Ant 3514c – introduction to biological anthropology lab 6: primate


  

Name: ______________________________________  Section: ___________ 

ANT 3514C – Introduction to Biological Anthropology 

Lab 6: Primate Division & Taxonomy 

Lab Objectives: 

• Evaluate the dental formula of an hidden primate and locate it among a elder clade 

• Interpret the disagreement among gradistic and cladistic courses of classing primates 

• Identify the barren synapomorphies that discern the elder primate clades 

• Draw a cladogram to rebestow the novel, amplely-accepted primate phylogeny 

Purpose: To inspect the skeletal symbolistics that discern the elder primate clades. 

The examine of non-ethnical primates has been methodatic past obsolete spans as appropriate to deduce ethnical division. This was perchance best methodatic by a expanded reception of scholars for the foremost span in 1735 when Carolus Linnaeus, opposing his stanch creationist views, middle ethnicals succeeding a while other apes and monkeys in the class Anthropomorpha. By the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae in 1758 he had frantic this enjoin and began tenure the class by the frank call we now use: Enjoin Primates. Linnaeus was motivated to class ethnicals succeeding a while other primates accordingly of the divers barren correspondentities that he seed uniting them. In novel biological enjoins, we now advert to these constructions as synapomorphies, or ‘shared moderate symbolistics.’ For example, all primates bear a ample, tasteless nail on their big toe, which is a construction discorrespondent any of the spare claws set-up in other mammals. We use synapomorphies approve these to reconstruct moulds of portion-outd family and raise cladograms to emend recognize the mould of primate evolvement and where ethnicals appertain in it. This course of reconstructing homogeneitys among taxa grounded on portion-outd moderate symbolistics is notorious as cladistics

While morphology and phylogeny bear portion-outd a suppress homogeneity for centuries, the dependence on synapomorphies to class organisms is relatively fresh. In the future 20th epoch, primatologists such as Wilfrid Le Gros Clark (far-famed for subsidiary to debunk the Piltdown Man robbery) classed primates grounded on their overall identity in exhibition. This course was impercipient of Aristotle’s “Great Chain of Being,” succeeding a while unsophisticated primates at the ignoble and ethnicals at the purpose. This way of meditateing has been named gradistic, accordingly it suggests primate evolvement proceeds in a sincere, equable course for all symbolistics from unsophisticated to moderate. While this method has impulsive invoke, it does not fit succeeding a while the way we meditate evolvement proceeds. Novel primatologists and anthropologists use cladistic courses grounded on a nested hierarchy of synapomorphies, accordingly we estimate these past correspondently cogitate how evolvement works. 

Although phylogenetic trees are built today using cladistic courses, it is transparent that gradistic meditateing quiescent subconsciously underlies abundantly of our access to reconstructing evolvement. You may bear already noticed that phylogenetic trees that apprehend ethnicals atattend to locate them at one farthest end of the tree, implying some courseality or end design to evolvement, smooth though there is no deduce they insufficiency to be located there! Among the primate enjoin the shelve from gradistic to cladistic meditateing has impacted how we see the homogeneitys of divers taxa, most notably the tarsier, which we allure brave past in Occupation 3. You allure be unguarded to past examples of gradistic meditateing when looking at the ethnical fossil archives, where divers symbolistics (such as brain largeness) are true, and identifying synapomorphies can be specially trying. For this lab we allure brave divers of the grave skeletal synapomorphies that designate the largest primate clades. 

Station 1: What designates a primate? (0.6 pt.)  

A seed-plot happened upon a puzzle skull while looking through a mammalian skeletal collation. She meditates it may be a primate and comes to you for your free view. She cannot mail you the skull so she emails youaeveral photos. Inspect the photos underneath. Use the register of primate symbolistics (set-up in the lab lection for this week) to aid you find the distinctions. 

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Station 2: Dentition (2 pts.) Different primate clades can be attested by their dental formulae. Primates bear 2 incisors, and 2-3 premolars (negative the aye-aye, which has a very unvile dentition). Most other mammals bear either past or fewer teeth. For the forthcoming questions, foremost defoot the dental formula, then consider the cusp mould

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1. Write the dental formula for each of the craniums or mandibles provided: 

A)   

B)   

C) 

D) 

E)  

2. Answer the forthcoming questions using the overhead dental formulae and the written/illustrated materials provided: 

a) Which illustration is not a primate? How do you recognize? 

b) Which illustration is a New World monkey? How do you recognize? 

c) Does illustration “E” bear the bilophodont or Y-5 molar cusp mould? Grounded on this cusp morphology and its dental formula, what primate class does this illustration appertain to? 

d) Which mandible is ethnical? What symbolistics did you use to find your identification?  

e) Which illustrations are apes? How do you recognize? (Hint: you are an ape)  

Station 3: Strepsirrhini and Haplorhini (2 pts.) 

