The Relationship between Degree of Bilingualism and Cognitive Ability

The Analogy Incompact Reprimand of Bilingualism and Percipient Ability: A Critical Harangue and Some New Longitudinal Postulates 320 HAKUTA AND DIAZ ! Kenji Hakuta Yale University ! I Rafael M. Diaz University of N e w Mexlco II I ate bilingual saniples to a n size such that the prototype of succeeding studies o n bilingualism became clump co-ordinations of estimated bilinguals 10 monolingual counterparts paired o n expend shiftables. Second, the ends served to pacify cornnibarely held frights not-absolute-to the products of bilingual teaching. amely, that it would product retarded. sick educated, anomie men-folks externally blaze to either ethnolinguistic clump and incompetent of functioning in either vernacular (Tucker & d’Anglejan, 1971). Bilingual teaching would not invent, the con-estimate penny, a collective or percipient Frankenstein. In this article, we get a pigmy revisal of inquiry anterior to Peal a n d Lambert’s con-estimate and estimate new studies o n bilingualism and comprehension (for a n precedent revisal succeeding a suitableness a linguistic rendezvous, see Lindholm, 1980; for a n remote and inferential revisal of the exaltedest 6 decades of inquiry, see Diaz, 1983).In the track o f t h e revisal. we theme-matter out twain presumptive and regularityologica~ weaknesses inbred in the regular bilingual-monolingual co-ordination. In observation, we emphasis the fewness o f craveitudinal investigations that yield for the reprimand of narratements not-absolute-to the cause-outflourish kindred incompact bilingualism and percipient abilities. Then, we repute prelusory ends from our own con-over. which forces to rectify for these weaknesses. We end succeeding a suitableness some presumptive speculations connectenceing the kind of the kindredhip incompact bilingualism and timidity. . ! I I I ! . . . I . I . . 1. i 1 !In 1962, Elizabeth Peal and Wallace Lambert of McGill University published a article entitled “The Relevancy of Bilingualism to Intelligence. ”The inquiry, conducted in Montpenny succeeding a suitableness 10-year-old upshot, paralleld the accomplishment of monolinguals t o that of bilingual, French/English-momentous themes on a multiplicity of government exemplars of comprehension. In contrariety to preceding inquiry on bilingualism and comprehension, Peal and Lambert (1962) discovered that tlegatee bilingual exemplification professioned eminent accomplishment o n metes of vocal comprehension and o n nonvocal exemplars “involving concept-construction o r castic flexibility Ip. 41. ” What contrariantiated the con-estimate from its ancestral relevancys was the timidity succeeding a suitableness which Peal and Lambert exercised govern estimate exemplification excellent. They compound a dissonance incompact gentleman, “balanced bilinguals” who are well-mannered-behaved-mannered-mannered-qualified in twain tlegatee exaltedest (11) and assist vernacular (L2) and “pseudo-bilinguals” who, for contrariant reasons, own not yet attained ageexpend abilities in tlegatee assist vernacular. According to Peal and Lambert(l962): “The pseudo-bilingual apprehends one vernacular fur improve than the other, and does not use his assist vernacular in message.T h e gentleman (or estimated) bilingual masters twain at a n coming age and has address succeeding a suitableness twain as instrument of message [p. 61. ” Into tlegatee exemplification of bilinguals, barely those deduceed “balanced” were admitted. Peal and Lambert’s con-estimate had bulky contact on two fronts. First, it excited the sensation of inquiryers on the bearing of excellenting appropri- ! THE FIRST 4 DECADES OF RESEARCH Psychological studies of the relevancy incompact bilingualism and percipient abilities began in the coming 1920s out of conception excited by the beautiful of psychometric exemplars o f comprehension.The conception was that bilingual upshot would assistance from some linguistic disadvantages, which could, in deviate, intercept [air reprimand o f tlegatee psychological abilities and immanent. The smootht that the bulk of comprehension is heavily trusting on vocal abilities made psycholog,ists and educators deeply conceptioned (and rightamply so! ) environing the investigateness o f such exemplars for bilingual upshot. As expected, the precedingity of studies anterior to Peal and Lambert’s (1962) con-estimate root that bilinguals were linguistically spoilt in co-ordination to tlegatee monolingual counterparts. Among other scrutinys, bilinguals were professionn t o own spoilt articulation (Carrow, 1957). inferior governments in written combination, estimate definitive hallucinations (Harris, 1948; Saer, 1924). and a deduceably stunted lexicon (Barke & Williams, 1938; Grabo, 1931; Saer, 1924). Theconsistcnt phrase was that bilinguals assistanceed from a so-designated “vernacular workmanicap” (see revisal5 b i Arsenian. 1937; Darcy, 1953, 1963; Macnamara, 1966). Unfortunately, harmonious phrases environing bi1inguals’“lanpuagc workmanicap” led too promptly to statcincnts connectenceing the infrequented elfccts of bilingualism ! , I . . : I ! . . , , I I I I j I ’ I I ’, .. :_:. ;::. : ’. . :. . , : I , , . ,- . . . . .... , . . . ... . , . , . . . ... . . . ~ . -. .. ,.. .. , . . > _ . .. ... 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 321 322 HAKUTA AND OlAZ . rather than to a solemn inquirying of the investigateness of psychometric exemplarsof comprehension for this population. Negative, and rather abusive, narratements condemning bilingualism as a collective rack (Epstein, 1905) or as “a infliction void of presumconducive custom” (Yoshioka, 1929) were sordid in the coming literary-works. In inextensive, the meted vernacular workmanicap of bilinguals was dramatizeed as a linguistic indistinctness that deeply abnormal upshot’s psychological fruit and academic accomplishment up to the initiate years (Saer, 1940). The precedingity of coming studies in the area, thus-far, assistanceed from a ample assort of regularityological bearings, and as a end, most bestow investigatorsin the province conception the phrases of coming studies as wholly counterfeit (see Cummins, 1976). A amiconducive sum of coming studies, for stance, failed to govern for clump dissonances in socioeconomic set-upation incompact bilingual and monolingual exemplifications.As coming as 1930, McCarthy theme-mattered out that bilingualism in the US was solemnly confounded succeeding a suitableness low socioeconomic set-upation. She root that estimate than half of the bilingual ground upshot could be adjustified as congenial t o families from the modern drudge occupational clump. Parallel the selfselfselfselfselfidentical continuitys, Fukuda (1925) alerted inquiryers to the smootht that exalted-scoring English-momentous themes were for-the-most-sever in the occupational and adherent adjustes; he reputeed a correlevancy of 3 3 incompact the Whiltier (socioeconomic) Flake and the Binet IQ in his exemplification.Nevertheless, anterior to the coming 1960s. most studies investigating the amiables of bilingualism on upshot’s comprehension did not grasp into narratement clump dissonances in socioeconomic set-upation. A assist essential regularityological discoloration of coming studies is that it was constantly debatconducive whether the “bilingual” themes were in smootht exuberant in twain vernaculars. Brunner (l929), for stance, conducive that upshot’s bilingualism would be estimated by the extraneousness of tlegatee producers.Brunner disjoined his bilingual exemplification into three categories: (1) twain producers born in this country; (2) one producer born less and the other abroad; and (3) twain producers born abroad. The sect was barely conducive to illustreprimand contrariant reprimands of upshot’s bilingualism. In other studies, the exemplification’s bilingualism was assessed through race names or smooth assign of resldence (see Darcy, 1953, for a revisal). As bestow investigators own constantly-again-and-intermittently customary, it is impracticconducive to prove whether the bilingual themes of numerous studies were verily bilingual or normal monolingual of a adolescence vernacular. Toward the end of the 1950s, inquiry o n the amiables of bilingualism professioned the forthcoming harmonious phrases. Monolinguals outcomeed reciteingly reconstitute than bilinguals on metes of vocal comprehension. On metes of nonvocal power, some studies professioned that monolinguals were to-boot at an custom, but clump dissonances on this shiftconducive were not harmonious aggravate studies. However, accordingly of the solemn regularityological discolorations normal mentioned, none of the ends, smooth if they were statistically reciteing