave112Means lor Bilingual Groups ....... ....... ..... -. = I4 nl = 14. 3 S I ) = 2. 5 11 = 3 0 AI = 13. 5 $1) = . 8 II = 2 TABLE 10. 2fb) Mea11 Age lor Eiliiigual Gioups at Tidings 1 .. EIIRliSh 1v. vc. r 2 . . . , ... ....... /. iiwr English I. uw I kl’l’. I‘ ( I . 3 l ) ... ....... La. w 3 t7iv (>4(1) A = 79. 0 I SI) = 5. 8I1 * El’l. 7‘ ( 21 4 1 ) ... ....... ....... ... ICI’I~ I’ (>. 40) . .I Lupr I . . -. - . . . . . . . t‘P I’ I ( I . 20) AI = 14. 0 SI) = 0 I1 = I ... ...... I:‘r1r. (-7i. JuI .. .... ... 82. 0 SI) = 8. 485 I1 = 2 Ill = I. u. iw -7 lamina 3 . SI’V I .! I = 14. 8 SI) = 2. 8 II l. ;lyrr 3 SI’VI (>6Ot a I1 S (>601 = 6 A = 17. 0 I SI) = 3. 4 II = I I A1 = 18. 8 S I ) = 4. 1 11 = 17 SI) = = 7 L;l)rr 2 SI’V 1’ (4l-bIl) S AI = 71. 4 S I ) = 11. 5 II = I 5 AI = SI) = ll = 7i. n 8. 1 3n A1 = 79. 4 SI) = 7. 1 II p Lycr ? a SYVT, n 141-60) .! I = 14. 2’ S I ) = 1. 6 I1 = 15 .ll = 13. 9 Ar = 15. 1 SI) = 3. 0 ll = 2 0AI = 17. 7 4 . I I1 = 31 = 14 ’ I1 i Lamina I 11 Layct I SI’V’I’ (I-40) d l = 61. 9 S I ) = 3. 4 I I = 30 dl = 66. 4 Sf) = 7. 3 II = 14 AI = 6 3 SI) = 7. 071 11 = 2 SPVI I > 140) SI) = 11 I . 7 = IO AI = 13. 4 SI) = 2. 5 ll = I O AI = 18. 7 S I ) = 4. 2 II = 3 TABLE 1 0 3 b l Medium Age lor Bilingual Groups at Tidings 2 -~ Froni the creator investigationnaires, we middle two gauges of the socioecononiic razes of the investigations. One was merely whether the source of houser stop was filled (coded 1) o unfilled (coded 0). The other was the calculate of rooiiis in tlegatee pernoctation, disjoined by the calculate of occupiers.AIthough the Iwo iiicasures were not kindred. r = . 09. ns, twain werecorkindred behind a conjuncture EPVTI, for eniployment, r = -20, p c . 0 5 ; for settlement quantity, r = . IN, p c . 0 5 . When EPVTl is corkindred behind a conjuncture Raven1 moderateling for these socioeconomic unsteadys i n conjunction to age and SPVTl, the sympathy is stagnant signil’icantly diffcrent from 0, pausericted correlevancy = . 201,p4 0 ) 3 ’ SI’’l I’ a .! I = 74. 0 SI) = I I . I II Ai = nn. ? 6. 3 17 SI) = l l = 1>60l I. d)t! l = 6 = II z I . I / = 71. 7 AI = 77. 8 SI) = 9. 4 11 n SI’’ 5 141-60 II I S ) C l I SI’V I ( > 1-40) SI) = 10. I I = 15 AI = 79. 9 SI) H. 1 II 20 . = 31 .I1 = 67. 3 S I ) = 2. 9 II = 10 d l = 7 I . (I SI) = 7. 7 11 II) AI = 72. 3 SI) = II H. S 3 = . . . . . . . . “ ... ... ,. ,.. :. . .. ,:.. -! ^? :. ~. ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY TABLE 10. 4 Zero-Order Correlevancy Matrix lor Oration and Ravens 81 Twain Timer @I = 123) 339 340 HAKUTA AND DIAZ N Agc AXC .476 . 658 . I66 . 446 EI'l'TI SI'Y7'1 H . ____--_. ___a i w t l . 476 . 658 . I 66 .445 . 445 kP1'72 . 446 . E28 ~pV7'2 - /(aiwr 2 . 35 I . 484 . J 36 . 486 ,466 ,331 - . - . . . ordinarytys conducive.Raven2 was regressed on age, Raven 1, SPVTI, SPVT2, avocation, and pernoctation in Tramp I; then EPVTI in Tramp 2. EPVTl stagnant practiseed a forcible Beta, . 251, F ( I , 69) = 3 . 8 9 , ~ . OS. Multiple R was = 3 4 , behind a conjuncture EPVT adding 4% inside prognosticateing discord in Raved. DISCUSSION We began our discuss behind a conjuncture a sympathy that studies fameed in the attaining did not unambiguously semblance that bilingualism fosters apprehensive bud. A earliest opposedy was that most studies confused collation unifomitys of bilinguals and monolinguals. and consequently, the fruits could be attributed to collation varietys other than oration power.Second, most studies confused cross-sectional unifomitys wclose cause-consequence sympathys could not be behind a conjunctureholdly evaluated. The discuss righteous fameed executes past apparently the vindication environing the substantial proceeds of bilingualism. First, we were reciteing to semblance an consequence wifhin a specimen of bilinguals. And obstruct, when two choice ins for the undergoing of flushtuality were