Ant 3514c – introduction to biological anthropology lab 6: primate
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ANT 3514C – Introduction to Biological Anthropology
Lab 6: Primate Dismemberment & Taxonomy
• Evaluate the dental formula of an obscure primate and assign it among a greater clade
• Interpret the disconsonance betwixt gradistic and cladistic courses of directing primates
• Confirm the poor synapomorphies that execute-illustrious the greater primate clades
• Draw a cladogram to interpret the new-fangled, liberally-accepted primate phylogeny
Purpose: To inspect the skeletal lines that execute-illustrious the greater primate clades.
The examine of non-ethnical primates has been formal past oldfashioned occasions as bearing to infer ethnical dismemberment. This was peradventure best formal by a remote parley of scholars for the original occasion in 1735 when Carolus Linnaeus, notwithstanding his hale creationist views, included ethnicals succeeding a opportunity other apes and monkeys in the direct Anthropomorpha. By the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae in 1758 he had audacious this message and began usurpation the direct by the affable designate we now use: Direct Primates. Linnaeus was motivated to direct ethnicals succeeding a opportunity other primates accordingly of the numerous poor alikeities that he seed uniting them. In new-fangled biological messages, we now associate to these constructions as synapomorphies, or ‘shared moderate lines.’ For case, all primates entertain a liberal, mawkish nail on their big toe, which is a construction apart any of the cease claws institute in other mammals. We use synapomorphies affect these to reconstruct exemplars of divided descendants and institute cladograms to improve conceive the exemplar of primate extrication and where ethnicals appertain in it. This course of reconstructing sympathys betwixt taxa installed on divided moderate toneistics is disclosed as cladistics.
While morphology and phylogeny entertain divided a cease sympathy for centuries, the confidence on synapomorphies to direct organisms is proportionately fresh. In the coming 20th generation, primatologists such as Wilfrid Le Gros Clark (illustrious for promotive to debunk the Piltdown Man injury) directed primates installed on their overall consonance in pretense. This course was inapprehensive of Aristotle’s “Great Chain of Being,” succeeding a opportunity quaint primates at the disingenuous and ethnicals at the apex. This way of considering has been individualized gradistic, accordingly it suggests primate extrication pay in a undesigning, alike control for all lines from quaint to moderate. Opportunity this rule has voluntary call-upon, it does not suit succeeding a opportunity the way we consider extrication pay. New-fangled primatologists and anthropologists use cladistic courses installed on a nested hierarchy of synapomorphies, accordingly we love these past accurately mirror how extrication works.
Although phylogenetic trees are built today using cladistic courses, it is free that gradistic considering peaceful subconsciously underlies ample of our advent to reconstructing extrication. You may entertain already noticed that phylogenetic trees that include ethnicals lean to assign them at one distant end of the tree, implying some controlality or end design to extrication, smooth though there is no infer they deficiency to be assignd there! Among the primate direct the change from gradistic to cladistic considering has impacted how we see the sympathys of numerous taxa, most notably the tarsier, which we conquer summon past in State 3. You conquer be laagered to past examples of gradistic considering when looking at the ethnical fossil annals, where numerous elements (such as brain magnitude) are true, and confirming synapomorphies can be chiefly troublesome. For this lab we conquer summon numerous of the influential skeletal synapomorphies that settle the largest primate clades.
Station 1: What settles a primate? (0.6 pt.)
A nursery happened upon a obscurity skull opportunity looking through a mammalian skeletal assemblage. She considers it may be a primate and comes to you for your handy view. She cannot mail you the skull so she emails youaeveral photos. Inspect the photos under. Use the roll of primate elements (institute in the lab balbutiation for this week) to succor you execute the distinctions.
Station 2: Dentition (2 pts.) Different primate clades can be authorized by their dental formulae. Primates entertain 2 incisors, and 2-3 premolars (ate the aye-aye, which has a very rare dentition). Most other mammals entertain either past or fewer teeth. For the forthcoming questions, original individualize the dental formula, then consider the cusp exemplar.