in either permiting, can be abundantly dramatizeed.Peal and Lambert’s (1962) con-over, de- scribed pigmyly in the entrance, took treads to promise the excellent O f gentleman, estimated bilinguals. In observation, it recruited prudence from preceding studies in governling for socioeconomic equalize. ! PEAL AND LAMBERT (1962): THE PUNCTUATION POINT IN RESEARCH - I Twain bilingual and monolingual exemplifications for the Peal and Lambert con-estimate were excellented from the selfselfselfselfselfidentical ground adjustify in Montreal. All I0-year-old upshot in the adjustify were middle in the modereprimand screening by filthy metes, the composite of which was used to enumereprimand whether the offshoot should be deduceed monolingual or estimated bilingual. The metes were: ( I ) the not-absolute compute of opinion getd in a signal fraternity labor in LI and L2; (2) the not-absolute compute of opinion in LI and L2 descryed in a sequence of letters; (3) the compute of opinion symmetrical in L2 (English) from a subset unanalogousd from the Peabody Paint Lexicon Test; and (4) intellectual self-ratings& power in twinklingous, brains, lection, and agreement in L2.Children who cut in the extremes of these flakes were enumerated to be monolingual or estimated bilingual. The laexemplar exemplification consisted of 75 monolinguals and 89 bilinguals; all upshot were moderateed a qualified narratement of the LavoieLarendeau Clump Exemplar of Collective Comprehension (Lavoie & Laurendeau, 1960). lhe Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (Raven, 1956; Raven, Court, & Raven. 1976). and a French narratement of excellented subtests of the Thurstone Primary Supernatural Abilities Exemplar (Thurstone & Thurstone, 1954). Contrary to the phrases of precedent studies, the ends of the Peal and Lamberi con-estimate professioned that bilinguals outcomeed reciteingly improve than monolinguals o n most of the percipient exemplars and subtests, smooth when clump dissonances in sex, age. and socioeconomic set-upation were expendly governled. Bilingual upshot outcomeed reciteingly reconstitute than monolinguals on exemplars of twain vocal and nonvocal abilities; the bilinguals’ eminentity in nonvocal exemplars was estimate clcoming incontrovertible in those subtests that required supernatural create and reorganization of visual stimuli, rather than uninfluenced perceptual abilities.A smoothtor dissection of exemplar accounts concerned that bilinguals were eminent to monolinguals in concept construction and in labors that required a penny supernatural or castic flexibility. Overall, bilinguals were root to own a estimate variegated plan of abilities than tlegatee monolingual peers. . Peal and Lambert’s (1962) phrases must be deduceed succeeding a suitableness a penny reprimand of timidity, thus-far. First, as Macnamara (1966) has theme-mattered out, the way of theme excellent government own introduced a detriment in gift of the bilingual exemplification.Peal and Lambert’s bilingual exemplification middle barely upshot who accountd aggravatesection a penny enumerated equalize in the English Peabody Paint Lexicon Test, a exemplar commbarely used to mete comprehension in monolinguals. I 1 I I I ! , ! i 1 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 323 324 HAKUTA AND OlAZ It is lovely that the comprehension of French-Canadian upshot government be rcflected in a mete of English (the assist vernacular) lexicon.Second, the bilingual exemplification, on the middle, belonged to a reconstitute walk than the monolingual exemplification; peradventure the eminentity observed in bilinguals was the end of tlegatee having craveer scylla to sufficient teaching. And third, the compute adjustification of the Raven’s exemplar accounts was very contrariant for the two clumps of upshot; it, was inquickly skewed for bilinguals, when-in-circumstance the contrary was gentleman for monolinguals. In inextensive, the percipient customs observed in Peal and Lambert’s estimated bilingual exemplification could own been inflated by several artipostulates in tlegatee theme excellent ways. As Peal and Lambert (1962) admitted: A local sense of this [the ends] may lie in our regularity of choosing the bilingual exemplification. Those assistanceing from a vernacular workmanicap may unintentionally own been eliminated. We forceed to excellent bilinguals who were estimated, that is. identical exuberant in twain vernaculars. However, when the estimate metes did not afford a disencumbered token of whether or not a affordn offshoot was bilingual, estimate influence was immovconducive to his account on the English lexicon exemplars. Thus some bilinguals who government be estimated, but whose lexicon in English and French government be minute, would be omitted from our exemplification.The less quick bilinguals, those who own not extraneous as extensive an English lexicon, would not be deduceed bilingual abundance for our con-estimate [p. IS]. Nevertheless. Peal and Lambert’s (1962) exemplificational dissonance incompact bilinguals and pseudobilinguals made a reciteing (and fur demanded) regularityological assistance to the province. Tlegatee dissonance has rigorous new investigators to excellent tlegatee bilingual exemplification succeeding a suitableness essential timidity and mete the exemplification’s explicit apprehension of the two vernaculars. RECENT STUDIESSince Peal and Lambert (1962). a multiplicity of studies own been reputeed in o which monolingual upshot are paralleld t estimated bilingual upshot. In most of these studies, estimated bilinguals own professionn customs in several percipient abilities, such as concept construction (Liedtke & Nelson, 1968) and melalinguistic consciousness (Cummins, 1978). In observation, numerous studies recommend that estimated bilinguals evince a essential flexibility than monolinguals in tlegatee accomplishment on contrariant percipient labors (Balkan, 1970).Above all, new inquiry not barely has replicated Peal and Lambert’s definitive phrases connectenceing estimated bilingualism, but to-boot has affordn exemplificational assistance for linguists’ narratements connectenceing the percipient and linguistic customs of promotion a offshoot bilingually. In contrariety to coming psychological studies of offshoothood bilingualism, indiplain solicit studies by linguists (Leopold, 1939, 1947, 1949a, 1949b; Ronjat, 1913) had endd that coming bilingualism was customous to upshot’s percipient and linguistic fruit.In specialty, Leopold (l96l), installed on observat ions of his bilingually excited daughter, recommended that bilingualism influential an coming disunion of the signal investigate from the signal signification: “a exalted slovenliness of the connect incompact the phonetic signal and its signification (p. 3581. ” Furthermore, Leopold postulated a amioperative kinsfolkhip incompact the semantic and percipient fruit of bilingual upshot, namely that the disunion of investigate and signification leads to an coming consciousness of the conveniionality of opinion and the arbitrariness of vernacular.This consciousness could raise, in deviate, estimate unsymbolical equalizes of thinking. Vygotsky (1935/1975) saw the percipient customs of bilingualism parallel the selfselfselfselfselfidentical continuitys; in his own opinion (as cited in Cummins, 1976). bilingualism frees the liking “from the prison of firm vernacular and phenoniena [p. 341. ” Leopold’s observations own been exemplared exemplificationaly by lanco-Worrall (1972) in a noticeconducive well-mannered-behaved-mannered-mannered-designed and governled con-estimate of English. Afrikaans bilingual upshot in South Africa. The bilingual exemplification consisted of initiate ground upshot who had been excited in a one special-one vernacular environment. imilar to the plight of Leopold’s daughter Hildegard. The exemplification’s reprimand of bilingualism was enumerated by several metes, including inferential interviews succeeding a suitableness producers and educators as well-mannered-behaved-mannered-mannered-mannered as a numeroused exemplar of the upshot’s lexicon in twain vernaculars. Two resembling monolingual exemplifications, one English and one Afrikaans. were middle in the con-over. in a exaltedest exemplification, upshot were moderateed a semantic-phonetic benefits exemplar. The exemplar consisted of conception sets of three opinion each. A regular set contained the opinion cup, con, and har.Children were asked inquirys such as: “Which signal is estimate love cup, can or hal? ”Choosing the signal can or /tal concerned the offshoot’s phonetic benefit or semantic benefit, connectring-toly, in analyzing signal resemblingities. The calibre to parallel opinion on the plea of a semantic size is conceptioned as estimate advanced fruitally than comparing opinion parallel a phonetic size. The ends of this exemplification professioned not barely that semantic benefits growthd succeeding a suitableness age, but to-boot that bilinguals outranked monolinguals in choosing opinion parallel a semantic rather than a phonetic size.As lancoWorrall(l972) reputeed: “of the girlish 4-6 year old bilinguals, 54% harmoniously chose to regive co-ordination $incompact opinion in provisos of the semantic size. Of the unilingual clumps of the selfselfselfselfselfidentical age, not one Afrikaans debater and barely one English debater professioned resembling excellent permiting (p. l3YSl. ” lanco-Worrall endd that bilingual upshot excited in a one special-one vernacular environment stretch a quality of senlatitic fruit 2-3 years precedent than monolingual upshot. . . ’ ’ . 