trialed on the desireitudinaldata, the in vindicationing file of bilingualism to be the causal amalgamate was past agreeing behind a conjuncture our obtained ordinarytys than the in vindicationing apprehensive power to be the f causal unsteady.By the end o the unmeasured tidings of this desireitudinal discuss. in which we gain thrive up the investigations for an conjunctional 2 years, behind a conjuncture the conjunction o other apprehensive gauges, we anticipation to execute an plain stronger vindication ref garding the substantial proceeds of bilingualism on apprehensive abilities. The circumstance that our ordinarytys aid the vindication that bilingualism fosters apprehensive bud is righteous a earliest tramp in discernment the issues at index. The investigation recrement as to how bilingualism affects apprehensive power, especially when apprehensive power is gauged by enterprise in nonparole works.A desire tidings ago, Leopold (949b) postulated that bilingual upshot were dense to conspicuous razes of unembodied guile by the existing insufficiency to sepatrounce the promise from its associateent. In a resembling vein, Cummins (1976) and Ben-Zeev (1977) accept intimateed that the apprehensive habits of bilingualism could be interpreted by bilinguals' insufficiency l objectify and discuss linguistic constructions. Ben-Zeev. for o exemplification, disputes that in arfile to desert linguistic suspension bilingual upshot must educe a elder certifiedness and sensitivity to linguistic cues.Bilinguals' elder sensitivity to linguistic construction and specialty is then transmitted and openized to incongruous parole and nonparole works. The round by which bilinguals' metalinguistic certifiedness affects enterprise in nonparole tes~s such as the Ravens has never been adequately interpreted or inferiorstood. Bain and Yu's (1980) discuss intimates that bilinguals are emend reciteing to use oration as a instrument to warner apprehensive functioning, increasing tlegatee compressiveness to memorize inconstruction and modetrounce past consequenceively the incongruous tramps in solving a whole. Cognitive-developimrepresentative re- WV'JI SPV'JI Rivcnl I:PV'I'Z . 3 I 8 .I65 .318 . 8? 8 .I65 SPVTZ Kavrn2 .522 .351 ,333 . 484 .399 . 687 .436 315 .399 . 315 .)I6 ,466 ,522 . 333 . 687 . I 20 . 3 I 6 . I 28 .486 .33 I - the causal circumstanceor? Specifically, we insufficiency to apprehend whether Raven2,can be prognosticateed by file of bilingualism at Tidings 1 conjuncture moderateling for the behind a conjuncturestop unsteadys (including Ravenl), or whether we can interpret past discord by prognosticateing file of bilingualism at Tidings 2 by Ravenl conjuncture moderateling for behind a conjuncturestop unsteadys (including file of bilingualism at Tidings I). These choices are not mutually unpopular, of sequence, but statistical repudiation of one in executes the choice in past apparently.The zero-arfile correlevancy matrix of age, EPVTI, SPVTI, Ravenl, EPTV2, SPVTZ, and Raven2 can be root in Ttelling 10. 4. From the basic inconstruction illustrative, we trialed two choice ins using multiple retrogression. The earliest segregation trialed the inoperative fancy that file of bilingualism is not prognosticateed by Ravens. In a trampwise multiple retrogression, EPVT2 was regressed on age, EPVTI. SPVTI, and SPVTZ in Tramp I; then Ravenl was entered in Tramp 2. The cogitateoperative statistic close is the Beta for Ravenl for its Fratip.The fruits of the segregation semblance that Ravenl does not add forciblely to the discord entiretyityed for when moderateling for age, EPVTI, SPVTI, and SPVTZ, Beta = . 056, F ( I , 117) = 1. 077, ns. The multiple R for the definite equation was . 832. Ravenl gived singly . 