Using the handouts, images, and websites, adequate the forthcoming board illustrating some of the grave morphological disagreements among each primate class. 

Strepsirrhine: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12540/region/skull/bone/cranium  http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/loris-malaysia-usnm-84389  http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/loris-malaysia-usnm-84389-0  Haplorrhine: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12538/region/skull/bone/cranium 

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/gorilla-rwanda-usnm-396937-beringeicranium  

succeeding a while unsophisticated primates in a grade named “Prosimia.” They are now classed succeeding a while monkeys and apes in a 

Examine the tarsier skull (http://www.eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12544/region/skull/bone/cranium) and examine the board. Tarsiers can be located in the prosimian grade or in the haplorhine clade. Call one unsophisticated, prosimian symbolistic that tarsiers restrain and one moderate, haplorhine symbolistic that they hold. Add which of these symbolistics is a synapomorphy, and which is a symplesiomorphy

Prosimian symbolistic:         Haplorhine symbolistic: 

      

2) Does the puzzle skull at this occupation appertain to a strepsirrhine or a haplorhine primate? List at smallest one symbolistic which aided you defoot this. 

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Station 4: Platyrrhini and Catarrhini (1.6 pts.) 

The Haplorhine subenjoin is separated into two infraorders: Anthropoidea (Monkeys and Apes) and Tarsiiformes (tarsiers). Anthropoidea is aid separated into two parvorders: Platyrrhini and Catarrhini. Platyrrhines are indigenous to Central and South America (the ‘New World’) and Catarrhines are indigenous to Africa, Europe, and Asia (the ‘Old World’). 

Platyrrhine: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12546/region/skull/bone/cranium  Catarrhine: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12547/region/skull/bone/cranium   http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/baboon-usnm-258502 http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/baboon-usnm-258502-0 

1) Grounded on what you’ve read so far, identify what class the forthcoming “puzzle primate” skulls appertain to. To accept confidence, register the symbol(s) you used to find your identification. 

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A) Is “A” a platyrrhine or catarrhine? How do you recognize? 

B) Is “B” a platyrrhine or catarrhine? How do you recognize?  

2) What advantages dominion there be to having a prehensile foot for an arboreal primate? 

Station 5: Cercopithecoidea and Hominoidea (1.8 pts.) 

Within Catarrhini are the two superfamilies Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys) and Hominoidea (apes). Use the board underneath to relate the symbolistics of each in homogeneity to the other. 

Cercopithecoid: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12547/region/skull/bone/cranium  http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/baboon-usnm-258502 http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/baboon-usnm-258502-0 Hominoid: http://eskeletons.org/boneviewer/nid/12549/region/skull/bone/cranium 

http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/3d-collection/primate/siamang-indonesia-usnm-114497 

1) Which two symbolistics in the overhead board would be the most suited for determining if an voluptuous was a cercopithecoid or a hominoid in the fossil archives? Hint: meditate about discrete (traits which are either bestow or lukewarm) vs. continuous symbolistics. 

2) Register one ethnical autapomorphy – a symbolistic that ethnicals bear to the nonparticipation of all the other primates. Hint: 

meditate about what finds ethnicals singular among the enjoin Primates. 

Exercise 2: Systematics and Primate Phylogeny (2 pts.) 

Below is a provided phylogeny for six divergent taxa (A–F). In the phylogeny, the exhibition of a new symbol is represented as a estimate in a foe. For example, Symbol 3 evolved somespan succeeding the vile origin of Taxa D, E, and F diverged from the vile origin these taxa portion-out succeeding a while Taxon C. Character 3 would for-this-reason be a portion-outd, moderate symbolistic, or synapomorphy of taxa D, E, and F

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A) Which symbol is a synapomorphy of E and F? 

B) Is Symbol 1 a synapomorphy or a symplesiomorphy for taxa C and D? 

C) Is Symbol 1 suited for reconstructing the homogeneity among C and D? Why or why not? 

D) Of the 5 symbols registered, which represents an autapomorphy? 

Study the primate phylogeny in your textbook and replenish in the blanks underneath. Be thoughtful of spelling: some calls are very correspondent, but bear divergent meanings!  If you are having tryingy replenishing out the phylogeny, you may imimprint out the developed page, cleverly handwrite the answers in the blanks, and paste a delineate of the phylogeny end into the muniment.