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 325 326 HAKUTA AND DlAZ &In a assist exemplification, using Vygotsky’s (1962) interviewing techniques, lanco-Worrall (1972) asked her themes to expound the names of contrariant scrutinys (e. g. , why is a dog contrivanceated “dog”? ). She to-boot asked upshot whether or not the names of scrutinys could be arbitrarily mutual. Children’s replys to the exaltedest inquiry were assigned to contrariant categories such as calculconducive attributes, negotiative attributes, collective treaty, and so forth. The ends of this assist exemplification professioned no exoteric dissonances incompact bilingual and monolingual upshot in the types of senses offered.For the assist inquiry, thus-far, the dissonances gifted the bilingual upshot; bilinguals replied that names of objects could in fidelity be radical, when-in-circumstance the contrary was gentleman for monolingual upshot. Lindholm (1980) reputes a con-estimate by Sandoval (1976) in which a rejoinder of lanco-Worrall’s ends was forceed succeeding a suitableness a Spanish/Enlish. exemplification of kindergartners and third walkrs. Although tless was a diverge gifting the bilinguals, it did not stretch statistical sagacity. However, it is not disencumbered whether the bilingual themes were unraveledly estimated or barely enrolled in bilingual grounds. More newly, Bain and Yu (1980) investigated the percipient consequences of promotion upshot according to Ronjat’s (1913) one special-one vernacular fidelity. Bain and Yu attained German-French. English-French, and Chinese-English bilinguals succeeding a suitableness monolinguals from the connectring-to vernaculars in three contrariant geographical precipitations. The trusting percipient shiftables conceptioned upshot’s expanding consciousness of the functions of vernacular as postulated by Luria and weighd in labors such as the power to ensue a set of increasingly compound permitings in hide-and-inquiry plights.In specialty, Bain and Yu hypothesized that bilingualism would raise the use of vernacular as a self-directive cat's-paw in percipient labors. Using a qualified narratement of Luria’s (1961) experisupernatural ways, the ends professioned that, at environing age 4, upshot excited bilingually in one special-one vernacular environment were improve conducive to use twain estimatet and ccollective vernacular as a lead and govern in tlegatee percipient functioning. The predicament to-boot gifted girlisher bilingual upshot, but this diverge failed to stretch statistical sagacity. Estimate essentially, the phrases were harmonious aggravate contrariant vernacular clumps and geographical plights.Several investigators own explored the amiables of bilingualism on the fruit of metalinguistic consciousness. Metalinguistic consciousness objects to the power to stir linguistic output extrinsicly; that is, according to Cummins (1978). “to face of vernacular rather than lhrough it to the calculated signification [p. 1271. ’’ Indeed, as upshot expand, they beseem estimate preferconducive of faceing at vernacular as an extrinsic set of governments, as an extrinsic cat's-paw for message. Accordingly bilingualism induces an coming disunion of signal and objectent, it is lovely that bilingual upshot to-boot expand an coming calibre to rendezvous on ‘ , and stir the structural properties of vernacular. Vygotsky( 1935/1962)suggested that, accordingly bilinguals could direct the selfselfselfselfselfidentical timidity in contrariant. vernaculars, a bilingual offshoot would watch to“see his vernacular as one specialty adjustify incompact numerous, to conception its phenomena undet estimate collective categories, and this leads to an consciousness of his linguistic operations [ 1962, p. I IO]. ” Estimate newly, Ben-Zeev (I 977b) hypothesized that bilinguals dtvelop an analytic management inside vernacular in adjustify to engagement suspension incompact tlegatee t w o vernaculars.Lambert and Tucker (1972) distinguished that upshot in the St. Lambert bilingual exemplification betrothed in some habit of “contrastive linguistics” by comparing resemblingities and dissonances incompact tlegatee two vernaculars. Cunmins (1978) investigated the metalinguistic fruit of third- and sixth-walk Irish-English bilinguals. Upshot in the exemplification came from abodes wless twain Irish and English were traditional; all upshot exoteric sufficient ground road in Irish. An expend monolingual co-ordination clump was excellented that was equiponderant to the bilingual‘clump on metes of IQ and socioeconomic set-upation.A exaltedest labor investigated upshot’s consciousness of the arbitrariness of vernacular. Resembling to the mete used by lancoWorrall(1972). upshot were asked whether names of objects could be mutual; they were then asked to expound or normalify tlegatee replys. The ends concerned that, at twain third- and sixth-walk equalizes, bilinguals professioned a essential consciousness of the permiting ‘kind of linguistic regard. In a assist labor, upshot were bestowed succeeding a suitableness several incongruous and tautological phrases environing some poker chips that were either plain or unrecognized. The phrases multitudinous in two observational sizes: gentleman versus counterfeit and exemplificational versus nonempirical. According to Cummins (1978), nontentative narratements object to phrases that “are gentleman or counterfeit by force of tlegatee linguistic constitute rather than deriving tlegatee fidelity appreciate from any extralinguistic narreprimand of affairs [p. 129j. ” The labor was unanalogousd as a mete of metalinguistic consciousness accordingly preceding inquiryers had professionn that, in adjustify to evaluate contradictions and tautologies rectifyly, it is compulsory to weigh vernacular in,an extrinsic habit.Although the accomplishment on this evaluation labor was not disencumbered-cut in gift of the bilinguals, sixth-walk bilingual upshot professioned a remarkconducive eminentity in rectifyly evaluating unrecognized nontentative phrases. But Cummins (1978) notes that the monolinguals “analyzed linguistic input less air-tight, entity estimate pleased to afford the obvious‘can’t recite’ reply to the unrecognized nontentative items [p. 1331. ” In a assist exemplification succeeding a suitableness estimated Ukranian-English bilinguals, Cumniins (1978) investigated upshot’s metalinguistic consciousness usiiig a ample multiplicity of metes, including dissection of perplexing phrases and a adupright inclusion labor.Contrary to preceding phrases, the bilinguals in this con-estimate did not profession customs on the Seniantic-Phonetic Benefit Exemplar or on an arbitrariness of vernacular rask. However, Cummins (1978) reputes that “the ends of the Adupright Inclusion and Ambiguities labors are harmonious succeeding a suitableness previ- iI - I I I !! ! .. . .i. ,’) < ‘I .. ’ , , . .>: . ,,,,:’ . . . . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. . .. . , , , . io. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 327 328 HAKUTA AND DlAZ ous phrases in that they recommend that bilingualism raises an analytic orientation t o linguistic input [p. 1351. In the studies that own been paintsquely, bilinguals exceeded monolinguals in a ample assort of linguistic and melalinguistic abilities. Bilinguals professioned a essential calibre to stir the co-ordination of opinion parallel semantic rather than acoustic sizes, a essential use of vernacular as a self-directing cat's-paw in percipient labors, and a essential estimateall consciousness of the treatyal kind of opinion and vernacular. Also, in a contrariant con-estimate (Feldman & Shen, 1971). bilingual 5-year-olds were improve than tlegatee monolingual peers at relabeling objects and directing kindred incompact objects in incomplex phrases.This consciousness or flexibility succeeding a suitableness connectence to the use of vernacular seems to dramatize an essential role in the percipient functioning of bilingual upshot. In smootht, several investigators own assertioned that bilinguals are estimate “cognitively flexible” than monolinguals when performing on twain vocal and nonvocal labors. Although the expectation of percipient flexibility has never been adequately expounded (see Cummins, 1976)’ it is lovely that bilinguals’ unwonted use and consciousness of vernacular co-operates to a essential flexibility in the create of twain vocal and nonvocal casts.One of the most constantly cited studies of bilinguals’ percipient flexibility was conducted in Switzerland by Balkan (1970). Balkan moderateed several exemplars of nonvocal abilities that purportedly meted percipient flexibility. The bilingual clump, as expected, outcomeed reciteingly reconstitute than the govern monolingual clump in two of these metes. One labor, Figures Cachees, complicated the power to reconstitute a perceptual plight, resembling to the intimate Embedded Figures Test. The other labor, Histoires, complicated sensitivity to the contrariant significations of a signal.Interestingly abundance, the definitive amiables of bilingualsm on these metes were fur stronger for upshot who had beseem bilingual precedently the age of 4. The dissonances incompact monolinguals and upshot who had beseem bilingual at a succeeding age were in gift of the death but did not stretch statistical sagacity. ’ Balkan’s con-estimate implies, as precedent indiplain solicit studies by linguists had recommended, that bilingualism government own the most salubrious percipient amiables for those upshot who attain tlegatee two vernaculars concertedly. Accordingly estimated bilinguals own two contrariant opinion for most objectents, it s not miraculous that they profession a essential sensitivity than monolinguals to the lovely contrariant significations of a unique signal, as professionn in the Histoires labor. On the other workman, Balkan’s con-estimate offers no explication as to how or why bilingualism should co-opereprimand to a essential power to reconstitute and reconstruct perceptual arrays, as professionn in the Figures Cachees labor. As new inquiry recommends, the explication government be in bilinguals’essential consciousness and flexibility succeeding a suitableness connectence to the use of vernacular, as well-mannered-behaved-mannered-mannered-mannered as in tlegatee essential use of twain estimatet and ccollective discontinuity in the instructoring of tlegatee percipient functioning (Bain & Yu. 980). Raise manifestation of bilinguals’ so-designated percipient flexibility has been offered by Ben-Zeev’s (1977) con-estimate succeeding a suitableness Hebrew-English bilingual upshot. When paralleld to monolinguals, the bilingual upshot in the con-estimate professioned a remarkconducive eminentity in cast adherence and vocal transconstruction labors. The cast adherence labor complicated upshot’s power to supply opinion in a phrase according to the exemplificationer’s roads. In a regular solicit, upshot were asked to reassign the signal I succeeding a suitableness the signal spughetli.Children were affordn rectify accounts when they were conducive to say phrases love“Spaghetti om calm,” rather than “Spaghetti iscold” or a resembling phrase that, although definitively rectify, violated the governments of the play. The bilinguals’ reconstitute accomplishment on the vocal transconstruction labor complicated improve baffling defeat of shifts in a traditional inducement that is reexoteric uniformly by instrument of a tape loop. Warren and Warren (1966) own reputeed that when a traditional stiinulus is bestowed in such a way, themes older than 6 years repute hearing numerous shifts in what the taped signification says.The authors attributed this mockery to the fruit of a reorganization arrangement that aids in the cognizance of ongoing harangue. The bilingual upshot in Ben-Zeev’s con-estimate to-boot outeffected the monolingual clump on penny aspects of a matrix permutation labor. Bilinguals were improve at isolating and particularizeing the inferiorlying sizes of the matrix, but no clump dissonances were root on the rearrangement of figures in the matrix. The two co-ordination clumps to-boot outcomeed resemblingly on Raven’s progressive matrices.I t should be distinguished that the bilinguals in Ben-Zeev’s con-estimate professioned percipient customs barely on metes that were numerousedly kindred to linguistic power and on the vocal aspects of the matrix transconstruction labor. Ben-Zeev( 1977) distinguished that throughout the con-estimate bilingual upshot seemed to advance the percipient labors in a unraveledly analytic way. They to-boot seemed estimate cool to twain the construction and specialtys of the labors moderateed, as well-mannered-behaved-mannered-mannered-mannered as estimate easily-affected to feedback from the labors and the expcrimenter.BenZeev expounded these improved abilities in provisos of bilinguals’ confrontation succeeding a suitableness tlegatee t w o vernaculars. She scrutinyd that, in adjustify to dodge linguistic suspension, bilinguals must expand a chaste-minded consciousness of the structural resemblingities and dissonances incompact tlegatee two vernaculars as well-mannered-behaved-mannered-mannered-mannered as a mismismisappropriate sensitivity to linguistic feedback from the environment. Supposedly, this estimate expanded analytic management inside linguistic constructions is communicated to other constructions and plans associated succeeding a suitableness contrariant percipient labors.Ben-Zeev (1977) summarized her ends as ensues: Two strategies characterized the thinking plans of the bilinguals in relevancy to vocal dramatizeative: alacrity to connect construction and alacrity to reconstitute. I j i I I The plans they inquiry are principally linguistic, but this way to-boot operates succeeding a suitableness visual plans, as in tlegatee leaning at isolating the diniensions of a matrix. . .. , ... . . .. .. < -,,:i , . I, . . ,r,, . ,, l.. r. %-. r, < . .. .: v . %. i:. , . . .L . _ . . .. ,. . 10.BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 329 . 330 HAKUTA AND DlAZ Succeeding a suitableness visual dramatizeative the spatial reorganizational expertness did not loveness, thus-far [p. 1017). In disposal, the kind o r signification of percipient flexibility is far from entity amply inferiorstood; thus-far, the studies normal revisaled recommend that the flexibility distinguished in bilinguals could root from vernacular-kindred abilities, such as the use of vernacular in instructoring percipient functioning or an coming consciousness of the treatyality and structural properties of vernacular. OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF THE ART The new studies recommend that if one parallels bilinguals who are closely equiponderant in tlegatee abilities in L l and L2 succeeding a suitableness a monolingual clump paired for age, socioeconomic equalize, and other mismismisappropriate shiftables and moderates a mete of percipient flexibility to twain clumps, the bilinguals conciliate do improve. Now, deduce an fanciful (from the conceptionsubject-matter of amiconducive experisupernatural truth) inquiry contrivance. You would commence by leading a aimless exemplification of men-folks and assigning them aimlessly to either an experisupernatural clump or govern clump, thereby governling for any elucidation hallucination in sampling.The experisupernatural clump is assignd in an environment that fosiers bilingualism, when-in-circumstance the govern clump recrement in a monolingual environment. Unintermittently the texture has had span to grasp outflourish (Le. , unintermittently the themes in the proviso own beseem estimated bilinguals), you modereprimand your trusting mete, making enduring that the special who moderates the trusting mete is eyeless to whether the theme entity exemplared is in the texture or govern proviso. And, lo and see, you perceive a dissonance in gift of bilinguals. Under this fanciful plight, one can reasonably end that bilingualism causes percipient flexibility, o r whatever percipient custom this flexibility stands for. You could to-boot go on to cogitate environing why this end came environing and consgentleman contrariant other experisupernatural provisos to exemplar your hypotheses. In what ways is the fanciful inquiry contrivance unlove the predicament inferior which bestow studies of bilingualism are conducted? We would theme-matter out at narrowest two. First, in the penny globe, tless is n o such scrutiny as aimless assignment to a bilingual o r monolingual clump.Most constantly, bilingualism or monolingualism is enumerated