3% conjunctional discord inside prognosticateing EPVT2. We mention, then, that the inoperative fancy cannot be uncommon. In the obstruct segregation, we trialed the inoperative fancy that file of bilingualism does not prognosticate Raven beaks. In this trampwise multiple retrogression, Raven2 was regressed on age, Ravenl, SPVTI, and SPVTZ entered in Tramp 1; then EPVTI entered in Tramp 2.The fruits semblance a forcible Beta for EPVTI, Beta = . 252, F ( I , 1 17) = 8. 761, p < . 01. The multiple R for the definite equation was . 643. EPVTI gived 4. 1% conjunctional discord inside prognosticateing RavenZ, plain when the other unsteadys were entered earliest, Thus, we castaway the inoperative fancy in countenance of the declareation that file of bilingualism affects nonparole apprehensive power. To modetrounce for socioeconomic raze. we ruled to trial the fruits moderateling for eniployment and settlement quantity for the 77 investigations for whom we had . , io. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 41 342 HAKUTA AND DlAZ I I I I inquiry semblances an increasing use of parole reconciliation in the enterprise of nonparole works behind a conjuncture increasing age (Conrad, 1971). Furthermore, Hunt’s (1974) elaboration intimates that enterprise on the Raven trial would be improved by the use of linguistic, rather than spatial, strategies in the discerption of the matrices. It is potential, as Diaz (1983) intimateed, that branchhood bilingualism fosters a rather premature use of parole reconciliation in the rounding of inconstruction and this, in reverse, interprets bilinguals’ improved enterprise on nonparole works.One of the ocean opposedies in sympathetic such cogitateoperative investigations lies in the circumstance that most studies in the area accept relied on ordinarytys from psychometric trials. To the best of our cognizance, tclose are no notification-processing studies of adolescent bilingual upshot, and it is not unobstructed what apprehensive roundes or apprehensive strategies, if any, expressly incongruousiate bilingual from monolingual upshot. It is closely unusable, behind a conjuncture our surrender cognizance, to educe a round in of how bilingualism affects upshot’s apprehensive abilities or accelerates apprehensive bud. The bud (and tentative aid) of a elabotrounce in relating bilingualism and apprehensive bud is stagnant a few years forward. Finally, hypothesis educeed at the proper raze of the branch must nevertheless be kindred to the enlightenedr delineate of bilingualism as it occurs in medley constructs environing the globe. An cogitateoperative dissociation that must be middle in any discuss of the proceeds of bilingualism is unmoulded implied versus subtractive bilingualism (Lambert, 1978; Lambert & Taylor, 1981). hich is kindred to the dissociation unmoulded galaxy versus folk bilingualism {Fishman, 1977; Paulston, 1975. 1980). In an implied position. upshot attain tlegatee obstruct oration in conjunction to tlegatee earliest, thus creating pitd bilingualism. As Lambert and Taylor (1981) modernly put it: “an implied construct of bilingualism limplies] that these upshot, behind a conjuncture no apprehension of ethnic/linguistic erosion, can add one or past alien orations to tlegatee accumulating expertnesss, and gain immensely from the experiment, apprehensively, gregariously, and plain economically Ip. 141. In a subtractive position, the obstruct oration ghostly pauseores the earliest. To allege Lambert and Taylor (1981) unintermittently frequently: “the hyphenated American branch, enjoy the French-Canadian branch, embarks o n a ‘subtractive’ bilingual march as before-long as he/she enters a initiate wclose a haughty prestige, gregariously puissant, dominant oration enjoy English is introduced as the unpopular oration of education [p. 141. ” As Cummins (1976) objected out, studies that accept semblancen substantial proceeds of bilingualism habitually are conducted in positions of implied bilingualism.