1. Write the dental formula for each of the craniums or mandibles provided:
2. Answer the forthcoming questions using the aloft dental formulae and the written/illustrated materials provided:
a) Which exemplar is not a primate? How do you recognize?
b) Which exemplar is a New World monkey? How do you recognize?
c) Does exemplar “E” entertain the bilophodont or Y-5 molar cusp exemplar? Installed on this cusp morphology and its dental formula, what primate direct does this exemplar appertain to?
d) Which mandible is ethnical? What lines did you use to execute your identification?
e) Which exemplars are apes? How do you recognize? (Hint: you are an ape)
Station 3: Strepsirrhini and Haplorhini (2 pts.)
Using the handouts, images, and websites, perfect the forthcoming consideration illustrating some of the influential morphological dissimilaritys betwixt each primate direct.
Strepsirrhine: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12540/region/skull/bone/cranium http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/loris-malaysia-usnm-84389 http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/loris-malaysia-usnm-84389-0 Haplorrhine: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12538/region/skull/bone/cranium
succeeding a opportunity quaint primates in a grade individualized “Prosimia.” They are now directed succeeding a opportunity monkeys and apes in a
Examine the tarsier skull (http://www.eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12544/region/skull/bone/cranium) and examine the consideration. Tarsiers can be assignd in the prosimian grade or in the haplorhine clade. Designate one quaint, prosimian element that tarsiers hold and one moderate, haplorhine element that they entertain. Add which of these elements is a synapomorphy, and which is a symplesiomorphy.
Prosimian element: Haplorhine element:
2) Does the obscurity skull at this state appertain to a strepsirrhine or a haplorhine primate? List at definite one line which succored you individualize this.
Station 4: Platyrrhini and Catarrhini (1.6 pts.)
The Haplorhine subdirect is separated into two infraorders: Anthropoidea (Monkeys and Apes) and Tarsiiformes (tarsiers). Anthropoidea is further separated into two parvorders: Platyrrhini and Catarrhini. Platyrrhines are home to Central and South America (the ‘New World’) and Catarrhines are home to Africa, Europe, and Asia (the ‘Old World’).
Platyrrhine: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12546/region/skull/bone/cranium Catarrhine: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12547/region/skull/bone/cranium http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/baboon-usnm-258502 http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/baboon-usnm-258502-0
1) Installed on what you’ve read so far, confirm what direct the forthcoming “obscurity primate” skulls appertain to. To entertain praise, roll the tone(s) you used to execute your identification.
A) Is “A” a platyrrhine or catarrhine? How do you recognize?
B) Is “B” a platyrrhine or catarrhine? How do you recognize?
2) What advantages faculty there be to having a prehensile bottom for an arboreal primate?
Station 5: Cercopithecoidea and Hominoidea (1.8 pts.)
Within Catarrhini are the two superfamilies Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys) and Hominoidea (apes). Use the consideration under to explain the elements of each in aspect to the other.
Cercopithecoid: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12547/region/skull/bone/cranium http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/baboon-usnm-258502 http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/baboon-usnm-258502-0 Hominoid: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12549/region/skull/bone/cranium
1) Which two lines in the aloft consideration would be the most profitable for determining if an voluptuous was a cercopithecoid or a hominoid in the fossil annals? Hint: consider encircling discrete (traits which are either introduce or lukewarm) vs. continuous lines.
2) Roll one ethnical autapomorphy – a line that ethnicals entertain to the disconnection of all the other primates. Hint:
consider encircling what executes ethnicals choice among the direct Primates.
Exercise 2: Systematics and Primate Phylogeny (2 pts.)
Below is a provisionally phylogeny for six opposed taxa (A–F). In the phylogeny, the pretense of a new tone is represented as a reckon in a dissipation. For case, Tone 3 evolved someoccasion succeeding the despicable source of Taxa D, E, and F diverged from the despicable source these taxa divide succeeding a opportunity Taxon C. Character 3 would accordingly be a divided, moderate line, or synapomorphy of taxa D, E, and F.
A) Which tone is a synapomorphy of E and F?
B) Is Tone 1 a synapomorphy or a symplesiomorphy for taxa C and D?
C) Is Tone 1 profitable for reconstructing the sympathy betwixt C and D? Why or why not?
D) Of the 5 tones rolled, which represents an autapomorphy?
Study the primate phylogeny in your textbook and increase in the blanks under. Be regardful of spelling: some designates are very alike, but entertain opposed meanings! If you are having troublesomey increaseing out the phylogeny, you may imimprint out the definite page, cleverly handwrite the answers in the blanks, and paste a draw of the phylogeny end into the muniment.