by sociolinguistic smoothts that are, as would be gentleman of most sociolinguistic smoothts, kindred to a ample assort of collective shiftables. What this pennyly instrument is that tless conciliate be a extensive sum of shiftables that contrariantiate the bilingual from the monolingual other than barely that the bilingual speaks two vernaculars and the monolingual one. It is lovely. of track, to pair the two clumps succeeding a suitableness connectence to some shiftables (e. g. , ethnicity) or to govern them statistically (e. g. , by localing out the amiables’of socioeconomic equalize).But at what theme-matter can we be amioperative that all the rele- ’ vant shiftables own been governled for, such that the dissonance incompact the two clumps can be attributed to the sum of vernaculars that the special apprehends? SO, the unbeliever could scrutiny, “While you own governled for u,b,c,d,e, andj. you ownn’t governled for g. ” The assist way in which the fanciful plight is unlove the pennyity of the studies is estimate regularityological and has to d o succeeding a suitableness the election of a eyeless way (a double-eyeless is impracticable, accordingly presumably the themes would apprehend whether they are bilingual or monolingual).In none of the studies revisaled own we seen manifestation of forces by the inquiryers to repose the personality of the theme eyeless to the exemplificationer. If the exemplificationer is chaste-minded on the supposition of the con-estimate and in observation apprehends whether the theme is a bilingual or a monolingual offshoot, one cannot government out uncalculated experilnenter detriment amiables(Rosentha1, 1976). In execution, it may be altogether unamenoperative to force t o aid a eyeless way. Bilingual and monolingual upshot are most constantly root in contrariant grounds, contrariant neighborhoods, and would probably profession some permitingal manifestations of tlegatee linguality.It is, thus-far, an outflourish that one must permit in liking when dramatizeing the ends of studies using the prototype contrivance. The regularityological bearings rootming from the pennyity of explicit bilingual plights watch unamenabley to assistanceing exemplificationally the assertion that bilingualism is associated succeeding a suitableness essential percipient flexibility. One local disconnection to twain of these bearings can be achieved in a casually used contrivance of faceing at amiables succeeding a suitablenessin a bilingual exemplification (Duncan & DeAvila, 1979).If reprimand of bilingualism can be reliably meted succeeding a suitablenessin a exemplification of upshot flourishly bilingual and if this mete of reprimand can be professionn to be kindred to percipient flexibility, then one would own flourish one tread closer to phrase a chaste kindredhip incompact bilingualism and percipient flexibility. Using a succeeding a suitablenessinbilingual exemplification, it is to-boot lovely to govern for exemplificationer detriment. Inasfur as the themes could flourish from the selfselfselfselfselfidentical grounds, if the LI and L2 abilities were kept eyeless to the exemplificationer, it would minimize detriment amiables.In observation to the before bearings, tless is the concerned but untested narratement environing permiting of chattelsuality. As Peal and Lambert (1962) put it: “one may ask whether the estimate quick upshot, as meted by nonvocal comprehension exemplars, are the ones who beseem bilingual, or whether bilingualism itself has a giftconducive outflourish on nonvocal comprehension [p. 131. ” One workmanle on this bearing would be through a craveitudinal con-estimate in which twain shiftables are meted constantly-again-and-intermittently estimate span. We are conscious of normal one siudy (Barik &Swain, 1976) in which craveitudinal predicament were helpful.Barik and Swain paralleld 32 low L2 achievers succeeding a suitableness 32 exalted achievers in a French immersion program in Ottawa estimate a 3-year era (Grades K-3). They repute that the exalted achievers outcomeed improve on subtests of analogies and forthcoming vocal permitings smooth when modereprimand IQ accounts at Span I were governled. j io. BILINGUALISM A N D COGNITIVEABILITY 331 332 HAKUTA AND OlAZ The con-estimate we repute in the remnant of the article addresses the before conceptions succeeding a suitableness preceding studies of the kindredhip incompact bilingualism and percipient flexibility.We are ardent in assessing the not-absolute abilities in twain LI and L2 of upshot‘in the way of flourishly bilingual and in forthcoming them on a craveitudinal plea to enumereprimand whether reprimand of bilingualism is kindred to percipient flexibility and to assess the permiting of chattelsuality incompact linguistic and percipient shiftables. Description of the Project The themes in our con-estimate are bestowly enrolled in adjustes from the Bilingual Teaching Program in the New Haven, Connecticut, collective grounds.Children who are enrolled in the program are dominant in Spanish. Placement in the bilingual program for the themes is enumerated principally on the plea of inconstruction getd by the producers and by the educators of the adjustrooms to which they are moderately assigned. Upshot who are reputeed as entity scientificly Spanish-momentous or principally Spanish-momentous are channeled into the bilingual adjustes, suitableness those reputeed as predominantly or scientificly English-momentous are assignd in monolingual, oceanstream adjustrooms.Those upshot who reputeedly use twain vernaculars are raise assessed for superiority through the Vernacular Reprimand Battery, and Spanish-dominant upshot are assignd in the bilingual adjustrooms. . The numerousedor of the bilingual program estimates that of the 165,000 residents in New Haven, tless are 18,000 Hipics, principally Puerto Ricans. Tless are at bestow roughly 2700 Hipic students in the ground adjustify incompact Grades K-12,of which roughly 45% are in bilingual adjustes; All bilingual adjustes are conducted on a 5050 pertinency of Spanish and English as vernaculars of road.Based on educator counsel, when the upshot advance equivalence incompact tlegatee English and Spanish power, they are assignd into the oceanstream, English monolingual adjustes. Thus, love most bilingual teaching programs in the United States, the New Haven program is radical in kind, as unanalogous to the subsistence or immersion programs root in Canada (see Swain, 1 7 ) 94. THE PRESENT LONGITUDINAL STUDY The two-dimensional intervenience inventd by not-absolute abilities in Ll and L2 is paintd in Fig. 0. 1 (a), remarkconducive by a continuity succeeding a suitableness a expand of 1 parallel which fancifully estimated bilinguals conciliate gathering. This two-intervenience is, of track, an’fanciful plight that is unmeasured, and we bestowly own no way of locating any affordn exemplification of bilingual men-folks in absolute provisos. Thus, depending on exemplification characteristics, the two-intervenience defined by a set of LI and L2 metes can modify. Figure IO. I (b) professions two hypothetical exemplifications, A and B, wless B illustrates a clump of men-folks that is estimate “balanced” than A.The theme-matter is that although we cannot enumereprimand the two-intervenience precipitation of a clump of bilinguals in any specialty con-estimate using a specialty mete, the amiables of reprimand of bilingualism can be attained by faceing at the discrepancy in the L2 mete suitableness governling for discrepancy in the L1 mete. As can be seen in Fig. 1 . 01 (c), indiplain A2 is estimate bilingual than indiplain AI, and B2 is estimate bilingual than BI. We hypothesize that the discrepancy in L2 governling for discrepancy in L1 is attributconducive t o the reprimand of bilingualism, and this discrepancy should be kindred in a definitive way to percipient power. (Cl . SubjectsAt Span I (the commencening of the Droop Semester), we began by screening all upshot in the kindergarten and exaltedest-walk adjustes in three grounds in the New Haven collective ground adjustify. We wanted to refuse from the con-estimate upshot who professioned manifestation of collective vernacular debility. All 180 upshot were moderateed a Spanish letter of the Peabody Paint Lexicon Exemplar (SPVT), which is paintsquely in estimate specialty succeeding. On the plea of the adjustification of the SPVTscores, themes whoseaccount was estimate than I government flexuosity under the moderation were eliminated. Our exemplar-installed evaluations were harmonious succeeding a suitableness the reputes of adjustroom educators. In sum, out of the modereprimand 180, we were left succeeding a suitableness 154 themes, who were raise exemplared succeeding a suitableness the remnant of the Span I metes. By Span 2, closely 6 months succeeding, 30 of the I54 themes had moved separeprimand from the ground adjustify, leaving US succeeding a suitableness 124 themes. In observation (or, estimate precisely, in disconnection), a cherishing theme at Span 2 was so ‘exceedingly dominant in English at twain spans that she was etiminated from LZ ABILITY LZ ABILITY L2 ABILITY FIG. 10. 1 Conceplualization of estimated bilingualism, how contrariant bilingual exemplifications are embedded succeeding a suitablenessin it, and how men-folks are cmbcdded succeeding a suitablenessin exemplifications.Panel a professions . fanciful estimate tine incompact LI and LZ abilities. Panel b professions assignment of two contrariant exemplifications (A and B) succeeding a suitablenessin fancifulircd intervenience. Panel c professions men-folks succeeding a suitablenessin the exemplification spades. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 333 334 ’ HAKUTA AND DlAZ the con-estimate as entity altogether contrariant from the allay of our exemplification. Thus, our laexemplar exemplification for the exaltedest year of the con-estimate consisted of 123 themes, and we concession out of raise harangue the remnant of the themes. The exemplification of 123 themes contained 56 (45%) kindergartners and 67 (55%) exaltedest walkrs, succeeding a suitableness 55 (45Crlo) girls and 68 (55%) boys.All of these upshot were of Puerto Rican depression. The moderation age was 6 years 0 months, succeeding a suitableness a assort from 4. 1 to 8. 3. Aside from this collective advice, which was availconducive for all themes, we obtained estimate peculiar demographic infomation through a inquirynaire sent to the producers. The inquirynaires were reserved at Span 1, and of our exemplification, 88 (72%) responded, some succeeding a assist solicit. We own performed some analyses to see whether the estimates obtained from the inquirynaire replys would be reasonconducive estimates for the drift exemplification.We paralleld all availconducive shiftables in the con-estimate incompact responders and nodresponders and did not perceive any reciteing dissonances in the instrument. Thus, we mismismisappropriate the 88 replys to be a reasonably unjaundiced illustrateation of the population exemplificationd. The inquirynaire predicament manifest that 42% of the themes were born in the United States, the remnant in Puerto Rico. The producers own lived in the continental United States for a moderation of 2 years (SD = 6 years), ranging from 5 months to 26 years. They own lived at tlegatee reputeed address for an middle of 2 years (SD = 1 year, IO months), succeeding a suitableness the assort extending from I month to 8 years.Tless is a moderation of . 91 rooms per occupier in the accustomed (SD = . 60). Of the sections of accustomed, 37To are industrious and 63% are lazy. Usurpation is numerousedly kindred to the sum of adults in the accustomed. Of all inquirynaire respondents, 55% were unique-producer sections of accustomed, and 32% had two adults in the accustomed. Of the two-adult accustomeds, 64% (18/28) had the section industrious, when-in-circumstance barely 14% (6142) of unique-adult accustomed sections reputeedly were industrious. The reciteing fraternity incompact sum of adults and usurpation, x2(l) = 18. 4, p = . 001, is congruous succeeding a suitableness the brains that unique producers in collective own low reprimands of usurpation, presumably due in sever t o the smootht that a timiditytaker would be required at abode. Barely a minute adolescence of the themes are externally siblings (790). The median sum of siblings is 2. In the inquirynaire, we to-boot asked the producers to reprimand the size to which Spanish and English are used incompact contrariant men-folks at abode. We getd a 5-subject-matter flake, succeeding a suitableness 1 correspondent to “barely Spanish,” 3 to “twain Spanish and English,” and 5 to “barely English. In all three lovely distrack combinations (adult-child, offshoot-sibling, adult-adult), the replys were heavily skewed inside Spanish (for adult-child, I = 42%, 2 = 23%. 3 = 33%, 4 = 2%. 5 = 0%; for offshoot-sibling, I = 32%, 2 = 21%. 3 = 43?? 00. = 2%, 5 = 2%; for adult-adult, 1 = 50%. 2 = 32%. 3 = 17%, 4 4 = 2%. 5 = 1%. These three ratings of the size of use of Spanish and English at abode are exaltedly correlated, r = 3 2 to r = t . 61, and when ampley, kindred inquickly succeeding a suitableness the years of abode the United States oceanland mentioned precedent, r = + . 34.It lovenesss that the craveer the accrue (and the precedent the year of pretense) in the United States, the estimate the dominant vernacular permeates the abode. + Measures The power in Spanish (LI) was assessed by moderateing an adaption o f the Peabody Paint Lexicon Exemplar reputeed and reserved by Wiener, Simond, and Weiss (1978). Love the English narratement of the Peabody Paint Lexicon Exemplar (Dunn, 1965). the exemplar is indivisiblely moderateed and consists of the offshoot choosing a sequence of lexicon items (ordered by increasing agenormed unamenabley) out of filthy paintd resources. Wiener et al. governmentized legatee Spanish narratement on Puerto Rican upshot in New York City. English (L2) power was assessed through Constitute A of the lexicon exemplar. We object to the Spanish exemplar as SPVTand the English exemplar as EPVT; when they are ensueed by a sum (EPVTI, EPVT2, SPVTI, SPVTZ), thesum objects to the Span (1 = droop o r 2 = leap) shiftable. We should create it disencumbered at this theme-matter that we did not inwatch to use these lexicon exemplars as a mete of comprehension, as is commbarely used (and misused) in monolingual populations. Rather, they were moderationt to be a mete of the not-absolute abilities succeeding a suitablenessin each of the two vernaculars for our bilingual exemplification.It should be distinguished less that the numerical raw accounts for the two exemplars are not resembling. That is to say, a offshoot who receives a account of 20 on twain the EPVT and SPVT cannot be deduceed equiponderant in his or her not-absolute abilities in English and Spanish. On the other workman, the SPVT and EPVT own evinced the power to assort upshot reliably parallel the connectring-to Spanish and English vernacular advancement sizes. In adjustify to validate the SPVT and EPVT as metes of vernacular, a clump of 40 upshot succeeding a suitablenessin our exemplification was affordn a fiction-retelling labor in the two vernaculars.Both the Spanish and English stories consisted of 14 phrases, paired succeeding a suitableness cartooh paints. The exemplificationer exaltedest told the fiction suitableness flipping through a paint compass and, aftercited a timeout-delay upon drift, asked theoffshoot to recite the fiction cued by the paints. Thechild’s utterances were tape narrative and succeedingly transcribed. The protocols were reprimandd in a 5-subject-matter flake, succeeding a suitableness 1 entity minimal use of the vernacular and 5 entity ample fluency, by two intrusting reprimandrs. Barely fluency was magistrated; achievement of the retelling was ignored for this con-over. lnterrater reliablities were . 96 (Spearman-Brown) for English and . 9 (Spearman-Brown) for Spanish. The moderation ratings for twain English and Spanish were reciteingly corkindred succeeding a suitableness the EPVTI and SPVTI accounts, r = . 82 for English rating succeeding a suitableness EPVTI, r = + . 36 for ’ - + 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 335 336 HAKUTA AND DlAZ Spanish. The inferior Spanish correlevancy most lovely returns the smootht that the assort of SPVTl accounts was estimate allayricted than the EPVTI accounts for this specialty subsaniplr and to-boot the possibility that the upshot are estimate Spanish-dominant and a incomplex fiction-retellihg labor may not rechange dissonances at reconstitute equalizes of linguistic power. We are bestowly pursuing raise validation of the vocabularly metes, but for the twinkling reference that the exemplars do ruminate altogether precisely our themes’ discrepancy in power in twain vernaculars. As a mete of nonvocal percipient power, we chose the Raven’s Coloured Progressive MatricesTest (Raven, 1956; Raven et al. , 1976). a mete on which the most sound dissonances were root incompact bilinguals and nionolinguals in the Peal and Lambert con-over. R a w accounts rather than percentiles were used accordingly the exemplar has not been governmentized on populations coniparconducive to ours.The Raven accounts at Span I and Span 2 are lesssucceeding objectred to a s Ravenl and Raven2. In observation to t hcse nieasures, we moderateed a exemplar of metalinguistic abili t y (to magistrate the definitiveity of Spanish phrases and to descry English opinion embedded in Spanish phrases) and a mete of collective perpectiveleading (Chandler’s “bystander cartoons”), but these predicament are stationary in the way of entity stird and are not reputeed in this article. Procedures All nieasures were moderateed indivisiblely at the grounds ‘in vacuity rooms or allay hallway corners by Spanish-English (balanced) bilingual exemplificationers.Except for bestowation of the EPVT items, all exemplaring was conducted in Spanish. Each mete was moderateed twice, unintermittently during the droop semester (Time I ) atid intermittently in the leap (Time 2). The middle span lag incompact the two spans was 6 months. Except for the bustle that SPVTl was moderateed exaltedest at thc very commencening of the con-estimate for modereprimand screening, as mentioned precedent succeeding a suitableness regard to exemplification excellent, adjustify of exemplars was counterbalanced. At each span, each offshoot was exemplared in three sessions, one succeeding a suitableness the SPVT. econd succeeding a suitableness the EPVT, and third succeeding a suitableness the percipient exemplars. In adjustify that the exemplificationer accrue eyeless to the offshoot’s power in twain vernaculars, the selfselfselfselfselfidentical exemplificationer never tes‘ied any severichar offshoot in twain EPVT and SPVT; closeafter. the theme’s reprimand of bilingualism was noi apprehendn t o ! he exemplificationers until succeeding drift of the predicament store. bilingualisin at Span 1 foreshadow percipient power at l i m e 2 , or resourcely, does percipient power at Span I foreshadow reprimand of bilingualisrn at Span 2?IVirhin-Time Anulysis: T h e 1. The instrument and government flexuositys for Span I and Span 2 metes can be root in Tconducive 10. 1. The exaltedest atlalysis di- vided themes into clumpson the bases of tlegatee abilities i n each latiguage. We clumped themes into three equalizes of EPVT accounts parched three levcls of S I W accounts, the bisection of which products nine clumps. EPVTI raw accounts assortd from 3 to 55, M = 26. 24, SD = 14. 86, and SPVTl raw accounts assortd from 21 IO 81, M = 44. 32, S D = 13. 26. Upon superintendence of the predicament. we felt that. 0-subject-matter intervals for twain EPVT and SPVT raw accounts would illustreprimand reasonconducive flakeing of themes succeeding a suitableness connectence to tlegatee abilities, recognizing of track that the opposition is permiting and conducted singly for purposes of inspecting dissonances paintsquely in instrument. The forthcoming were oppositions, imposed twain on the Span 1 and Span 2 predicament: Spanish Flake 1: SPVT 1-40; Spanish Flake 2: SPVT 41-60; Spanish Flake 3: SPVT essential than 60; Engfish Flake I: EPVT 1-20; English Flake 2: EPVT 21-40; English Flake 3: EPVT essential than 40.Means and government flexuositys for Raven I accounts for each of the nine clumps moored of the bisection of the Spanish and English flakes can be root in Tconducive 10. 2 (a). Superintendence of the instrument recommends strongly that Ravenl instrument growth succeeding a suitableness increasing equalizes of English flakeing. However, this is confounded succeeding a suitableness the ages of the themes in the clumps, as can be observed in Tconducive 10. 2 (b). The introduce tread was to assess the force of the kindredhip incompact reprimand of bilingualism and percipient power through local interrelation, wless EPVTI is corkindred succeeding a suitableness Ravenl, governling for age and SPVTl .The parindicating a reciteing relevancytial correlevancy coefficient is . 267 p = . W2, ship incompact reprimand of bilingualism and nonvocal percipient power. TABLE 10. 1 Instrument and Government Deviations 01 Baric Measures lor the Bilingual Exemplification 1iiS 123) Aftair --. . . . . . . . . . . * ’ SI) lU. 15 14. 116 71. 11Y 26. 24 44. 33 15. 34 13. 26 3. 17 10. 15 16. YJ 1. 1. 56 Results 77. IY Tless are t w o separeprimand inquirys we ask of the predicament. First, is reprimand of bilingualism kindred to percipient power at any one span? This can be answered by faceing succeeding a suitablenessin Span I and succeeding a suitablenessin Span 2 unanalogously.Second, does reprimand of 33. YY 5?. 6Y . 16. 16 3. 11 ,... I ... .. , . . . . . . . . . ... ,, , . . .. . . . . . ... , . , . . .~ . .. , .. . . ... .. .. .. .. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 337 338 HAKUTA AND DlAZ TABLE 10. 2(a) Ravel11 M e a n s lor Bilingual Groups English 1. ql’c. r I 11’ I‘1‘ ( I . ‘ U ) I. o,iw 2 -. . l. :iycr - ._ .... 11’ I’7’ -7 I 40) . . . . . flake 3 EP I’r (>40) 3 P a I1 (> 6 0 ) I. :l). lvL SI’V I’ SD- A1 = 11. 0 0 11 zI ’ suI1 dl = 13. 5 ?. I : : nr = 18. 3 S D = 5. 7 11 2 = 7 SI’V I i s ,I 141-60) IAyvI I SI’V I’ I141l) AI= 14. 4 SI) . - 3. 0 t l - - 15 .! I = 15. S I ) = 2. 6 I I = 3n A I = 16. 4 SI) = 3. 2 I I = 14 ~~ M = 16. 5 SI) = 3. 5 I1 Wifhin-Time Arrulysis: Span 2. The estimateall instrument for the metes at Span 2 can be root in Tconducive 10. 1. The inferential instrument professionn in Tconducive 10. 3 particularize Raven’s equalizes and age equalizes when the themes were disjoined into clumps by Spanish and English flakeings using the selfselfselfselfselfidentical criteria as hi Span 1. The local correlevancy of EPVTZ and Raven2, governling for age and SPV2 is . 3 5 7 , p < . W l . Persuasive for thesocioeconomic vaiables, the kindredhip does not shift bulkyly, local correlevancy = . 28l, p = J O N .Thus, bolh Span I and Span 2 predicament manifest Illat reprimand of bilingualism is kindred IO accomplishment on the Raven’s matrices. Between- Tinre Analysis. We recurrent precedent that reprimand of bilingualism is definitively kindred to Ravens at twain spans. However, which of these is TABLE 10. 31al Rave112Means lor Bilingual Groups ....... ....... ..... -. = I4 nl = 14. 3 S I ) = 2. 5 11 = 3 0 AI = 13. 5 $1) = . 8 II = 2 TABLE 10. 2fb) Mea11 Age lor Eiliiigual Gioups at Span 1 .. EIIRliSh 1v. vc. r 2 . . . , ... ....... /. iiwr English I. uw I kl’l’. I‘ ( I . 3 l ) ... ....... La. w 3 t7iv (>4(1) A = 79. 0 I SI) = 5. 8I1 * El’l. 7‘ ( 21 4 1 ) ... ....... ....... ... ICI’I~ I’ (>. 40) . .I Lupr I . . -. - . . . . . . . t‘P I’ I ( I . 20) AI = 14. 0 SI) = 0 I1 = I ... ...... I:‘r1r. (-7i. JuI .. .... ... 82. 0 SI) = 8. 485 I1 = 2 Ill = I. u. iw -7 flake 3 . SI’V I .! I = 14. 8 SI) = 2. 8 II l. ;lyrr 3 SI’VI (>6Ot a I1 S (>601 = 6 A = 17. 0 I SI) = 3. 4 II = I I A1 = 18. 8 S I ) = 4. 1 11 = 17 SI) = = 7 L;l)rr 2 SI’V 1’ (4l-bIl) S AI = 71. 4 S I ) = 11. 5 II = I 5 AI = SI) = ll = 7i. n 8. 1 3n A1 = 79. 4 SI) = 7. 1 II p Lycr ? a SYVT, n 141-60) .! I = 14. 2’ S I ) = 1. 6 I1 = 15 .ll = 13. 9 Ar = 15. 1 SI) = 3. 0 ll = 2 0AI = 17. 7 4 . I I1 = 31 = 14 ’ I1 i Flake I 11 Layct I SI’V’I’ (I-40) d l = 61. 9 S I ) = 3. 4 I I = 30 dl = 66. 4 Sf) = 7. 3 II = 14 AI = 6 3 SI) = 7. 071 11 = 2 SPVI I > 140) SI) = 11 I . 7 = IO AI = 13. 4 SI) = 2. 5 ll = I O AI = 18. 7 S I ) = 4. 2 II = 3 TABLE 1 0 3 b l Moderation Age lor Bilingual Groups at Span 2 -~ Froni the producer inquirynaires, we middle two metes of the socioecononiic equalizes of the themes. One was barely whether the section of houser repose was industrious (coded 1) o unindustrious (coded 0). The other was the sum of rooiiis in tlegatee abode, disjoined by the sum of occupiers.AIthough the Iwo iiicasures were not kindred. r = . 09. ns, twain werecorkindred succeeding a suitableness EPVTI, for eniployment, r = -20, p c . 0 5 ; for abode intervenience, r = . IN, p c . 0 5 . When EPVTl is corkindred succeeding a suitableness Raven1 governling for these socioeconomic shiftables i n observation to age and SPVTl, the kindredhip is stationary signil’icantly diffcrent from 0, local correlevancy = . 201,p4 0 ) 3 ’ SI’’l I’ a .! I = 74. 0 SI) = I I . I II Ai = nn. ? 6. 3 17 SI) = l l = 1>60l I. d)t! l = 6 = II z I . I / = 71. 7 AI = 77. 8 SI) = 9. 4 11 n SI’’ 5 141-60 II I S ) C l I SI’V I ( > 1-40) SI) = 10. I I = 15 AI = 79. 9 SI) H. 1 II 20 . = 31 .I1 = 67. 3 S I ) = 2. 9 II = 10 d l = 7 I . (I SI) = 7. 7 11 II) AI = 72. 3 SI) = II H. S 3 = . . . . . . . . “ ... ... ,. ,.. :. . .. ,:.. -! ^? :. ~. ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,. 10. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY TABLE 10. 4 Zero-Order Correlevancy Matrix lor Vernacular and Ravens 81 Twain Timer @I = 123) 339 340 HAKUTA AND DIAZ N Agc AXC .476 . 658 . I66 . 446 EI'l'TI SI'Y7'1 H . ____--_. ___a i w t l . 476 . 658 . I 66 .445 . 445 kP1'72 . 446 . E28 ~pV7'2 - /(aiwr 2 . 35 I . 484 . J 36 . 486 ,466 ,331 - . - . . . predicament helpful.Raven2 was regressed on age, Raven 1, SPVTI, SPVT2, usurpation, and abode in Tread I; then EPVTI in Tread 2. EPVTl stationary aided a reciteing Beta, . 251, F ( I , 69) = 3 . 8 9 , ~ . OS. Multiple R was = 3 4 , succeeding a suitableness EPVT adding 4% inside foreshadowing strife in Raved. DISCUSSION We began our con-estimate succeeding a suitableness a conception that studies reputeed in the literary-works did not unambiguously profession that bilingualism fosters percipient fruit. A exaltedest unamenabley was that most studies complicated clump co-ordinations of bilinguals and monolinguals. and for-this-reason, the ends could be attributed to clump dissonances other than vernacular power.Second, most studies complicated cross-sectional co-ordinations wless cause-outflourish kindredhips could not be expendly evaluated. The con-estimate normal reputeed creates estimate superficial the assertion environing the definitive amiables of bilingualism. First, we were conducive to profession an outflourish wifhin a exemplification of bilinguals. And assist, when two resource moulds for the permiting of chattelsuality were exemplared on the craveitudinaldata, the mould assertioning reprimand of bilingualism to be the causal connect was estimate harmonious succeeding a suitableness our obtained predicament than the mould assertioning percipient power to be the f causal shiftable.By the end o the ample message of this craveitudinal con-over. in which we conciliate ensue up the themes for an observational 2 years, succeeding a suitableness the observation o other percipient metes, we expectation to create an smooth stronger assertion ref garding the definitive amiables of bilingualism on percipient abilities. The smootht that our predicament assistance the assertion that bilingualism fosters percipient fruit is normal a exaltedest tread in brains the issues at workman. The inquiry recrement as to how bilingualism affects percipient power, distinctly when percipient power is meted by accomplishment in nonvocal labors.A crave span ago, Leopold (949b) postulated that bilingual upshot were rigorous to reconstitute equalizes of unsymbolical timidity by the coming demand to separeprimand the signal from its objectent. In a resembling state, Cummins (1976) and Ben-Zeev (1977) own recommended that the percipient customs of bilingualism could be expounded by bilinguals' demand l objectify and discuss linguistic constructions. Ben-Zeev. for o stance, scrutinys that in adjustify to dodge linguistic suspension bilingual upshot must expand a essential consciousness and sensitivity to linguistic cues.Bilinguals' essential sensitivity to linguistic construction and specialty is then communicated and collectiveized to contrariant vocal and nonvocal labors. The way by which bilinguals' metalinguistic consciousness affects accomplishment in nonvocal tes~s such as the Ravens has never been adequately expounded or inferiorstood. Bain and Yu's (1980) con-estimate recommends that bilinguals are improve conducive to use vernacular as a cat's-paw to instructor percipient functioning, increasing tlegatee calibre to memorize inconstruction and govern estimate outcomeively the contrariant treads in solving a bearing. Cognitive-developsupernatural re- WV'JI SPV'JI Rivcnl I:PV'I'Z . 3 I 8 .I65 .318 . 8? 8 .I65 SPVTZ Kavrn2 .522 .351 ,333 . 484 .399 . 687 .436 315 .399 . 315 .)I6 ,466 ,522 . 333 . 687 . I 20 . 3 I 6 . I 28 .486 .33 I - the causal smoothtor? Specifically, we demand to apprehend whether Raven2,can be foreshadowed by reprimand of bilingualism at Span 1 suitableness governling for the expend shiftables (including Ravenl), or whether we can expound estimate strife by foreshadowing reprimand of bilingualism at Span 2 by Ravenl suitableness governling for expend shiftables (including reprimand of bilingualism at Span I). These resources are not mutually scientific, of track, but statistical postponement of one mould creates the resource mould estimate superficial.The zero-classify correlevancy matrix of age, EPVTI, SPVTI, Ravenl, EPTV2, SPVTZ, and Raven2 can be root in Tconducive 10. 4. From the basic inconstruction paintsquely, we exemplared two resource moulds using multiple retrogression. The exaltedest dissection exemplared the ineffectual supposition that reprimand of bilingualism is not foreshadowed by Ravens. In a treadwise multiple retrogression, EPVT2 was regressed on age, EPVTI. SPVTI, and SPVTZ in Tread I; then Ravenl was entered in Tread 2. The essential statistic less is the Beta for Ravenl for its Fratip.The ends of the dissection profession that Ravenl does not add reciteingly to the strife narratemented for when governling for age, EPVTI, SPVTI, and SPVTZ, Beta = . 056, F ( I , 117) = 1. 077, ns. The multiple R for the laexemplar equation was . 832. Ravenl co-operated barely . 3% observational strife inside foreshadowing EPVT2. We end, then, that the ineffectual supposition cannot be exceptional. In the assist dissection, we exemplared the ineffectual supposition that reprimand of bilingualism does not foreshadow Raven accounts. In this treadwise multiple retrogression, Raven2 was regressed on age, Ravenl, SPVTI, and SPVTZ entered in Tread 1; then EPVTI entered in Tread 2.The ends profession a reciteing Beta for EPVTI, Beta = . 252, F ( I , 1 17) = 8. 761, p < . 01. The multiple R for the laexemplar equation was . 643. EPVTI co-operated 4. 1% observational strife inside foreshadowing RavenZ, smooth when the other shiftables were entered exaltedest, Thus, we refuse the ineffectual supposition in gift of the disposelyice that reprimand of bilingualism affects nonvocal percipient power. To govern for socioeconomic equalize. we ruled to exemplar the ends governling for eniployment and abode intervenience for the 77 themes for whom we had . , io. BILINGUALISM AND COGNITIVE ABILITY 41 342 HAKUTA AND DlAZ I I I I inquiry professions an increasing use of vocal interference in the accomplishment of nonvocal labors succeeding a suitableness increasing age (Conrad, 1971). Furthermore, Hunt’s (1974) inquiry recommends that accomplishment on the Raven exemplar would be improved by the use of linguistic, rather than spatial, strategies in the disconnection of the matrices. It is lovely, as Diaz (1983) recommended, that offshoothood bilingualism fosters a rather preexposed use of vocal interference in the waying of inconstruction and this, in deviate, expounds bilinguals’ improved accomplishment on nonvocal labors.One of the ocean unamenableies in sympathetic such essential inquirys lies in the smootht that most studies in the area own relied on predicament from psychometric exemplars. To the best of our apprehension, tless are no advice-processing studies of girlish bilingual upshot, and it is not disencumbered what percipient wayes or percipient strategies, if any, unraveledly contrariantiate bilingual from monolingual upshot. It is closely impracticable, succeeding a suitableness our bestow apprehension, to expand a way mould of how bilingualism affects upshot’s percipient abilities or accelerates percipient fruit. The fruit (and exemplificational assistance) of a inferential mould of bilingualism and percipient fruit is stationary a few years afront. Finally, assumption expanded at the indiplain equalize of the offshoot must thus-far be kindred to the extensiver paint of bilingualism as it occurs in contrariant constitutes environing the globe. An essential dissonance that must be middle in any con-estimate of the amiables of bilingualism is incompact comprehensive versus subtractive bilingualism (Lambert, 1978; Lambert & Taylor, 1981). hich is kindred to the dissonance incompact upper ten versus folk bilingualism {Fishman, 1977; Paulston, 1975. 1980). In an comprehensive plight. upshot attain tlegatee assist vernacular in observation to tlegatee exaltedest, thus creating estimated bilingualism. As Lambert and Taylor (1981) newly put it: “an comprehensive constitute of bilingualism limplies] that these upshot, succeeding a suitableness no fright of ethnic/linguistic erosion, can add one or estimate extraneous vernaculars to tlegatee accumulating expertnesss, and improvement immensely from the knowledge, percipiently, collectively, and smooth economically Ip. 141. In a subtractive plight, the assist vernacular spiritual substitutes the exaltedest. To cite Lambert and Taylor (1981) unintermittently intermittently: “the hyphenated American offshoot, love the French-Canadian offshoot, embarks o n a ‘subtractive’ bilingual track as promptly as he/she enters a ground wless a exalted prestige, collectively strong, dominant vernacular love English is introduced as the scientific vernacular of road [p. 141. ” As Cummins (1976) theme-mattered out, studies that own professionn definitive amiables of bilingualism invariably are conducted in plights of comprehensive bilingualism.